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CERTIFICATION

I hereby certify that to the best of my knowledge and belief all of the information on
this paper is correct. I also understand that failure to report completely and
accurately may result in sanctions under my policy including but not limited to the
rules and regulations put in place by the school authorities.

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DEDICATION

I would like to dedicate this accomplishment offline to my beloved and caring family
with the support of whom I am at this step of my life stairs.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 First of all, I’m grateful to GOD the Almighty, who bestowed me with health, abilities
and guidance to complete my internship in a successful manner, and with HIS help, I
was able to perform this task.

 Also, I would like to acknowledge the General Manager of CCEC-SA for giving me
the opportunity to apply my theoretical knowledge within his organisation.

 A special thanks to the entire CCEC-SA staff for been friendly and co-operative,
thereby providing a conducive environment, suitable for my learning.

 To the various Heads of department for the patience and willingness they
demonstrated in the course of providing suitable answers to my numerous questions.

 The department of Economics and Management of the University of Buea, who make
provisions for us Students, to get an insight knowledge of the Corporate World.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

At the last term of my second year of Bachelor in Banking and Finance

Program, I was admitted at the Cameroon Saving and Loan Fund, by French

appellation CCEC-SA (Caisse Camerounaise d’Epargne et de Crédit S.A), to have a

practical exposure on banking activities under the “Industrial Training Course” offered

by the department of Economics and Management of the University of Buea, for a

period of 9 (Nine) weeks. The CCEC-SA is a category two microfinance institution,

which has as main activity the granting of loans and accepting of deposits to their

customers, both Legal and natural persons without any distinction.

The main purpose of internship is to learn, by working in a practical


environment and to apply the knowledge acquired during the studies in a real world
scenario in order to tackle the various problems. In this report, a detail analysis of the
organization has been done and all the financial, technical, managerial aspects have
been evaluated to analyse the current position of the organization.

Chapter one focuses on a background of the study, along with the


characteristics, objectives, significances as well as the limitations of the internship.
Chapter two provides a general overview of the organization. That is, a brief history of
the organization, its goals and objectives, as well as the organization’s hierarchy.
Chapter three focuses on my nine weeks internship experience, in which I described
the various operations performed at each department and the different tasks that were
assigned to me. In chapter four, I provided a critical analysis from my own
perspective, through a SWOT analysis of the organization. I concluded in chapter five
by providing recommendations.

This report will provide a complete and clear image about the CCEC-SA.

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ACCRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

- CCEC-SA: Caisse Camerounaise d’Epargne et de Crédit


- COBAC : Banking Commission in Central Africa
- SWOT : Strength Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats
- SME’s : Small and Medium size Enterprises
- MFI : Microfinance Institution
- NCC : National Credit Council
- F CFA : Francs de la Coopération Financière en Afrique Centrale
- BOD : Board Of Directors
- CRMC : Credit Risk Management Committee
- AIT : Attestation of Irrevocable Transfer

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TABLE OF CONTENT

 CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………...………………............1
 DEDICATION…………………………………………………………………………….……….…2
 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………...……………................3
 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY……………………………………….…………………………….…....4
 ACCRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS……….…………………………………………………5

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY…………………………........................…...…………….8

1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNSHIP……………….………………...............................8

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF INTERNSHIP…………………….………………....................................9

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF INTERNSHIP………………………………………............................10

1.4.1 Significance to the Student……………………………………………...........................10

1.4.2 Significance to the Employer…………………………………………............................10

1.4.3 Significance to the University…………………………………………...........................11

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF INTERSHIP……………………………………….................................11

CHAPTER TWO: OVERVIEW OF THE ORGANISATION

2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORGANISATION…………….………………........................13

2.2 GOAL/OBJECTIVES OF THE ORGANISATION………………………...........................14

2.3 STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANISATION………………………………............................15

CHAPTER THREE: TRAINING PROGRAM

3.1 COUNTER.……………..………………..…………………………......................................18

3.2 ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT……………………………………..................................21

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3.3 AUDITING AND CONTROL DEPARTMENT……………………..................................22

3.4 AFFECTATION………………..………………..………………..........................................24

3.5 COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT………………..………………......................................24

3.6 DEPARTMENT IN CHARGE OF BRANCH OFFICES………………...........................25

3.7 LEGAL DEPARTMENT………………..………………..………………...........................27

CHAPTER FOUR: CRITICAL ANALYSIS

4.1 CRITICAL OBSERVATION………………..………………..............................................28

4.2 SWOT ANALYSIS………………..………………..………………......................................29

4.2.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRENGTH………………..…………………..........................30

4.2.2 INTERNAL WEAKNESSES………………..………………………….........................31

4.2.3 MARKET OPPORTUNITIES………………..………………………….......................32

4.2.4 EXTERNAL THREATS………………..………………..……………….......................32

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 CONCLUSION………………..………………..………………............................................33

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS………………..………………..………………............................33

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The field of microfinance has been of growing importance for the past decades.
The reason may account to the fact that MFI’s greatly contribute to poverty
alleviation, through the provision of financial and non-financial services to those at
and below the poverty line, as well as to SME. As such, in order to fulfil the
requirements of my 3 years Bachelor program, I’ve conducted a 9 weeks internship
program at the CCEC-SA, which is a category two microfinance institution operating
since 1996. I suppose the findings of this report, will provide invaluable input for
further improvement in the performance of the CCEC-SA.

What then is an Internship program?

An internship is a period of work experience offered by an employer to give


students and graduates exposure to the working environment, often within a specific
industry, which relates to their field of study. Internships can be as short as one week
or as long as 12 months.

1.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF INTERNSHIP

For an internship program to be considered successful, there should be support


for the program throughout the organization and a consistent, positive message
throughout the intern’s experience. Following are details about the characteristics of
successful internship programs:

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o It contributes to the student’s personal and professional development through
challenging and work assignments.
o It must be completed before the student graduates from the university.
o It has to be planned and controlled through consultation with the department or
university so as to fit in undergraduate experience.
o It involves a supervision component that is mentoring and educational.
o It includes carrier related experiences that complements what is learnt in the
classroom.
o A student should have a reflection and evaluation process at the conclusion of the
internship.
o It builds upon the relationship the university/department has with the employers.
o Internship is most successful when the student, university and employer all share the
responsibility of making it a valuable experience.

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF INTERNSHIP

The objectives of an internship can be classified into Primary and Secondary


objectives.

o The primary objective of an internship is to get familiar with the working environment
of the institution and also fulfil the requirement of the school degree Program in a
specific field.

o The secondary objectives were as follows ;

 To analyse and understand the entire activities of the institution.


 To evaluate the existing activities and techniques of the institution.
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 To study the operational efficiency of the organization.
 To suggest ways and means for improvement in policy and techniques.
 To relate the theoretical learning with the real life situation.

1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF AN INTERNSHIP

Internship programs are very useful both to the student, the employer and the
University as well.

1.4.1 Significance to the student

 Internships gives the opportunity to “test drive” a career that is to identify a particular
area of specialization which the intern thinks will be appropriate for him.
 It also helps in establishing a long an lasting relationships with mentors, which can be
useful in the futures while seeking for a job.
 It introduces the student to the field cultures and etiquette (for example, are clients
addressed by their first names? are jeans appropriate for casual Fridays?).
 It helps in getting a “real world” perspective of an occupation.
 It helps in accumulating new skills.

1.4.2 Significance to the employer


Employers do not create internships just to be nice with certain students and
others interested in a certain career. While an interview or a company test can add to
what an employer knows about a person, an internship helps an employer evaluate
how an individual would fare in the actual workplace. Companies that devote time and
resources to finding, selecting and training interns are looking for a return on their
investment. The benefits might be in the present or in the future.

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1.4.3 Significance to the university
The university constitute a pool for potential labour force in an economy,
through it undergraduate students. However, the degree of competitiveness in the
labour market greatly depends on the experience gained by each job seeker. By
providing internship programs, the university ensures that the students once they have
graduated are efficient and competitive in the labour market. This polishes the image
of the school and strengthens the relationship between the university and the
employers.

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF AN INTERSHIP

 Pecuniary Aspect
Most internship programs offered by the university are unpaid. This becomes
a real issue especially when considering the role played by financial motivation in the
performance of workers.
 Placement
It is often difficult for an intern to get along with the activities taking place in
specific departments. This may principally be due to the difference inherent between
the theoretical and the practical part of a given task. As such, it is not obvious for the
employer to place the student at a particular department, only because of his area of
specialization at school.
 Confidentiality
This aspect is of utmost importance. This issue may arise when due to the
internal policy of the organisation, the mentors and others employers are not allowed
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to disclose certain information to interns. This may be considered a hindrance since
one the objectives of an internship is to understand the functioning and different
processes of the institution, and this cannot be fully achieved without a clear
disclosure to interns, since they are considered during the internship period, to be
employees.
 Ignorance
This aspect is not only due to the inaccessibility of information by the intern as
in the confidentiality aspect above, but the issue may come from the intern himself.
This is because the corporate environment is a complete different place from the
school environment and as such, there may certainly be more than a point on which
the intern will be completely ignorant.

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CHAPTER TWO: OVERVIEW OF THE ORGANISATION

2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORGANISATION

The Cameroon Saving and Loan Fund (CCEC-SA) is a category two


microfinance institution, which main activities are the collection of deposit and the
granting of loans to its customers which are both individuals and businesses.
Operating under the consent of the Ministry of finance, it is registered at the NCC
under the matriculation no 0115/11 of the 31/05/2011 after approval of COBAC no D-
2004/63 of the 16/12/2004.
Founded on the 1st April 1996, it started it operations as a credit
cooperative with a start-up capital of 300.000.000 F CFA, employing 5 persons,
managed by the Chairman of the BOD, assisted by a General Manager. Today, CCEC-
SA is a Microfinance institution with a capital of 500.000.000 F CFA with more than
8300 bank accounts opened by customers and covers two broad regions nationwide
which are;
 The Centre Region with it head quarter at Yaoundé Hippodrome, avenue des banques
(See Appendix 1) and the Prestige branch at pont de la gare.

 The Littoral Region; head quarter at Douala, boulevard de la liberté.

Below are some crucial dates which marked the evolution of the Institution since
its opening;
 1997: opening of more than 1 000 (one thousand) bank accounts and signing of a
partnership with AFRILAND FIRST BANK, SCB, Credit Lyonnais;

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 1999: opening of a branch office at kumba and later that same year, closure due to
problems arising from the economic environment.
 2004: Revaluation of the running capital to 1.000.000.000 F CFA and the institution
becomes a limited company.
 2005 : approval by COBAC to become a category two Microfinance institution
 2006 : Opening of the Prestige branch at Pond de la gare
 2007 : Opening of the littoral branch at Douala, boulevard de la liberté

2.2 GOALS/OBJECTIVES OF THE ORGANISATION

The following are some of the goal/objectives of the CCEC-SA;

 To promote the growth and development of small and medium size enterprises
(SME)
 To improve on the efficiency and profitability of SME
 To improve on the living conditions of low income earners
 To be the Number one in the Microfinance sector
 To increase their range of customers through a better customers relationship
system
Proximity financing been an innovation in the field of Microfinance, the
institution makes an efficient and effective use of this process to achieve the afore
mentioned goals, through the provision of financial services tailored to the customer’s
circumstances.

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2.3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

As it can be observed in any institution irrespective of it size, the CCEC-SA is


characterised by an organisational chart, which shows the various level of
management and the inter-relationship between different departments within the
institution. (See Appendix 2)

Once the organisational chart has been identified, it is important to examine the
structure of the organisation. That is, the different departments and their respective
functions. This will be done in an hierarchical manner:

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY


Usually held once every year, it comprises the different shareholders who have
sovereign power over the institution. The general assembly can also be called upon by
the Chairman of the assembly at any period of the year, under special circumstances. It
main functions are to nominate or revocate members of the BOD, the Treasurer as
well, and can also modify the status of the institution.

THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS


The BOD is the organism responsible of the management and administration of
the institution. Some of the casual services performed by the BOD are; defining the
internal rules and regulations, appointing the General Manager, determine salaries,
chooses to open or close branch offices.

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THE GENERAL MANAGER
Appointed by the BOD, he acts as a figurehead for the institution when dealing
with the general public (or third parties). He authorises the institution’s diverse
spending and is thus accountable to the BOD. He coordinates the different processes
involved in the issue of credit and recovering of debts.

THE DEPUTY GENERAL MANAGER


He is responsible for the daily running of the institutions activities. He gives his
viewpoint on loan and overdraft requests. He put in place overdrafts, controls the
operations at the counter and is the chairman of the CRMC.

THE SECRETARIAT
This service is responsible of preparing administrative documents, typing
meeting reports, arranging important documents in a proper manner, and picking up
calls from outside the institution, sending and receiving mail from within and outside
the institution.

THE COMMERCIAL DEPARTEMENT


This department ensures the proper management of all commercial related
activities across the organisation’s network and is also responsible of the marketing of
the institutions products and services.

THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT


This service ensures the smooth functioning of all computer related tools and
processes in the institution. The service is also responsible of the institutions website,
software maintenance and the training of the employees on Information and
Communication Technology, as well as computer ethics and ergonomics.

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ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING DEPARTMENT
Technically, Accounting and Auditing are two separate departments with
separate offices at CCEC-SA, but works hand-in-hand and performs complementary
activities. The department makes sure that the institution’s financial operations are
properly entered into the computer system. The department also determines the
company’s budget and publishes the company’s financial statement periodically.

THE LEGAL DEPARTMENT


This service is responsible of all the legal aspects regarding the institution.
Some of the activities carried out by the legal department at the CCEC-SA include; the
establishment of all judiciary acts, the management of unpaid and/or doubtful debts,
provides the institution with a fair viewpoint regarding Loans and overdraft requests,
establishes the Protocol Agreement to be signed by the applicant and the General
Manager. The service is also in charge to a certain extent, of the administrative
personnel.

DEPARTMENT IN CHARGE OF BRANCH OFFICES


This department as the name implies is in charge of all the activities relating to
the opening of accounts of all nature by customers, operations taking place at the cash
desk, studying and evaluation loan request from customers, and all other casual
services relating to the clientele.

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CHAPTER THREE: TRAINING PROGRAM

During the 9 weeks internship period, I had the honour to integrate more than
one department, in a rotative manner. Each Monday at 7:30 am, we had a meeting
with the branch manager in his office, during which he assigned each intern to a
particular department, depending on his/her area of specialization.

The various services to which I was assigned during my internship period are
the Counter, the Accounting and Finance department, the Auditing and Control
department, Commercial department, the department in charge of branch offices and
the Legal department. Working days at the CCEC-SA are from Monday to Friday,
from 7:30 am to 5:00 pm, with a two hours break during the day, and one Saturday-
on-two from 9:00 am to 12:00 am.

3.1 THE COUNTER


The counter is the most sensitive service of the institution at the CCEC-SA. This
is because any other operation performed at different services takes it origin from this
service. Also, the counter is at the hall and welcomes every individuals, whether
customer or not, either for casual services or for a simple advice. The various tasks I
could perform at the counter are as follows;

 Welcome and direct customers


This task consisted of welcoming both customers and non-customers in a proper
and polite manner and provide technical assistance when necessary, or directing them
to appropriate services.

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 Checking a Customer’s Account Balance
When a customer wishes to perform a transaction like a withdrawal, he needs to
know the balance in his account. This is done in two ways using the computer program
“ELOGE BANK”;
 First, when the customer has his check booklet. Here, we check his account number in
the booklet, open the option “verify signature” and type the number. His account will
show up and we reveal his balance.
 The second way without his booklet is when the customer has his National ID. Here,
we open the option “Search account” in the program and type the name that figures
on his National ID. The account appears and we provide him with his balance.
NB: The customer as well as the bank is subject to the duty of banking secrecy.
This is why careful attention has to be taken when providing a customer with the
balance in his account. For this reason, in both cases, it is compulsory for the customer
to show his National ID to the person at the counter. Also, his balance position is not
given verbally, but is written on a small form prepared for the intention (see appendix
3).

 Filling of cheques for customers

When a customer wishes to perform a withdrawal from his account, he needs a


cheque. The type of cheque used depends on the nature of the customer’s account. For
savings accounts, we use a classic white cheque booklet, whereas for current accounts,
we use a green booklet or accountant cheque. The following information is then
provided on the face of the cheque; account name, account number, withdrawer’s
name, amount in words, amount in figures, date and signature. The cheque is also
endorsed on the back by filling in the withdrawer’s name, ID card number, date and
place of delivery, address, phone number and he signs twice (see appendix 4).

 Filling of deposit slips

This task as the previous is also done on behalf of the customer, when he wish
to make a deposit in his account. In this case unlike the other, we use a deposit slip,
and provides the following information; account name, account number, depositor’s
name, amount in words, amount in figures, date, signature and the number of bank
notes and coins he has (see appendix 5).

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 Filling Overdraft facility Applications (see appendix 6)

When a customer wants to perform an overdraft operation, he is required to


provide the following information on an overdraft facility application; customer’s name,
account number, date, time, the motif (why he needs and overdraft) and his signature.

We were then required to verify if the customer had filled the form properly and
completed the section reserved for the counter, by providing his name, address, balance
of his account and amount requested. Since most customers requesting overdraft
facilities are salary workers, it is required to mention his employer and his salary
amount, since we will use it as a collateral. The request is then forwarded to the
department in charge of branch offices for approval, then to the legal department and
finally to the deputy general manager. If approved by all the services, it is sent back to
the counter, and a cheque is drawn on the amount requested, then submitted to the
customer. The operation is then entered in a registry and submitted to the branch
manager.

 Answering and Making calls

During the period I was assigned at the counter, we were required to answer calls
from within and outside the organisation, as well as making internal calls when faced
with particular issues concerning customers or any other technical issue.

 Daily Reports
At the end of the day, we were required, with the person in charge at the
counter, to make a summary of all the operations that took place at the service during
the day (see appendix 7). This was done on a daily report form which contained
spaces provided for information like the number of cheques drawn, deposits, number
of overdraft treated, number of western union transactions performed
(sending/receiving), number of remittance cheques received, etc. The report is then
submitted to the Branch Manager.

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 Currency exchange form
This form is used when a customer wishes to exchange one currency for another
at the counter. We complete the form on his behalf, then sign and forward it to the
deputy general manager for approval. (See appendix 8)
 Processing of remittance cheques

Remittance cheques are cheques drawn by a customer from another bank, to be


paid at the bank stated on the cheque. When we received remittance cheques at the
counter, we processed it using the computer program, then print two copies of the
receipt. We submit one copy to the withdrawer, and send another copy to the
accounting department, together with the cheque. The withdrawer then waits for a
period of three days, while the cheque is on compensation.

3.2 THE ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT


The accounting department at CCEC-SA is responsible for the flow of money
within different departments of the institution, as well as the outflow of money for
specified motives. The person in charge of this service at the CCEC-SA is a Chief
Accountant, assisted by an Accounting Assistant. During my second internship week,
I was assigned to this department, were I could perform the following tasks;

 Completing Order of Payment forms


An order of payment as the name implies, is a written order signed by one
customer to transfer a certain sum of money from his account to another customer’s
account, either within the institution or outside to another bank (See appendix 9).
Most of the times however, the order was given directly to the Chief Accounting either
by webmail, through a phone call, or in case the transaction was performed and we
needed a source material. In these cases, we had to complete the form with the
information provided to us by the Chief Accountant. Information like, the account
holder, the account number, the date, the amount in figures and in words, the currency

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used and the libel. We then show the form to the Accounting Assistant who controls to
see if everything is done properly and submit it to the Chief Accountant for
appreciation. The document is then forwarded to the General Manager for further
appreciation. When this is done, the document is sent back to the Chief Accountant for
processing and Payment.

 Further Processing of Remittances Cheques


Once the remittances cheques a submitted to the accounting department together
with the receipt, we are required to make two photocopies. Once this is done, we
complete a form labelled “remittance cheque”. Each cheque received from another
bank has a corresponding form to be completed. The form contains the following
spaces to be completed; the institution’s (CCEC-SA) account number at the
corresponding bank where the cheque was drawn, the account name, the drawer and
the drawee, the amount in words and in figures. The cheque is endorsed with the Chief
Accountant’s name, number and signature. The form is then submitted to him,
together with the cheque and a copy of the receipt, while the other copy is kept in the
archives.

3.3 THE AUDITING AND CONTROL DEPARTMENT


This department is in charge of the systematic examination and verification of
the firm’s book of account, transaction records, other relevant documents and physical
inspection of inventory. Also, it is responsible of the verification to ascertain whether
or not the documented quality system is being effectively implemented. While been at
this department, I was assigned the following tasks;

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 Conformity Assessment
A conformity assessment is the act of controlling all the accounting documents
related to various transactions that took place during a particular period. These
documents could be transactions receipts whether deposit or withdrawal, the cheques
drawn at the counter as well as the deposit slips, and any other source material used in
the accounting process. The documents are checked to see if they actually matches
with what is stated on the journal. While conducting a conformity assessment, I had to
verify the following elements on the source document and on the journal:

 The account name and number


 The transaction amount
 The transaction libel
 Verification is also conducted to see if the transaction is properly recorded on the debit
and credit sides of the journal
 The signatures on both sides of the cheques and on deposit slips
Transactions without any source document are noted on a sheet of paper and
attached to the folder containing the journal and the source documents. When the
assessment is completed, the folder is submitted to the Auditor for final verification,
then it is sent to the archives.

 Designing a Draft journal

Due to the fact that most of the documents moved to and from the Auditing and
the Accounting department, it happened that some of them were declared missing. For
this reason, I suggested to design a draft journal, to keep track of the in and out
movement of those document. My suggestion was taken into consideration and so I
did. As a result, every document which was removed from a folder was recorded in the
journal and cancelled when submitted back.
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 Bank reconciliation statement

At this department, I learned how to reconcile bank statements. The


reconciliation is performed using a journal showing the record of financial transactions
that took place within two different institutions. One been the CCEC-SA and the other
been either a partner bank or a branch office of the institution. Once the two journals
are provided, we are required to match the record of transactions that took place on
both sides and check the balance at the end of the period. Since this is a sensitive
process, it was conducted under the supervision of the Accounting Assistant.

3.4 AFFECTATION TO ANOTHER BRANCH OFFICE

During the fourth week of my internship period, I was affected to another


branch office, the Prestige Branch as it is called, where I could perform a wide variety
of services since most operations are conducted within the same office. Activities like
conformity assessments, recovering debts, opening customer’s account, Studying
Credit applications and all the various tasks taking place at the counter.
Also, during this period, I had the privilege to serve as a prospecting Agent on
behalf of the Institution. To this effect, we attended a meeting with the branch
manager during which we were thought about the different techniques and some tips
used during the process, as well as how to respectfully deal with common objections
on the field.
We were out for prospection for the whole week under the onsite supervision of
our branch manager. At the end, we submitted a detailed report about our experience
on the field.

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3.5 THE COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT
I was assigned to this department during my fifth week. Here, I had the
possibility to learn how to prepare reports of Western Union and Free-cash
transactions which occurred over a given period, and how to calculate the commission
and taxes incurred, in order to know the Bank’s position at the end of the process.
Once the report was prepared and printed, it is was sent to the Branch Manager, the
Chief Accountant, the Auditor and finally to the General Manager in this same order,
for verification and appreciation. The report is then joined with the appropriate
transaction receipt and submitted back to the Accounting department where it is
archived.

3.6 THE DEPARTMENT IN CHARGE OF BRANCH OFFICES

While I was assigned to this service, I noticed the great deal of interaction that
took place between the Branch Manager and the general public and learnt how to
perform the following tasks;

 Archiving
In the course of his work, the branch manager at times needed to rely on past
information about certain customers. This could be to update an opening account
folder, to check a customer’s credit activity. Some of these information was gotten
directly from the computer system, but others needed to be taken from the archives. I
had to honour to learnt how to get a document easily from the archives. This was done
in the following way;
 The key to the archives is kept solely by the branch manager himself.

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 Once in the room, what is noticeable at first sight is the manner in which every folder
is arranged in boxes in a proper and orderly way. Each box contains 50 opening
account folders and is labelled with the respective “six figures” roots.
 Customers loan request document are also found at the archives. They are separated
into two, Physical person on one side and legal person on the other.
 In each box, there is a sheet of paper on which the name and number of folders is
stated, in order to keep tract of documents removed and inserted later on.
 The archives also host boxes containing all the receipts of cash transactions since the
opening of the institution

 Opening of Customers Account

The Branch Manager been an account manager as well, was responsible of


opening and maintaining customers account on a regular basis. As such, I could
provide assistance by performing the following tasks;

 Verifying the documents necessary to open an account. For an individual (physical


person), these are; a photocopy of his National ID, his Location Plan, account and
customers creation forms, the names of signatories, a 4*4 size photograph. For a
business account, the same documents are required in addition to a copy of the registry
of commerce.

 Studying a Customer’s Credit Application


As an intern, I was charged to verify if the customer provided all the
documents necessary to study his credit application. The following documents are
required for the study to be performed; handwritten application, photocopy of National
ID, Location plan, a full picture of the customer, the credit application form (
individual and business) and any other relevant material (AIT, children school report

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card in case of school loan, land title, etc). The study is conducted following the
institution’s internal policy regarding credit applications.
The following steps are performed;
 The customer submits his credit application files.
 Under the supervision of the Branch Manager, we then study the application files and
make necessary adjustments when required, while taking into consideration the
customer’s repayment ability. ( the collateral used, his past relationship with the bank
regarding credits, his financial situation vis-à-vis of the bank, etc)
 We then submitted a report to the Branch Manager, in which he gives his point of
view. If favourable, he convokes the CRMC for presentation.
 Each member of the committee gives his opinion, and their decision forwarded to the
General Manager who has veto rights on the question. If his opinion is favourable,
application file request is sent back to the legal department where the Protocol
Agreement is established.

 Administrative Redaction
This task consist of written administrative letters on behalf of the institution
for various purposes. Somme of which are;
 Letters to inform a debtor of a default or lateness in payment of his debt
 Application for a savings booklet, when a customer lost his.

3.7 THE LEGAL DEPARTMENT


The customer meets the jurist in charge of the Legal Department, to sign the
Protocol Agreement in which he recognizes been a debtor to the institution and agrees
to repay the loan as stipulated by the terms of the contract, and the death and invalidity
insurance forms to protect the bank’s position against any adverse situation resulting
from the above. We were asked to prepare these forms with our superior and to
complete death and invalidity insurance forms using the customer’s information.

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CHAPTER FOUR: CRITICAL ANALYSIS

The CCEC-SA is amongst the oldest MFI’s to operate in Cameroon with 20


years since its opening. It was a wonderful experience working at CCEC-SA. The
employees of the institution was very helpful and nice to me. In spite it was not an
easy job to learn so many things during the very short period of my practical
orientation program. Now I would like to present my observations in a critical way.

4.1 CRITICAL OBSERVATION

 Lack of institutional commitment


This is characterised by the fact that some employees, especially those at the
base level of the organisation, perform their tasks in such a way that will lead any
reasonable person to conclude that they do not contribute their best for the growth and
future prospects of the institution. Also, the fact that some employees are not aware on
time, of crucial matters that will affect the future of the institution like the negotiation
of a partnership with PAJER-U.

 Lack of knowledge on Information Technology

Every organisation today depends on information technology to help perform


different tasks. However, the focus here is on the fact that the personnel is over
dependent on ELOGE BANK program and knows less about the Information and
Communication Technology itself, making them vulnerable to computer hazards.

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 Absence of a defined Operational Risk management framework
The absence of clearly stated instructions pasted or notices of what to do and not
at certain departments have also retained my attention. This makes them vulnerable to
losses resulting from operational risk.

 Shortage of machineries
The offices at the CCEC-SA are supposed to be welled equipped by
sophisticated machineries. The relevance of this point comes from the fact that there is
a shortage of Photocopy and Printing machines. In fact, there exist only a single
photocopy machine for the whole building. As such, when it happened that the
machine was out of order, the whole system was penalized. Also, two or more offices
may share a single printer. This caused a great confusion when it comes to collect the
printed documents from an office, when another office hasn’t collected his yet.

 Unsatisfactory software performance


The CCEC-SA uses ELOGE BANK program for performing their banking
activities. But the software often hanged causing delays in performing banking
activities.

4.2 SWOT ANALYSIS OF CCEC-SA

SWOT is the snap for the internal strengths & weaknesses of a firm & the
environmental opportunities & threats facing that firm. SWOT analysis is an easy
technique through which a comprehensive overview of Company's strategic situation
can be defined. During my 9 weeks internship period, I was able to design the
following analysis of the institution’s environment based on my observations.

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4.2.1 ORGANISATIONAL STRENGTHS
This refers to the resource skills and other advantages relative to competitors
and the need of the market the institution serves;

 Excellent customer’s service


I was marked by the proximity that existed between the customers and the
employees, and also the fact that each customer was able to meet his account manager
at any period of the day, during working hours. This is an efficient tool as it
strengthens the confidence the customers has with the institution.

 Diversified product line


The CCEC-SA offers a wide variety of products and services to its customers.
Apart from the classic savings and current accounts, they also offers daily savings
account, Christmas savings account, term accounts, business accounts, etc. each with
its own particularities, tailored to customer’s needs. This variety when effectively
used can lead to important risk reduction on the banks portfolio.

 Marketing strategy
The Management uses a variety of strategies which ensures that the public is
aware of the products and services offered. By sending prospecting agents on the
field, also using institution’s website, where the bank is clearly presented. In addition,
the company has opened account on highly visited Social Medias to ensure proper
awareness.

 Geographical location
The CCEC-SA head quarter is located on a strategic street, which is avenue des
Banques in Yaoundé. This street is famous with the important number of financial
institutions present around. By so doing, it is easy for anyone looking for the company’s
head quarter to find himself.

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 Qualification and accreditation
The management of the CCEC-SA comprises a team of qualified experts from
different backgrounds and specialization.

 The security system


The security at the CCEC-SA is pretty much impressive, characterized by high
definition cameras at each office corridor. This ensures that the in and out movement of
any individual, customer or employee is recorded and kept in a safe place. Also, the
institution is protected by a security company and an experienced police officer who
ensures the safety of the personnel and the customers.

4.2.2 INTERNAL WEAKNESSES

Weaknesses are limitations or deficiencies in the resources skills or capabilities


that seriously impedes a firm’s active performance.

 Advertising and promotion


This is one of the major weakness of the institution, as it does not pursue an
aggressive marketing strategy compared to other MFI in the sector. There is the
inefficient use of the marketing tools available like the institution website, which is
obsolete and does not provide fresh information about the institution’s performance.

 lack of incentives and innovation


The institution when considering it years of experience is somehow reluctant to
change. Services like e-banking and ATM’s, which are offered by other institutions
within the same industry are still not provided here.

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4.2.3 MARKET OPPORTUNITIES

 Territorial expansion
By increasing more branch offices, to grab more market shares. The years 2006
and 2007 for instance, which saw the opening of two new branches to increase their
area of influence.
 By advertising, attending trade fair and launch showroom might be a bright prospect.

4.2.4 EXTERNAL THREATS

 Competition
The Microfinance sector in Cameroon is becoming dreadfully competitive. This
competition at times leads to interest rates wars between these institutions and when
intense, may lead to the closure of some of them, with the systematic repercussions
associated to the process.

 IT development
The IT industry is a constantly evolving one. Due to the role played by these
tools in the financial sector, it is important for MFI’s to cope with these changes. This
represents a huge investment and may yield a negative return when the employees are
unable to use the machines in an efficient way.

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CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 CONCLUSION

During my 9 weeks internship period at the CCEC-SA, almost all the


departments have been observed. This practical program at first, has been arranged
for gaining knowledge of practical banking and to compare this practical with
theoretical knowledge. This comparison involves the identification of weaknesses in
the institution and making recommendations for solving the weaknesses identified.
I was marked by the proximity existing between the customers and the employees.
This proximity indeed creates confidence within the bank and the customer. This may
account for the fact that the institution has very ancient but active customers.
Also, in terms of geographical accessibility, anyone can find his way to the
institution’s office building. In addition to this, the fact that the building actually
belongs to the company and not to a mere landlord. This is relevant with the fact that
most MFI in Cameroon open and closes on an overnight basis or relocates
continuously due to rental issues.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

Following are some of the suggestions and recommendations that I want to give
on the basis of weaknesses found in the bank:

 Energizing the employees with more zeal to work


This can be done by opening a human resource department within the
organisation. This department will use necessary techniques to motivate the workers
and provide them with more zeal to work. The end result could be less absenteeism,
less leisure in work and thus more institutional commitment.

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 Organising IT training sessions
During these sessions, employees will be thought of the efficient and ethical
ways of using IT tools. The end result will be a significant reduction in the margin of
errors resulting from IT technologies. Also, this will lead to less time wasting as the
employees will be able to handle certain issues themselves without necessarily
requesting help from the IT department.

 Providing the organisation with a clear operational risk management framework


Once this is done, risk of errors in persons and machine will be managed at the
lowest level of the organisation. The reduction in losses resulting from operational risk
will subsequently means a reduction in cost or expenses and an increase in firm’s
value.
 Investing in more machinery
By investing in more machinery like the ones mentioned in the critical part
above, the organisation will gain more time in the course of processing different tasks.
Also, it will lead to less concentration at the secretariat which hosts the only
photocopier of the whole office building.

 Updating the institution banking software


ELOGE BANK software is apparently an old banking program and requires a
program update which I believe will fix the bugs inherent.

 Developing a better marketing strategy


The experience CCEC-SA has gained over the years helped to retain customers
by creating more confidence. However, due to the increasing competition in the sector,
more innovative marketing strategies are necessary. Techniques like TV
advertisement, social media campaigns, opening of stands during trade fair and any
other technique capable of reaching a large audience are to be explored.

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REFERENCES

 Nana, K. B. (2016), l’Augmentation du chiffre d’affaire d’un établissement de


micro finance par la commercialisation des nouveaux produit cas de la CCEC-
SA, Yaoundé.
 Samia F. (2013), Internship Report on General Banking Activities of South East
Bank ltd a study of Motijheel branch, Bangladesh.
 Messomo E. S. (2016), Risk Management, Buea, Cameroon
 Institution’s Website www.ccec.cm
 9 (nine) weeks internship experience at CCEC-SA

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APPENDIX

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