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PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY-1

PROJECT ON:

DESIGNING A CONTINUAL FLOW WATER HEATER USING


DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

BY:

Manisha Rath 116CH0015


Gaurav Maurya 116CH0088
Zakiya Ali 116CH0094
Tulasi Meher 116CH0107
Arnab Nayak 116CH0111
ABSTRACT

Water heater refers to any system which is used to heat water. Water heaters are often used
during the winters, specifically in the households for cooking, cleaning, bathing, and space
heating. In industry, hot water and water heated to steam have many uses. For domestic
purposes, water is traditionally heated in vessels known as water heaters, kettles, cauldrons,
pots, or coppers. These metal vessels that heat a batch of water do not produce a continual
supply of heated water at a preset temperature. In this paper, the design and operation of a
double pipe heat exchanger has been studied along with its use as a continual supply water
heater.
HEAT EXCHANGER

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids. In other
words, heat exchangers are used in both cooling and heating processes. The fluids may
be separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact.

Heat exchangers are designed to maximize the surface area of the wall between the two
fluids, while minimizing resistance to fluid flow through the exchanger. The
exchanger's performance is also affected by the addition of fins or corrugations in one
or both directions, which increase surface area and may channel fluid flow or induce
turbulence.

Figure: Heat Exchanger


APPLICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

APPLICATIONS:
They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations,
chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing, and
sewage treatment.

CLASSIFICATION:
Heat exchanger can be classified on the basis of flow pattern of fluids and transfer type.

On the basis of flow patterns heat exchangers are classified as follows:


•Parallel Flow
•Counter Flow
•Cross Flow

On the basis of transfer type of heat exchanger they are classified as follows:
•Indirect Contact Type
>Direct Transfer Type
>Storage Type
•Direct Contact Type
CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF FLOW PATTERN OF
FLUIDS

Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger :


In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end,
and travel in parallel to one another to the other side.

Counter Flow Heat Exchanger :


In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends. The
counter current design is the most efficient one as the heat transferred per unit mass
along any unit length is higher.

Cross Flow Heat Exchanger :


In a cross-flow heat exchanger, the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another
through the exchanger.
PARALLEL FLOW COUNTER FLOW

CROSS FLOW
CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF TRANSFER
TYPE
Direct Transfer Type Heat Exchanger:
In this type of heat exchanger, heat transfers continuously from the hot fluid to the cold
fluid through a dividing wall. Although a simultaneous flow of two (or more) fluids is
required in the exchanger, there is no direct mixing of the two (or more) fluids because
each fluid flows in separate fluid passages

This can be further classified into Tubular Type Heat Exchanger ( Double Pipe / Shell
and Tube type Heat Exchanger ); Plate Type Heat Exchanger and Extended Surface Heat
Exchanger

Storage Type:
In a storage type exchanger, both fluids flow alternatively through the same flow
passages, and hence heat transfer is intermittent. The heat transfer surface (or flow
passages) is generally cellular in structure and is referred to as a matrix, or it is a
permeable (porous) solid material, referred to as a packed bed. Thus, heat is not
transferred continuously through the wall as in a direct-transfer type exchanger
(recuperator), but the corresponding thermal energy is alternately stored and released by
the matrix wall.
Direct Contact Type:

In a direct-contact exchanger, two fluid streams come into direct contact, exchange
heat, and are then separated. Common applications of a direct-contact exchanger
involve mass transfer in addition to heat transfer, such as in evaporative cooling and
rectification; applications involving only sensible heat transfer are rare. The enthalpy of
phase change in such an exchanger generally represents a significant portion of the total
energy transfer.
OBJECTIVE OF OUR PROJECT

Our objective was to design a double pipe heat exchanger and study its operation. The
experimental results of the designed heat exchanger was compared with the laboratory
heat exchanger. Furthermore, the use of the designed heat exchanger as a continual
supply water heater was studied.

Figure: Heat Exchanger


FLOW DIAGRAM OF OUR PROJECT

Figure : Flow Diagram of our experimental setup


MATERIALS REQUIRED
PROCEDURE

A. DESIGNING THE HEAT EXCHANGER:

• The length of copper pipe was made to 1 meter using cut off saw.
• Two holes of half inch diameter were drilled on diametrically opposite sides of GI pipe
using radial drilling machine.
• Two GI short pieces were welded to the holes.
• Two holes of 0.5 inch diameter were made on the GI plates with dimension more than
1.5inch diameter.
• These plates were brazed and welded to the ends of the GI pipes.
• The copper pipe was then inserted into the GI Pipes via the holes in the GI Plates.
• The two ends of the pipe was attached to the plates via brazing.
• Remaining two GI short pieces were brazed to the copper pipes.
• Tee joints and copper short pieces were fixed on the GI short pieces accordingly. The
seal was made perfect using Teflon tape.
• The exposed surface of heat exchanger was insulated using wool thread and Plaster of
Paris.
• The experimental setup for counter flow was switched ON.
• The heater was switched ON and was set to the desired temperature in DTC.
• After the desired temperature was achieved, pump was switched ON.
• The flow rate of hot water and cold water was adjusted using rotameter.
• After 15 minutes the readings of the temperature sensors were noted down.
• The experiment was repeated for different flow rates of water.
RESULT & DISCUSSION

Δ
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

Heat Transfer Operation by Binay Kumar Dutta


https://www.che.uth.edu>Project_Lab.com
https://www.brighthubengineering.com
Laboratory manual of parallel and counter flow in double pipe heat exchanger
Heat Exchanger –In the making!