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Green vehicle

A green vehicle, or clean vehicle, or eco-friendly vehicle or environmentally friendly vehicle is a road motor vehicle that produces less harmful
impacts to the environment than comparable conventional internal combustion engine vehicles running on gasoline or diesel, or one that uses certain
alternative fuels.[3][4][5] Presently, in some countries the term is used for any vehicle complying or surpassing the more stringent European emission
standards (such as Euro6), or California's zero-emissions vehicle standards (such as ZEV, ULEV, SULEV, PZEV), or the low-carbon fuel standards enacted in
several countries.[6]

Green vehicles can be powered by alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies and include hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,
battery electric vehicles, compressed-air vehicles, hydrogen and fuel-cell vehicles, neat ethanol vehicles, flexible-fuel vehicles, natural gas vehicles, clean
diesel vehicles, and some sources also include vehicles using blends of biodiesel and ethanol fuel or gasohol.[4][7] In November 2016, with an EPA-rated fuel
economy of 136 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpg-e) (1.7 L/100 km), the 2017 Hyundai Ioniq Electric became the most efficient EPA-certified vehicle The Toyota Prius is the world's top selling
considering all fuels and of all years, surpassing the 2014-2016 model year all-electric BMW i3.[8][9] hybrid electric vehicle, with global sales of
3.7 million units through April 2016.[1] Some
Several author also include conventional motor vehicles with high fuel economy, as they consider that increasing fuel economy is the most cost-effective way owners use its identity to make an
to improve energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions in the transport sector in the short run.[10] As part of their contribution to sustainable transport, environmental statement.[2]
these vehicles reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and contribute to energy independence by reducing oil imports.[4][10]

An environmental analysis extends beyond just the operating efficiency and emissions. A life-cycle assessment involves production and post-use considerations. A cradle-to-cradle design is more important than
a focus on a single factor such as energy efficiency.[11][12]

Energy efficiency
Electric and fuel cell-powered
Hybrid electric vehicles
Compressed air cars, stirling vehicles, and others
Improving conventional cars
Electric Motor and Pedal Powered Vehicles
Animal powered vehicles
Human powered vehicles
Benefits of green vehicle use
National and international promotion
European Union
United States
Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize
Green car rankings
Electric vehicle motor shows
See also
Notes and references
Further reading
External links

Energy efficiency
Cars with similar production of energy costs can obtain, during the life of the car (operational phase), large reductions in energy costs through several measures:

The most significant is by using alternative propulsion:

An efficient engine that reduces the vehicle's consumption of petroleum (i.e. petroleum electric hybrid vehicle), or that uses renewable energy sources throughout its working life.
Using biofuels instead of petroleum fuels.
Proper maintenance of a vehicle such as engine tune-ups, oil changes, and maintaining proper tire pressure can also help.
Removing unnecessary items from a vehicle reduces weight and improves fuel economy as well.

Comparison of several types of green car basic characteristics

(Values are overall for vehicles in current production and may differ between types)
Type of vehicle/ Fuel economy Production cost Reduction in CO2
Range Payback period
powertrain (mpg equivalent) for given range compared to conventional
Conventional ICE 10–78 Low 0% -
(400–600 mi)
Biodiesel 18–71 Low varies depending on biodiesel source[13] -
(360–540 mi)
(73–150 mi) High
varies depending
All-electric 54–118 Luxury models -
on energy source
Medium Very high
(160–300 mi)

Hydrogen fuel cell 80[14] Astronomical

Hybrid electric 30–60 380 mi[14] Medium 5 years[15][16]

Green vehicles include vehicles types that function fully or partly on alternative energy sources other than fossil fuel or less carbon
intensive than gasoline or diesel.

Another option is the use of alternative fuel composition in conventional fossil fuel-based vehicles, making them function partially on
renewable energy sources. Other approaches include personal rapid transit, a public transportation concept that offers automated, on-
demand, non-stop transportation on a network of specially built guideways.

Electric and fuel cell-powered

Examples of vehicles with reduced petroleum consumption include electric cars, plug-in hybrids and fuel cell-powered hydrogen cars.

Electric cars are typically more efficient than fuel cell-powered vehicles on a Tank-to-wheel basis.[17] They have better fuel economy than Comparison of energy efficiency between battery and hydrogen
conventional internal combustion engine vehicles but are hampered by range or maximum distance attainable before discharging the fuel-cell cars

battery. The electric car batteries are their main cost. They provide a 0%[18] to 99.9% reduction in CO2 emissions compared to an ICE
(gasoline, diesel) vehicle, depending on the source of electricity.[19]

Hybrid electric vehicles

Hybrid cars may be partly fossil fuel (or biofuel) powered and partly electric or hydrogen-powered. Most combine an internal combustion engine with an electric
engine, though other variations too exist. The internal combustion engine is often either a gasoline or Diesel engine (in rare cases a Stirling engine may even be
used[20]). They are more expensive to purchase but cost redemption is achieved in a period of about 5 years due to better fuel economy.[15][16]

Compressed air cars, stirling vehicles, and others

Compressed air cars, stirling-powered vehicles, Liquid nitrogen vehicles are even less polluting than electrical vehicles, as the vehicle and its components can be made
more environmentally friendly.

Solar car races are held on a regular basis in order to promote green vehicles and other "green technology". These sleek driver-only vehicles can travel long distances at Sales of both the Chevrolet Volt
highway speeds using only the electricity generated instantaneously from the sun. plug-in hybrid (top) and the Nissan
Leaf all-electric car (bottom) began
in December 2010.
Improving conventional cars
A conventional vehicle can become a greener vehicle by mixing in renewable fuels or using less carbon intensive fossil fuel. Typical gasoline-powered cars can tolerate
up to 10% ethanol. Brazil manufactured cars that run on neat ethanol, though there were discontinued. Another available option is a flexible-fuel vehicle which allows
any blend of gasoline and ethanol, up to 85% in North America and Europe, and up to 100% in Brazil.[21] Another existing option is to convert a conventional gasoline-
powered to allow the alternative use of CNG. Pakistan, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, India, Italy, and China have the largest fleets of natural gas vehicles in the world.[22]

Diesel-powered vehicles can often transition completely to biodiesel, though the fuel is a very strong solvent, which can occasionally damage rubber seals in vehicles
built before 1994. More commonly, however, biodiesel causes problems simply because it removes all of the built-up residue in an engine, clogging filters, unless care is
taken when switching from dirty fossil-fuel derived diesel to bio-diesel. It is very effective at 'de-coking' the diesel engines combustion chambers and keeping them
clean. Biodiesel is the lowest emission fuel available for diesel engines. Diesel engines are the most efficient car internal combustion engines. Biodiesel is the only fuel PSA Peugeot Citroën Hybrid Air
allowed in some North American national parks because spillages will completely bio-degrade within 21 days. Biodiesel and vegetable oil fuelled, diesel engined concept exhibited at the 2013
Geneva Motor Show
vehicles have been declared amongst the greenest in the US Tour de Sol competition.

This presents problems, as biofuels can use food resources in order to provide mechanical energy for vehicles. Many experts point to this as a reason for growing food
prices, particularly US Bio-ethanol fuel production which has affected maize prices. In order to have a low environmental impact, biofuels should be made only from
waste products, or from new sources like algae.

Electric Motor and Pedal Powered Vehicles

Multiple companies are offering and developing two, three, and four wheel vehicles combining the characteristics of a bicycle with electric motors. US Federal, State
and Local laws do not clearly nor consistently classify[23] these vehicles as bicycles, electric bicycles, motorcycles, electric motorcycles, mopeds, Neighborhood Electric
Vehicle, motorised quadricycle or as a car. Some laws have limits on top speeds, power of the motors, range, etc. while others do not.[24][25][26][27]
The Fiat Siena Tetrafuel 1.4 is a
multifuel car designed to run as a
flex-fuel on gasoline, or E20–E25
Other blend, or neat ethanol (E100); or to
run as a bi-fuel with natural gas
Public transportation vehicles are not usually included in the green vehicle category, but Personal rapid transit (PRT) vehicles probably should be. All vehicles that
are powered from the track have the advantage of potentially being able to use any source of electric energy, including sustainable ones, rather than requiring (CNG).
liquid fuels. They can also switch regenerative braking energy between vehicles and the electric grid rather than requiring energy storage on the vehicles. Also,
they can potentially use the entire track area for solar collectors, not just the vehicle surface. The potential PRT energy efficiency is much higher than that which
traditional automobiles can attain.
Solar vehicles are electric vehicles powered by solar energy obtained from solar panels on the surface (generally, the roof) of the vehicle. Photovoltaic (PV) cells
convert the Sun's energy directly into electrical energy. Solar vehicles are not practical day-to-day transportation devices at present, but are primarily
demonstration vehicles and engineering exercises, often sponsored by government agencies. However, some cities have begun offering solar-powered buses,
including the Tindo in Adelaide, Australia.
Wind-powered electric vehicles primarily use wind-turbines installed at a strategic point of the vehicle, which are then converted into electric energy which causes
the vehicle to propel.

Animal powered vehicles

Solar vehicle
Horse and carriage are just one type of animal propelled vehicle. Once a common form of transportation, they became far less common as cities grew and automobiles
took their place. In dense cities, the waste produced by large numbers of transportation animals was a significant health problem. Oftentimes the food is produced for
them using diesel powered tractors, and thus there is some environmental impact as a result of their use.

Human powered vehicles

Human powered transport includes walking, bicycles, velomobiles, row boats, and other environmentally friendly ways of getting around. In addition to the health
benefits of the exercise provided, they are far more environmentally friendly than most other options. The only downside is the speed limitations, and how far one can
travel before getting exhausted.

Benefits of green vehicle use

Vehicle emissions contribute to the increasing concentration of gases linked to climate change.[28] In order of significance, the principal greenhouse gases associated Vélo'v bicycle sharing system in
with road transport are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).[29] Road transport is the third largest source of greenhouse gases emitted in the Lyon, France
UK, and accounts for over 20% of total emissions,[30] and 33% in the United States.[31] Of the total greenhouse gas emissions from transport, over 85% are due to CO2
emissions from road vehicles. The transport sector is the fastest growing source of greenhouse gases.[32]

Vehicle pollutants have been linked to human ill health including the incidence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer. A 1998 report estimated that up to 24,000 people die prematurely
each year in the UK as a direct result of air pollution.[33] According to the World Health Organization, up to 13,000 deaths per year among children (aged 0–4 years) across Europe are directly attributable to
outdoor pollution. The organization estimates that if pollution levels were returned to within EU limits, more than 5,000 of these lives could be saved each year.

Hybrid taxi fleet operators in New York have also reported that reduced fuel consumption saves them thousands of dollars per year.[34]

A study by CNW Marketing Research suggested that the extra energy cost of manufacture, shipping, disposal, and the short lives of some of these types of vehicle (particularly gas-electric hybrid vehicles)
outweighs any energy savings made by their using less petroleum during their useful lifespan.[35] This type of argument is the long smokestack argument.[36] Critics of the report note that the study prorated all
of Toyota's hybrid research-and-development costs across the relatively small number of Priuses on the road, rather than using the incremental cost of building a vehicle; used109,000 miles (175,000 km) for the
length of life of a Prius (Toyota offers a 150,000-mile (240,000 km) warranty on the Prius' hybrid components, including the battery), and calculated that a majority of a car's cradle-to-grave energy gets
expended during the vehicle's production, not while it is driven.[37] Norwegian Consumer Ombudsman official Bente Øverli stated that "Cars cannot do anything good for the environment except less damage
than others." Based on this opinion, Norwegian law severely restricts the use of "greenwashing" to market automobiles, strongly prohibiting advertising a vehicle as being environmentally friendly, with large
fines issued to violators.[38][39][40][41]
Some studies try to compare environmental impact of electric and petrol vehicles over complete life cycle, including production, operation, and dismantling. [42] [43] [44] [45] In general, results differ vastly
dependent on the region considered, due to difference in energy sources to produce electricity that fuels electric vehicles. When considering only CO2 emissions, it is noted that production of electric cars
generate about twice as much emissions as that of internal combustion cars.[42] However, emissions of CO2 during operation are much larger (on average) than during production. For electric cars, emissions
caused during operation depend on energy sources used to produce electricity and thus vary a lot geographically. Studies suggest that when taking into account both production and operation, electric cars would
cause more emissions in economies where production of electricity is not clean, e.g., it is mostly coal based.[44][43]. For this reason, some studies found that driving electric cars is less environmentally damaging
in western US states than in eastern ones, where less electricity is produced using cleaner sources. Similarly, in countries like India, Australia or China, where large portion of electricity is produced by using coal,
driving electric vehicles would cause larger environmental damage than driving petrol vehicles. When justifying use of electric cars over petrol cars, these kinds of studies do not provide sufficiently clear results.
Environmental impact is calculated based on fuel mix used to produce electricity that powers electric cars. However, when a gas vehicle is replaced by an equivalent electric vehicle, additional power must be
installed in electrical grid. This additional capacity would normally not be based on the same ratios of energy sources ("clean" versus fossil fuels) than the current capacity. Only when additional electricity
production capacity installed to switch from petrol to electric vehicles would predominantly consist of clean sources, switch to electric vehicles could reduce environmental damage. Another common problem in
methodology used in comparative studies is that it only focuses on specific kinds of environmental impact. While some studies focus only on emission of gas pollutants over life cycle or only on greenhouse gas
emissions such as CO2, comparison should also account for other environmental impacts such as pollutants released otherwise during production and operation or ingredients that can not be effectively
recycled.[46] Examples include use of lighter high performing metals, lithium batteries and more rare metals in electric cars, which all have high environmental impact.

A study that also looked at factors other than energy consumption and carbon emissions has suggested that there is no such thing as an environmentally friendly car.[47]

The use of vehicles with increased fuel efficiency is usually considered positive in the short term but criticism of any hydrocarbon-based personal transport remains. The Jevons paradox suggests that energy
efficiency programs are often counter-productive, even increasing energy consumption in the long run.[48] Many environmental researchers believe that sustainable transport may require a move away from
hydrocarbon fuels and from our present automobile and highway paradigm.[49][50][51]

National and international promotion

European Union
The European Union is promoting the marketing of greener cars via a combination of binding and non-binding measures.[52] As of April 2010, 15 of the 27 member states of the European Union provide tax
incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles and some alternative fuel vehicles, which includes all Western European countries except Italy and Luxembourg, plus the Czech Republic and Romania. The
incentives consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of electric cars, plug-in hybrids, hybrid electric vehicles and natural gas vehicles.[53][54]

United States
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is promoting the marketing of greener cars via the SmartWay program. The SmartWay and SmartWay Elite designation mean that a vehicle is a better
environmental performer relative to other vehicles. This US EPA designation is arrived at by taking into account a vehicle's Air Pollution Score and Greenhouse Gas Score. Higher Air Pollution Scores indicate
vehicles that emit lower amounts of pollutants that cause smog relative to other vehicles. Higher Greenhouse Gas Scores indicate vehicles that emit lower amounts of carbon dioxide and have improved fuel
economy relative to other vehicles.

To earn the SmartWay designation, a vehicle must earn at least a 6 on the Air Pollution Score and at least a 6 on the Greenhouse Gas Score, but have a combined score of at least 13. SmartWay Elite is given to
those vehicles that score 9 or better on both the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Scores.

A Green Vehicle Marketing Alliance, in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ONRL), periodically meets, and coordinates marketing efforts.[55]

Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize

The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE (PIAXP) is a set of competitions, programs and events, from the X PRIZE Foundation to "inspire a new generation of super-efficient vehicles that help break
America's addiction to oil and stem the effects of climate change."[56] Progressive Insurance is the title sponsor of the prize, the centerpiece of which is the Competition Division, within which a $10 million purse
will be divided between the winners of three competitions.
The essence of each competition is to design, build and race super-efficient vehicles that will achieve 100 MPGe (2.35 liter/100 kilometer) and can be produced for the mass market.[57] Within the Competition
Division, there are two vehicle classes: Mainstream and Alternative. The mainstream class has a prize of $5 million. The alternate class has 2 separate prizes of $2.5 million, one for side-by-side seating and one
for tandem seating.[58]

Some of the competitors, such as Aptera and Tesla, are already taking deposits for 'green' vehicles from customers.

Green car rankings

Several automobile magazines, motor vehicle specialized publications and environmental groups publish annual rankings or listings of the best green cars of a given
year. The following table presents a selection of the annual top pickings.

Hyundai Ioniq Electric

BMW i3 electric car

Toyota Prius Eco (4th gen)

Selected annual rankings of green cars
Year Type of Combined City Highway
model vehicle/fuel mileage mileage mileage
(mpg) (mpg) (mpg)

Most efficient EPA-certified vehicles based on combined MPG rating[8][9][59][60]

Hyundai Ioniq Electric— All years, all fuels 2017 Electric car 136 mpg-e 150 mpg-e 122 mpg-e
BMW i3— All years, all fuels 2014/16 Electric car 124 mpg-e 137 mpg-e 111 mpg-e
Chevrolet Bolt EV
BMW i3 REx — Current year, gasoline fuel 2014/16 Plug-in hybrid 88 mpg-e 97 mpg-e 79 mpg-e
Toyota Prius Eco — All years, gasoline fuel 2016 Hybrid electric 56 58 53
Green Car Journal — Green Car of the Year

Chevrolet Bolt EV — 2017 Award[61] 2017 Electric car 119 mpg-e 128 mpg-e 110 mpg-e

Gas equivalent Gasoline

All-electric range
Chevrolet Volt (second generation) — 2016 Award[62][63] 2016 Plug-in hybrid All-electric mode only mode
106 mpg-e 42 mpg 53 mi
Chevrolet Volt (2nd gen.) plug-in
BMW i3 — 2015 Award[64] 2014 Electric car 124 mpg-e 137 mpg-e 111 mpg-e hybrid

Honda Accord ninth generation line-up Gasoline

2014 hybrid and plug-in mim 29 mpg, hybrid 47 mpg, plug-in 115 mpg-e[66]
— 2014 Award[65]
Gasoline, EcoBoost,
Ford Fusion 2nd gen line-up — 2013 Award[67] 2013 hybrid and plug-in mim 34 mpg, hybrid 47 mpg, plug-in 100 mpg-e

Honda Civic GX — 2012 Award[68] 2012 Natural gas 28 24 36

Gas equivalent Gasoline

All-electric range
Chevrolet Volt — 2011 Award[69][70][71] 2011 Plug-in hybrid All-electric mode only mode
93 mpg-e 37 mpg 35 mi
Chevrolet Volt (1st gen) plug-in
Green Car Journal — Green Car Vision Award hybrid
Gas equivalent Gasoline
All-electric range
Ford C-Max Energi — 2012 Award[72] 2013 Plug-in hybrid All-electric mode only mode
100 mpg-e 43 mpg 20 mi
Gasoline equivalent
All-electric range
Ford Focus Electric — 2011 Award[73] 2012 Electric car fuel economy
105 mpg-e 100 mi
Gasoline equivalent
All-electric range
Nissan Leaf — 2010 Award[74][75] 2011 Electric car fuel economy
Nissan Leaf electric car
99 mpg-e 73 mi
Gas equivalent Gasoline
All-electric range
Chevrolet Volt — 2009 Award[70][71][76] 2011 Plug-in hybrid All-electric mode only mode
93 mpg-e 37 mpg 35 mi
World Car of the Year — World Green Car

Toyota Mirai — 2016 Award[77] 2016 Hydrogen fuel cell 66 mpg-e 66 mpg-e 66 mpg-e

BMW i8 — 2015 Award[78][79] 2015 Plug-in hybrid Gas equivalent Gasoline All-electric range
All-electric mode only mode
76 mpg-e 28 mpg 15 mi
Gasoline equivalent
All-electric range
BMW i3 — 2014 Award[80] 2014 Electric car fuel economy
124 mpg-e 81 mi
Gasoline equivalent
Electric car All-electric range
Tesla Model S — 2013 Award[81] 2013 fuel economy
(60/85 kWh battery)
95/89 mpg-e 208/265 mi
Mercedes-Benz S 250 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Toyota Mirai hydrogen fuel cell car
2012 Clean diesel 5.7 l/100 km (50 mpg‑imp; 41 mpg‑US)
— 2012 Award[81]
Gas equivalent Gasoline
All-electric range
Chevrolet Volt — 2011 Award[82] 2011 Plug-in hybrid All-electric mode only mode
93 mpg-e 37 mpg 35 mi

Volkswagen BlueMotion — 2010 Award[83] 2010 Clean diesel n.a. n.a. n.a.
(Golf, Passat, Polo)

Honda FCX Clarity — 2009 Award[84] 2009 Hydrogen fuel cell 59 mpg-e 58 mpg-e 60 mpg-e
(miles per kilogram of hydrogen) Mitsubishi i-MiEV electric car
Consumer Reports Top Picks: Green Car Category
Gasoline equivalent
Electric car All-electric range
Tesla Model S — Best overall model 2014[85] 2014 fuel economy
(60/85 kWh battery)
95/89 mpg-e 208/265 mi

Toyota Prius — Best green car 2014[85] 2014 Hybrid electric 50 51 48

Toyota Prius — Best green car 2013[86] 2013 Hybrid electric 50 51 48

Toyota Prius — Best green car 2012[87] 2012 Hybrid electric 50 51 48

Toyota Prius — Best green car 2011[88] 2011 Hybrid electric 50 51 48 Ford Focus Electric
Toyota Prius — Best green car 2010[89] 2010 Hybrid electric 50 51 48

Toyota Prius — Best green car 2009[90] 2009 Hybrid electric 46 48 45

Consumer Reports American Top Picks: Green Car Category

Ford Fusion Hybrid — Top Pick 2011[91] 2011 Hybrid electric 39 41 36

Ford Fusion Hybrid — Top Pick 2010[92] 2010 Hybrid electric 39 41 36

Ford Escape Hybrid — Top Pick 2009[93] 2009 Hybrid electric 32 34 31

What Car? Green Awards

BMW 320d Efficient Dynamics — Overall Winner Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid
2012 Clean diesel UK combined 56 mpg‑imp (5.0 L/100 km; 47 mpg‑US)[94]
EC combined 235.4 mpg‑imp (1.200 L/100 km;
Vauxhall Ampera — Overall Winner 2011[95] 2012 Plug-in hybrid
196.0 mpg‑US)[96]

Toyota Auris Hybrid — Overall Winner 2010[97] 2010 Hybrid electric UK combined 74 mpg‑imp (3.8 L/100 km; 62 mpg‑US)[97]

Volvo S40 1.6D DRIVe S — Overall Winner 2009[98] 2009 Clean diesel UK combined 60 mpg‑imp (4.7 L/100 km; 50 mpg‑US)[99]

Ford Focus 1.6 TDCi Style — Overall Winner 2008[100] 2008 Clean diesel UK combined 52 mpg‑imp (5.4 L/100 km; 43 mpg‑US)[101]

Mother Earth News Best Green Cars

Best Green Cars of 2011[102]
Gas equivalent Gasoline
All-electric range
Chevrolet Volt 2011 Plug-in hybrid All-electric mode only mode
93 mpg-e 37 mpg 35 mi
Gasoline equivalent
All-electric range
Nissan Leaf 2011 Electric car fuel economy
99 mpg-e 73 mi
Toyota Prius 2011 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
Ford Fiesta 2011 Gasoline 33 29 38 Tesla Model S electric car

Honda CR-Z CVT 2011 Hybrid electric 37 35 39

VW Jetta TDI 2011 Clean diesel 34 30 42

Best Green Cars of 2010[103]

Ford Fusion Hybrid 2010 Hybrid electric 39 41 36
Honda Civic Hybrid 2010 Hybrid electric 42 40 45
Honda Insight 2010 Hybrid electric 41 40 43 BMW i8 plug-in hybrid

Toyota Prius 2010 Hybrid electric 50 51 48

VW Golf TDI 2010 Clean diesel 34 30 42
VW Jetta TDI 2010 Clean diesel 41 40 43
American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Greenest Vehicles of the Year

Greenest Vehicles of 2012 (Top 5)[104]

Mitsubishi i-MiEV 2012 Electric car 112 mpg-e 3.8 mile/Kwh 2.9 mile/Kwh
Ford Fusion Energi plug-in hybrid
Honda Civic GX 2012 Natural gas - 27mpg-e 38 mpg-e
Nissan Leaf 2012 Electric car 99 mpg-e 3.1 mile/Kwh 2.7 mile/Kwh
Toyota Prius 2012 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
Honda Insight 2012 Hybrid electric 42 41 44

Greenest Vehicles of 2011 (Top 5)[105][106]

Honda Civic GX 2011 Natural gas 28 24 36
Nissan Leaf 2011 Electric car 99 mpg-e 3.15 mile/Kwh 2.72 mile/Kwh
Honda Accord plug-in hybrid
Smart fortwo (Cabriolet/Coupe) 2011 Gasoline 36 33 41
Toyota Prius 2011 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
Honda Civic Hybrid 2011 Hybrid electric 41 40 43

Greenest Vehicles of 2010 (Top 5)[107]

Honda Civic GX 2010 Natural gas 28 24 36
Toyota Prius 2010 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
Honda Civic Hybrid 2010 Hybrid electric 42 40 45 Honda FCX Clarity hydrogen fuel
Smart fortwo (Convertible/coupe) 2010 Gasoline 36 33 41 cell car

Honda Insight 2010 Hybrid electric 41 40 43

Kelley Blue Book Top 10 Green Cars
Top 10 Green Cars of 2014 (Top 5)[108]
Gasoline equivalent
All-electric range
BMW i3 2014 Electric car fuel economy
124 mpg-e 81 mi
Gasoline equivalent
All-electric range
Nissan Leaf 2014 Electric car fuel economy
99 mpg-e 73 mi
Toyota Prius (3rd gen)
Toyota Prius 2014 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
Gasoline equivalent
Electric car All-electric range
Tesla Model S 2014 fuel economy
(60/85 kWh battery)
95/89 mpg-e 208/265 mi
Honda Accord Hybrid 2014 Hybrid electric 47 50 45

Top 10 Green Cars of 2011 (Top 3)[109][110]

Gasoline equivalent
All-electric range
Nissan Leaf 2011 Electric car fuel economy
99 mpg-e 73 mi Honda Civic Hybrid (2nd gen)

Gasoline equivalent
All-electric range
Chevrolet Volt 2011 Plug-in hybrid fuel economy
93 mpg-e 35 mi
Toyota Prius 2011 Hybrid electric 50 51 48

Top 10 Green Cars of 2010 (Top 3)[111][112]

Toyota Prius 2010 Hybrid electric 50 51 48
Honda Insight 2010 Hybrid electric 41 40 43
Ford Fusion Hybrid 2010 Hybrid electric 39 41 36 Ford Fusion Hybrid (1st gen)

Electric vehicle motor shows

Dedicated electric and green vehicle motor shows:

Alternative Vehicle and Fuel Show (AVFS), Fair of Valladolid, Spain, in November.[113]
Green Fleet Expo, Royal Botanical Gardens (Ontario), in May.[114]
Green-Car-Guide Live!, Arena and Convention Centre in Liverpool, in June[115]
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology Expo, (Sindelfingen, Germany, April / Novi, Detroit, Michigan, September). [2] (
Honda Insight (2nd gen)
European Electric Motor Show, Helsinki Exhibition & Convention Centre, in November[116][117][118]

See also
Alternative fuel vehicle Hybrid taxis
Alternatives to the automobile Union of Concerned Scientists' Hybrid Scorecard
Better Place Low-carbon emissions
Emerging technologies - e.g. new green vehicle methods Low-carbon fuel standard
Green tuning Miles per gallon gasoline equivalent
Green Challenge Motorised quadricycle
Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles Plug-in electric vehicles
Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize Zero-emissions vehicle

Notes and references

1. Millikin, Mike. "Worldwide sales of Toyota hybrids surpass 9 million units; 13. van Renssen, Sonja (2011). "A biofuel conundrum" (
Prius family accounts for 63%" ( F/vanRenssen2011ABiofuelConundrum.pdf) (PDF). Nature Climate Change.
0160520-tmc.html). Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2016-05-22. The Prius 1, November 2011 (8): 389–390. doi:10.1038/nclimate1265 (
family accounts for 63% of Toyota's total global cumulative hybrid car sales: 0.1038%2Fnclimate1265).
5.691 million units, consisting of Prius liftback: 3.733 million; Aqua, Prius c: 14. S&TR ( Honda Civic GX
1.249 million; Prius α, Prius v, Prius +: 0.634 million; Prius PHV: 75,000.
15. "Consumer Reports Revises Financial Analysis In Report on Ownership
2. Maynard, Micheline (2007-07-04). "Say 'Hybrid' and Many People Will Hear Costs for Hybrid Cars" (
'Prius' " (
New York Times. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 604ehv.htm). Consumer Reports. Consumers Union. 7 March 2006. Archived
3. R.I.C. Publications (2005). Rainforests ( from the original (
EN5EcC&pg=PA67&dq=%22Green+vehicle%22). p. 67. ISBN 978-1-74126- om/archive/2006/04/eng0604ehv.htm) on 2007-09-21. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
330-5. 16. "The dollars & sense of hybrid cars" (
4. "Green Vehicle Guide" ( s/new-cars/high-cost-of-hybrid-vehicles-406/overview/index.htm).
ehicle_guide). Green Student U. Retrieved 2010-04-24. 17. "Energy efficiency comparison article" (
5. Staff. "The Environmentally Friendly Car" ( 073730/
he-environmentally-friendly-car/). Cheap Car Insurance. Retrieved (PDF). Archived from the original (
2016-12-03. wentyfirstcenturycar.pdf) (PDF) on 2009-10-14. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
6. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organisation for 18.
Economic Co-operation and Development. Working Group on Low-Emission"eg India, China, Australia"
Vehicles (2004). Can cars come clean? ( 19. "Alternate Fuel Technology - Battery Electric Vehicles" (http://www.asecert.or
DzLz5wC&pg=PA84&dq=%22Green+vehicle%22+lev#PPA84,M1). OECD g/Template.cfm?Section=Clean_Fuels_Clean_Vehicle_Technology1&Templat
Publishing. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-92-64-10495-2. e=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentFileID=609). (245 KB)
7. "Alternative and Advanced Vehicles" ( 20. Precer's BioRacer Stirling engine-electric hybrid (
s/index.html). Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center, U.S. nology.html)
Department of Energy. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
21. "Dual Fuel Cars Revive Brazil's Alcohol Industry" (
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Further reading
Leitman, Seth; Brant, Bob (October 2008). Build Your Own Electric Vehicle, 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc. ISBN 978-0-07-154373-6.
Tobin Smith; Jim Woods; Liz Claman (2008). "Waving the Green Flag, Clean Transportation" (,M1). Billion Dollar
Green. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 35–46. ISBN 978-0-470-34377-7.
DFE2008 Automobile Engines, Wikiversity

External links
2013 VehicleTechnologies Market Report (, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicle Data Center (
AU Green Vehicle Guide (
Clean Car Calculator ( (Institute for Energy Efficiency)
Clean Cities - 2014 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), U.S. Department of Energy, Clean Cities program.
December 2013.
Cradle-to-Grave Lifecycle Analysis of U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle-Fuel Pathways: A Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Assessment of Current (2015) and Future (2025-2030) Technologies (https://gree (includes estimated cost of avoided GHG emissions from different AFV technologies), Argonne National Laboratory, June 2016.
Earth cars (
EPA Green Vehicle Guide (
Green Cars ( (Autocar)
Green Car Center ( (Yahoo)
Green Car Guide (
Infographic: Green Cars 101 (2011) (
Green cars and eco driving (
Green Progress (
Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide (, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, April 2014.
Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE homepage (
Small Efficient Vehicles Wiki: People's Car Project (
State of Charge: Electric Vehicles’ Global Warming Emissions and Fuel-Cost Savings across the United States (
ns-report.pdf) (UCS)
Top Ten EPA-Rated Fuel Sippers (2016) - including BEVs and PHEVs (
UCS Hybrid Scorecard ( (Union of Concerned Scientists)

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