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Al and Ann are in their car right now.

They The pRESENT pERFECT pRocRESSrvE talks about how


are driving home. It is now four o'clock. long an activity has been in progress before now.
(a) They haoe been drioing since two o'clock. Note: Time expressions with since, as in (a), and
(b) They haoe been drioing for two hours. for, as in (b), are frequently used with this rense.
They will be home soon. STATEMENT: haoelhas * been + -ing

(c) How long haoe they been drioing? QUESTTON FORrvt:


haoelhas * subject * been + -ing
coMPAnE the present progressive and the present perfect progressive.

(d) Po zb sitting in class right now. The PRESENT PRoGRESSTE


describes an activity that is in
progress right now, as in (d). It
does not discuss duration (length
of time).
/NCoRR ECT: Po has been sitting in
class right now.

PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE Po is sitting at his desk rn class. He The PRESENT PERFECT
B
sat down at nine o'clock. It is now PRocRESSIVE expresses the
o
nine-thirty. duration (length of time) of an
(e) Po has been sitting in class activity that began in the past and
since nine o'clock. is in progress right now.
(f) Po has been sitting in class for /NCORRECT: Po is sitting in class
thirty minutes. since nine o'clock.
a;

(g) coRRECT: I knoanYoko. Reminder: Non-action verbs (e.g., know, like, ou)n,
(h) INCzRRECT: I am knowingYoko. belong) are not used in any progressive tenses.*
In (i): $fith non-action verbs, the present perfect is
(i) coRRECT: I haoe knoutnYoko for two years. used with since or for to express the duration of a
(i) INCzRRECT: I haae been knowingYoko for two situation that began in the past and continues to the
years. present.

*See Chart 1-6 (Non-Action Verbs) p.


, 17 .

98 CHAPTER 4
I \
l
T EXERCISE 23. PreSent prOgressive vs.

1. I (sit) atr,,,r
present perfect progressive. (Chorl
Directions: complete the sentences. Use the
progresslve.

Sitti\g
present progressive or the present perfect

now' I (sit)
in class righthatve been here
4-6)

sitting
since one o'clock.
for the bus.
2. I(ate is standing at the corner. She (a:ait)
for the bus for twenty mlnutes'
She (wait)
on the Phone right now.
3. Scott and Rebecca (talk)
I

on the Phone for over an hour.


I

I
They (talk)
\We
an exercise.
in class' \7e (do)
i

4. Right now we're


4tli{.'
(do) this exercise for a couple of minutes.
'.

and
\il/hat (you, do)
lqP
5. A: You look busY right now'
B: I (work) on my physics experiment' It's a long

and difficult exPeriment'


on it?
A: How long (You, work)
B: I started planning it last January. I (work)
., rn on it since then.
t.It ,

length
I EXERCISE 24. Present perfect progressive' (Chort !-.6) - . open.
teacher's book is
trtg itt Directions: e".*"r',rr. qrr..iiorr.. only the

ExamPle:
TEACHER: Where are You living?
on Fourth Avenue'
l

RESPoNSE: I'm living in an apartment


TEACHER: How long have you been living
there?
I

last September'
3 RESPoNSE: I've been living there since
of an
F'ast and l.Rightnowyouaresittinginclass'Howlonghaveyoubeensittinghere?
;Jass 2.\[hendidyoufirstbegintostudyEnglish?Howlonghaveyoubeenstudying
English?
3.IbegantoteachEnglishin(year).HowlonghavelbeenteachingEnglish?
4.Ibegantoworkatthisschoolin(monthoryear).Howlonghavelbeenworking
here?
it?
doing right now? How long have we been doing
h€. oton,
- ^-
_\<:.
* 5. rwhat are we
perfect is
6. ( . . . ), I see that you wear
glasses' How long have you been wearing glasses?
aron of a
a car? How long have You been driving?
lues to the 7. rVho drives? When did you first drive
coffee? How long
8. rwho drinks coffee? How old were you when you started to drink
have you been drinking coffee?

The Present Perfect ond the Post Perfeci 99


PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE The rRESENT rERFECT pRocRESSrvE expresses the
(a) Rita and Josh are talking on the phone. duration of present actioities that are in
They hazse been talking on the phone for progress, using action verbs, as in (a).
twenty minutes.
PRESENT PERFECT The PRESENT PERFECT expresses
(b) Rita has talhed to Josh on the phone many times ( 1) repeated activities that occur at unspecified
(before now). tirnes in the past, as in (b), or
(c) /NCoRRECT: Rita has been talking to Josh on the
phone man)) times.
(d) Rita has knousn Josh for two years. (2) the duration of present situations, as in
(e) 1 /coRRECT: Rita has been knowing Josh for two years. (d), using non-action verbs.

(f) I haz:e been lioing here for six months. oR For some (not all) verbs, duration can be
(g) I haoe lizted here for six months. expressed by either the present perfect or the
present perfect progressive. (f) and (g) have
(h) Al has been utearing glasses since he was essentially the same meanirg, and both are
ten. oR correct.
Al has u)orn glasses since he was ten. Often either tense can be used with verbs that
express the duration of usual or habitual
(i) I'oe been going to school ever since I was five activities/situations (things that happen daily or
years old. oR
regularly), e.g.,lizse, work, teach, smoke, a)ear glasses,
I'ae gone to school ever since I was five years old. play go to school, read the same newspaper
chess,
eaery ntorning) etc.

tr EXERCISE 25. Present perfect vs. the present perfect progressive. (Chort 4-7)
Directions: Complete the sentences. LJse the present perfect or the present perfect
progressive. In some sentences, either form is possible.

1. A: I'm tired. \7e (walk) hatve beerr watllcihq for more than an hour.
Let's stop and rest for a while.
B: Okay.

2. A: Is the post office far from here?

B: Not at all. I (walk) hatve watlkeA there many times.

I OO CHAPTER 4
3. A: Do you like it here?
B: I Aiae) _\a, here for only a short while. I
don't know yet.

4. A: I (read) this chapter in my chemisrry rexr three rimes,


and I still don'r understand it!
B: Maybe I can help.

5. A: My eyes are getting tired. I (read)


for two hours. I
think I'll take a break.
B: \il7hy don't we go for a walk?

6. A: Do you like the Edgewarer Inn?


B: Very much. f gmy)
there at least a do zen
times. ft's my favorite hotel.

7. A: The baby's crying. Shouldn,t we do something?


B: He's all right.
A: Are you sure? He (cry)
for almost ten
minutes.
B: Okay. I'll go into his room and see if anything's wrong.
8. A: W{ho's your daughter,s new teacher?
B: Mrs. Jackson.
A: She's one of the best teachers at the elementary school. She fteach)
kindergarten for twenty years.

9. A: Ed (play) tennis for ten years, but he


still doesn't have a good backhand.
Neither do I, and I (play)
tennis for
twenty years.

r0. A: Where does Mr. Alvarez work?


B: At the power company. He (work)
for fifteen years. He likes his job.
A: V(rtrat about his neighbor, Mr. perez?
B: He's currently unemployed, but he,ll find a new job
soon.
A: v(4:at kind of job experience does he have?
B: He (work) for a small manufacturing firm,
for the telephone company, and at two of the world's leading
software companies.
$7ith all that work experience, he won,t have any trouble
finding anorher job.

The Present perfect ond the post perfect I oI


(a) The mail came an hour ago. Idea of already: Something happened before
The rnail is already here. now, before this time.
Position : mids entence.*

(b) I expected the mail an hour ago, Idea of yet: Something did nor happen before
but it hasn't come yet. now (up to this time), bur it may happen in the
future.
Position: end of sentence.

It was cold yesterday. It is still cold Idea of still: A situation continues to exist from
today. We still need to wear coats. past to present without change.
I could play the piano when I was a Position : mids entence.*
child. I can still play the piano.
The mail didn't come an hour ago.
The rnail still hasn't corne.
(f) I lived in Chicago two years sgo, but Idea of anytnore: A past situation does not
thenI moved to another city. continue to exist at present; a past situation has
f don't live in Chicago any??tore. changed. Anyrnore has the same meaning as
any longer.
Position: end of sentence.

Note: Already is used in ffirmatiae sentences.


Yet and any?nore are used in negatiae sentences.
Still is used in either ffirmatiae or negatiae sentences.
*See Chart 1-3, p. 9. A midsentence adverb
(l) precedes a simple present verb: We still need to wear codts.
(2) follows am, is, are, was, were: It is still cold.
(3) comes between a helping verb and a main verb: Bob has already arrioed.
(4) precedes a negative helping verb: Ann still hasn't come.
(5) follows the subfect in a question: Haoe you already seen that motie?

tr EXERCISE 26. ALREADY YEI STILL, ANYMORE. (Chort 4-8)


Directions: Complete the sentences with already, yet, still, or any?nore.

1. It's 1:00 p.tvt. I'm hungry. I haven't eaten lunch yet


2. It's 1:00 P.M. I'm not hungry. I've eaten lunch.

-,
3. Eric was hungry, so he ate a candy bar a few minutes ago. But he's
hungry, so he's going to have another candy bar.

4. I used to eat lunch at the cafeteria every day, but now I bring my lunch to school in
paper bag instead. I don't eat at the cafeteria
5. I don't have to study tonight. I've finished all my
homework.

6. I started a letter to my parents yesterday, but I haven't finished it


I'11 finish it later today and put it in the mail.

IO2 CHAPTER 4
7. I started a letter to my parents yesterday. I thought about finishing it last night before
I went to bed, but I didn't. I haven't finished it.*

8. A: Is Mary home
B: No, but I'm expecting her soon.
:efore
r in the 9. A: Is Mary in class?

B: Yes, she is. Her class doesn't end until 1 1:30.


ist from 10. A: Has Rob found a new iob
B: No. He works at the bookstore.

11. A: $(rhen is your sister going to come to visit you?


B: She's here. She got here yesterday.

12. A: Do you live on Pine Avenue?


B: No, I don't live there . I moved to another apartment
closer to school.

I EXERCISE 27. ALREADY YET, STILL, ANYMORE. (Chort 4-8)


Directions: Complete the sentences with your own words.

Exampte::|n;r,w$;;xr-ill;;**x*:li;i:":;;,,"*i,,?r

1. I used to . . ., but. . . anymore.


2. I can't. . . because I haven't . . . yet.
3. Are...still ...?
4. . . .because I've already . . . .
5. I don't . . . anymore,but. . . still . . . .

- EXERCISE 28. Verb tense review. (Chopters 1,2, ond 4)


Directions: Compare the different meanings of the verb tenses. Identifu which sentences
express duration.

:hool in a 1. a. Rachel is taking English classes.


b. Nadia has been taking English classes for two months.
2. a. Ann lras been inJerusalem for two years. She likes it there.
b. Sue ftas been inJerusalem. She's also been in Paris. She's been in NewYork and
Tokyo. She's been in lots of cities. She travels a lot.

*In negative sentences, still and, yet express similar meanings. The meanings of I haoen't finished it yet and I still haoen't
finished it are similar.

The Present Perfect ond the Post Perfect I03