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TABLE OF CONTENT

TABLE OF CONTENT.............................................................................. i

TABLE OF FIGURE.................................................................................. ii

ABSTRACT............................................................................................... iii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION............................................................. 1

1.1 Background.............................................................................. 1
1.2 Problems Formulation.............................................................. 2
1.3 Purpose Of The Paper.............................................................. 2

CHAPTER II THEORITICAL REVIEW.............................................. 3

2.1 Definition of Water Pollution……………………………….... 3


2.2 Sources of Water Pollution......................................................... 3
2.3 Various Categories of Water Pollution...................................... 5
2.4 Effect of Water Pollution........................................................... 6
2.5 Indicator of Water Pollution…................................................... 8
2.6 Factor Causes of Water Pollution….......................................... 10
2.7 Efforts to Prevent and Overcome Water Pollution Problems..... 13

CHAPTER III REMARK……................................................................. 17

3.1 Conclusions………………........................................................ 17
3.2 Suggestion……………………….............................................. 17

REFERENCES………………………........................................................ 18

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TABLE OF FIGURE

Fig. 1. Point source of polluted water in Gargas, France............................. 4

Fig. 2. Nonpoint sediment from unprotected farmland flows into streams and
sometimes changes their courses or dams them up...................................... 4

Fig. 3. Banks of waste or spoils created by area strip mining of coal on an


unrestored, mostly flat area near Mulla, Colorado (USA)………………… 11

Fig. 4. This Hawaiian monk seal was slowly starving to death before this
discarded piece of plastic was removed from its snout................................. 12

Fig. 5. Lists ways to prevent and clean up groundwater contamination….... 14

Fig. 6. Septic tank system used for disposal of domestic sewage and wastewater in
rural and suburban areas............................................................................... 15

Fig. 7. Methods for preventing and reducing water pollution...................... 16

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ABSTRACT

Water becomes a vital necessity for all living things, but human behavior tends to
be dominant in causing environmental damage in terms of water pollution. Water
pollution causes illness and death in humans and other species and disrupts
ecosystems. The chief sources of water pollution are agricultural activities,
industrial facilities, and mining, but growth in population and resource use makes
it increasingly worse. Chemicals used in agriculture, industry, transportation, and
homes can spill and leak into groundwater and make it undrinkable. There are
simple ways and complex ways to purify drinking water, but protecting it through
pollution prevention is the least expensive and most effective strategy. Reducing
water pollution requires preventing it, working with nature to treat sewage, cutting
resource use and waste, reducing poverty, and slowing population growth.
Key Words: Water Pollution, Point Sources, Non-point Sources, Human
Activities

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background
Water becomes a vital necessity for all living things. All organisms need
water to survive because water is the main component in the body of a living
thing. Living things can last longer without eating, but will not be able to
survive without water. Humans and other living things need water in every
day. Water is used for various activities in human life, such as for drinking,
bathing, washing clothes and dishes, watering plants, and the other activities.
As intelligent and thinking creatures, humans can easily utilize and manage
water through the exploitation of science and technology that is growing so
that human behavior can determine the quality of water.
As a result of the rapidly growing technology that continues to be
developed by humans, human culture over time also changes. Man becomes
oblivious to his duty in managing and preserving the environment. Humans
now have increasingly changing traits and behaviors that tend to lead to
environmental damage. Environmental damage that occurs can be caused by
two factors, that is nature and human behavior. However, human behavior
tends to be dominant in causing environmental damage in terms of water
pollution.
Water-induced water pollution occurs as a result of its activity. Water is
to be contaminated if it is inserted or possessed of contaminated material that
may cause disruption to living things in the environment. Pollution that occurs
there are immediately visible impact also accumulated in advance until at
some later time have an impact on the life of living things in the environment.
One of the most visible impacts is the decrease of water quality over time,
while the human need especially for water is higher.
In Indonesia, there are not few water sources such as polluted rivers that
the quality of water becomes decreased. The rate of need and the availability
of clean water become the opposite. It is necessary to prevent and mitigate

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environmental pollution not to exacerbate the impact of the pollution itself. Of
course, the need for awareness of human beings as living beings who are
endowed with the mind and mind to handle the problem of water pollution
because the need for water is very high. In this paper will be discussed about
the types of water pollution, causes and effects of water pollution, water
pollution indicators and prevention and mitigation efforts.

1.2. Outline of Problem


Based on the background, the problems discussed can be formulated as
follows.
1.2.1. What is the source of water pollution?
1.2.2. What causes harmful water pollution?
1.2.3. What can we do to overcome water pollution?

1.3. Purposes
Based on the problems, the goals that discussed can be formulated as
follows.
1.3.1. To know the source of air pollution
1.3.2. To know about causes harmful air pollution
1.3.3. To know how to cope with the air pollution

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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1. Definition of Water Pollution

Water pollution is any chemical, biological, or physical change in


water quality that harms living organisms or makes water unsuitable for
desired uses (Miller & Spoolman, 2009:532). In Act Number 23 Year 1997 on
Environmental Management and Government Regulation RI Number 82 Year
2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control reffered to
as Water Pollution is entry or inclusion of living things, substances, energi
and/or other components into the water by human activities, resulting in water
quality down to a certain level cause water can not function accordingly by
designation. From the definition implied that water pollution can occur
intentionally or unintetionally from human activity on a waters which
designation is clear (Herlambang, 2006).

2.2. Sources of Water Pollution


Water pollution can come from single (point) sources, or from larger
and dispersed (nonpoint) sources. Point sources discharge pollutants at
specific locations through drain pipes, ditches, or sewer lines into bodies of
surface water. Examples include factories, sewage treatment plants (which
remove some, but not all, pollutants), underground mines, and oil tankers.
Because point sources are located at specific places, they are fairly easy to
identify, monitor, and regulate. Most developed countries have laws that help
to control point-source discharges of harmful chemicals into aquatic systems.
In most developing countries, there is little control of such discharges (Miller
& Spoolman, 2009:532).

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Figure 1. Point source of polluted water in Gargas, France (Miller & Spoolman, 2009)

Nonpoint sources are broad, and diffuse areas, rather than points, from
which pollutants enter bodies of surface water or air. Examples include runoff
of chemicals and sediments from cropland, livestock feedlots, logged forests,
urban streets, parking lots, lawns, and golf courses. We have made little
progress in controlling water pollution from nonpoint sources because of the
difficulty and expense of identifying and controlling discharges from so many
diffuse sources (Miller & Spoolman, 2009:532-533).

Figure 2. Nonpoint sediment from unprotected farmland flows into streams and
sometimes changes their courses or dams them up (Miller & Spoolman, 2009).

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2.3. Various Categories of Water Pollution

Most types of water pollution only affect the intermediate area but
sometimes the pollution can travel hundreds or thousands or miles and then i
tis called transboundary pollution. Hearn, (2010) concluded these different
types of water pollution come from varied sources: surface water,
groundwater, microbiological, oxygen depletion, nutrient, suspended matter,
and chemical.

1. Surface Water Pollution

Surface water pollution is the most visible form of pollution and we can
see it floating on our waters in lakes, streams, and oceans. Trash from human
consumption, such as water bottles, plastics and other waste products, is most
often evident on water surfaces. This type of pollution also comes from oil
spills and gasoline waste, which float on the surface and affect the water and
its inhabitants. Water contaminants from fracking include a range of toxic
chemicals, methane, benzene, and radiation.

2. Groudwater Pollution
This type of pollution is becoming more and more relevant because it
affects our drinking water and the aquifers below the soil. Groundwater
pollution is usually caused by highly toxic chemicals and pesticides from
farming that leak through the ground to contaminate the wells and aquifers
below the surface.
3. Microbial Pollution

Microbiological pollution is the natural form of water pollution that is


caused by microorganisms in uncured water. Most of these organisms are
harmless but some bacteria, viruses, and protozoa can cause serious diseases
such as cholera and typhoid. This is a significant problem for people in third
world countries who have no clean drinking water and/or facilities to cure the
water.

4. Oxygen Depletion Pollution

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Microorganisms that thrive in water feed on biodegradable substances.
When there is an influx of biodegradable material from such things as waste
or erosion from farming, the numbers of these microorganisms increase and
utilize the obtainable oxygen. When these oxygen levels are depleted,
harmless aerobic microorganisms die and anaerobic microorganisms thrive.
Some of these organisms produce damaging toxins like sulfide and ammonia.

5. Nutrient Pollution

Nutrients are usually found in waste water and fertilizers. These can
cause excess vegetation in the water such as algae and weeds, using up the
oxygen in the water and hurting the surrounding marine life and other
organisms in the water.

6. Suspended Matter Pollution

This type of pollution occurs when pollutants enter the water and do not
mix in with the water molecules. These suspended particles form fine silt on
the waterbed, harming the marine life by taking away the nutrients and
disturbing their habitat.

7. Chemical Pollution

Due to the nature of industry these days and the mass production in
industrial plants and farms, we have a lot of chemical run-off that flows into
the nearby rivers and water sources. Metals and solvents flow out of factories
and into the water, polluting the water and harming the wildlife. Pesticides
from farms are like poison to the wildlife in the water and kill and endanger
the aquatic life.

If birds or humans eat these infected fish, the toxins are transferred to us
and we swallow these dangerous pesticides and toxins, affecting our health.
Petroleum is a different type of chemical pollutant that dramatically affects
the aquatic life. This oil kills the fish and marine life and sticks to the feathers
of birds, causing them to lose their ability to fly.

2.4. Effect of Water Pollution

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Water pollution causes illness and death in humans and other species
and disrupts ecosystems. One of the major water pollution problems
people face is exposure to infectious disease organisms (pathogens) mostly
through contaminated drinking water. Scientists have identified more than
500 types of disease-causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can be
transferred into water from the wastes of humans and animals (Miller &
Spollman, 2009:533).
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3.2 million
people—most of them children younger than age 5—die prematurely
every year from infectious diseases that they get by drinking contaminated
water or by not having enough clean water for adequate hygiene. This
amounts to an average of almost 8,700 premature deaths a day. The WHO
also estimates that about 1.2 billion people—one of every six in the
world—have no access to clean drinking water. Each year, diarrhea alone
kills about 1.9 million people—about 90% of them children under age 5—
in developing countries. This means that diarrhea, caused mostly by
exposure to polluted water, on average, kills a young child every 18
seconds (Miller & Spoolman, 2009:533).
Table 1. Lists the major types of water pollutants along with examples of each and their
harmful effects and sources.

Sources: Miller & Spoolman (2009:534)

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Table 2. List some common disease that can be transmitted to human through drinking water
contaminated with infectious agents.

Sources: Miller & Spoolman (2009:534)


2.5. Indicators of Water Pollution
An indicator or sign that the environmental water has been polluted is a
change or observable marks that can be classified as:
1. Physical observation, is observation of water pollution by level water
clarity (turbidity), changes in temperature, color and changes color, smell
and taste.
2. Chemical observation, that is observation of water contamination based on
substance dissolved chemistry, pH change.
3. Biological observation, is observation of water contamination based on
microorganisms present in water, especially the presence or absence of
pathogenic bacteria.

The commonly known indicator on the water pollution examination is


pH or concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen (Dissolved Oxygen,
DO), oxygen demand biochemistry (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD) and
chemical oxygen demand (Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD) (Warlina,
2004:5-6).
1. pH or Hydrogen Ion Concentration

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The normal water that qualifies for a life has a pH of about 6.5 to 7.5.
Water will be acidic or alkaline depending on the size of pH. When the pH is
below the normal pH, then the water is acidic, while water having a pH above
the normal pH is alkaline. Waste water and industrial waste will change the
pH of water that will eventually disrupt the life of aquatic biota. At pH <4,
most water plants die because they can not tolerate low pH. However there is
a type of algae that is Chlamydomonas acidophila able to survive at pH = 1
and algae Euglena at pH 1.6 (Warlina, 2004: 6-7).
According Kale (2016), factors that affect pH levels that is:
1. Acidic rainfall
2. Level of hard- water minerals
3. Releases from industrial processes
4. Release of detergents into water
5. Carbonic acid from decomposition
6. Oxidation of sulphides in sediments (acidic)

2. Dissolved Oxygen (DO)


The level dissolved oxygen in water is one of the most importants
parameter in determining its quality, because it indirectly indicates whether
there is some kind of pollution. Common processes that pollute surface
waters include the discharger of organic matter derived from municipal
sewage or industrial wastes, and runoff from agricultural lots and livestock
feedlots. In addition, the release of warm or hot discharges from industrial
cooling towers induces what is known as thermal pollution. Such discharges
directly affect the level of dissolved oxygen in water bodies, which is crucial
for the survival of aerobic organism and aquatic fauna such as fish; in fact
excessive pollution has caused massive fish deaths. In the long run, the
discharges of organics or of nutrients favor the accelerated euthropication or
productivity process with algal blooms. As a concequence, there will be a
lowering of the dissolved oxygen content (or DO level) and the “death” of the
aquatic system (Ibanez, dkk., 2008).
3. Biological oxygen demand (BOD)

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Biological oxygen demand (BOD) defined as the amount of oxygen
needed by the organism at the breakdown of organic matter, under aerobic
conditions. The breakdown of organic matter means that this organic material
is used by organisms as food and energy obtained from the oxidation process.
BOD determination is very important to track pollution flow from upstream
to estuary level. Indeed, the determination of BOD is a bioassay procedure
concerning the measurement of the amount of oxygen used by the organism
as long as the organism describes the organic material present in a waters,
under conditions similar to those in nature. During BOD examination, the
samples examined should be free from outside air to prevent contamination of
the oxygen present in the free air. Concentration of waste water / sample it
must also be at a certain level of pollution, this is to keep dissolved oxygen at
all times during the examination. This is important considering the solubility
of oxygen in the water is limited and only about ± 9 ppm at 20 ° C (Salmin,
2005: 24).
2.6. Factor Causes of Water Pollution

There are some causes of water pollution that are from agricultural
activities, industrial facilities, and mining, sewage and waste water, marine
dumping, accidental oil leakage, burning of fossil fuels, leakage from sewer
lines, global warming.

1. Agricultural activities are by far the leading cause of water pollution.


Sediment eroded from agricultural lands is the largest source. Other
major agricultural pollutants include fertilizers and pesticides, bacteria
from livestock and food processing wastes, and excess salt from soils
of irrigated cropland (Miller & Spoolman, 2009:355). Chemical
fertilizers and pesticides are used by farmers to protect crops from
insects and bacteria. They are useful for the plants growth. However,
when these chemicals are mixed up with water produce harmful for
plants and animals. Also, when it rains, the chemicals mixes up with
rainwater and flow down into rivers and canals which pose serious
damages for aquatic animals (Conserve Energy Future, 2009).

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2. Industrial facilities, which emit a variety of harmful inorganic and
organic chemicals, are a second major source of water pollution
(Miller & Spoolman, 2009:355). Industries produce huge amount of
waste which contains toxic chemicals and pollutants which can
cause air pollution and damage to us and our environment. They
contain pollutants such as lead, mercury, sulphur, asbestos, nitrates and
many other harmful chemicals. Many industries do not have proper
waste management system and drain the waste in the fresh water which
goes into rivers, canals and later in to sea. The toxic chemicals have
the capability to change the color of water, increase the amount of
minerals, also known as Eutrophication, change the temperature of
water and pose serious hazard to water organisms (Conserve Energy
Future, 2009).

Figure 3. banks of waste or spoils created by area strip mining of coal on an


unrestored, mostly flat area near Mulla, Colorado (USA) (Miller & Spoolman, 2009)

3. Mining is the third biggest source. Surface mining disturbs the land,
creating major erosion of sediments and runoff of toxic chemicals. The
environmental impacts from mining an ore are affected by its
persentage of metal content, or grade. The more accessible and higher-
grade ores are usually exploited first. As they are depleted, mining
lower-grade ores take more money, energi, water, and other materials
and increases land distruption, mining waste, and pollution (Miller &
Spoolman, 2009:355).

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4. Sewage and waste water, the sewage and waste water that is
produced by each household is chemically treated and released in to
sea with fresh water. The sewage water carries harmful bacteria and
chemicals that can cause serious health problems. Pathogens are
known as a common water pollutant; The sewers of cities house
several pathogens and thereby diseases. Microorganisms in water are
known to be causes of some very deadly diseases and become the
breeding grounds for other creatures that act like carriers. These
carriers inflict these diseases via various forms of contact onto an
individual. A very common example of this process would be Malaria
(Conserve Energy Future, 2009).
5. Marine dumping, the garbage produce by each household in the form
of paper, aluminium, rubber, glass, plastic, food if collected and
deposited into the sea in some countries. These items take from 2
weeks to 200 years to decompose. When such items enters the sea,
they not only cause water pollution but also harm animals in the sea
(Conserve Energy Future, 2009).

Figure 4. This Hawaiian monk seal was slowly starving to death before this
discarded piece of plastic was removed from its snout (Miller & Spollman, 2009)

6. Accidental Oil leakage, oil spill pose a huge concern as large amount
of oil enters into the sea and does not dissolve with water; there by

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opens problem for local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea
otters. For e.g.: a ship carrying large quantity of oil may spill oil if met
with an accident and can cause varying damage to species in the ocean
depending on the quantity of oil spill, size of ocean, toxicity of
pollutant (Conserve Energy Future, 2009).
7. Burning of fossil fuels, fossil fuels like coal and oil when burnt
produce substantial amount of ash in the atmosphere. The particles
which contain toxic chemicals when mixed with water vapor result in
acid rain. Also, carbon dioxide is released from burning of fossil fuels
which result in global warming (Conserve Energy Future, 2009).
8. Leakage from sewer lines, a small leakage from the sewer lines can
contaminate the underground water and make it unfit for the people to
drink. Also, when not repaired on time, the leaking water can come on
to the surface and become a breeding ground for insects and
mosquitoes (Conserve Energy Future, 2009).
9. Global warming, an increase in earth’s temperature due to greenhouse
effect results in global warming. It increases the water temperature and
result in death of aquatic animals and marine species which later
results in water pollution (Conserve Energy Future, 2009).

2.7. Efforts to Prevent and Overcome Water Pollution Problems


2.7.1. Pollution Prevention Is the Only Effective Way to Protect
Groundwater
Treating a contaminated aquifer involves eliminating the
source of pollution and drilling monitoring wells to determine
how far, in what direction, and how fast the contaminated plume
is moving. Then a computer model is used to project future
dispersion of the contaminant in the aquifer. The final step is to
develop and implement a strategy to clean up the contamination.
Pumping polluted groundwater to the surface, cleaning it up, and
returning it to the aquifer is very expensive. Because of the
difficulty and expense of cleaning up a contaminated aquifer,

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preventing contamination is the least expensive and most
effective way to protect groundwater resources (Miller &
Spoolman, 2009:544).

Figure 5. Lists ways to prevent and clean up groundwater


contamination (Miller & Spollman, 2009:545)
2.7.2. Protecting Watersheds Instead of Building Water Purification
Plants
Several major U.S. cities have avoided building expensive
water treatment facilities by investing in protection of the forests
and wetlands in the watersheds that provide their water. Examples
are New York City, N.Y; Boston, Massachusetts; Seattle,
Washington; and Portland, Oregon (Miller & Spoolman,
2009:546).
2.7.3. Using Laws to Protect Drinking Water Quality
About 54 countries, most of them in North America and
Europe, have standards for safe drinking water. The U.S. Safe
Drinking Water Act of 1974 requires the EPA to establish national
drinking water standards, called maximum contaminant levels, for
any pollutants that may have adverse effects on human health. But

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such laws do not exist or are not enforced in most developing
countries (Miller & Spoolman, 2009:546)
2.7.4. Sewage Treatment Reduces Water Pollution
In rural and suburban areas with suitable soils, sewage from
each house usually is discharged into a septic tank with a large
drainage field. In this system, household sewage and wastewater is
pumped into a settling tank, where grease and oil rise to the top and
solids fall to the bottom and are decomposed by bacteria. The
resulting partially treated wastewater is discharged in a large
drainage (absorption) field through small holes in perforated pipes
embedded in porous gravel or crushed stone just below the soil’s
surface. As these wastes drain from the pipes and percolate
downward, the soil filters out some potential pollutants and soil
bacteria decompose biodegradable materials (Miller & Spoolman,
2009:553).

Figure 6. septic tank system used for disposal of domestic


sewage and wastewater in rural and suburban areas.

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2.7.5. Sustainable Ways to Reduce and Prevent Water Pollution

Figure 7. Methods for preventing and


reducing water pollution (Miller &
Spoolman, 2009:557)

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CHAPTER III
REMARK
3.1. Conclusions
3.1.1. Water pollution can come from single (point) sources, or from
larger and dispersed (nonpoint) sources.
3.1.2. There are some causes of water pollution that are from
agricultural activities, industrial facilities, and mining, sewage
and waste water, marine dumping, accidental oil leakage,
burning of fossil fuels, leakage from sewer lines, global
warming.
3.1.3. Methods for preventing and reducing water pollution that are
Prevent groundwater contamination, reduce nonpoint runoff,
reuse treated wastewater for irrigation, find substitutes for toxic
pollutants, work with nature to treat sewage, practice the three
R's of resource use (reduce, reuse, recycle), reduce air pollution,
reduce poverty, slow population growth.
3.2. Suggestion
3.2.1. We should better understand the understanding of Water
Pollution
3.2.2. We should understand what are the Water Pollution
3.2.3. We should better understand the importance of maintaining
environmental sustainability
3.2.4. We should know how to maintain the environment

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REFERENCES

Conserve Energy Future. 2009. Sources and Causes of Water Pollution, (Online),
(https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/sources-and-causes-of-water-
pollution.php), diakses 24 Maret 2018.

Miller, G. Tyler & Scoot Spoolman. 2009. Living in the Environment: Concepts,
Connections, and Solutions, 16e. USA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

Ibanez , Jorge G. 2008. Environmental Chemistry. New York: Springer


Science+Business Media.
Salmin, 2005. Oksigen Terlarut (DO) dan Kebutuhan Oksigen Biologi (BOD)
Sebagai Salah Satu Indikator Untuk Menentukan Kualitas Perairan, 30 (3).
(Online), (http://adesuherman09.student.ipb.ac.id), diakses 4 Februari 2018.
Warlina, Lina. 2004. Pencemaran Air: Sumber, Dampak dan
Penanggulangannya, (Online), (http://www.rudyct.com), diakses 4 Februari
2018.
Hearn, Merlin. 2010. 7 Basic of Water Pollution, (Online),
(http://www.waterbenefitshealth.com), diakses 4 Februari 2018.

Herlambang, Arie. 2006. Pencemaran Air dan Strategi Penanggulangannya, 2


(1). (Online), (https://www.researchgate.net), diakses 4 Februari 2018.

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