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WASTE FOOD DISPOSER

1. INTRODUCTION
Food waste disposers were invented in the 1940’s, initially as a convenience for
residential kitchens and cooks. As interest developed in the post -WWII era’s housing boom,
disposers were thoroughly evaluated by municipalities to assess their efficacy with respect to
local solid waste and wastewater collection and treatment systems.

By the end of the 20th century, disposers had become a standard appliance, installed in

the majority of U.S. homes and nearly ubiquitous in new residential construction. The market
for commercial food waste disposers – in a variety of food-serving establishments, such as
restaurants, cafeterias, and markets – also has grown. International acceptance of food waste
disposers also is growing, in response to significant concerns about diverting organic food
waste from landfills and increasing the beneficial use of food waste for land application.
Everything municipalities normally do with food waste is environmentally noxious: stored
inside buildings (even refrigerated); piled in bags on sidewalks; collected in trucks; and
shipped to distant landfills, where it generates leachate and greenhouse gases. This process is
not cheap, hygienic, environmentally friendly, nor sustainable.

In sum, food waste disposers form an impressive part of an integrated


modern waste management system in many parts of the world.

This document reviews forty one (41) of the most recent studies and reports, three (3)
executive summaries, two (2) literature reviews, one (1) textbook, two (2) specifications and
requirements, and one (1) internal calculation, for a total of fifty (50) research references. All
information in this document was conducted by universities, research institutions, and
government agencies across the United States and in many countries that examine the efficacy
of food waste disposers. It compiles the findings regarding all facets of the sewage collection,
treatment, and disposal process and organizes the information according to major concerns and
assumptions regarding garbage disposers. In sum, these studies have largely determined that the
impacts of disposers are manageable, and that disposers provide a significant set of
environmental benefits that merits their acceptance and use in conjunction with (rather than in
competition to) other alternatives to divert organic waste from landfills.

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Rapid urbanization coupled with the associated growth of industry and services
constitute a key feature of economic and demographic development in many developing
countries. Cities are currently absorbing two-thirds of the total population increase throughout
the developing world (UNCSD 1999). An important environmental concern of urbanization is
the amount of solid waste that is generated at a rate that surpasses the capacity of municipal
authorities to manage it, resulting in potential adverse impacts on the environment, human
health, and the quality of urban life. With limited land areas around many urban centrers, the
search for environmentally safe as well as socially and politically acceptable sites for landfills
has become a perennial problem, and for several cities, seemingly unsolvable, thus creating the
need to consider other waste minimization alternatives at the source. In this context, the use of
food waste disposers enables the separation of a considerable fraction of food-waste ingredients
out of the entire municipal solid waste (MSW) stream by grinding the waste using mechanical
means with the addition of tap water, and allowing the mixture into the sewage system. This
paper evaluates the role of food waste disposers within the waste management system of urban
areas, taking the Greater Beirut Area (GBA) as a case study. Background information on food
waste disposersis first presented followed by an examination of their impact on the solid waste
and wastewater management schemes with emphasis on operational and economic feasibilities
taking area-specific characteristics into consideration.

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2. LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 LITERATURE RIVIEW

[1] Natasha Marashlian Mutasem El-Fadel 2009 This paper examines the feasibility of
introducing food waste disposers as a waste minimization option within urban waste
management schemes, taking the Greater Beirut Area (GBA) as a case study. For this purpose,
the operational and economic impacts of food disposers on the solid waste and wastewater
streams are assessed. The integration of food waste disposers can reduce the total solid waste to
be managed by 12 to 43% under market penetration ranging between 25 and 75%, respectively.
While the increase in domestic water consumption (for food grinding) and corresponding
increase in wastewater flow rates are relatively insignificant, wastewater loadings increased by
17 to 62% (BOD) and 1.9 to 7.1% (SS). The net economic benefit of introducing food disposers
into the waste and wastewater management systems constitutes 7.2 to 44.0% of the existing solid
waste management cost under the various scenarios examined. Concerns about increased sludge
generation persist and its potential environmental and economic implications may differ with
location and therefore area-specific characteristics must be taken into consideration when
contemplating the adoption of a strategy to integrate food waste disposers in the waste–
wastewater management system.

[2] Mahmudul Hasan Russel1* , Mehdi Hasan Chowdhury1 , Md. Shekh Naim Uddin1 ,Ashif
Newaz1 , Md. Mehdi Masud Talukder2 Modern world meets lots of challenges that includes
Smart waste management system. It is become matter of big concern if proper disposal system is
not managed. Managing waste effectively and recycling efficiently, a nation can ahead one step
forward. In this work, an automatic sorter machine is developed which can sort out the wastes in
various categories to make waste management easier and efficient. It can be possible to sort out
metal, paper, plastics and glass by developing an electromechanical system using microcontroller
and operational amplifier. For sorting metal and glass conventional sensors are used and for
sorting paper and plastics a sensor using LASER and LDR is developed. A weight sensor and
counter is used to find out the amount of sorted materials. By using the proper recycling system,
the curse of waste will turn into blessings for the civilization. The sorting procedure will make

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recycling more efficient. By means of this waste sorter, the conventional waste management
system will be transformed into SMART system. This SMART system will help to make our
environment more suitable for living, reducing global warming and making the world healthier.

[3] Wang and Nie (2001) studied the municipal solid waste characteristics and management in
China. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the status and identify the problems of
municipal solid waste (MSW) management in China in order to determine appropriate remedial
strategies. MSW generation in China increased rapidly in the past 20 years from 31.3 million
tons in 1980 to 113.0 million tons in 1998. The annual rate of increase was 3–10%. The average
generation per capita was 1.0 kg/day (0.38 t/year). Nearly one-half of the waste generated was
dumped in the suburbs, where the accumulated quantity had reached 6 billion tons, which caused
heavy environmental pollution.

[4] Debosz et al., (2002) studied the effects of sewage sludge and household compost on soil
physical, chemical and microbiological properties. Recycling of organic wastes in agriculture
would help maintain soil fertility via effects on physical, chemical and biological properties.
Efficient use, however, requires an individual assessment of waste products, and effects should
be compared with natural variations due to climate and soil type. The temporal dynamics of
inorganic N, FDA hydrolysis activity, biomass and anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production
(PLFA) composition appeared to be faster under the fluctuating climatic conditions in the field.
Compost amendment had increased potentially mineralizable N by a factor of 1.8, and sludge
amendment had increased the amount of resin-extractable Pi by a factor of 1.6. However, there
were no accumulated effects of waste amendment on the fraction of soil in wet-stable aggregates.
The dynamics of growth factors such as nutrient availability, gas exchange, and water retention
characteristics can directly influence crop development.

[5] Davis and Song (2006) studied the biodegradable packaging based on raw materials from
crops and their impact on waste management. Packaging waste formed a significant part of
municipal solid waste and as such caused increasing environmental concerns. They were largely
non-biodegradable and particularly difficult to recycle or reuse due to mixed levels of
contamination and complex composites. In recent years, the development of biodegradable

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packaging materials from renewable natural resources (e.g. crops) had received increasing
attention. It was the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials were most
suitable for single use disposable packaging applications where the post-consumer use packaging
could be locally composted as a means of recycling the materials. Establishment of appropriate
collection, transportation and treatment technologies were considered crucial to the success
widespread applications of biodegradable materials. To facilitate composting, however,
infrastructure must be established to certify biodegradable packaging materials and to collect
biodegradable packaging with organic waste. By using local or regional composting facilities,
the total waste to landfill could be reduced, in addition to the reduction of transport cost and
associated emissions.

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2.2 Aims and Objectives


This project has four core aims:
1. Provide staff with the opportunity to manage food waste in their staff rooms
2. Educate staff on the impacts of sending food waste to landfill
3. Developing a report estimating campus wide organic waste production and impacts of
improved management
4. Collaborate with a research project which aims to identify hurdles in understanding of
organic waste and the impacts of education on environmental and public health.
The latest national food waste assessment indicates that lack of data and understanding are
the key hurdles to managing food waste in Australia.1 This study aims to make a positive
contribution to addressing these issues at JCU.

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2.3 Project Overview


The project was divided into four categories:
1) Immediate change – Engage staff with a survey and enable willing staff to recycle their
food waste by providing bins, weekly collection and information about what to compost
and why. This bottom up phase is supported by staff and student volunteer efforts.
Composting was already occurring at the Rotary College community garden and had
stimulated significant interest. The garden is open to all JCU staff and students.

2) Business case - Quantify the mass of organic waste generated from staff lunch rooms and
combine this with estimates from colleges and campus businesses. This data will be
processed using life cycle analysis techniques, assessing a variety of technologies.
Sensitivity analysis will also be used to identify what variables most affect
recommendations so people can gauge how applicable these results might be to their own
scenarios.
3) Behavioral change – Survey results and collaboration with JCU public health
researchers will identify barriers to organic waste recycling. Results will inform a
communication plan addressing social and environmental influences on people's organic
waste recycling habits.

4) Reporting – All results will be reported to JCU management to prompt formal organic
waste management procedures. All results will also be made publicly available and
distributed to interested parties.

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3. METHODOLOGY
The operational impacts associated with the integration of food waste disposers include
primarily: (1) solid waste com-position and distribution; (2) domestic water consumption; and
(3) wastewater loading. Six scenarios (Fig. 2) were examined using a variable market penetration
rate (25 to 75%). The latter covers all the possible market penetration scenarios reviewed in the
literature with 25 and 50% being the most realistic ones since after 60 years of marketing gar-
bage disposers in the US (which is considered the oldest market worldwide), their distribution
reached a maximum of 50% (Galil & Yaacov 2001). A variable amount of food ground at the
household level was adopted (75 to 95%). The lowest value (75%) was reported by Wainberg et
al. (2000). The upper range (95%) was used since only a limited number of food wastes could
not be ground including highly fibrous wastes and shells of certain seafood.
The current and anticipated future loadings to wastewater treatment plants from the use
of food waste disposers was estimated based on a laboratory investigation that was con-ducted to
assess the BOD and SS contents of ground food waste from the study area. The investigation was
performed at the Environmental Engineering Research Center at the American University of
Beirut (AUB). Kitchen food waste consisting of vegetable, fruit, meat and other food waste con-
stituents was collected from several households. The waste was mixed thoroughly and divided
into three batches of equal size. The three batches were blended with tap water. A volume of
11.7 L of water was used to grind 1 kg of food waste (Hartmann 2000, Wainberg et al. 2000).
The resulting mixtures were then analysed for BOD and SS using Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA 1998). Each of the experiment was duplicated to
assure repli-cability and consistency of the results.
Economic impacts entailed the evaluation of the conven-tional (tangible or direct) and
environmental (non-tangible or indirect) costs/savings for all scenarios. The conventional costs
included the capital and operating cost of food disposer units, the cost of wastewater and sludge
treatment of the added wastewater volume (loadings and flow), and the cost of increased
domestic water. As indicated in the background section, the cost of electricity needed to run food
waste dis- posers was considered as negligible. Similarly, foregone earn-ings from potential
energy recovery from food waste were assumed to be insignificant particularly in cases where
the wastewater treatment process involves anaerobic digestion. The conventional savings
included the costs forgone due to reduced management requirements of food wastes diverted

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from the solid waste stream. Environmental costs/savings are associated with potential impacts
that are usually not directly perceived by the community. Due to the complexity and the inter-
connection of the environmental media (air, water, soil and humans), the valuation of these
environmen-tal impacts is difficult. Nonetheless, they can be estimated using the abatement cost
method in which costs required to abate pollution resulting from solid waste management
(SWM) alternatives are used to estimate the value of poten-tial damages (Fig. 3). Note that all
values used in the present analysis are at constant year zero therefore inflation was not taken into
consideration.
Why Food Waste Disposer?
 When you use a garbage disposer in your home, you're helping to combat global
warming at the same time.
 You reduce greenhouse gases emitted by waste management truck during
transportation. Those trucks carried the waste food to the landfill.
 Less waste food to landfill means lesser production of methane. Methane is a potent
greenhouse gas harmful to the environment.
 Water waste from your kitchen sink is can be transferred to the waste water treatment
plant. From there, it can be recycled into energy sources and fertilizer.
Recycle Your Food Waste
Waste Flows to Wastewater Treatment Facility
• Biosolids Captured and Turned into
Fertilizer
• Methane Gas Captured and Recycled for
Use at Power Plant / Other Facilities
Fertilizer Created from Biosolids Applied to
Agricultural Land
L Land Produces Food and Cycle Begins Again

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Problems associated due to improper management of solid waste

• The most common problems associated with improper management of solid waste
include diseases, odour nuisance, fire hazards, atmospheric and water pollution, aesthetic
nuisance and economic losses.
• Solid waste pollution caused when the environment is filled with non- biodegradable and
Non- compostable biodegradable waste that is capable of emitting greenhouse gases,
toxic fumes, and particulate matters as they accumulate in open landfills. These waste are
also capable of leaching organic or chemical compositions to contaminate the ground
where such waste lay in accumulation.
• The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste includes the population in
areas where there is no proper waste disposal method or no proper disposal area,
especially the pre-school children; waste workers; and workers in facilities producing
toxic and infectious material.

Infections to humans
• Skin irritations and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste, and
transmitting bacteria from waste to infected wounds.
• Eye irritations and respiratory malfunctions resulting from exposure to infected dust,
especially during the process of disposing garbage.
How It Works?

Food waste disposers are devices that are easily fitted under the kitchen sink. They quickly and
simply grind kitchen food waste into miniscule particles (less than 2mm) and flush them into the
waste water system, to be treated with the rest of the sewage. Driven by electric motor, they are
easy and safe to use.

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The grinding mechanism has no knives or blades. Instead, impellers (or lugs) mounted
on a spinning plate use centrifugal force to continuously force food waste particles against a
stationary grind ring. The grind ring breaks down the food waste into very fine particles -
virtually liquefying them. Once they are ground the running water flushes the particles through
the grind ring into the wastewater pipe
Low energy and water use
Food waste disposers are typically rated between 0.4–0.5 kW. Requiring a very short run
time, their energy and water use is minimal. DEFRA’s Market Transformation Programme
(MTP) estimated that on average food waste disposers run for just over 15 seconds per use and
use just 2-3 kWh of electricity a year. At current average electricity prices this represents a cost
of approximately 46 pence p.a. A disposer’s average water consumption is only 0.07% of a
household’s annual use, or the equivalent of about one extra toilet flush a day

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4. DESIGN AND WORKING


DESCRIPTION

The waste food recycling machine is a simple ecofriendly machine that recycles waste
food into food products for animals such as dogs,cows,fishes,birds.It consists of a screw rod,
feed drum ,grinder, cup plate, slicer, ram, mixing blade, conveyor, oven, motors and support
frame. The materials used in this machine is mild steel and stainless steel,different variety of
food products can be obtained and power consumption is less.The operation is smooth and no
blockages takes place during the operation.Completely baked food product can be
obtained.Corrosion of parts will not occur since it is electroplated,different patterns of various
sizes and shapes of food can be achieved by replacing the cup plate.

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The screw rod is square threaded with a length of 400mm,diameter 28mm and pitch
5mm,The preferred material for screw rod is mild steel according to the design, the specification
and dimensions was found out and calculated. The mixing drum or feed drum is a hollow
cylindrical structure made of mild steel with inner diameter 235mm and outer diameter 245mm
and height of 350 mm was preferred for this machine, The cup plate is clamped at the bottom of
the feed drum. The related values of stress is calculated. The ram material is Mild steel with a
height of about 400mm and thickness 10mm,the ram is driven by means of manual pressure.The
material preferred for mixing blade is stainless steel with a thickness of the blade of 2mm.The
mixing blade is driven by a 0.5 HP AC motor. The slicer is made of stainless steel which is
operated by using a 24volt DC motor, The rollers of the conveyors are made of wood and a metal
mesh is used for transporting the food through the oven and finally to the collector, A 12 volt DC
motor is used for operating the conveyor, The conveyor runs at very low speed of 0.1 m/sec and
the length of the conveyor is 900mm. The structure is strong and rigid and it can withstand a load
of upto 150 kg,All the parts are supported by the supporting frame.

TYPICAL INSTALLATION
SINK BOWL

Syphon breaker
Sink Bowl Assembly
Control Center

Solenoid Valve

Disposer Flow Control


Valve

Dish table, plumbing, and electrical connections sold separately.

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[1] Initial literature review has been done in college hostel, college canteen, and bakery. Almost
15-20kg of food waste is generated on a daily basis.

[2] As the literature survey say that overall in India 271.7kg of garbage per person was
generated, food worth of 57k cores is wasted ever year in that 40%of food produced is wasted.

[3] As per the availability of the waste and their type and condition basic design of the machine
is done.

[4] Feasibility of the machine is checked based on the assumption and requirement.

[5] Fabrication of the machine is done based on the design specification and requirement.

[6] The waste food from various sources is separately checked and segregated based on the
requirement and animal to be feed, waste food is poured to the grinder, which cuts the food
particles into fine shape and size, this is done with the help of blades.

[7] The crushed food is sent to the feed drum (mixing chamber).Ingredients are added to the
mixing chamber based on the requirement like smell flavor energy vitamins nutrition’s taste and
type of animal to be feed.

[8] All the ingredients are properly mixed by reciprocating mixer blade finally semi solid paste
will get, proper moisture and PH

EXPECTED OUTCOME
 Environmentally friendly food product.
 Simple in construction of machine.
 Different types of food can be feed.
 Young entrepreneur can start a business organization. Less cost of the
food.
 To provide a food for other living beings.
 To make proper utilization of the food
 .  To convert waste food product into useful quality food product.
 To recycle any kind of waste food.

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5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

5.1 Advantages

 Removing kitchen waste from compost produces cleaner and better compost 
 Reduced transportation noise.
 Reduced space concerns for food waste storage 
 Renewable energy value of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) anaerobic
digestion biogas 
 Reduced incidence of disease-causing vector attraction in comparison to food waste
storage/collection 

 Reduced truck collection, which blocks narrow streets 
 Natural selector of organic wastes, whereas, composting relies on the education
and goodwill of the participants 

5.2 Disadvantages

 Increased potential loadings impact on combined sewer overflows


 Increased water consumption 
 Increased energy consumption for both disposer use and WWTP aeration 

APPLICATION
 To make poultry food.
 Food for fisheries.
 Food for dairy.
 To make food for the birds.
 To make food for other types of animals.

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6. CONCLUSION
Different types of animals can be fed.
With the help this machine maximum utilization of food waste can be achieved.
It can handle any type of food waste.
The amount of food waste can be reduced there by reducing the environmental and health risk.

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FUTURE SCOPE
Since the output is a product, young entrepreneurs can start a new business organization,
initially it can be done in small scale later on can be shifted to large scale production.

This machine can be completely automated by using a pneumatic or hydraulic system instead of
screw cylinder and sensors also can be used for automatic movement of conveyor and slicer.

It is possible to start mass production by handling huge quantity of food waste thereby
producing huge quantity of quality food products for animals.

It also helps to start new research on food technology for producing food for all types of animals.

Different types of food can be made and different composition of foods can be prepared

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REFERENCES
ASSE International. June, 2006. “Performance Requirements for Plumbing Aspects
of Residential Food Waste Disposer Units – ASSE Standard #1008.”
Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM). 2009. “Food Waste Disposers.”

Battistoni, Paolo, Francesco Fatone, Daniele Passacantando, and David Bolzonella. Water
Research, 2007. “Application of Food Waste Disposers and Alternate Cycles Process in
Small-Decentralized Towns: A Case Study.”
Bolzonella, David, Paolo Pavan, Paolo Battistoni, and Franco Cecchi. Department of
Science and Technology. University of Verona. 2003. “The Under Sink Garbage Grinder:
A Friendly Technology for the Environment.”
CECED – European Committee of Manufacturers of Domestic Appliances. Spring 2003.
“Food Waste Disposers – An Integral Part of the EU’s Future Waste Management Strategy.”
Clauson-Kaas, Jes and Janus Kirkeby. DANVA, August, 2011. “Food Waste Disposers:
Energy, Environmental and Operational Consequences of Household Residential use.”
CRC for Waste Management and Pollution Control Limited. December, 2000. “Assessment
of Food Disposal Options in Multi-Unit Dwellings in Sydney.”
de Koning, Dr.ir. J. Delft University of Technology. July 2004. “Environmental Aspects of
Food Waste Disposers.”
de Koning, Dr.ir. J. and Prof.ir. J.H.J.M. van der Graaf. Delft University of Technology.
April 1996. “Kitchen Waste Disposer Effects on Sewer System and Wastewater
Treatment.”
Diggelman, Dr. Carol and Dr. Robert K. Ham. Department of Civil and
Environmental Engineering – University of Wisconsin. January 1998. “Life-Cycle
Comparison of Five Engineered Systems for Managing Food Waste.”
DeOreo, William. Aquacraft, Inc. Water Engineering and Management, July 2011.
“California Single-Family Water Use Efficiency Study.”
EPA – US Environmental Protection Agency. June, 2013. “Advancing Sustainable
Materials Management: 2013 Fact Sheet.
Evans, Tim. June, 2007. “Environmental Impact Study of Food Waste Disposers."

Shri Saibaba Institute of Engineering Research And Allied Sciences B.E. (Mechanical)
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Evans, Tim, Per Andersson, Asa Wievegg, and Inge Carlsson. Water and Environment
Journal, 2010. “Surahammar: A Case Study of the Impacts of Installing Food Waste
Disposers in 50% of Households.”

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