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Manufacturing of welded joints with realistic defects

Conference Paper  in  Insight - Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring · May 2011


DOI: 10.1784/insi.2012.54.2.76

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Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6
Genova, 26 e 27 Maggio 2011
Porto Antico di Genova Workshop
Diagnostica e prove non
distruttive

MANUFACTURING OF WELDED JOINTS


WITH REALISTIC DEFECTS

Marcello Consonni - TWI Ltd - Cambridge - UK


Chen Fun Wee - TWI South East Asia - Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia
Charles Schneider - TWI Ltd - Cambridge - UK

ABSTRACT
Intentional weld defect or flaw specimens can be required for
training purposes, developing new non- destructive testing
techniques, qualifying non-destructive testing procedures, obtaining
mechanical property data and in support of safety cases. The single
most important criterion in producing defects or imperfections is that
they must accurately simulate flaws which can occur in welded
components and structures. For this reason, in certain applications,
saw cuts or machined slots which are more easily detected may not
be considered acceptable as planar imperfections/defects for the
purpose of NDT training or validation. Therefore, TWI has
developed techniques for producing realistic imperfections/defects
and, in the case of cracks, the desired morphology, including
roughness, angles of tilt and skew to the surface.

TWI can reliably produce weld specimens with


imperfections/defects such as: lack of root fusion, lack of
penetration, lack of sidewall or interrun fusion, joint misalignment,
porosity, solidification cracking, cluster cracking, heat affected zone
(hydrogen) cracking, undercut, brittle fracture or fatigue cracks,
under or overfill of weld metal, inclusions (slag or metallic). Some of
these are essentially produced by using bad welding practice (lack
of root fusion, porosity, solidification cracks), by welding with
techniques such as TIG bridging to obtain lack of side wall fusion or
by welding under crack promoting conditions.

This paper describes the techniques used to obtain the


abovementioned defects and, for the most commonly required
defect types, the qualification procedure used by TWI. This consists
of inspecting by testing by surface crack detection, ultrasonic or
radiographic inspection and/or sectioning to demonstrate that the
dimensional tolerance of the simulated imperfections (ie actual size
of the imperfection vs required size) can be generally guaranteed
within ±0.5mm in through-wall extent and ±1mm in length.

- Lungobisagno Istria, 15 - 16141 Genova - Tel 010 8341.1 -Fax 010 8367780 - e-
Istituto Italiano della Saldatura
mail iis@iis.it- www.iis.it
2 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 2

1 Background
Intentional weld defect or flaw specimens can be required for non-destructive testing (NDT)
operator training and validation, to develop validated NDT procedures or new NDT techniques, to
obtain mechanical property data and in support of safety cases. The single most important criterion
in producing defects or imperfections is that they must accurately simulate flaws which can occur in
welded components and structures. In particular, when summarising the work carried out within the
PISC project series (Project for the Inspection of Steel Components), Crutzen et al [1] concluded
that the NDT procedure has to be validated and tested on structures containing defects that, not
being necessarily real ones, still do induce the real physical phenomena that the inspection
techniques must be able to handle. Crutzen et al also stated that the use of very artificial
discontinuities (side-drilled holes, SDH or flat-bottomed-holes, FBH) to demonstrate the capabilities
of NDT techniques often results in optimistic statements and hazardous use of the technique on
structures containing real defects. When comparing the use of welded joints with real or artificial
realistic flaws (see definitions in Section 2), Crutzen listed the following advantages for the latter:

- Less expensive and time-consuming fabrication Formatted: Tab stops: 0.63 cm, List
- The possibility of more certain characterisation tab + Not at 1.27 cm
- The provision of non-contaminated assemblies that can be more easily used for
effectiveness assessments
- The consideration of more relevant selections of structural geometry and material

In this same review, facts appearing in favour of the use of artificial crack-like defects for NDT
performance assessment were reported.

For these reasons, in certain applications, saw cuts or machined holes and slots, as well as
structures containing ‘real’ defects, may not be considered acceptable as planar for the purpose of
NDT training or validation. Therefore, TWI has developed techniques for producing realistic
imperfections/defects and, in the case of cracks, the desired morphology, including roughness, and
angles of tilt and skew to the surface.

TWI can reliably produce weld specimens with defects such as: lack of root fusion, lack of
penetration, lack of sidewall or inter-run fusion, joint misalignment, porosity, solidification cracking,
cluster cracking, heat affected zone (hydrogen) cracking, undercut, brittle fracture or fatigue
cracks, under or overfill of weld metal, inclusions (slag or metallic). Some of these are essentially
produced by using bad welding practice (lack of root fusion, porosity, solidification cracks), by
welding with techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG) bridging to obtain lack of side wall fusion
(LOSWF) or by welding under crack promoting conditions.

This paper presents a review of the techniques used to obtain the most commonly required defect
types and the welding qualification procedure used by TWI. This consists of characterising the
defects by surface NDT methods, ultrasonic or radiographic inspection and/or sectioning to
demonstrate that the dimensional tolerance of the realistic defects (ie actual size of the defect vs
required size) can be generally guaranteed within ±0.5mm in through-wall extent and ±1mm in
length.

In addition, a case study is presented in Section 7. This describes a project recently completed
project in which TWI manufactured bespoke non-standard defect specimens for NDT validation
and operator training, developed the NDT technique, prepared the relevant procedures and finally
demonstrated the NDT procedures at the customer’s site.
Formatted: Tab stops: 0.13 cm, List
2 Definitions tab + Not at 0.76 cm
The following definitions were provided by Neundorf et al [2] and are quoted from a glossary by
ENIQ [3] (European Network for Inspection and Qualification):
3 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 3

- Reference reflector: a reference reflector is a reflector in a test block whose response to the Formatted: Tab stops: 0.63 cm, List
NDT technique provides a reference against which other responses can be compared. eg a tab + Not at 1.27 cm
side-drilled hole or a saw or electric discharge machined (EDM) notch whose exact
dimensions are known.

- Real flaw: a flaw which has developed in a component during its manufacture or service Formatted: Tab stops: 0.63 cm, List
without any steps having been taken to deliberately encourage its development. tab + Not at 1.27 cm

- Artificial realistic flaw (also realistic flaw): a flaw deliberately inserted into a test assembly Formatted: Tab stops: 0.63 cm, List
which is intended to produce a response to the NDT method under assessment which tab + Not at 1.27 cm
resembles that of a real flaw.

Formatted: Tab stops: 0.13 cm, List


3 Classification of techniques used to obtain defects tab + Not at 0.76 cm
An ENIQ working document (not available to the author), was quoted by Virkkunen et al [4], which
identifies four main techniques to obtain weld defects. These are listed below and some of their
applications, as available in the public domain, are described in Section 4.

1. Implanted defects: where a pre-existing defect is attached to the test piece. The attachment
usually takes the form of a weld in a machined recess. The technique has the benefits that there is
flexibility in the type of defect that can be included and that the insert can be carefully accessed
prior to insertion. The main disadvantages are that the insertion process may produce artefacts
which either give away the implant’s position or make the inspection response unrealistic in some
way. An example of this latter effect is implants into an austenitic weld where the implant material
will not form a continuous part of the weld and the attachment welds may significantly influence the
performance of the inspection being qualified in an unknown manner.

2. Weld doping or weld modification: where for instance crack prone material is added to a weld to
promote localised weld cracking. Other examples include introduction of porosity or slag. The main
advantage over the previous process is that there are no insert attachment welds. The main
disadvantages are that the final size of the defects and their character would need to be confirmed
by supplementary inspection.

3. Machined defects: where a defect can consist of a cut or machined void. EDM is perhaps the
most relied upon technology in this area where a shaped electrode is used to erode the test piece.
The process is most suitable for production of surface defects, although it is possible to use it in
combination with welding to produce buried defects. The main advantages of this method is that it
tends to be relatively inexpensive, the resulting defect parameters are known to fairly tight
tolerances at fabrication and the parent material is left largely unmodified apart from the presence
of the machined slot. Disadvantages are that it is difficult or impossible to produce any of the
characteristic roughness expected from plant defects and that using standard implantation
techniques, the tip radius is likely to be large compared to many crack species.

4. Grown defects: where cracking is initiated and propagated into test pieces in much the same
way as would occur in plant, simply accelerated to make fabrication times practical. The main
processes used for this class of defect are thermal fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. There are
limitations associated with each growth method, but this option has the advantages of realism and
avoidance of attachment welds. The main disadvantage aside from restrictions in the implant
process is likely to be reliance upon a supplementary inspection to confirm critical flaw parameters.
4 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 4

Formatted: Tab stops: 0.13 cm, List


4 Literature review tab + Not at 0.76 cm

4.1 Implanted defects Formatted: Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List


tab + Not at 1.02 cm
Hook and Booler [5] described the production of defective welds to develop the ultrasonic
inspection procedures for austenitic castings and welds of the primary circuit of the Sizewell B
pressurised water reactor (PWR). In particular, hot tears were made by casting rectangular bars
under severe restraint. These tears were then made into coupons and implanted into a parent cast
test block using the Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) process; the tears were then covered over using a
thin layer of weld metal.

Ammirato et al [6] produced mock-ups of dissimilar metal welds (DMW) typically found in boiling
water reactors (BWR) and PWRs for a research project aimed at improving the examination of
such welds. DMWs are produced to join carbon steel nozzles in the reactor vessel to stainless
steel safe-ends or piping, as well as in many other locations such as the control rod drive
mechanism (CRDM) attachments, the pressuriser surge line, the residual heat-removal system, the
pressuriser and the steam generator. The mock-ups were produced by machining surface notches
in welds simulating the typical nozzle-to-safe-end configuration; notches were oriented in the axial
and circumferential direction, with respect to the component axis. Welding-induced cracks were
also intentionally produced, although no details are provided regarding the method applied.

Formatted: Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List


4.2 Weld modification tab + Not at 1.02 cm
Dianov [7] examined the results of experimental investigations of the distribution of defects with
respect to the defect type in welded joints in thin-wall pipes for high pressure heaters in nuclear
power stations, produced by ‘automatic argon-arc welding‘, ie TIG, and the detectability of these
defects by different non-destructive inspection methods. The purpose of this study was to select
suitable NDT techniques characterised by productivity similar to that of the welding process as well
as acceptable reliability and probability of detection of the different flaw types. To produce defects
in the joints to be inspected, welding was carried out with intentional disruptions of the conditions
set by the welding procedures by increasing the welding speed, reducing the base current,
increasing the distance between the electrode and the work piece, displacing the electrode with
respect to the weld axis and not degreasing the weld edges. This resulted in welds with lack of
fusion (LOF) defects, individual pores, chains, pore clusters, as well as tungsten inclusions.

The abovementioned paper by Hook and Booler [5] describes in detail the manufacture of blocks
containing realistic defects. These were inserted using methods designed to minimise the
disruption of the grain structure in the weld as any disruption would have altered the detectability of
the defects. The lack of side wall fusion defects were inserted using a TIG technique. The
solidification cracks were inserted using poisoned electrodes. Lack of clad bond (ie disbonding)
was made by cladding over a suitable coupon.

Chabenat et al [8] reviewed a series of methods used to produce defects in mock-ups for NDT
qualification and validation for PWR inspection. These are summarised in Table 1 below.
5 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 5

Table 1. Summary of techniques used to produce defects, from Chabenat et al [8].

Defect type Deposition technique Advantages Disadvantages and Formatted Table


limitations
Inclusions and Modifications to the The length and The volume and
porosities welding procedure diameter can be density cannot be
controlled controlled
Lack of fusion and Modifications to the The dimensions can No major limitations
lack of penetration welding procedure be tightly controlled.
Hot cracks Induced hot cracking Heights as small as No major limitations
by modifying the 2mm can be obtained
welding procedure
(shape of weld bead,
welding parameters)
Cold cracks Not available Very tight defects can Orientation and
be obtained ramifications cannot
be controlled

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


4.3 Machined defects Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
Simulated pitting corrosion-like defects were inspected with the shear-wave time of flight diffraction 1.02 cm
technique (S-TOFD) by Baskaran et al [9]. The defects were produced by EDM and fatigue cracks.

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


4.4 Grown defects Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
In order to evaluate the capability to detect intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC), 1.02 cm
Ammirato et al [6] explored the possibility of producing samples containing true IGSCC. According
to the article, preliminary investigations [10] demonstrated the feasibility of producing IGSCC in
Inconel welds by exposing stressed sample to appropriate chemical solutions. The same types of
cracks were considered by Neundorf et al [2] for the calibration of ultrasonic techniques for in-
service inspection of cladding in BWRs, the concern being that the use of reference reflectors for
calibration and qualification of ultrasonic techniques might not be sufficient to detect defects
caused by IGSCC. As components with real IGSCC flaws could not be found in BWRs, the
following techniques had to be developed to obtain realistic IGSCC-type flaws:

- Implantation of a crack from a real component or produced separately (Method 1 above). Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
However, as the depth of such a crack can only be determined by NDT, this method is stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
considered unsafe.

- Production of weld solidification cracks by filling an excavation with filler metal. It is difficult to Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
control the exact size of the cracks, however, very narrow cracks can be obtained and stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
therefore one of the peculiar characteristics of IGSCC is met (Method 2 above).

- Generation of cracks by cyclic thermal and constant mechanical load. To produce such cracks, Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
an excavation is made in the material. A tension bar is welded against one side of the stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
excavation and a mechanical load is applied. The crack is generated in a heating and cooling
process. After the tension bar is removed, the crack faces are pressed against each other and
the excavation is filled by welding.

The latter method was selected as it minimises the influence of the weld material on the NDT
response.

Virkkunen et al [4] developed a defect manufacturing technology based on controlled thermal


fatigue. Virkkunen et al claim that the most significant disadvantages traditionally associated with
6 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 6

realistic, grown defects were overcome by developments in the thermal fatigue crack growth
process. The developed validation procedure solved the traditional problem of reliance upon a
supplementary inspection to confirm critical flaw parameters for grown cracks. A similar validation Comment [CS1]: Explain how?
approach could be used with any repeatable crack growth process. Thermal fatigue cracks have
been successfully used in numerous practical applications ranging from qualification to
development and testing of novel NDT methods.

A further example of a specific defect type produced artificially is that of Interdendritic Stress
Corrosion Cracks (IDSCC), typical of Alloy 182 welds in nuclear power plants. Within a study
conducted by Svahn et al [11], a simulation technique called Mechanical Tightening Defect (MTD)
was able to produce signal patterns very similar to the ones created by the IDSCC defects.

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


5 Deposition of realistic defects at TWI Tab stops: 0.13 cm, List tab + Not at
0.76 cm
5.1 General Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,
The vast majority of realistic defects produced by TWI are obtained by weld modification, Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
1.02 cm
machining or by growing defects (methods 2 to 4 as defined in Section 3). A full list of defects that
can be deliberately inserted into welded joints is given below:

- Lack of side-wall fusion Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab


- Lack of root fusion stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
- Slag inclusion
- Solidification cracking
- Cluster cracks
- Weld metal transverse cracking
- Porosity
- Heat affected Zone (HAZ) cracking
- Brittle fracture and fatigue cracks

This section shows a few recent examples of the techniques used to obtain the above defects and
their application, for the different defect types. Details of the techniques not described in this paper
are provided in a previous publication by TWI, which summarises the work carried out in support of
the safety case for the Sizewell ‘B’ PWR power station in the UK (Lucas [12]).

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


5.2 Lack of side-wall fusion (LOSWF) Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
Lack of side wall fusion defects are obtained with two techniques: 1.02 cm

- TIG bridging Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab


- Use of a metallic or non metallic insert stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm

The ‘TIG bridging’ technique consists of outlining the edges of the defect on the weld edge with
TIG runs, then bridging the area between these limits with further TIG runs, deposited so that no
fusion with the base metal is obtained. Figure 1 shows the deposition sequence characteristics of
the TIG bridging technique. The morphology of defects obtained with this technique is shown in
Figure 2.
7 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 7

Formatted Table

(a) (b) (c)


Figure 1. TIG bridging sequence: (a) Marking and deposition of first TIG run, (b) Deposition of TIG runs to
outline the defect edges, (c) Defect appearance after bridging (note: bridging runs do not fuse the weld
edge).

Formatted Table

(a) (b)

(c)
Figure 2. Photomacrographs showing the cross sections of realistic LOSWF defects obtained by TIG
bridging: (a, b) Embedded defect shown at different magnifications, (c) Surface breaking defect. Millimetre
scales are shown.

LOSWF obtained by using a metallic or non-metallic insert are deposited by tack welding an insert
on the weld edge in the required position, welding it in position with TIG runs and then completing
the weld according to the applicable welding procedure specification (WPS) (Figure 3). The
metallic insert is normally made of a different material from that of the plates to be welded (eg a
medium/high-carbon steel).
8 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 8

Formatted Table

(a) (b)
Figure 3. Photomacrographs showing the cross section of realistic LOSWF defects obtained by a metallic
insert: (a, b) Embedded defect shown at different magnifications. Millimetre scales are shown.

In both the above cases, due to contraction of the weld metal deposited to complete the weld, the
TIG bridging runs and the metallic insert are ‘pushed’ towards the weld edge producing a very tight
defect, which simulates the morphology of a real LOSWF. Both these techniques allow a very
accurate control of the defect size as shown in Table 2 below.

Surface breaking LOSWF defects are always produced by TIG bridging. As shown in Figure 2c,
the crack mouth tends to open due to solidification shrinkage of the weld; hence, it is not possible
to obtain very tight (crack-like) defects by this method.

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


5.3 Lack of root fusion Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
Lack of fusion defects (similar to lack of penetration) at the weld root can be obtained by EDM 1.02 cm
notching or by TIG. Although EDM notching is precisely controlled, the resulting defect is
characterised by a relatively large gape (Figure 4c) and cannot replicate a real lack of fusion defect
(Figure 4a and b), which is better simulated by manual TIG welding. In order to obtain realistic lack
of root fusion defects by manual welding, TIG is applied to obtain a weld metal build up at the weld
root. This is then ground parallel to the opposite root face, according to the required defect size.
Small TIG runs are deposited on top of the build-up, making sure that the contact surface between
the build-up and the opposite root face is not melted. This leaves an unfused land which simulates
the lack of root fusion defect.

Table 2 shows that the manual procedure allows defects within the required tolerances, even when
very small sizes are required (1 to 3mm in through-wall height).
9 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 9

Formatted Table

(a) (b)

(c)
Figure 4. Photomacrographs showing the cross sections of realistic lack of root fusion defects. (a, b) Defect
obtained by manual welding, (c) Defect obtained by EDM. Millimetre scales are shown.

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


5.4 Slag inclusion Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
Lucas described the procedure to obtain slag inclusions at TWI [12]. Slag is formed from the 1.02 cm
residue of the electrode coating, which is principally deoxidation products from the reaction with the
air and surface oxide. The slag becomes trapped in the weld when two adjacent weld beads are
deposited with inadequate overlap and a gap is formed. When the next layer is deposited, the
entrapped slag is not melted out. Thus slag may become trapped in cavities in multipass welds
through excessive undercut or the uneven surface profile of preceding weld runs. The normal
occurrence of slag is in the form of elongated lines which may be either continuous or
discontinuous along the length of the weld.

As reported by Lucas, slag inclusions can be inserted in any position in the weld by stopping the
welding operation for the length of the desired defect. Adjacent passes are then carried out to
produce a groove in which powdered slag can be inserted, as shown in Figure 5. The top of the
groove is sealed by small TIG runs. The slag is fused by the heat of the sealing runs and
subsequent passes.
10 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 10

Formatted Table

(a)
Figure 5. Photomacrograph showing the cross sections of a slag inclusion defect. A millimetre scale is Formatted: Caption
shown.
Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,
5.5 Solidification cracking Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
Solidification cracks normally occur through a poor weld bead size or shape. Cracks occur 1.02 cm
longitudinally and within the weld metal. A solidification crack can be induced by using welder
technique and weld design to obtain a real crack (Figure 6a) or a realistic one (Figure 6b). In Comment [CS2]: How is this produced?
addition, cluster cracks can be produced (Figure 6c). The ‘welder technique’ route is the preferred Ref Lucas again?

one as the defect size, location and orientation are fully controllable.

Formatted Table

(a) (b)

(c)
11 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 11

Figure 6. Photomacrographs showing the cross sections of real/realistic solidification cracks. (a) real defect
obtained by manual welding, (b) realistic defect obtained by manual welding, (c) real cluster cracks obtained
by manual welding. Millimetre scales are shown.

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


5.6 EDM notching Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
As discussed in Section 3, machining or spark eroding are the most controlled ways to produce 1.02 cm
defects. Due to the nature of the machining operation itself, such defects would be classified more
as ‘reference reflectors’ than ‘realistic defects’, as per Section 2. Comment [CS3]: Check with MC!

However, there are cases where according to the requirements of the relevant code or standard
and based on engineering considerations by NDT experts, the full control of the size, location and
orientation of the deliberate defects is more critical than their resemblance to a real defect.

A specific example is that of a nozzle-to-shell weld mock-up prepared by TWI for NDT validation,
with a weld thickness of approximately 140mm, manufactured by submerged-arc welding (SAW).

The location, orientation and sizes of the defects to be inserted in the nozzle-to-shell welds and on
the nozzle inner radius, were selected to match the acceptance criteria in ASME section XI article
IWB-3512. Following qualification of the defect production techniques as per the procedure
described in Section 6 below, it was determined that if manual techniques were applied, it would
not have been possible to guarantee acceptable tolerances on the required tilt and skew angles. In
addition, for the purpose of the validation, it was not considered critical to obtain realistic defects.

Therefore, all defects were produced by EDM notching, with the results shown in Figure 7 below.
In the case of defects located at mid-thickness, to prevent the subsequent SAW runs from melting
of the defects, small TIG runs were deposited after notching, before resuming SAW welding. The
parameters used to deposit these TIG runs were recorded during the weld procedure qualification,
so that the same results could be obtained on the actual validation test piece.

Formatted Table

Weld
centreline
Tilt
angle

(a) (b)
12 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 12

Direction of weld axis

(c)
Figure 7. (a, b) Photomacrographs showing the cross sections of defects obtained by EDM, showing the tilt
angle, (c) Image from radiographic film showing the skew angle. The defect is within the white outline.
Millimetre scales are shown.

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


6 Production of defective specimens at TWI Tab stops: 0.13 cm, List tab + Not at
0.76 cm
6.1 General Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,
The production of defective welds at TWI usually involves three steps, which are detailed in Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
1.02 cm
Sections 6.2 to 6.4 below.
Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,
6.2 Specification Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
The first step when manufacturing a defective weld is to specify the type, quantities, location 1.02 cm
(embedded, sub-surface, surface breaking in HAZ, base metal or weld metal), orientation (tilt and
skew) and size of the defects, as well as the joint design and the welding procedure.

The joint design and the welding procedure are usually identical to that of the welds to be
inspected in production. On the other hand, one or more of the following factors will influence the
selection of defect types, sizes, locations and orientations:

- Applicable inspection standard(s) or code(s): for instance, Code Case 2235-9 in Section V of Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
the ASME B&PV Code [13] may be used to select the defect types and sizes, based on stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
tabulated height/length ratios.

- Fracture mechanics aspects: a fracture mechanics based fitness-for-service assessment would Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
provide critical flaw sizes to be reproduced in the weld, to demonstrate that the selected NDT stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
technique is capable of detecting them.

- In-service experience: the defective weld may be designed to simulate actual defects found on Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
components in service, in order to develop inspection techniques to be applied to other stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
components operating in similar conditions (see case study in Section 7).

- Other NDT considerations: for example, the evaluation of a radiographic inspection will be Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
more accurate if the lack of side wall fusion defect is located on the source side. stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm

Typically, a series of diagrams and tables are produced, which show a cross section of the Comment [CS4]: Conservative?

defective weld and provide the above information.


13 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 13

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


6.3 Trials and qualification tests Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
As concluded by the various papers available in the public domain (Section 4), the main drawback 1.02 cm
of weld modification and of some defect-growing techniques is that the exact size of the deposited
defect cannot be controlled during manufacturing and can only be monitored by NDT, hence with
an inherent measurement error.

It should be noted that defective weld manufacturing is in the vast majority of cases carried out for
customers who then use the welds for NDT qualification purposes. Due to the need for
confidentiality, the results of the NDT validation and training exercises are not made available to
TWI or not available for publishing. Therefore, it is neither possible to evaluate the response of the
realistic defects to the different NDT techniques nor is it possible to compare such response with
that obtained from real defects during production or in-service inspection. Comment [CS5]: Unclear - rephrase or
delete. Do you mean sectioning data are not
shared with us?
In order to overcome these limitations and ensure that the defect obtained is as close as possible
to the required size, prior to commencing the manufacturing of the defective welds, trial and
qualification samples for all required flaw types are manufactured. These are typically butt-welds in
plate or pipe (according to the geometry of the actual defective weld) in which the required flaw
types are implanted. A TWI internal qualification sequence is then applied, which is similar to that
provided by welding qualification standards (eg ASME IX, BS EN ISO 14614 series) to qualify
welding procedures and welders:

1. During manufacturing of the trial plate(s)/pipe(s), the welding parameters and defect deposition Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
techniques are monitored and registered, so that they can be repeated when manufacturing the stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
actual defective weld.

2. After welding, the qualification samples are assessed by a combination of metallographic Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
evaluations (macro and micrographs) and radiographic inspection, aimed at measuring the stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
exact size of the implanted flaws and at assessing their morphology and any induced
metallurgical variations.

3. The obtained sizes are compared with the required ones and with acceptance criteria Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
(dimensional tolerances) selected by TWI. stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm

4. A defect deposition procedure is considered satisfactory if these two conditions are satisfied: Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
- The morphology of the realistic defect is similar to that of the corresponding real defect stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
- The difference between the actual size of the defect and the required size is within ±0.5mm
in through-wall extent and ±1mm in length. Formatted: Indent: Left: 0.62 cm,
Tab stops: 1.12 cm, List tab + Not at
1.75 cm
5. If the qualification fails, the procedure is repeated from (1) above.

Table 2 shows a series of measurements taken for qualification purposes on various types of
defects; some of the defects correspond to those shown in Section 5. The required defect through-
wall extent and length ranged from 1 to 8mm and 6.8 to 30mm, respectively. As shown in this
table, the maximum absolute errors measured in the through-wall extent and in the length of the
deposited defects were +0.88 (target 0.5mm) and -1.1mm (target 1mm), respectively. It should
be noted that such unacceptable values were only observed in one instance each and that the
average absolute errors measured were +0.16 and -0.2mm for through-wall extent and length, Comment [CS6]: ?
respectively, which are well within the abovementioned targeted limits.

It should be noted that, as the length of embedded defects was measured by radiographic
inspection, it was not possible to detect and size embedded LOSWF defects, due to their tilt angle
with respect to the plate/pipe surface. However, the techniques used for such defects allow a very
14 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 14

tight control of the defect length (Section 5.2); hence this limitation is not considered significant
towards the evaluation of the defect deposition techniques.

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


6.4 Manufacture of defective weld and final inspection Tab stops: 0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
Once the qualification procedure is complete and it is has been demonstrated that all required 1.02 cm
defect types can be deposited within the target tolerances on size, the defective welds are
manufactured. Following completion of the welds, UT inspection is normally carried out to verify
that all required defects have been inserted and are detectable. Any additional indication which
does not correspond to any of the required defects is also recorded.
15 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 15

Table 2. Summary of size measurements on deposited defects.

Defect type(4) Figure Ligament Required Obtained Error on Required Obtained Error on Formatted Table
from OD, through-wall through- through- length, Length(2) length,
mm extent, mm wall extent(1), wall extent, mm , mm mm
mm mm

LOSWF, embedded
Figure 2 Formatted: Font: 8 pt
LOSWF 32 5.5 5.62 0.12 30 NA(3) NA(3)
(a, b)
Embedded
LOSWF, made - 12 2 2.71 0.71 14 NA(3) NA(3)
with plate insert
LOSWF Figure 3 12 2 2.48 0.48 14 NA(3) NA(3) Formatted: Font: 8 pt
LOSWF - 16 4 3.5 -0.5 8 8 0

LOSWF, weld cap toe

Surface breaking Figure 2 Formatted: Font: 8 pt


- 3 3.25 0.25 15 15 0
LOSWF, weld cap (c)

Surface breaking
- - 1 1.15 0.15 7.1 6.5 -0.6
LOSWF, weld cap

LOF, weld root

Surface breaking
- - 1 0.76 -0.24 7.1 6 -1.1
LOF, weld root
Surf breaking Figure 4 Formatted: Font: 8 pt
- 3 2.5 -0.5 10 10 Approx 0
LOF, weld root (a, b)
Surface breaking
LOF, weld root, Figure 4(c) - 1 1 0 10 10 0 Formatted: Font: 8 pt
EDM

Solidification cracks

Solidification
12 4 4.88 0.88 25 25 Approx 0
crack

Transverse cracks in weld metal

Weld metal
embedded, - 10 3 3.28 0.28 6.8 7.2 0.4
transverse
Weld metal
embedded, - any 8 8 0 13 12.6 0.4
transverse

Cracks in base metal

Base metal crack,


- 4 3 3.4 0.4 25 24 -1
embedded

Max error
Maximum error through wall, +0.88 Max error length, mm -1.1
mm
Comment [CS7]: Calculated different
ways? If so, explain or recalculate.
Average error
Average error length, Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.25 cm,
Average error through wall, +0.16 -0.2
mm
mm Tab stops: -0.38 cm, List tab + Not at
0.25 cm
Notes
(1). Measured from photomacrograph or photomicrograph. Comment [CS8]: LOSWF?
(2). Measured by radiographic inspection (embedded defects) or dye penetrant inspection (surface breaking defects) Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,
(3). Due to the defect orientation, it was not possible to measure the length by radiographic inspection. Tab stops: 0.13 cm, List tab + Not at
(4). SWLOF defects were made by TIG bridging, unless specified otherwise. 0.76 cm
16 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 16

7 Case study
Following the discovery of leaks from two tube-to-header welds in a Waste Heat Boiler, a company
requested that TWI identify and evaluate suitable non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques to
establish the integrity of the remaining welds. The aims of the inspection were to detect and
sentence surface cracks, sub-surface cracks and original welding flaws.

TWI performed the following tasks:


- Manufacture of a test block containing six artificial lack of fusion flaws with different sizes Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
- Development of NDT techniques allowing the detection and accurate sizing of all six flaws (with stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
through-wall sizes of 2mm upwards)
- Establishment of approved procedures for site deployment.

Prior to manufacturing of the test block, extensive trials were carried out due to the small size of
the weld and the difficulties associated with obtaining realistic lack of fusion defects by manual
welding. The results of such trials are shown in Figure 8 (a, b).

The final procedures were based on:


- A swept beam Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) technique for detection and sizing of Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
flaws embedded/root flaws stops: 0.63 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27
cm
- An encircling coil MPI technique for detection of surface flaws.

The PAUT technique was deployed in a tube scanner, which allows full access even where
adjacent tubes are closely spaced. Finally, the inspection procedures were approved for site use
and were successfully demonstrated to the company at its site.

The equipment is, in general, able to inspect a wide range of pipes, with diameters ranging from
0.84” (21mm) up to 4.5” (114mm), and it can be applied to pipe-to-pipe welds as well as pipe-to-
component welds. The PAUT scanner has a height clearance of just 12mm (0.5”) allowing
inspections in limited access areas, e.g. where there are nearby obstructions such as adjacent
pipes or other structures.
17 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 17

Formatted Table

(a) (b)

Figure 8 (a, b) Formatted: Font: 9 pt

(c) (d)

Figure 8. (a) Photomacrograph showing the cross section of a 2mm long defect, before completing the tube-
to header weld, (b) Photomacrograph showing the cross section of a 5mm long defect, before completing the
tube-to header weld, (c) Manufactured test block showing three tube-to-header welds, (d) Through-wall
sizing of 6mm flaw from test block using the PAUT procedure. Millimetre scales are shown.

Formatted: Indent: Left: -0.63 cm,


8 Conclusions Tab stops: -1.78 cm, List tab + Not at
0.76 cm
1. It has been demonstrated that TWI can reliably produce welded joints with realistic defects,
representative of the morphology of the most common defect types. Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
stops: -0.63 cm, List tab + Not at
1.27 cm
2. Using the different defect production techniques available at TWI, the dimensional tolerance of
Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
the realistic defects (ie actual size of the defect vs required size) can be generally guaranteed stops: -0.63 cm, List tab + Not at
within ±0.5mm in through-wall extent and ±1mm in length. 1.27 cm

3. A welding qualification procedure has been designed by TWI, whereby welding trials followed
by metallographic assessment and NDT inspections are carried out and the results assessed
against the acceptance criteria in (2) above. Welding parameters and manufacturing
techniques are recorded during the trials.
18 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 18

4. To ensure consistency in defect size and morphology, manufacturing of the defective welds is Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
carried out with parameters and operation sequences similar to those recorded during welding stops: -0.63 cm, List tab + Not at
1.27 cm
procedure qualification.

5. As in-depth NDT of the defective welds is not always required NDT experts and standardisation Formatted: Indent: Left: 0 cm, Tab
committees could issue a standard qualification procedure for the production of realistic flaws, stops: 0 cm, List tab + Not at 1.27 cm
which would maximise uniformity throughout the industry. Comment [CS9]: This seems more of a
recommendation for future work than a
conclusion. Move to main text and cite
9 Acknowledgements ENIQ RP for production of defect samples?

The authors wish to acknowledge the colleagues: Dave Howse, Nigel Allison, Mark Tiplady, Rita
Banks, Ivan Pinson, Nathan Decourcelle, Bill Lucas and all TWI customers who gave permission to
use images and data from confidential projects.

10 References

[1] CRUTZEN S; LEMAITRE P; IACONO I Realistic defects suitable for ISI [in service inspection]
capability evaluation and qualification. In: NDE in the Nuclear and Pressure Vessel Industries.
Proceedings, 14th International Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 24-26 Sept.1996.

[2] NEUNDORF B; CSAPO G; ERHARD A, Optimising the NDT [nondestructive testing] of boiling
water reactors by using realistic flaws in the cladding. In: NDT at Work. Proceedings, 7th European
Conference on Non-destructive Testing, Copenhagen, Denmark, 26-29 May.1998.

[3] Development of ENIQ terminology taking into account new standards: Glossary of terms used
in qualification, European Commission, DG Joint Rsearch Centre, Institut for Advanced materials,
Petten Establishment, Structural Components Integrity unit.

[4] Virkkunen I; KEMPAINEN M; OSTERMEYER H; PAUSSU R, Grown cracks for NDT


development and qualification, http://www.trueflaw.com/pub/BiNDT2008/GrownCracks_gm_red.pdf

[5] HOOK D E; BOOLER R V. ??? In: Proceedings, 10th International Conference on NDE in the
Nuclear and Pressure Vessel Industries, Glasgow, 11-14 June 1990. Ed: M.J.Whittle, J.E.Doherty,
K.Iida. Publ: Materials Park, OH 44073, USA; ASM International; 1990.

[6] AMMIRATO F; SHANKAR R; EDELMANN X, Ultrasonic examination of dissimilar-metal welds


in BWR and PWR plants. International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol.35, no.1-4.
1988. pp.37-56. 13 fig., 1 tab.

[7] DIANOV V F ‘Selecting the method of inspecting welded joints in thin-wall pipes produced by
automatic argon-arc welding’ Technical Diagnostics and Nondestructive Testing, vol.6, no.2. Apr.-
June 1994. pp.111-113.

[8] CHABENAT A; DUGUE C; PEIGNEY A, Realistic defects: one way for performance evaluation
of NDE [nondestructive evaluation] method in welded seam. In: NDE in the Nuclear and Pressure
Vessel Industries. 12th International Conference, Philadelphia, PA, 11-13 Oct.1993. Publ:
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002, USA; ASM International; 1994.

[9] BASKARAN G; BALASUBRAMANIAM K; LAKSHMANA RAO C, Shear-wave time of flight


diffraction (S-TOFD) technique. NDT & E International, vol.39, no.6. Sept.2006. pp.458-467.

[10] Nondestructive evaluation program: Progress in 1985. Palo Alto, CA: Electric Power research
Institute, NP-4902-SR, July 1987.
19 Giornate Nazionali di Saldatura 6 19

[11] SVAHN P H; HOGBERG K, Defect simulations for interdendritic stress corrosion cracks in
alloy 182 welds. In: Nondestructive testing. Proceedings, 16th World Conference (WCNDT 2004),
Montreal, Canada, 30 Aug.-3 Sept. 2004. Publ: Hamilton, ON, Canada; Canadian Institute for
NDE; 2004.

[12] LUCAS W, Making defective welds for Sizewell ‘B’, Welding & Metal fabrication, March 1992.

[13] 2010 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V: Nondestructive Examination,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers / 01-Jul-2010 / 700 pages.

 TWI Ltd, 2011

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