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# 1.

## ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELD = 9 X 109 Nm2C-2

 Electric charge: It is a fundamental property of a One coulomb:
matter which is responsible for electrical force. The two identical charges are said to be one
It is denoted by q / Q. coulomb, if the force of repulsion between them is 9
Its S.I unit is coulomb (C). X 109 N when they are separated by one meter
 Detection of charge: The charge on a body is distance.
detected and calculated by an instrument called Coulomb’s law in vector form:
Gold Leaf Electroscope. Consider two charges & separated by a
 Types of charge: There are two kinds of charges distance ‘r’ in free space. The force acting on charge
i) Positive charge (ii) Negative charge
due to charge is = ------- (1)
 Methods of charging:
(i) Charging by Friction. Similarly, the force acting on charge due to charge
(ii) Charging by conduction. is = ------ (2)
(iii) Charging by induction. =
Note: =
 Whenever a body looses electrons then it’s
 Force due to system of charges:
positively charged because of deficiency of
electrons.
 Whenever a body gains electrons then it’s
negatively charged because of efficiency of
electrons.
 Fundamental properties of charges:
a) Additive property of charge: The total charge of
a system is equal to the algebraic sum of the all
the charges present in the system. Consider a system consisting no. of charges
b) Conservative property of charge: In an isolated q1, q2, q3 ……. at distances r1, r2, r3 ……. respectively.
system, the total charge is always conserved. The force acting on charge due to charge
c) Quantization property of charge: The total is =
charge on a body is equal to the integral multiple The force acting on charge due to charge is
of basic unit of charge. i.e., q = ne where e is
=
charge of an electron and e = 1.6X10-19C.
 Coulomb’s law: Similarly, the force acting on charge due to charge
It states that, “The force of attraction or is =
repulsion between any two point charges is directly According to superposition principle, net force on a
proportional to the product of magnitude of their charge in a system due to multiple charges is equal to
charges and inversely proportional to the square of the algebraic sum of all the individual force.
distance between them” i.e. Thus F = + + -------- +
F q1q2 & F F=
F=k
F=
Where is permittivity of free space
= 8.854 X 10-12 C2N-1m-2

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ELECTRIC FIELD: Thus E = + + -------- +
 Electric Field: The region around a charge within E= + + --------- +
another charge experiences a force.
 Electric field Intensity at a point: E=
It is defined as force acting on a unit positive  Electric field line orientation:
charge placed at that point.
E=
 It is denoted by E
 Its S.I unit is newton per coulomb (NC-1).
 It is a vector quantity.

## Consider a point charge q kept in the free

space at ‘O’. Let a unit positive charge is placed at a  Properties of electric field:
point P at a distance r from the charge. Then the 1. Two field lines do not overlap on each other.
electric field at P is 2. Two field lines never intersect each other.
3. A Field line starts from positive charge and
E= = = terminates at negative charge.
4. Field lines do not form closed loop.
 Electric field Intensity at a point due to a  Electric flux ( :
system of charges: Number of electric field lines passing through
any closed area normally.
= . = EdScos where is angle between .

## Its S.I unit is volt – meter (V-m).

 Electric dipole:
A system consisting two equal and opposite
charges separated by certain distance is called Electric
Consider a system consisting no. of charges
dipole.
q1, q2, q3 ……. at distances r1, r2, r3 ……. respectively. Let
P be a point at a distance r from the origin. Then,
The electric field at a point due to charge is
=  Electric dipole Moment ( ):
The electric field at a point due to charge is The product of magnitude of one of the charge
and distance between them.
=
It’s S. I unit is coulomb – meter (C-m).
Similarly, The electric field at a point due to charge It is a vector quantity. It is always directed towards
is = positive charge.
According to superposition principle, net
electric field at point in a system due to multiple
charges is equal to the algebraic sum of all the
individual electric field.

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 Electric field at a point on the axis of an  Electric field at a point on the equatorial line of
electric dipole: an electric dipole:

## Consider an electric dipole consisting of two

point charges +q and –q separated by a distance 2l.
Let P be a point on the axis of the dipole at a distance
r from the midpoint O.
The electric field at P due to +q charge is,
E1 = = = --- (1) Consider an electric dipole consisting of two
The electric field at P due to - q charge is, point charges +q and –q separated by a distance 2l.
Let P be a point on the equatorial line of the dipole at
E2 = = = --- (2)
a distance r from the midpoint O.
According to superposition principle, the net The electric field at P due to +q charge is,
electric field at P due to both charges is
E1 = = = --- (1)
E = E1 + E2
The electric field at P due to - q charge is,
= +
E2 = = = --- (2)
= +
According to superposition principle, the net
= - electric field at P due to both charges is
= +
=
But, =
= E=
= =
=
=
=
= =
= =2
=2
=
=2
=
=
=
E=
E=
Special case: For short dipole
Special case: For short dipole When r >> l,
When r >> l,
E=
E=

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 Torque acting on an electric dipole placed in a  Gauss’ law:
uniform external electric field: Statement: “The electric flux through any closed
surface is equal to times the total charge enclosed
the surface”
i.e. = q

## Consider an electric dipole consisting of two

point charges +q and –q separated by a distance 2l
placed in a uniform electric field E such that dipole
length makes an angle with the electric field E.
Proof: Let +q is the point placed in vacuum. Let us
Let be the force acting on +q along the
imagine a Gaussian sphere of radius r around the
direction of E then, = Eq ------- (1) and
charge as shown in the figure. Let dS be the small
be the force acting on – q opposite to the
surface element and P be a point on the surface. The
direction of E then, = – Eq ------- (2)
electric field at point P is given by,
From eqn (1) & (2) we get
=– E==
Since, & are equal and opposite to each other Now, the electric flux through the element dS is
acting at different points hence torque will act on the d = . = E dS cos
dipole which tends to decrease the angle . where is angle between normal to the surface dS at
According to the definition of torque, point P and E
= magnitude of either of force and perpendicular d = E dS cos
distance between them. d = E dS
= X 2l sin Now, the total flux through the whole sphere is
= Eq X 2l sin = =
= E (2l X q) sin
= dS
= Ep sin
= X =
 Continuous Charge distribution: = q
 Linear charge density: It is defined as charge per
unit length.  Application of Gauss’ law:
1. Electric field intensity at a point near an
i.e. =
infinitely long straight charged conductor:
 Surface charge density: It is defined as charge
per unit area.
i.e. =
 Volume charge density: It is defined as charge
per unit area. i.e. =

## Let us consider an infinitely long straight

charged conductor having linear charge density . Let
P be the point at a distance r from the conductor. To

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find electric field intensity at the point, imagine a 3. Electric field intensity at a point near an
Gaussian cylinder of length l is coaxially inserted into uniformly charged spherical shell:
the conductor.
Let dS1 be a small element around the point P and d Case 1: when the point is outside the sphere:
is the electric flux through it. Then the total flux
through the whole Gaussian cylinder is
= = =E
= E 2 rl
From Gauss’ law we have = q
But q = l
Hence, E 2 rl = l
Consider a charged spherical shell of radius R.
E= let q be the charge on the sphere and P is a point near
2. Electric field intensity at a point near an the shell at a distance r. To find electric field intensity
infinitely long charged sheet: at the point, imagine a concentric Gaussian sphere of
radius r around the shell such that the point lies on the
surface of the sphere.
Let dS is the small element of around the
point, then the electric flux passing through the
surface is
=
Let us consider an infinitely long straight Total electric flux passing through the whole surface
charged sheet having surface charge density . To find is,
electric field intensity at a point, imagine a Gaussian = = =E
cylinder of cross sectional area dS on both side of the =E
sheet as shown in the above figure. From Gauss’ law we have = q
Since the flux is only through the cross
sections of the cylinder, E = q
Net flux through the cylinder is = = E=
= 2 E dS
From Gauss’ law we have = q Case 2: when the point is inside the sphere:
But q = dS
=

2 E dS =
E=

## Since, the total charge enclosed by the Gaussian

sphere is zero therefore the electric field intensity
inside the spherical shell is ‘0’.

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