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Study of Relay Protection Modeling and Simulation

on the Basis of DIgSILENT

Jinsong LIU 1, Junyu ZHANG 2 Ping LING 1, Weiqing TAO 2


1. Electric Power Research Institute 2. School of Electrical Engineering and Automation
State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company Hefei University of Technology
Shanghai, China Hefei, China
liujinsong1888@126.com, zjunyu3@163.com mr.lingping@hotmail.com, twq@csg.com.cn

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FRQWURO DQDO\VLV (TXLSSHG ZLWK YDULRXV HOHFWULF FRPSRQHQW In terms of relay protection, at present, the majority of
PRGHOV LW KDV EURXJKW JUHDW FRQYHQLHQFH IRU WKH UHVHDUFK DQG widely used electric system simulation software merely
VWXG\ RI SRZHU V\VWHP ZLWK GLVWULEXWHG JHQHUDWLRQ 7KLV SDSHU implement protection function depend on switching off after
LQWURGXFHV WKH PRGHOLQJ SULQFLSOH JHQHUDO IUDPHZRUN DQG preset time. However, the improvement plans of DG protection
YDULRXV IXQFWLRQDO EORFNV LQ WKH VLPXODWLRQ RI UHOD\ SURWHFWLRQ cannot precisely simulate the system and the functioning of
EDVHG RQ ',J6,/(17 %\ LOOXVWUDWLQJ RYHUFXUUHQW DQG GLVWDQFH relays due to the deficiency of new relay protection devices and
SURWHFWLRQ WKLV SDSHU SUHVHQWV WKH SURFHVV RI WKH DSSOLFDWLRQ RI refined DG models.
',J6,/(17 WR UHOD\ SURWHFWLRQ VLPXODWLRQ DQG SURYHV WKH
HIIHFWLYHQHVVDQGSURJUHVVLYHQHVVRIWKHVRIWZDUHLQWKLVILHOG DIgSILENT can construct protection device models, set
the parameters, and confirm the coordination through event
Keywords—DIgSILENT; relay protection; modeling and setting, which helps operators to get familiar with the functions
simulation; overcurrent protection; distance protection and operation of the device. This paper presents the great
capacity of DIgSILENT in relay protection simulation through
the introducing to the modeling theory of relay protection and
I. INTRODUCTION
examples of simulation.
The more complex operation mode of power system brings
great difficulties to operation analysis of relay protection[1]. In
II. THE GENERAL PROCEDURE OF RELAY PROTECTION
such case, relay protection simulation of power system from
computer digital simulation system is an important method to SIMULATION
continue the development and research of relay protection Fig.1 shows the general procedure of relay protection
device. Reference [2] introduces and compares three realtime simulation. First, a power system network needs to be
simulation from theoretical basis and realization methods, constructed through the software to set models, parameters, etc.
which should be selectively cooperate with each other in for each component and circuit. The power flow analysis based
practical applications. Reference [3] puts forwards the on the function of software after above preparations can make
modeling method of relay protection model in present situation corresponding result boxes next to each components or circuits,
that lack of relay simulation model, by which users who use which helps users to see the output directly through the color
PSASP can custom module to set up distance protection model, and the result boxes. In addition, they can set the corresponding
so that feasibility of this method has been verified. Reference result reports according to their needs.
[5] uses PSCAD/EMTDC to build interface model, with
launching Matlab data engine to transfer file M, which Build circuit Set devices Flow Add
networks parameters analysis Convergent relays
achieves parameter setting of the model. This avoids
limitations from original software model, which enhance the Misconvergent

flexibility of simulation. Incoordinate

Coordinate
Set events to
Set relay Short circuit
DIgSILENT PowerFactoy provides various models and End validate the
parameters calculation
parameters of electrical components from different reliability
manufacturers, which can be easily used and modified in
graphics environment, especially in power system simulation Fig. 1. The general procedure of relay protection simulation
application of new energy sources like PV, fan and stored
energy[5-7]. Meanwhile, this software can operate simulation in In relay protection simulation, the short circuit calculation
conjunction with Matlab via the interface, taking in the can be used to determine the parameter of relay protection
advantage of Matlab in processing large-scale data and control components and fuse capacity, as well as to coordinate
different protection devices. After a stable outcome achieved
Supported by The National Key R&D Plan of China (2017YFB0902801). by current analysis, this tool can be used to set short-circuit

‹,(((
point, select short circuits types and set up different short- output trip signal is used to control the disconnection of the
circuit conditions in a single line diagram. Based on standards circuit breaker when action is needed.
like VDE, IEC, ANSI, different calculating methods can be
chosen in the dialog boxes so as to meet the needs of the results B. Some Basic Function Blocks for Relays
in differing situations. Fig.4 displays the basic modeling frame of relays in
Then, with the result, considering the need of relay DIgSILENT, which is made up of various function blocks for
protection, users can directly add relays, fuses and element simulation. Some regular function blocks are shown as below.
such as CT or VT in the corresponding positions in the network. The measurement block is responsible for the simulation
They can choose existing relay model of each manufacturer or processing of the real part and the imaginary part of the
relay models build by themselves. Through the basic secondary voltage and current into those taken up by the other
information dialog box, users can easily revise the setting value succeeding protection function blocks, including the RMS
of relay and observe the coordination among relays via time- value, the positive and negative sequence components of
current curves and R-X graphs. currents and voltages.
Finally, the RMS simulation can set different events in The polarization block serves to provide polarized current
different positions to gain corresponding actions of relays in and voltage signal for distance protection block. The
fault, which can test the coordination and reliability of the relay calculation of input and output signals is determined by the
protection. allocation of the function blocks and the polarization method.

III. THE MODELING THEORY OF RELAY PROTECTION As a means to detect faults, the starting block is
exclusively designed for distance relays. When a fault is
A. The Modeling Frame of Relay Protection detected, a starting signal would be sent to distance block and
activates the comparison block.
DIgSILENT performs the modeling of relays through three
levels: frame, type and element. Fig.2 shows the relation The instantaneous overcurrent block would send signals
between the three levels. when the measured current exceeds the set starting current.
Meanwhile, the block also supports directional and delay
Relay Frame function. The block can protect the current when the measured
Relay Type current exceeds the starting current determined by the
characteristic curve. And, the curve can be modified by
Ranges
Types
changing the staring current or the delay.
The distance admittance block performs admittance based
on the traditional method, impedance protection. The polygon
distance block is responsible for the simulation of the
Voltage characteristics supported by modern digital distance protection
97
Relay Element
Tripping Signal
relays, in order to prevent resistance fault. The timing block
Settings Current
can defer the sending time of the trip signal from the distance
&7 * * block to the logic block.

Fig. 2. The relation between three modelling levels The logic block combines the trip signals within the other
function blocks into a comprehensive output signal into a logic
The relay frame uses box diagrams to specify the functions sum output signal to validate the trip of the circuit breaker.
of general relays. Fig.4 shows the general modeling frame of
relays, and the boxes stand for various function blocks, with
IV. SIMULATION EXAMPLES
arrow lines representing the connection between different
blocks. These boxes can be defined as measurement blocks, A. The Example of Overcurrent Protection Simulation
comparison protection blocks, logic blocks and timing blocks.
They define the function of relay protection and the relation
among them.
Relay1 Relay2 Relay3
The choice of function blocks in relay frame determines the
type of relays. DIgSILENT system has contained some relay A B C

models from manufacturers, which can be straightly used, or Fig. 3. The Simulation network of overcurrent protection
users can copy the model into the project library to revise or
remodel. Furthermore, the relay type also specifies the range of As is shown in Fig.3, the simulation network of overcurrent
the relay parameter setting. protection adopts 6kV distribution network with the respective
circuit length between nodes: 5km, 1.5km, 1.5km, and
Relay elements are used to simulate actual relays in the connects to a 0.4kV distribution network through a 10MVA
network, which is determined by the type of relay and the transformer. Add relays in the three positions, and get the
setting of parameters. It achieves operational aspect of power characteristic equation from the general math model of the
system through CT/VT installed in measuring points, and inverse time overcurrent relays:
Three-phase voltage
Three-phase current Polarize Polarizing voltage and current
Zero-sequence current block Comparison block for
distance protection
Starting signal after
Starting fault type judgment
block
Comparison block for
Secondary
overvoltage or
current
CT RMS value of three-phase voltage
undervoltage protection

Measurement
block for Comparison block for
RMS value of zero-sequence voltage
Primary phase zero-sequence
current sequence overvoltage protection
component and
to earth
component RMS value of phase current Comparison block for
Secondary phase-fault overcurrent
voltage
VT protection

RMS value of zero-sequence current Comparison block for


earth-fault fault
Primary overcurrent protection Logic
voltage block
Maximal value of current
Comparison block for
directional over-current
protection
Sequence current and Direction Forward or reverse
voltage block
Primary Measurement Comparison block for
side of block for negative sequence
sequence overcurrent protection
power component
system Comparison block for
negative sequence
overvoltage protection

Measurement
block for Frequency Comparison block for
frequency over or under frequency
protection

Lock
block

Tripping signal

Fig. 4. The regular modelling frame of protection relay in DIgSILENT

0.14 K (1) The function blocks compare the signals and send the trip
t
M 0.02 -1 signal to the logic block which decides the breaker’s switch.
K refers to time setting coefficient; M=I/Iop, Iop stands for the
starting current; I, the short current flowing through a relay. Logic

The modeling frame of the relay model selected in this


example is shown in Fig.5. The function blocks of the relay are
made up of the instantaneous overcurrent block and the time Ioc> Ioc>> Ioc>>> Toc

overcurrent block. CT gives out the momentary current and


converts it into the real part and imaginary part of three-phase
current and zero sequence current and transfer them to the CT Measurement

measurement block. The measurement block then gives out the Ioc Ioc Toc
RMS values of three-phase current and zero sequence current Ie> Ie>> Ie
and offers them respectively to the corresponding function
blocks of the relay. The above four blocks consist of inverse Logic

time overcurrent blocks and one definite time overcurrent


block, while the three blocks for ground faults below are two Fig. 5. The modelling frame of overcurrent relays
inverse time overcurrent blocks and one time overcurrent block.
The starting current of the relay is adjusted with the aim to Different events can be identified in different positions in
avoid the maximum load current on the protected components. the network by RMS simulation function. Point C, B, A in the
Since only the differing time limit of all protection devices can simulation network shown in Fig. 3 are respectively set up with
help meet the selective needs of protection, the time limit of single phase short circuit events at 0.5s, 1s, 1.5s, and carry out
actions should be adjusted respectively. a simulation period of 2s. The result is shown in Fig.7. When
First start with the protection furthest from the power faults occur, the state variables would rise gradually at different
supply, and the starting current would be adjusted as Iop.1 with speeds. The state variables of the back-end relays would be
t1 as action time. reset to zero when the relative relays send the trip signal.
K rel Kss According to the result boxes, the corresponding breakers of
I op I L. max
K re Relay3, Relay2 and Relay1 would trip respectively at 0.70s,
(2)
1.27s, and 1.83s, which meets the breaking time figured out by
In the equation, Krel㸪 the reliable coefficient, is usually the inverse time overcurrent characteristic. So, it meets to the
1.15~1.25; Kss, self-starting coefficient, is greater than 1, which needs of relay protection.
is determined by the specific network connection and load
property; Kre㸪the resetting coefficient of the current relay, is B. The Example of Distance Protection Simulation
0.85~0.95㸹 IL.max is the maximum loading current. 132kV 132kV
132kV
Then, the starting current of the succeeding relays will be 275kV
40km

adjusted according to the distance from the power supply, and 33kV
33kV
the action time limit of the succeeding relays should be one ∆t
length unit, longer than the previous ones, thus, t2= t1+∆t.

ü
S

Relay1

ü Relay2 50km
ü Relay3
Relay1 132kV
100km
Relay2

SG
a
Fig. 8. The Simulation network of distance protection

Fig.8 is a network for distance protection simulation, and


the ohm Relay 1 and 2 are installed to the positions shown in
the figure. The relay modeling frame is shown in Fig.9, while
the instantaneous values of three-phase voltage and current are
measured by CT/VT, which will be changed by measurement
block to transfer data to polarization block and starting block.
Pri.A
When starting block detects the occurrence of fault, it transmits
Fig. 6. The characteristic curve of overcurrent relays signal and begins the comparative work of distance function
block. The blocks are three zone distance function blocks, in
The adjusted characteristic curve is shown as Fig.6 Take
which zone 2 and zone 3 protection will send the signal to the
the single phase short circuit starting from C as an example.
logic block after the setting timer delay when detecting the
The short circuit current is 3.509kA, and the action time limit
fault.
of the three adjusted relays is 0.235s, 0.456s and 0.968s
respectively. Therefore, Relay3 acts first while Relay1 and
Relay2 stay still. Timer Timer

PPZ1 PPZ2 PPZ3 Or

Relay3
CT
Measur Polarize Logic
ement
VT

Starting

Relay2
PGZ1 PGZ2 PGZ3

Timer Timer

Relay1
ü State variable
ü Tripping Signal
Fig. 9. The modelling frame of distance relays

Fig. 7. State variable and tripping signal of relay while simulating


Set the parameters of Relay1. The residual compensation all brings great facilities to the research and learning of electric
factor k0 of the polarization block is automatically calculated power system. However, the studies based on this software
and displayed as 0.48 by software. The starting block calculates merely involves the field of new energy like fan, solar energy
the three-phase and ground fault currents at the end of the line and energy storage.
by means of the full method, respectively 600A and 410A.
This article indicates general steps and modeling principle
Then, set the ground fault current value 3∗I0 to 0.6 sec. A and
of relay protection simulation by using the software. In
current value I>> to 1 sec.A.
addition, overcurrent protection and distance protection are
For the three zone protection of distance relay, zone 1 seen as example to introduce setting and parameter setting of
needs to cover 80% of the protected line. Zone 2 is set to cover relay, which shows its advance in the field of relay protection.
the protected line plus 50% of the shortest adjacent line. Zone 3 The fine model can imitate operation condition of electric
is required to cover 120% of the relay mounting line and the power system better in actual failure condition, so that it can
impedance of the longest adjacent line. Considering the provide more data to relay protection which is closer to the
auxiliary effect of the parallel line fault, the impedance actual situation. Thus, it can provide data for monitoring
parameter is set to two times. equipment like PMU to do the test work. At present, the
software can be used for research about overcurrent protection,
As shown in Fig.8, the length of the lines is respectively distance protection and differential protection and so on, except
50km, 40km, 100km, and line per kilometer unit impedance is motor protection, while users can explore it by custom
10.981 sec.Ohms. Three phase interphase distance protection protection module. The learning of model and advantages in
parameter of Relay 1 can be calculated to 8.78 sec.Ohms, 15.37 DIgSILENT is important for promoting the research and
sec.Ohms and 65.89 sec.Ohms separately. Timer delay ∆t of programming of power system.
zone 2 and zone 3 protection is assumed about 0.3s, while
timers are set to 0.3s and 0.6s respectively. Earth fault setting
can be achieved by adjusting the setting value of interphase
fault range which is completed by residual compensation factor REFERENCES
k0. This can be applied to all segments, and the setting is the [1] Zhang B, Hao Z, Bo Z. New development in relay protection for smart
same as that of the interphase fault protection in simulation. grid[J]. Protection & Control of Modern Power Systems, 2016, 1(1):14.
[2] LUO Jian-min, QI Guang-yu, HE Zheng-wen, et al. Research on power
system real-time simulation[J]. Relay,2006,(18):79-86.
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[3] SUN Yuanzhuang, YANG Jun, ZHANG Xiaodong㸪et al. Protection
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PSCAD/EMTDC and Matlab in Power System Simulation[J].Journal of
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software DIgSILENT[J]. East China Electric Power,2004,12:37-41.
[6] ZHANG Xiaoping, ZHENG Wenjie, CHEN Hui, et al. Simulation and
modeling of wind power storage system based on DIgSILEN[J].
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[7] WANG Yixiao, ZHANG Xinchang, LU Jinsheng, et al. Modeling and
simulation of grid connected photovoltaic power generation system
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Pri.Ohm [8] YUAN Tianqing, WU Xiaomei, LIU Guoxiang, et al. Simulation
Modeling for Interface between DIgSILENT and MATLAB[J].
Fig. 10. The impedance characteristic diagram of distance relays Guangdong Electric Power,2014(3):49-52.
[9] ZHANG Baohui, YIN Xianggen. Relay Protection of Power System.
The impedance characteristic of two relays can be achieved Beijing: China Power Press,2009.
by similar settings for Relay2 parameters, as shown in Fig.10 [10] DIgSILENT PowerFactory Application Guide Overcurrent Protection
Through setting up simulation events of RMS, it can be Tutorial DIgSILENT Technical Documentation[M]. Gomaringen,
concluded that relays can cooperate with each other in the Germany: DIgSILENT GmbH, 2013.
event of a fault. [11] DIgSILENT PowerFactory Application Guide Distance Protection
Tutorial DIgSILENT Technical Documentation[M]. Gomaringen,
Germany: DIgSILENT GmbH, 2013.

V. CONCLUSION
The feature of graphic and model integration of
DIgSILENT PowerFactoy, vast applications of virtual
instruments, as well as rich electrical component model, which