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# RESEARCH AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT UNIT (RPMU)

## Subject OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS

Code XBOE4103
Semester JAN / MAY / SEPTEMBER

Information on Students
Name of Student
Matric No.
Learning Centre (PPU)

Laboratory Session
Date
Venue
Time
Name of Demonstrator

List of Experiments

## Work Environment Design (Light, Temperature, Noise,

EXPERIMENT 2
Humidity)

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EXPERIMENT 1
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRY MEASUREMENT

INTRODUCTION:

The term anthropometry is derived form two Greek words, anthropos, meaning man,
and metros, meaning measurement. In other words, anthropometry is concerned with
the measurements of human dimensions. Hundreds of these dimensions are possible,
everything form common measurement of stature, or height, to the size of a human
fingernail, but of these, a hundred or more have been defined as being useful for various
purposes.

In using anthropometric measurements there are several things to bear in mind. One of
these is the source of the measurements. All anthropometrics tables present values that
are statistical in nature. In other words they are derived as averages of multiple samples,
sometimes form hundreds, sometimes from thousands of subjects. The larger the
sample, the more representative it is, or in statistical terms there is a greater accuracy of
confidence in the measured values. The subjects in these samples are measured under
standards conditions.

OBJECTIVE:

## 1. To know how to perform anthropometric measurements.

2. To process the measurements so as to be useful.
3. To compare the collected data with other populations.
4. Design a workstation using the data available.

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METHODOLOGY:

Type Description
Standing Measurements
Stature The vertical distance from the floor to the top of head
With the man standing erect, measure from the floor to the
Shoulder height
outer point of his right shoulder.
Waist height Measure from the floor to the top of his right hip bone
Crotch height Measure from the floor to the crotch
Kneecap height Measure from the floor to the of the right kneecap
Measure as distance from level of the base of the neck
Coat Length (cervicale) to the level of first knuckle of the right thumb (base
of proximal phalanx)
Sitting Measurement
Measured as distance from table surface to top of head
Sitting Height
(vertex)
Measured as distance from table surface to level of inner
Eye Height, Sitting
corner of right eye (right inner canthus)
Measured as distance from table surface to outer point of right
Shoulder height, sitting
shoulder (acromiale)
With right arm held to form a right angle at elbow, measured as
Shoulder-Elbow length distance from outer point shoulder (acromiale) to elbow
(olecranon)
With right arm held to form a right angle at elbow and with hand
Forearm-hand Length extended, measured as distance from elbow (olecranon
process) to tip of middle finger (dactyl ion)
With legs bent to form right angle at knee, measured as
Buttock-Knee Length distance from rearmost projection of buttock to back of right
kneecap.
With legs bent to form right angle at knee, measured as
Buttock-Popliteal length distance from rearmost projection of buttock to back of right
With legs bent to form right angle at knee, measured as
Knee height, sitting
distance from surface of footrest to top of right knee
With legs bent to form right angle at knee, measure as distance
Popliteal height
from surface of footrest to top of right knee
Measure as maximum breadth across the shoulders, including
upper arm muscles (between outermost projections of deltoids)
With right arm and hand extended vertically above shoulder,
Arm reach upward measured as distance from table surface to tip of middle finger
(dactyl ion).
With right arm and hand extended horizontally in front of
Arm Reach Forward subject, measured as distance from back of shoulder greatest
bugle of trapezius) to tip of middle finger (dactyl ion)

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Body Circumferences
Measured as maximum circumference of neck, with tape
Neck
Measured as maximum circumference of shoulder, with tape
Shoulder
passing over bulge of both upper arm (deltoid) muscles
Measured as circumference of chest during normal breathing,
Chest
with tape at level nipples
Measured as circumference at lev4el of umbilicus, with
Waist
abdomen relaxed
Measured as maximum circumference of hips at level of
Hip
greatest buttock protrusion
Measured as circumference of right upper arm at level of
Upper Arm Circumference
biceps muscle(relaxed), midway between shoulder and elbow
Measured as circumference of right wrist above protrusion of
Wrist Circumference
wrist bone.
Measured as circumference of the right upper thigh, with tape
Crotch Thigh Circumference
passing just below crease of buttock (gluteal furrow).
Measured as circumference of right lower thigh, with tape
Lower thigh circumference
passing just above kneecap
Calf circumference Measure as maximum circumference of right calf
Measured as minimum circumference of right ankle with tape
Ankle circumference
passing just above projections of ankle bone (malleoli).
Body Surface measurement
Measured as distance along surface of back from base neck
Back Waist Length
(cervicale) to level of waist (level of iliac crests)
Measured as distance along surface of back between armpit
creases.
With right arm extended and held away from side of body as
Sleeve inseam distance from front edge of right armpit (anterior margin of
pectoralis major) to wrist (navicular)
With arms held horizontally blows bent and knuckles of fists
pressed together, measured as distance along body surface
Sleeve Length
from middle of back (spinal crease) over right elbow to wrist
(middle of styloid process)
Head Length just above the eyes(glabella) to back of head (posterior pole of
occiput)
Measured as distance from notch at front of right ear (tragion)
Measured as distance from depression of nose between
Face Length
eyes(nasion) to top of chin.
ears
Measured as maximum circumference of head with tape
ears.
Interpupillary distance Measured as distance between canters pupils eyes
Measured as maximum breadth of face between outermost
bulges of cheek bones (zygomatic arches)

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Hand Measurements
With right hand extended palm up and fingers straight,
Hand length measure as distance from wrist (navicular) to tip of middle
finger (dactyl ion)
With right hand extended palm up, measure as distance from
Palm length
wrist (navicular) to base of middle finger
With right hand extended palm up, measure as maximum
breadth across base of fingers (metacarpal-phalangeal joint)
Measured as distance from back of right heel to tip of longest
Foot length
toe
Measured as distance from back of right heel to inner ball of
Instep length
foot (first metatarsal-phalangeal joint)
Measured as maximum circumference of foot at widest point
Ball foot circumference
(distal ends of metatarsals)
Measured as maximum breadth of right heel behind and below
projection of ankle bones (malleoli)
Measured as diagonal circumference around right ankle, with
Heel-ankle diagonal tape passing under tip of heel and over instep at junction of
foot and leg
With subject dressed in undershoots, measured to nearest
Weight
kilograms on spring platform scale.

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RESULT:

Men Women
Dimension
(cm) 5th 95th 5th 95th
Mean SD Mean SD
%tile %tile %tile %tile
Weight / Berat (kg)
Standing Measurements
1 Height / Tinggi
2 Shoulder Height / Tinggi
3 Waist Height / Tinggi Pinggang
4 Crotch Height / Tinggi Pangkal Paha
5 Kneecap Height / Tinggi Tempurung Lutut
6 Coat Height, Standing / Tinggi Coat
7 Hip Breadth, Standing / Lebar Punggung
Surface Measurements
9 Back Waist Length / Panjang Tulang Belakang
10 Sleeve Inseam / Panjang Lengan
Sitting Measurements
11 Shoulder Breadth / Lebar Bahu
12 Hip Breadth / Lebar Punggung
13 Arm Reach Forward / Capaian Depan Lengan
14 Forearm-Hand Length / Panjang Siku-Hujung Jari
15 Buttock-Knee Length / Panjang Punggung-Lutut
16 Buttock-Popliteal Length / Panjang Punggung-Popliteal
17 Sitting Height / Tinggi Semasa Duduk
18 Eye Height / Tinggi Paras Mata
19 Shoulder Height / Tinggi Bahu
20 Shoulder-Elbow Length / Panjang Bahu-Siku
21 Knee Height / Tinggi Lutut
22 Popliteal Height / Tinggi Popliteal
23 Arm Reach Upward / Tinggi Capaian Tangan
Body Circumferences
24 Neck Circumference / Lilitan Leher
25 Shoulder Circumference / Lilitan Bahu
26 Chest Circumference / Lilitan Dada
27 Waist Circumference / Lilitan Pinggang
28 Hip Circumference / Lilitan Punggung
29 Upper Arm Circumference / Lilitan Lengan Atas
30 Wrist Circumference / Lilitan Pergelangan Tangan
31 Crotch Thigh Circumference / Lilitan Pangkal Paha
32 Lower Thigh Circumference / Lilitan Paha Bawah
33 Calf Circumference / Lilitan Betis
34 Ankle Circumference / Lilitan Buka Tali
35 Ball Foot Circumference / Lilitan Bebola Kaki
36 Heel-Ankle Circumference / Lilitan Pergelangan Kaki-Tumit

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37 Head Circumference / Lilitan Kepala
38 Head Length / Panjang Kepala
40 Head Height / Tinggi Kepala
41 Face Length / Panjang Muka
42 Interpupillary Distance / Jarak Antara Anak Mata
43 Face Breadth / Lebar Muka
Hand Measurements
44 Hand Length / Panjang Tangan
45 Palm Length / Panjang Tapak Tangan
46 Hand Breadth / Lebar Tangan
47 Span / Panjang dua tangan horizontal
48 Elbow Span/ Panjang dua Siku
Foot Measurements
49 Foot Length / Panjang Kaki
50 Instep Length / Panjang Tapak Kaki
51 Foot Breadth / Lebar Tapak Kaki
52 Heel Breadth / Lebar Tumit

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1. What are the critical dimensions that are required for an office work station?

2. Determine the dimensions of an office workstation that would fit the population that
you measured.

3. Determine the dimension of an office workstation that fit the U.S population?

4. Compare the result of Q2 and Q3, suggest the dimension that would fit both
population.

6. Conclusion.

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APPENDIX:

## To calculate a percentile value, simply multiply the standard S by a factor k, selected

from table 1. Then add the product to the mean m:

p = m + k *S

If the desired percentile is above the 50th percentile, the factor k has a positive sign and
the product k*S is added to the mean m; if the p-value is below 50th percentile, k is
negative and the product k*S is subtracted from the mean m.
The equation of mean m:

∑x
m =  

 n 
m = mean
x = sample value
n = total of sample

## The distribution of the data is described by the equation:

S=
∑ (x − m ) 2

With S as the standard deviation of the sample. If the sample size is small
(conventionally, 30 or less) one makes an arbitrary correction by using (n-1) instead of n:

∑ (x − m)
2

S=
(n − 1)
The smaller n, the larger the standard error SE in sampling. The standard error SE of the
mean is determined from:

S
SE of the mean =
n

## and the standard error of the standard deviation is :

S
SE of the standard deviation =
2n
The coefficient of variation:

100 S
CV ( in percent) =
m

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Combining Anthropometrics Data Set
Mathematically described by the correlation coefficient r between two data sets, x and y,
and their standard deviations, Sx and Sy:
COV (x,y)= rx,y * Sx * Sy

mz = mx + my

## The estimated standard deviation of two data sets:

Sz = [S 2
x + S y2 + 2r * S x * S y ]
and the difference between two data set values:
mz = mx - my

Sz = [S 2
x + S y2 − 2r * S x * S y ]
Table 1. Percentile value and associated k factors
Below Mean Above Mean
Percentile Factor k Percentile Factor k Percentile Factor k Percentile Factor k
0.001 -4.25 31 -0.50 50 0 85 1.04
0.01 -3.72 32 -0.47 51 0.03 86 1.08
0.1 -3.09 33 -0.44 52 0.05 87 1.13
0.5 -2.58 34 -0.41 53 0.08 88 1.18
1 -2.33 35 -0.39 54 0.10 89 1.23
2 -2.05 36 -0.36 55 0.13 90 1.28
2.5 -1.96 37 -0.33 56 0.15 91 1.34
3 -1.88 38 -0.31 57 0.18 92 1.41
4 -1.75 39 -0.28 58 0.20 93 1.48
5 -1.64 40 -0.25 59 0.23 94 1.55
6 -1.55 41 -0.23 60 0.25 95 1.64
7 -1.48 42 -0.20 61 0.28 96 1.75
8 -1.41 43 -0.18 62 0.31 97 1.88
9 -1.34 44 -0.15 63 0.33 97.5 1.96
10 -1.28 45 -0.13 64 0.36 98 2.05
11 -1.23 46 -0.10 65 0.39 99 2.33
12 -1.18 47 -0.08 66 0.41 99.5 2.58
13 -1.13 48 -0.05 67 0.44 99.9 3.09
14 -1.08 49 -0.03 68 0.47 99.99 3.72
15 -1.04 50 0 69 0.50 99.999 4.26
16 -0.99 70 0.52
17 -0.95 71 0.55
18 -0.92 72 0.58
19 -0.88 73 0.61
20 -0.84 74 0.64
21 -0.81 75 0.67
22 -0.77 76 0.71
23 -0.74 77 0.74
24 -0.71 78 0.77
25 -0.67 79 0.81
26 -0.64 80 0.84
27 -0.61 81 0.88
28 -0.58 82 0.92
29 -0.55 83 0.95
30 -0.52 84 0.99

Any percentile value p can be calculated from the mean m and the standard deviation.

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EXPERIMENT 2
TITLE: WORK ENVIRONMENT DESIGN (LIGHT, TEMPERATURE, NOISE,
HUMIDITY)

INTRODUCTION:
Under the OSHA act 1976 status that an employer should provide good, safe,
comfortable working conditions for the worker. Experience has conclusively proven that
plants with good working condition out produce those with poor conditions. The
economics return form investment in an improved working environment is usually
significant. In an addition to increase production, ideal working condition improve the
safety record, reduce absenteeism, tardiness and labour turnover, raise employee
morale and improve public relation. The acceptable level for working conditions and the
recommended control measures for problem area are covered under the OSHA act. The
experiments cover light, noise, temperature and humidity in work environment.

ILLUMINATION
The theory applies to a point source of light of a given luminous intensity, measured in
candelas (cd). Light emanates spherically in all directions form the source. The amount
of light striking a surface or section of these sphere is termed Illumination or illuminance
and measured in foot-candles (fc) The amount of illumination striking a surface drops off
as the square of the distance (d) in feet form the source to the surface;

Illuminance = intensity / d2

Some of the light is absorbed and some is reflected which allows human to see an
object and provides a perception of brightness. The amount reflected is termed
luminance, measured in foot lamberts (fL). It is determined by the reflective properties of
the surface, reflectance;

## Table 1: Recommended Illumination Levels for Use in Interior Lighting Design

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Range of
Category Type of activity Reference area
iluminance (fc)
A 2-3-5 Public areas with dark surroundings General lighting
B 5-7.5-10 Simple orientation for short temporary visits throughout room or area.

## C 10-15-20 Working spaces where visual tasks are

performed only occasionally
D 20-30-50 Performance of visual tasks of high contrast Illuminance on task.
or large size, e.g., reading printed material,
typed originals, hand-writing in ink and
xerography; rough bench and machine work;
ordinary inspection; rough assembly
E 50- 75-100 Performance of visual tasks of medium
contrast or small size, e.g., reading
medium-pencil handwriting, poorly printed or
reproduced material; medium bench and
machine work; difficult inspection; medium
assembly.
F 100-150-200 Performance of visual tasks of low contrast or
very small size, e.g., reading handwriting in
hard pencil on poor-quality paper and very
poorly reproduced material; highly difficult
inspection.
G 200-300-500 Performance of visual tasks of low contrast Illuminance on task via a
and very small size over a prolonged period, combination of general
e.g., fine assembly; very difficult inspection; and supplementary local
fine bench and machine work; extra fine lighting.
assembly
H 500- 750-1000 Performance of very prolonged and exacting
visual tasks, e.g., the most difficult inspection;
extra fine bench and machine work; extra fine
assembly
I 1000-1500-2000 Performance of very special visual tasks of
extremely low contrast and small size, e.g.,
surgical procedures

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Table 2: Artificial Light Sources

## Type Efficiency Color rendering Comments

(lm/W)
Incandescent 17-23 Good A commonly used light source, but the least
efficient. Lamp cost is low. Lamp life is typically less
than one year.
Fluorescent 50-80 Fair to good Efficiency and color rendering vary considerably
with type of lamp: cool white, warm white, deluxe
cool white. Significant energy cost reductions are
possible with new energy-saving lamps and
ballasts. Lamp life is typically 5-8 years.
Mercury 50-55 Very poor to fair A very long lamp life (9-12 years), but efficiency
drops off substantially with age.
Metal halide 80-90 Fair to moderate Color rendering is adequate for many applications.
Lamp life is typically 1-3 years.
High-pressure 85-125 Fair Very efficient light source. Lamp life is 3-6 years at
sodium average burning rates, up to 12 hours per day.
Low-pressure 100-180 Poor The most efficient light source. Lamp life is 4-5
sodium years at average burning rate of 12 hours per day.
Mainly used for roadways and warehouse lighting.
Source: Courtesy Human Factors Section, Eastman Kodak Co.

Note: The efficiency (column 2), in lumens per watt (lm/W), and color rendering (column 3) of six frequently used light
sources (column 1) are indicated. Lamp life and other features are given in column 4. Color rendering is a measure of
how colors appear under any of these artificial light sources compared with their color under a standard light source.
Higher values for efficiency indicate better energy conservation.

NOISE

Noise is any unwanted sound. Sound waves originate form the vibration of some object
which in turns sets up a succession of compression and expansion waves through the
transporting medium. The velocity of sound waves in air is approximately 1,100 ft/sec
(340 m/sec). Sound can be defined in terms of frequencies that determine its tone and
quality. While the amplitudes is to determine its intensity.

Because of the very large range of sound intensities encountered in the normal human
environment, the decibel scale has been chosen. Thus, the sound pressure level (L) in
decibels (dB) is given;

L = 20 log 10 Prms/Pref

## Where Prms = root-mean-square sound pressure in microbars

Pref = sound pressure at the threshold of hearing of a young person
at 1000 Hz (0.00002 microbars).

The effect of the co-existence of two or more sound sources in one location requires that
a logarithmic addition to be performed as total noise

## Where LTOT = total noise

L1,L2,Ln = noise sources

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TEMPERATURE
Hot working conditions affected by the increasing temperature and also lack of
ventilations. Whether the conditions of the workplace are too hot or too cold, it will affect
the efficiency and the quality of the work.

OBJECTIVE:
The objectives of this experiment are:
i) Measures the temperature, humidity, noise level and illumination level in the work
environment.
ii) To understand the affect of environmental condition to work environment design.
iii) To compare current work environment condition with relevant standards and
guideline.

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B. Water vapor pressure

Dry-bulb temperature

APPARATUS:
SPL (Sound Pressure Level)
Lux meter
Humidity meter
Thermometer

METHODOLOGY:
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The methods for this experiment are:
(i) Draw a simplified map of each machines or tools in laboratory which includes the
workbenches, machines, exit, lighting, ventilation, fan and air conditioning
location.
(ii) Identify the work area location of laboratory.
(iii) Measure the temperature, humidity, noise level and illumination level of each
location. There are two times measuring: morning and afternoon.
(iv) Compare the measurements with relevant standards or guidelines.
(v) Discuss the results.
(vi) Conclusion.

TYPE OF MEASUREMENTS
Location of
work station / Relative
Noise Level Illuminance Temperature
machine / tools Humidity
(dB) (fc) / (Lx) (oC)
(%)

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