You are on page 1of 11

Research Article

Advances in Mechanical Engineering


2017, Vol. 9(9) 1–11
Ó The Author(s) 2017
Measuring and calculating the DOI: 10.1177/1687814017723293
journals.sagepub.com/home/ade
computer numerical control lathe’s
cutting power and total electric power
consumption based on servo
parameters

Zhao-hui Liu1,2, Wei-min Zhang1,3, Liang-bin Liu1,3 and Zhong-yue Xiao1,2

Abstract
Improving the energy efficiency of machine tools is the goal of sustainable development of the mechanical manufacturing
industry. The key is to measure or calculate energy efficiency conveniently and accurately. This article proposes a
method of calculating power by reading the computer numerical control system’s servo parameters from its current-
loop and speed-loop, establishing the relationships between cutting power, total power, and servo parameters, and using
these relationships for power prediction. Experiments were done on a computer numerical control lathe. The result
shows that this method has high precision, does not need additional sensors, and is independent of cutting process para-
meters, workpiece material, heat treatment state, and tools. This method may be used for developing a cutting power
management module integrated in the computer numerical control system with real-time monitoring power consump-
tion because the computer numerical control system can read servo parameters real time.

Keywords
Computer numerical control lathe, cutting, power consumption, servo parameters, measurement, calculation

Date received: 12 April 2016; accepted: 10 July 2017

Academic Editor: Ismet Baran

Introduction exists due to machine auxiliary operations, transmission


parts friction, electrical components’ resistance, electro-
With the crisis of global climate warming and the increas- magnetic leakage, and so on.9–11 For computer numeri-
ing of resource prices, the world community is facing the cal control (CNC) lathes, milling machines, machining
dual challenges of resource depletion and environmental centers, and other machine tools, their spindles and
pollution. Governments and industries are paying more
and more attention to issues of sustainable develop-
ment.1–4 The manufacturing industry is an important 1
School of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Tongji University,
wealth creator. However, it is a major natural resource
Shanghai, China
and energy consumer as well. Therefore, sustainable 2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Jinggangshan University, Ji’an, China
manufacturing has become an international focus.4–6 The 3
Advanced Manufacturing Technology Center (AMTC), Tongji University,
energy efficiency problem of machine tools has become a Shanghai, China
major focal point of both manufacturer and customer,
Corresponding author:
and also a hotspot of scientific researches.7,8 Zhao-hui Liu, School of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Tongji
In metal removal machine tools, necessary energy is University, Shanghai 201804, China.
used for material removal, but additional energy loss Email: jgsucad@126.com

Creative Commons CC-BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
(http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without
further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/
open-access-at-sage).
2 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

feed-axes (servo) motion are usually driven by motors, strain gauge.20 Similar to method (1), cutting speed
and some of auxiliary operations are driven by the com- acquisition method must also be considered. Because
pressed air generated by an electric air compressor. the strain gauge has a short lifetime and complicated
However, usually the energy required for compressed wiring, and the dynamometer is expensive, this method
air is a small part of the total electrical energy consump- is not suitable for integration in the CNC machine tool
tion12,13 Therefore, in this article, energy required to system. In method (4), the cutting power can be calcu-
generate compressed air is not considered. lated by multiplying electrical input power and trans-
The total energy consumption of machine tool can mission mechanism efficiency. S Hu et al.24 and F Liu
be easily measured by a power meter, which meets the et al.25 proposed calculating or acquiring input power
accuracy requirements for cutting parameters optimiza- using current, voltage, or power sensors and also pro-
tion.14–16 But, for machine tool improvement research, posed calculating the transmission efficiency by analyz-
W Li et al.15 and A Zein16 propose that energy break- ing the mechanism transmission chain. From these, the
down analysis should be done to measure the energy cutting power can be calculated. Principles of alternat-
consumption for each component. It is necessary to ing current (AC) and direct current (DC) motors and
monitor the energy consumption of machine compo- the structure of transmission mechanism must be taken
nents, especially the material removal power (cutting into account. The error is closely related to the compu-
power) to properly perform machine tool energy effi- tational model. This is also not the most suitable
ciency research.17,18 In current machine tool’s energy method for integration in the CNC system.
consumption research, the input and output power of It is noteworthy that Kim GD and Chu CN,26 X Li
electrical components can be measured or calculated by et al.,27 and S Aggarwal et al.28 proposed indirect cutting
the acquired signals with current, voltage, or power force measurement by monitoring motor current. This
sensors, which can be integrated in CNC system.15,16 method has good accuracy and can also be used for indi-
However, the measurement and calculation of cutting rect energy measurement. With the development of tech-
power is relatively complicated. nology for digital servo controllers, intelligent components
In current research, there are four typical methods integrated with internal and external sensors are widely
for cutting power measurement and calculation, adopted in CNC machine tools.28,29 The motor current
namely, (1) calculation by the classic theoretical cutting signal and speed controlled by the digital servo can be
force formula and motor speed, (2) calculation by an read out and written by the CNC and PC real time. This
improved formula through material removal rate is a novel indirect method to measuring and calculating
(MRR) and specific energy consumption (SEC), (3) cal- information such as cutting power and input power.
culation by measuring cutting force and motor speed, The purpose of this article is to propose an indirect
and (4) calculation by measuring electrical input power method of calculation cutting power and total power
and transmission mechanism efficiency. using servo parameters related with the motor current
In method (1), the cutting power can be calculated and motor rotation speed. This method is independent
by multiplying cutting force and cutting speed. Several of external sensors, cut-depth, cutting speed and feed
texts, including the studies of Rao19 and Shaw,20 pro- rate, tool, workpiece material, heat treatment state, and
vide a cutting force formula, which involves with the it can be easily integrated in the CNC system.
cutting process parameters (cut-depth, cutting speed,
and feed rate), tool angle, workpiece material, and its
heat treatment. B Wang et al.21 propose energy optimi- Energy flow of the CNC machine tool and
zation using cutting parameters and tool angle. If the servo control parameters
process involves variable cutting speed, the speed should
also be calculated or measured. This method has a rela-
Energy flow of the CNC machine tool
tive large error and cannot perform energy monitoring The modern CNC machine tool commonly consists of
online real time. In method (2), the cutting power can CNC system, servo control system, feedback equip-
be calculated by multiplying SEC and MRR. A Zein16 ment, machine bed, lubricant, cooling system, and so
and Yoon et al.22 research shows that the material SEC- on. Most machine tools are driven by electrical energy,
MRR curve varies with different machine tools. To where a part of the electrical energy is used to drive
obtain this curve for a material in a certain machine servo systems, and the remaining power is used drive
tool, experiments must be done to reduce errors. Due to lubricant, cool, display information, and other auxili-
the different MRR-SEC curves of different machine ary functions. For most servo systems, the AC is first
tools, this method is not suitable for real-time cutting converted to DC through a power supply module
power monitoring unless the curve is obtained. (PSM), then PSM supplies energy to spindle amplifier
In method (3), the cutting power can be calculated module (SPM) or the feed-axis (servo) amplifier mod-
by multiplying cutting force and cutting speed. The key ule (SVM), respectively, driving the spindle motor rota-
is acquiring torque or force from a dynamometer23 or tion and feed-axis motor rotation or stalling. Taking
Liu et al. 3

Table 1. Definition of energy consumption components’ power.

Name Definition Name Definition

Pi Machine tool input power PCOOL Power of cooling system


PSYS CNC system, lubrication running power PiPSM PSM input power
PPSML PSM loss power PoSPM PSM output power
PiSPM SPM input power PiSVM SVM input power
PSPML SPM loss power PSVML SVM loss power
PoSPM SPM output power PoSVM SVM output power
PMoSPL Spindle motor loss power PMoSVL Feed-axis motor loss power
PoSP Spindle motor output power PoSV Feed-axis motor output power
PMeSPL Spindle output mechanical loss power PMeSVL Feed-axis output mechanical loss power
PSP Spindle output power PSV Feed-axis output power

CNC: computer numerical control; PSM: power supply module; SPM: spindle amplifier module; SVM: feed-axis (servo) amplifier module.

Figure 1. Energy/power flow of CNC machine tool.

the CINCINNATI HTC-200M lathe center equipped this article considers only the energy consumed by spin-
with FANUC 16i as an example, its energy (power) dle PSP as the effective cutting power
flow is as shown in Figure 1, and the definition of each
energy consumption components’ power is shown in Pi = PCOOL + PSYS + PiPSM
Table 1. = PCOOL + PSYS + PiPSML + PoPSM ð1Þ
The relationship of each component power in = PCOOL + PSYS + PiPSML + PiSPM + PiSVM
Figure 1 is shown as equations (1)–(3). A Zein16 and R
Sudarsan et al.17 and the experimental results in this PiSPM = PSPML + PoSPM = PSPML + PMoSPL + PoSP
ð2Þ
article show that PCOOL, PSYS can be considered as = PSPML + PMoSPL + PMeSPL + PSP
constant values, and there is a strong correlation
between PSM input power PiSPM and cutting power PiSVM = PSVML + PoSVM = PSVML + PMoSVL + PoSV
ð3Þ
PSP. In CNC lathe, the main function of the servo axis = PSVML + PMoSVL + PMeSVL + PSV
is to drive the servo axis’ motion or stalling. There is
relatively little power used when the servo axis is stal-
ling or moving at a low feed rate. The experimental Numerical servo system parameters
results in this article also prove that the servo axis For the closed-loop or semi closed-loop control CNC
energy power PSV is far less than the spindle power PSP system, the ‘‘three-loop’’ control method (the current-
in low feed rate cutting, when PiSVM \\ PiSPM; so, loop, speed-loop, and position-loop) is mostly adopted.
4 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Figure 2. The three-loop control method of FANUC CNC system.

Figure 3. Relationship between output power, torque, and rotation speed of FANUC aiI22/7000HV motor.30

A typical FANUC system ‘‘three-loop’’ is shown in induction for the spindle motor. The spindle motors
Figure 2.29 Current, speed, and other signals of servo adopt a constant torque and constant power control
motor are monitored by internal and external sensors method. The feed-axis motors adopt a constant torque
as parameters stored in servo controller; by altering control method. Figure 3 shows the relationship
related parameters, the controller can also adjust to between output power, torque, and rotation speed of
keep the motor’s speed and input current consistent FANUC aiI22/7000HV spindle motor.30
with the set value. In a full digital servo system, the Due to the electrical impedance, electromagnetic
CNC system can bidirectionally communicate with saturation, and other factors, the relationship between
the servo controller to read or write parameters to output torque and motor input current appears non-
set value, and it can also communicate with a PC. linear when the current is close to the maximum or 0
Taking the FANUC 16i system as an example, the values, while it appears linear when in the other
CNC system monitors the motor current and speed in ranges. In a FANUC system, the servo parameter
real time through a servo controller, internal, and SPEED is for the speed value of motor detected
external sensors and generates the command torque through the internal sensor, which is of high accuracy.
(TCMD) according to those data. The servo controller The unit of SPEED is revolutions per minute (r/min).
adjusts its output current based on the TCMD to main- The servo parameter TCMD is the current regulation
tain current-loop control. In a modern CNC system, a command for servo motor, which has an approxi-
permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is gen- mately linear relationship with the motor output tor-
erally used for the feed-axis motor and asynchronous que Me. The value of TCMD can be the current value
Liu et al. 5

Figure 4. Schematic diagram of the measurement system.

Table 2. HTC-200M CNC lathe servo controllers and servo motors.

Servo controller Servo motor


Model Model Type Rated power (kW) Maximum torque (N m)

Spindle aiSP30HV aiI22/7000HV A06B-1511-B153 22 162


Z-axis aiSV20/40HV aiF12/3000HV A06B-0245-B101 3 35
X-axis aiF8/3000HV A06B-0229-B401 1.6 29

CNC: computer numerical control.

or the ratio of the current to the maximum current. In 205), with an outer diameter of 140 mm, an inner dia-
this article, the TCMD value is the ratio of the current meter of 90 mm, a length of 180 mm. The experimental
to the maximum current; its unit is %. scheme is shown in Figure 4, and the field wiring is
Based on this, the nominal power of the motor PST is shown in Figure 5.
defined in this article, which is calculated by TCMD and The TCMD and SPEED value of spindle servo con-
SPEED. The spindle motor adopts constant torque and troller are read through FANUC SERVO GUIDE soft-
constant power control method as shown in Figure 3; when ware with a dedicated Personal Computer Memory Card
the motor speed SPEED  1500, PST is calculated with International Association (PCMCIA) card; then, the nom-
equation (4) and when SPEED . 1500, with equation (5) inal power PST is calculated according to equation (4) or
(5). A Hioki 3390-10 power analyzer is used to measure
2p  Tmax the input power PiSPM and output power PoSPM of the
PST = Me  v = TCMD  SPEED ð4Þ
60 SPM module and the input power PiSVM of SVM module.
PST = Pmax  TCMD ð5Þ The CNC lathe input power Pi and PSM module input
power PiPSM are measured using a power transmission
where Tmax is spindle motor maximum torque and Pmax sensor (model: CE-P31-84DS5-0.5; Shenzhen SSET Co.,
is spindle motor maximum power. Ltd, Shenzhen, China) and acquired using data acquisition
cards (model: USB2850; Beijing ART Technology
Development Co., Ltd, Beijing, China). The cutting forces
Experimental research
are measured using Kistler 9129A dynamometer, and the
Experimental equipment cutting power PSP is calculated with equation (6).
The HTC-200M CINCINNATI CNC lathe with a MATLAB software is used to sample and analyze the
FANUC 16i system with servo controllers is used in experiment data
this experiment. The servo motors are shown in Table FY  VC
2. This lathe’s spindle motor is connected to spindle PSP = ð6Þ
60
through V-belt, and the transmission ratio (ratio of out-
put speed to input speed) is 0.9. The hollow cylindrical where FY (unit: N) is for the main cutting force and VC
workpiece material is ASTM 1045 (Hardness HBS: is the cutting speed (unit: m/min).
6 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Figure 5. Measurement field: (a) Machine tool & instruments, (b) Part support, (c) Power measurement wiring, and (d) Power
analyzer.

Table 3. Cylindrical longitudinal turning test process parameters.

No. ap (mm) f (mm/r) VC (m/min) No. ap (mm) f (mm/r) VC (m/min) No. ap (mm) f (mm/r) VC (m/min)

1 0.2 0.1 370 11 0.8 0.3 193 21 1.6 0.5 170


2 0.2 0.2 475 12 0.8 0.4 217 22 2 0.2 193
3 0.2 0.3 550 13 0.8 0.5 240 23 2 0.3 170
4 0.4 0.1 475 14 1.2 0.2 217 24 2 0.4 240
5 0.4 0.2 550 15 1.2 0.3 240 25 2.25 0.225 170
6 0.4 0.3 370 16 1.2 0.4 170 26 2.25 0.3 205
7 0.6 0.1 550 17 1.2 0.5 193 27 2.25 0.375 240
8 0.6 0.2 370 18 1.6 0.2 240 28 2.5 0.225 205
9 0.6 0.3 475 19 1.6 0.3 217 29 2.5 0.3 240
10 0.8 0.2 170 20 1.6 0.4 193 30 2.5 0.375 170

Experiment scheme
Cylindrical longitudinal turning experiment. The hollow shank. In total, 30 sets of parameters are selected for
cylindrical workpiece is clamped with chuck and sup- this experiment, as shown in Table 3. No. 1–9 are finish
ported with a center as shown in Figure 5(b). Two kinds turning parameters for a Taguchi L9 orthogonal table;
of tool inserts are used for the longitudinal turning No. 10–25 are semi-finish turning parameters for a
experiment, where the SECO SMG4Ver1 insert is used Taguchi L16 orthogonal table; No. 26–30 are part of
for finish turning, and the SANDVIK CoroKey 4235 rough parameters as a Taguchi L9 orthogonal table.
insert is used for semi-finish and rough cutting. These Those parameters with cut-depth ap: 0.2;2.5 mm, feed
inserts are installed in the SANDVIK DCLNL2525M rate f: 0.1–0.5 mm/r, and cut speed VC: 170–550 m/min
Liu et al. 7

Table 4. Variable cut-depth turning test process parameters.

No. ap (mm) f (mm/r) VC (m/min) No. ap (mm) f (mm/r) VC (m/min)

31 2.2–0.2 0.1 370 35 2.2–0.2 0.2 475


32 0.2–2.2 0.1 475 36 0.2–2.2 0.2 550
33 2.2–0.2 0.1 550 37 2.2–0.2 0.3 370
34 0.2–2.2 0.2 370 38 0.2–2.2 0.3 475

Figure 6. Variable cut-depth cutting scheme: (a) taper turning and (b) variable cut-depth turning.

record the values of Pi, PiPSM, PiSPM, PoSPM and calcu- Prediction of cutting power and machine tool power
late PST, PSP according to equations (4)–(6). The regression equations with coefficients calculated in
section ‘‘Correlation analysis of powers’’ are verified by
Variable cut-depth cutting experiment. On the same lathe, applying the cutting parameters in section ‘‘Variable
using the SECO SMG4Ver1 insert and the hollow cylin- cut-depth cutting experiment.’’ Because of the continu-
der workpiece, the taper and variable cut-depth turning ous variation of cut-depth, the main cutting force and
are done, respectively, as shown in Figure 6. The cut- cutting power are continuously changing. The nominal
depth varies from 0.2 to 2.2 mm, and the other process power PST value is calculated using the SPEED and
parameters are show in Table 4. TCMD values monitored by the SERVO GUIDE soft-
ware and used to predict the value of other power. Note
these predicted values, respectively, Pi(P), PiPSM(P),
Results and analysis PiSPM(P), PoSPM(P), PSP(P). The powers measured by
Correlation analysis of powers monitoring instruments are, respectively, Pi(R),
PiPSM(R), PiSPM(R), PoSPM(R), PSP(R). Figure 8(a)
According to the cylindrical longitudinal turning and (b), respectively, shows the comparison of pre-
experiment scheme, each power under the cutting and dicted values and the actual measured values with the
unloaded states was recorded, as shown in Table 5. No. 31 and 38 set of parameters. According to the com-
According to the data in Table 5, the relevance can be parative analysis of the predicted values and the actual
calculated as shown in Table 6, which shows a good measured values, the relative errors of the predicted val-
correlation between these power values. Linear regres- ues calculated with equation (7) are shown in Table 8.
sion analysis with PST as the independent variable, and The results show that with the increase in cutting
Pi, PiPSM, PiSPM, PoSPM, PSP as the dependent vari- power, the relative error between the predicted value
ables, the relational model is built in the form of and the actual value will increase
f(PST) = p1 * PST + p2. The linear equation coeffi-
cients p1 and p2, fitting coefficient R2, fit correlation P(P)  P(R)
coefficient AdjR2, total deviation SSE and mean square err = 3 100% ð7Þ
P(R)
deviation RMSE, which are calculated out through the
regression, are shown in Table 7, and the fitting curves where err is the relative error, P(P) is the
are shown in Figure 7. These results indicate that the power predicted value and P(R) is the measured power
fitting results have a good fitting degree. value.
8
Table 5. Cylindrical longitudinal turning test data.

No. St. Pi (W) PiPSM (W) PiSPM (W) PoSPM (W) PSP (W) PST (W) No. St. Pi (W) PiPSM (W) PiSPM (W) PoSPM (W) PSP (W) PST (W)

1 A 1488 572 480 447 0 161 16 A 1287 374 290 243 0 54


B 2066 1122 1025 907 297 619 B 5737 4682 4588 4248 3171 2804
2 A 1652 734 681 636 0 227 17 A 1367 451 346 313 0 57
B 2875 1904 1814 1676 517 1214 B 7039 5943 5853 5483 4195 3731
3 A 1949 1027 744 643 0 250 18 A 1334 420 345 293 0 81
B 3652 2656 2557 2402 1024 1791 B 5904 4839 4752 4426 3402 2984
4 A 1642 723 637 595 0 247 19 A 1327 412 314 271 0 65
B 3148 2170 2068 1919 907 1391 B 6938 5836 5739 5370 4047 3643
5 A 1793 874 882 811 0 264 20 A 1292 378 297 253 0 57
B 4253 3241 3130 2957 1736 2242 B 7721 6595 6496 6081 4587 4195
6 A 1565 648 560 529 0 132 21 A 1274 360 284 236 0 52
B 3974 2970 2872 2673 1667 1885 B 8261 7116 7009 6553 4953 4713
7 A 1764 843 745 672 0 339 22 A 1305 391 304 260 0 67
B 4105 3096 2991 2823 1851 2181 B 5650 4596 4486 4164 3175 2766
8 A 1512 595 502 476 0 149 23 A 1285 372 285 237 0 56
B 4143 3135 3037 2834 1811 2002 B 6762 5669 5564 5183 4004 3504
9 A 1706 787 973 912 0 162 24 A 1363 448 386 319 0 86
B 6063 5002 4896 4658 3332 3425 B 11,606 10,372 10,272 9743 7608 7043
10 A 1266 352 279 214 0 51 25 A 1261 347 282 213 0 51
B 3107 2128 2051 1815 1334 1159 B 6330 5258 5129 4738 3771 3126
11 A 1292 378 292 249 0 59 26 A 1264 351 278 210 0 52
B 3873 2873 2788 2536 1805 1654 B 6308 5226 5163 4773 3774 3160
12 A 1329 414 338 301 0 63 27 A 1311 396 314 264 0 65
B 4959 3929 3838 3554 2497 2374 B 8366 7225 7121 6687 5439 4675
13 A 1387 472 413 391 0 77 28 A 1421 505 388 346 0 80
B 6081 5010 4914 4601 3345 3095 B 11,218 9981 9862 9368 7760 6826
14 A 1329 415 327 287 0 78 29 A 1326 411 323 277 0 76
B 4380 3366 3271 3013 2138 2014 B 7428 6327 6221 5840 4736 3999
15 A 1369 454 367 336 0 84 30 A 1391 476 407 370 0 72
B 6028 4960 4870 4559 3394 3121 B 10,107 8920 8799 8360 6912 6064

St. is the working status; St. A is under unloaded operation, the cutting force FY value measured by Kistler is 0, so the calculated cutting power PSP is 0 according to the formula (6); St. B is under loaded
operation.
Advances in Mechanical Engineering
Liu et al. 9

controller parameters has a good correlation with the


Table 6. Power correlation analysis. cutting power PSP and the powers Pi, PiPSM, PiSPM
measured in other locations. In the variable cut-depth
Pi PiPSM PiSPM PoSPM PSP PST
cutting experiment, the equations are used for powers
Pi 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.996 0.998 prediction, which shows the result has good accuracy
PiPSM 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.996 0.998 with relative error within 8%.
PiSPM 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.996 0.998 The reason is that the spindle motor is a digitally
PoSPM 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.996 0.998
controlled AC motor, so the value of TCMD parameter
PSP 0.996 0.996 0.996 0.996 1.000 0.993
PST 0.998 0.998 0.998 0.998 0.993 1.000 has an approximately proportional relationship to the
motor output torque. The cutting force is relatively
small, where there is no V-belt slipping phenomenon;
so, the real speed of motor can be calculated accurately
Table 7. Linear regression results.
using SPEED parameter and mechanism transmission
p1 p2 R2 AdjR2 SSE RMSE ratio. The nominal power PST is calculated through
TCMD and SPEED, which leads to PST which has a
Pi 1.499 1266 0.9963 0.9962 1.76e + 06 115.9 good linear relationship with cutting power PSP. When
PiPSM 1.451 353.4 0.9962 0.9962 1.664e + 06 169.4 the servo axis is working at low speed, the cutting force
PiSPM 1.455 274.8 0.9958 0.9957 1.842e + 06 178.2
PoSPM 1.366 223.5 0.9966 0.9965 1.328e + 06 151.3 has little effect on the servo power. Therefore, PiSVM is
PSP 1.14 2184.4 0.9869 0.9865 3.6e + 06 249.1 much smaller than PiPSM and can be neglected. In sum-
mary, Pi, PiPSM, PiSPM have a good linear relationship
SSE: sum of squares due to error; RMSE: root mean squared error. with cutting power PSP.
The method to predict cutting power and machine
Conclusion and discussion tool power through servo parameters is independent of
the workpiece, tool, and cutting process parameters.
The longitudinal turning experimental results show that The CNC system can read the servo parameters in real
the nominal power PST calculated through servo time, which enables the integration of the energy

Table 8. Prediction error analysis.

No. Pi (%) PiPSM (%) PiSPM (%) PoSPM (%) PSP (%) No. Pi (%) PiPSM (%) PiSPM (%) PoSPM (%) PSP (%)

31 2.04 0.75 2.61 2.89 25.45 35 4.49 3.63 5.38 4.79 1.54
32 2.44 0.85 2.81 2.90 24.65 36 4.42 4.52 5.15 4.71 1.51
33 2.87 1.31 3.07 3.28 22.84 37 5.76 5.25 6.36 5.84 3.05
34 2.92 2.19 3.58 3.80 20.20 38 6.81 6.78 7.72 6.81 3.88

Figure 7. Relationship between PST and other power.


10 Advances in Mechanical Engineering

Figure 8. Comparative analysis of predicted and actual values: (a) No.31: ap = 2.2–0.2, VC = 370 m/min, f = 0.1 mm/r and (b) No.38:
ap = 2.2~0.2, VC = 475 m/min, f = 0.3 mm/r.

consumption monitoring module in the CNC system, parameters, especially under conventional cutting and
and this method will provide a reference for the high-speed cutting, and the establishment of a calcula-
machine tool or CNC system manufacturers to develop tion algorithm for power, energy, and efficiency of con-
the energy consumption monitoring module. ventional cutting and high-speed cutting. Further
The drawbacks of this method are as follows: (1) the research on improving the algorithm will improve
relationship between TCMD and actual torque is machining energy consumption prediction and energy
obtained by the regression of experimental data, efficiency–based machining process parameters optimi-
resulting in a relatively large error; (2) when the motor zation. Eventually, the algorithm will be integrated into
rotation speed is near the high-limit or low-limit the CNC system, and energy consumption on-machine
speed, the relationship between TCMD and actual monitoring and manufacturing system energy con-
torque may be more complicated, where more detailed sumption management based on INTERNET plat-
information is needed from CNC system, servo, and forms will be realized.
motor manufacturer; (3) for high-speed machining,
the feed-axis power is relatively large and cannot be Declaration of conflicting interests
neglected. The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with
Follow-up studies will focus on the relationship respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this
between the feed-axis motor power and servo article.
Liu et al. 11

Funding 15. Li W, Zein A, Kara S, et al. An investigation into fixed


The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial sup- energy consumption of machine tools. In: Proceedings of
port for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this the 18th CIRP international conference on life cycle engi-
article: The project was supported by the National Science neering, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunsch-
and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and weig, 2–4 May 2011, pp.268–273. New York: Springer.
Technology of China (grant no. 2012ZX04005031). 16. Zein A. Transition towards energy efficient machine tools.
New York: Springer Science + Business Media, 2012.
17. Sudarsan R, Sriram RD, Narayanan A, et al. Sustainable
References manufacturing: metrics, standards, and infrastructure-
1. Herrmann C, Schmidt C, Kurle D, et al. Sustainability in workshop summary. In: Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE
manufacturing and factories of the future. Int J Precis conference on automation science and engineering
Eng Man 2014; 1: 283–292. (CASE), Toronto, ON, Canada, 21–24 August 2010,
2. Elliott J. An introduction to sustainable development. New pp.144–149. New York: IEEE.
York: Routledge, 2012. 18. Duque Ciceri N, Gutowski TG and Garetti M. A tool to
3. Pearce D, Barbier E and Markandya A. Sustainable estimate materials and manufacturing energy for a prod-
development: economics and environment in the Third uct. In: Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE international sym-
World. New York: Routledge, 2013. posium on sustainable systems and technology, Arlington,
4. Dornfeld DA. Moving towards green and sustainable VA, 17–19 May 2010, pp.268–273. New York: IEEE.
manufacturing. Int J Precis Eng Man 2014; 1: 63–66. 19. Rao PN. Manufacturing technology: metal cutting and
5. Jovane F, Westkämper E and Williams D. The manufac- machine tools, vol. 2. Noida, India: Tata McGraw-Hill
ture road: towards competitive and sustainable high-add- Education, 2013.
ing-value manufacturing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 20. Shaw MC. Metal cutting principles, vol. 2. New York:
2008. Oxford University Press, 2005.
6. State Council issues ‘Made in China 2025’ plan, May 21. Wang B, Liu Z, Song Q, et al. Proper selection of cutting
2015 [EB/OL] (in Chinese), http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/ parameters and cutting tool angle to lower the specific
content/2015-05/19/content_9784.htm cutting energy during high speed machining of 7050-
7. Veleva V and Ellenbecker M. Indicators of sustainable T7451 aluminum alloy. J Clean Prod 2016; 129: 292–304.
production: framework and methodology. J Clean Prod 22. Yoon H-S, Lee J-Y, Kim M-S, et al. Empirical power-
2001; 9: 519–549. consumption model for material removal in three-axis
8. Jayal AD, Badurdeen F, Dillon OW, et al. Sustainable milling. J Clean Prod 2014; 78: 54–62.
manufacturing: modeling and optimization challenges at 23. Yaldız S and Ünsacxar F. A dynamometer design for mea-
the product, process and system levels. CIRP-JMST surement the cutting forces on turning. Measurement
2010; 2: 144–152. 2006; 39: 80–89.
9. Abele E, Sielaff T, Schiffler A, et al. Analyzing energy 24. Hu S, Liu F, He Y, et al. Characteristics of additional
consumption of machine tool spindle units and identifi- load losses of spindle system of machine tools. J Adv
cation of potential for improvements of efficiency. In: Mech Des Syst 2010; 4: 1221–1233.
Proceedings of the 18th CIRP international conference on 25. Liu F, Xu Z, Dan B, et al. Machining system energy prop-
life cycle engineering, Technische Universität Braunsch- erties and application. Beijing, China: Mechanical Indus-
weig, Braunschweig, 2–4 May 2011, pp.280–285. New try Press, 1995 (in Chinese).
York: Springer. 26. Kim GD and Chu CN. Indirect cutting force measure-
10. Herrmann C, Thiede S, Kara S, et al. Energy oriented ment considering frictional behaviour in a machining cen-
simulation of manufacturing systems—concept and appli- tre using feed motor current. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 1999;
cation. CIRP Ann: Manuf Techn 2011; 60: 45–48. 15: 478–484.
11. Avram OI and Xirouchakis P. Evaluating the use phase 27. Li X, Venuvinod PK and Chen MK. Feed cutting force
energy requirements of a machine tool system. J Clean estimation from the current measurement with hybrid
Prod 2011; 19: 699–711. learning. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 2000; 16: 859–862.
12. Mori M, Fujishima M, Inamasu Y, et al. A study on 28. Aggarwal S, Nešić N and Xirouchakis P. Cutting torque
energy efficiency improvement for machine tools. CIRP and tangential cutting force coefficient identification from
Ann: Manuf Techn 2011; 60: 145–148. spindle motor current. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 2013; 65:
13. Draganescu F, Gheorghe M and Doicin CV. Models of 81–95.
machine tool efficiency and specific consumed energy. 29. B-65404EN/01. FANUC servo guide operator’s manual,
J Mater Process Tech 2003; 141: 9–15. https://jamet.com/Fanuc_Web_Manuals/Drives_Current/
14. Bagaber SA and Yusoff AR. Multi-objective optimiza- 65404EN.pdf
tion of cutting parameters to minimize power consump- 30. B-65272EN/06. FANUC AC spindle, https://img.motort
tion in dry turning of stainless steel 316. J Clean Prod ong.com/upload/resource/20161031/be33412509268e1557
2017; 157: 30–46. 56c226cbc509f0.pdf