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CLE 2005

TANSPORATION ENGINEERING

MODULE 2 – HIGHWAY MATERIALS &


PAVEMENT DESIGN
UNDERGRADUATE LEVEL

• Transportation Engineering
• Highway Engineering I
• Highway Engineering II
• Pavement Engineering
• Road Construction & Maintenance
POSTGRADUATE GRADUATE LEVEL

• Pavement Materials
• Pavement Analysis & Design
• Pavement Management System
• Highway Capacity Analysis
• Advanced Highway Design
INRODUCTION TO
HIGHWAY MATERIALS
BACKGROUND SCENARIO

• DISTANCE FROM VELLORE TO CHENNAI IS 140 KM

• TRAVEL TIME APPROX. 3 HOURS

• TYPICAL TRAVEL TIME ON DIRECT UNINTERRUPTED


EXPRESSWAYS IS 1 HR 30 MIN

• VELLORE IS A TOURIST DESTINATION

• DEMAND FOR A SHORTER JOURNEY TIME

• BENEFITS ARE???? Class response


SEQUENCE OF A ROAD PROJECT
IMPLEMENTATION

• FEASIBILTY STUDY
• ALIGNMENT OF ROADS
• GEOMETRIC DESIGNS
• PAVEMENT DESIGNS
• COSTRUCTIONS OF ROADS
Site Investigation
Types of construction materials
-Soil, Aggregates & Asphalt binder
CROSS SECTION OF ROAD PAVMENT

SURFACE COURSES:

WEARING COURSE, BINDER COURSE AND DENSE


BITUMINUOS MIX)
TYPES OF MATERIALS

ASPHALT LAYER
• ASPHALT BINDERS
• AGGREGATES
• LIQUID ASPHALTS
BASE LAYER
• CRUSHERRUN / WETMIX
SUBBASE LAYER
• SAND / QUARRY DUST
SUBGRADE
• SOIL/SAND / QUARRY DUST
HIGHWAY MATERIALS

SOIL AGGREGATES

ASPHALT MIXTURE PAVED ROAD


Aggregates

• A critical element in Hot Mix Asphalt


(HMA). As a rule of thumb, aggregate
constitutes about 95% of HMA.
• Nearly 90% of world roads are made up
of HMA (dense graded mix)
• Others are : gap graded mix & open
graded
Aggregates
• Type
– Sedimentary
– Igneous
– Metamorphic
– Natural
• Production Methods
– Shear Crushing (Cone)
– Impact (Hammermill)
– Jaw
Aggregate Types
Sedimentary
Formed by either the deposition of insoluble residue
(disintegration of existing rocks) or from deposition of
inorganic remains of marine life.
– Limestones, chalks (calcareous)
– Sandstone, chert (siliceous)
– Shale (argillaceous)
Igneous
Formed by the cooling of molten rock magma as it
moves toward or on the earth’s surface.
– Basalt
– Granite
Aggregate Types (cont.)
• Metamorphic
Changed the form of Sedimentary or Igneous rocks by heat
and pressure.
– Gneiss from granite
– Marble from limestone
– Dolomite from shale
– Quartzites

• Natural gravels and natural sands


Breakdown of natural rocks
• Slag
Byproduct of metallurgical processing
• Steel
• Copper
• Tin
Desirable Physical Properties

• Hardness, toughness
• Durability, soundness
• Resistance to stripping, moisture
damage (affinity for asphalt)
• Surface Texture for skid resistance
• Particle shape
• Size and Gradation
• Absorption
Quarry Operations and
Aggregate Processing

• Excavation
• Crushing
• Transportation
• Sizing
• Washing
Excavation
Excavation
Crushing
Crushing
River Gravel Partially Crushed
River Gravel
Shear Crushing (Cone)
Impact (Vertical Shaft)
Jaw Crushing
Roller Crushing
Transportation
Transportation
Transportation
Sizing
Stockpiling
Sampling from Stockpile

Sampling from Fine


Aggregate Stockpile
Sampling from Conveyor
Source Aggregate Properties

Toughness
Soundness
Deleterious Materials
Gradation
Definitions
* Coarse Aggregate
- Retained on 4.75 mm (No. 4) ASTM D692
- Retained on 2.38 mm (No. 8) Asphalt Institute
- Retained on 2.00 mm (No. 10) HMA Book

* Fine Aggregate.
- Passing 4.75 mm (No. 4) ASTM D1073
- Passing 2.38 mm (No. 8) Asphalt Institute

* Mineral Filler
- At least 70% Pass. 0.075 mm ASTM D242
Aggregate, Asphalt Binder and Soil Tests

• ASTM STD
• AASHTO STD
• BS STD
• INS
• MS
TYPES OF TESTS

• LA Abrasion Test
• Specific Gravity & Absorption
• Flakiness % Elongation Test
• Aggregate Impact Test
• Aggregate Crushing Test
• Soundness (Durability) Test
• Polished Stone Value Test
• Particle Index
• Gradation Analysis based on given Specification
L.A Abrasion Test

- Approx. 10% loss for extremely hard igneous rocks


- Approx. 60% loss for soft limestones and sandstones
Soundness-Durability
* Estimates resistance to weathering .

* Simulates freeze/thaw action by successively wetting


and drying aggregate in sodium sulfate or magnesium
sulfate solution
+ One immersion and drying is considered one
cycle

* Result is total percent loss over various sieve intervals


for a prescribed number of cycles
+ Max. loss values typically range from
10 to 20%per 5 cycles
Soundness
Soundness

Before After
Clay Lumps and Friable Particles
ASTM C 142

Dries a given mass of agg., then soaks for 24


hr., and each particle is rubbed. A washed
sieve is then performed over several screens,
the aggregate dried, and the percent loss is
reported as the % clay or friable particles.
Gradations

• Aggregate Gradation
– The distribution of particle sizes expressed
as a percent of total weight.
– Determined by sieve analysis
Steps in Gradation Analysis

• Part 1 - Washed sieve analysis


– Dry aggregate and determine mass
– Wash and decant water through
0.075 mm sieve until water is clear
– Dry aggregate to a constant mass
Washed Sieve
Steps in Gradation Analysis

Part 2 - Mechanical sieve analysis


– Place dry aggregate in standard stack
of sieves
– Place sieve stack in mechanical
shaker
– Determine mass of aggregate
retained on each sieve
Mechanical Sieve

Individual Sieve Stack of Sieves


Mechanical Sieve

Stack in
Mechanical
Shaker
Gradation - Computation
Sieve Mass(g) Cumulative
mm Retained Mass Retained % Retained % Passing

9.5 0.0
4.75 6.5
2.36 127.4
1.18 103.4
0.60 72.8
0.30 64.2
0.15 60.0
0.075 83.0
Pan 22.4
Gradations - Computing

Cum. Wt Retained
% Retained = * 100
Original Dry Wt.

% Passing = [ 1 - Cum. Wt Retained


Original Dry Wt.
] * 100
Gradations - Computation
Sieve Mass Cumulative
Retained Mass Retained % Retained % Passing

9.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0


4.75 6.5 6.5 1.2 98.9
2.36 127.4 133.9 24.8 75.2
1.18 103.4 237.3 44.0 56.0
0.60 72.8 310.1 57.5 42.6
0.30 64.2 374.3 69.4 30.6
0.15 60.0 434.3 80.5 19.5
0.075 83.0 517.3 95.8 4.2
Pan 22.4 539.7 100.0 0.0