You are on page 1of 32

Revealing Hydrocarbon Potential in a Tight Sand Reservoir

A Case Study of the Baturaja Sands in Sumpal Field, South Sumatra Basin
Budi R Permana
Yan Darmadi
Irvan Rahmawan
Torang Siagian

IPA18-318-G

42nd IPA Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2018

May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

2 May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

3 May 7, 2018
Introduction

• Sumpal Field is located 145 NW of


Palembang

• Discovered in 1995
Sumpal Field
• 7 wells of exploration and appraisal
wells drilled

• 3 Current producers from the fractured


Pre-Tertiary rocks

• Indication of hydrocarbons in BRF


section in many of the exploration and
development wells

• Only one non-producing well not P&A


(Sumpal 2)

• Subsurface re-evaluation done to


determine potential in shallow section

4 May 7, 2018
BRF Opportunity Identification

• Potential HC bearing interval is located in the


siliciclastic section BRF

• Interval is identified by higher total gas reading


(typically 10X the background)

• BRF Details for Sumpal 2


• 8 meters thick
• Difficult to determine sand from shale on GR
due to presence of Kaolinite
• Low resistivity contrast between zones with
gas shows and no gas shows
• Neutron-Density crossover helpful for
determining sand vs. shale

• Key Questions – How extensive, how well


connected, what is the reservoir quality and HC
Pre-Tertiary Basement phase, if any, in this interval.

5 May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

6 May 7, 2018
Distribution of the BRF Sandstone
A B
RAYUN-2 SUMPAL-4 TETANGGA-1 SUMPAL-5 NORTH SUMPAL-1 SUMPAL-3
SUMPAL-2
Gross 8 m
Net 5 m

• Logs show this sand to be thin, but laterally extensive


• Average gross=11 m, net= 7 m A
• There is stratigraphic variability in thickness and complete pinch-
out to the southeast Rayun-2

• Wells which encountered net sand recorded elevated mud gas


North Sumpal-1
Sumpal-4

Tetangga-1 Sumpal-5
Sumpal-2 B
0 5 Km
Sumpal-3

4
Comparison of BRF Sandstone to the Producing PRT
A B

BRF Sand Reservoir


LKH

Fracture Basement Gas Reservoir

Estimated GWC

Sumpal BRF sand is a small reservoir compare to Sumpal Fracture Basement


Rayun-2
A
North Sumpal-1
Sumpal-4

Tetangga-1 Sumpal-5
Sumpal-2

0 5 Km
Sumpal-3

8 May 7, 2018
Challenges of Characterizing the BRF Opportunity

Technical Challenges:
• Reservoir distribution between the wells.

• Reservoir properties (porosity, permeability, Sw) ( no cores are available ).

• Reservoir fluid.

• Reservoir pressure.

Non-Technical Challenges:
• Not economic to develop?

9 May 7, 2018
Baturaja Sandstone

Classification of Benthonic marine Environment (adapted from Hedgpeth 1957, Murray 1973, Berggren 1978 and Ingle 1980)

• The age is Lower Miocene (equivalent with BRF Limestone


Formation)
• Sandstone that has been deposited outer neritic to bathyal
(Tetangga-1 Biostratigraphy). The sand could be deposited as
shelf bars or sheet sand

Sumpal Stratigraphic
Column
(before 2017)

Modified from Steel and Miliken, 2013

10 May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

11 May 7, 2018
Pay Identification and Fluid Determination

• The presence of reservoir rock which is defined primarily by the Neutron-


Density and resistivity and gas log shows an anomaly that exhibits
hydrocarbon pay.

• In this well there are 2 zones with pay, an upper and lower interval.

• Fluid in the interval was determined using Gadkari and Chauvin (2001)
method. This indicates an oil bearing reservoir.
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

13 May 7, 2018
Sand Distribution (1) – Seismic Data

3D Seismic Survey

2D Seismic Survey

The area of Sumpal BRF sand was


covered by two 3D seismic survey and
some 2D seismic lines

14 May 7, 2018
Sand Distribution (2) – Seismic Cross Section

• Moderate to good quality seismic data


at the BRF level.

• Base of BRF sand produces seismic


event.

• Due to thin sand, a forward model was


built to determine if seismic data could
resolve BRF sand distribution.

15 May 7, 2018
Sand Distribution (3) – Seismic Forward Modelling
• For 75 meter thick sand, the reservoir
can be clearly resolved.

• For 38 meter thick sand, only the top


and base of the sand can be resolved.

• The thickest BRF from the wells is 18


meters (Sumpal 4)

• Current seismic data cannot be used to


delineate sand distribution.

• Sand distribution model in Sumpal


Shallow is only based on well data and
conceptual model

Apparent thickness

Amplitude at top reflector

16 May 7, 2018
Sand Distribution (4) – Net Sand Maps

A B

• Several stratigraphical scenarios were established due to an absence of seismic control

• Two examples are representing:

• Wide spread sand distribution (A) (amalgamated bar to Sheet-like associated with outer shelf)

• Shelf bars (B)

17 May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

18 May 7, 2018
Pressure Prediction

• Reservoir pressure prediction came from pore-pressure calculation


after Sumpal-2 well drilling.

• Based on pore-pressure calculation, BRF sand zone is over


pressured (11.5 ppg).

• There is an uncertainty due to lack of pressure data acquisition at


the shallow zone.
19 May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

20 May 7, 2018
Permeability Prediction

Higher Resistivity than Density-Neutron logs High gas reading with total gas
Suban Baru indicate good quality >2000 unit across the sand
reservoir

• There is no analog of producing reservoir for BRF sand in Corridor Block.

• The nearest analog is Suban Baru (Telisa Formation) that having permeability ~ 1 mD

• Log Comparison between Sumpal-2 (right) versus Suban Baru-A1. This comparison shows that Sumpal BRF sand
probably has better reservoir properties rather than Suban Baru. Actually the reservoir quality of the Telisa looks
better on a purely porosity basis but the N/D cross-over is more encouraging in the Sumpal.

• Base case permeability for modeling was 4 mD.

21 May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

22 May 7, 2018
Well Testing Purpose and Results

• All build up trends from monitoring data is


below the low case test design (4 mD).

• After the second fluid breakdown, the


wellhead pressure was build up to 500 psi
within 30 hrs, this possibly due to improved
connectivity and/or near wellbore is still
pressurized by mini-frac fluid.

• Based on the build up trend, the BRF


reservoir in the Sumpal field is interpreted to
low permeability.

• Reservoir pressure from PTA gave


permeability range 0.2-0.5 mD

• Reservoir pressure is about 2565 psi

23 May 7, 2018
SGS Results

• After the first and second clean up, SGS was carried out twice

• Both result shows the average gradient is ≥ 0.43 psi/ft which mean wellbore is full of water/completion fluid.

24 May 7, 2018
Proven Hydrocarbons in BRF
• Well testing was stopped with discouraging result (no
hydrocarbon ?)

• Field engineer noticed increasing annulus pressure, and


bleeding off the valve.

• The fluid has oil odor and brought the sample to the
lab.

• 40o API oil was taken from this well test, and proving
the reservoir fluid is oil, corresponding to the gas log
analysis

25 May 7, 2018
Updated Stratigraphic Column Post Test

Sumpal Stratigraphic Sumpal Stratigraphic


Column Column
(before 2017) (after 2017)

26 May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

27 May 7, 2018
Discussion and Tenacity to Explore

• South Sumatra Basin Corridor Block has been explored and exploited since Dutch era. At that time,
only the shallow oil reservoirs were discovered and produced such as Suban Burung Field in
Palembang Formation.

• During 70’s until 90’s deeper reservoirs were discovered and produced from Baturaja Limestone,
Talang Akar sandstone Formation, and Pre-Tertiary Fracture Basement Formation.

• The next potential of hydrocarbon resources in this block are the Lower Palembang, Telisa, and
Baturaja Sand Formations. These reservoirs are challenging to identify since they are thin and typically
are not fully logged or cored.

• Mud log gas data can be very helpful at identifying this potential and in the case of Sumpal Shallow,
correctly identified the hydrocarbon presence and type in this reservoir.

• These reservoirs are more economically challenging to develop since they are low permeability and
therefore need a different development methodology than previously produced reservoirs.

28 May 7, 2018
Presentation Outline

• Introduction
• Opportunity Identification
• Key Questions
• Baturaja Sandstone
• Distribution in the wells
• Relative size to PRT
• Challenges of characterizing the potential
• Pay Identification and Fluid determination
• Sand Distribution in the field
• Pressure Prediction
• Permeability Prediction
• Well Testing and Result
• Discussion and Tenacity to Explore
• Conclusion

29 May 7, 2018
Conclusion

• Well testing of this interval proved that it is oil bearing but also that it is extremely tight.

• Through detailed log analysis, the Sumpal upper section interval (BRF Sand) was identified as
reservoir section with the potential oil accumulation.

• The challenge for the future is to identify and commercialize the reservoirs which have been
bypassed. In Sumpal field, the Sumpal upper section reservoir (BRF sand) is one such example.

• In order to develop this reservoir and others like it in the basin, horizontal multi-stage frac wells will
need to be employed to produce these types of reservoirs.

30 May 7, 2018
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to acknowledge:

Special recognition to:


• Rama Gholib for his eagerness to find the oil of Sumpal BRF sand.
• Simon Paulus, Dedi Fauzi, Eben Subakti, William Beveridge, and Mark Boyd.
31 May 7, 2018
https://conocophillips.academia.edu/BudiPermana

32 May 7, 2018