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CHAPTER 7

STRAIN MEASUREMENT

describing the elastic curve for a buckling of

7.2 Euler’s column theory: point's ended columns

7.3 Types of end condition

compressive stress induced is

σ= P/A, where P is the compressive force and A is the cross sectional area of the

column.

If the force or load is gradually increased, the column will reach a stage, when it will

be subjected to the ultimate crushing stress. Beyond this stage, the column will fail by

crushing. The load corresponding to the crushing stress is called as Crushing load.

Long columns will have buckling load and short columns will have crushing load.

It is defined as the ratio of equivalent length of column to the least radius of gyration.

It has no units.

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Euler’s formula cannot be used in the case of short column, because the direct stress

is considerable and cannot be neglected.

Assumptions:

1. Initially the column is perfectly straight and the load applied is truly axial.

2. The cross section of the column is uniform throughout its length.

3. The column material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous and isotropic and

obeys Hooke’s law.

4. The length of column is very large when compared to cross sectional

dimensions.

5. The shortening of column, due to direct compression is neglected.

6. The failure of the column occurs due to buckling alone.

Sign conventions:

1. A moment, which tends to bend the column with convexity towards its initial

central line as shown in fig (a) is taken as positive.

2. A moment, which tends to bend the column with concavity towards its initial

central line as shown in fig (b) is taken as negative.

These four types of end conditions are important from subject point of view.

2. Both ends are fixed.

3. One end is fixed and other is hinged.

4. One end is fixed and other is free.

and carrying a critical load at B. As a result of loading, let the

column deflect in to a curved form AX1B as shown in the fig.

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

and carrying a critical load at B. As a result of loading, let

the column deflect in to a curved form AX1B1 as shown in

the fig.

and carrying a critical load at B. As a result of loading, the

column deflects as shown in the fig.

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

and carrying a critical load at B. As a result of loading, the

column deflects as shown in the fig.

Euler’s formula cannot be used in the case of short column, because the direct stress

is considerable and cannot be neglected.

Problem 1:

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Problem 2:

Problem 3:

5 MIME 3130 Mechanics of Materials

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Problem 4:

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Problem 5:

[Department of Engineering ] [Mechanical section]

Sources:

1) Text Books

E J Hearn. (1997).Mechanics of Material 1, Third Edition: Butterworth

Heinemann, A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing

Ltd., Oxford.

2) Reference Books

1. William F.Riley / Leroy D. Sturges / Don H.Morris. (2002).Statics and

Mechanics of Materials: An Integrated Approach, Second Edition, John

Wiley & Sons, INC.

2. R.C.Hibbeler, Mechanics of Materials, Ninth Edition:Pearson.

3. Ferdinand Beer , E Russell Johnston Jr, John T DeWolf: Mechanics of

Material(2004),Tata McGraw Hill third Edition.

3) Websites

1. www.wikipedia.com

2. www. howstuffworks .com

3. www.nptel.ac.in.

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