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CHAPTER 10 : Groundwater Development the 30% of the 2.

5% of the important to develop


freshwater of the world groundwater sources sustainably,
so that the groundwater resource
Groundwater in the Philippines
is protected and maintained for
- In the Philippines, Groundwater future supplies.
contributes 14% of the total
Aquifer
water resource potential of the
Philippines. Region X (Northern - An aquifer is an underground
Mindanao) has the lowest layer of water-bearing permeable
potential source of groundwater, rock, rock fractures or
while Regions I (Ilocos Region) unconsolidated materials (gravel,
and VII (Central Visayas) have the sand, or silt). Groundwater can
highest potential. (source: be extracted using a water well.
Philippine Environment Monitor - 2 types of aquifers; Unconfined,
Groundwater 2003) are aquifers that are more nearer
- Based on the water rights granted to the water table, and Confined,
- Groundwater is the water by the National Water Resources are aquifers that are overlain by a
present beneath Earth's surface Board (NWRB) since 2002, 49 confining layer (Aquitard), often
in soil pore spaces and in the percent of groundwater is made up of clay.
fractures of rock formations. consumed by the domestic
- Groundwater is also often Stages in Groundwater Exploration
sector, and the remaining shared
withdrawn for agricultural, Program
by agriculture (32 percent),
municipal, and industrial use by industry (15 percent), and other - Project Management
constructing and operating sectors (4 percent). - Siting Boreholes
extraction wells. - Reconnaissance
- Groundwater is often cheaper, Groundwater Development
- Hydrogeological Fieldwork
more convenient and less - Developing groundwater for - Geophysical Surveying
vulnerable to pollution than water supply can involve various - Borehole Drilling
surface water. Therefore, it is different activities, depending on - Drilling Supervision
commonly used for public water the hydrogeological - Collecting information
supplies. environment, how much during drilling
- In the Water Distribution of the groundwater is needed and what - Designing & Constructing
World Groundwater contributes it will be used for. It is usually also Water Points
- Borehole testing Disadvantages of Using Groundwater
- Assessing Source Yield Supply
- Assessing Water Quality
- Surface Subsidence
Groundwater Source - If pollutants penetrates the
aquifer it has a long residence
- Springs
time
- Hand-dug wells
- Not all Groundwater are always
- Boreholes
suitable for drinking
- Collector Wells
- Infiltration Gallery How to Maintain Groundwater Supply
- Qanats
- Avoid multiple pumping wells
- Artesian Well
that can cause interference
Advantages of Using Groundwater between cones of depression
Supply - Recharge zones should be
protected
- Rocks act as a natural filter
- Ensure adequate water
- No loss of water through
flow
evaporation
- Ensure quality
- Pumping cost low
- Many watershed management
- Ground water generally does not
actions are taken to protect
get polluted, if it is away (at least
quality
20 mtr.) from the sanitary works.
The water gets filtered while
percolating through sand &
stones. Therefore groundwater
remains pure and clean.
- Temperature of deep water
remains stable. It feels cool in
summer and warm in winter.