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Class XII: Mathematics


Chapter 8: Applications of Integrals
Chapter Notes

Key Concepts
b


1. Definite integral f(x)dx of the function f(x) from limits a to b represents
a
the area enclosed by the graph of the function f(x) the x axis, and the
vertical lines x= ‘a’ and x = ‘b’

2. Area function is given by


x


A(x) = f(x)dx , where x is a point in [a, b]
a

3. Area bounded by a curve, x-axis and two ordinates


Case 1: when curve lies above axis as shown below

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b
Area  
a
f(x)dx

Case 2: Curves which are entirely below the x-axis as shown below

b
Area  a f(x)dx

Case 3: Part of the curve is below the x-axis and part of the curve is above
the x-axis.

c b
Area  a
f(x)dx   f(x)dx
c

4, area bounded by the curve y=f(x), the x-axis and the ordinates x=a and
x=b using elementary strip method is computed as follows

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Area of elementary strip = y.dx

b b b
Total area =  dA   ydx   f(x)dx
a a a

5. The area bounded by the curve x=f(y), the y-axis and the abscissa y=c
and y=d is given by

d d

 f(y)dy or,  xdy


c c

6. Area between y1 = f1(x) and y2 = f2(x), x = a and x = b is given by


b b b
 y2dx -  y1dx =  (y2 - y1)dx
a a a

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Area between two curves is the difference of the areas of the two graphs.

7. Area using strip

Each "typical" rectangle indicated has width Δx and height y2 − y1

Hence, Its area = (y2 − y1) Δx

b
 (y2  y1)x
Total Area = x a

b
Area   (y2  y1 )dx
a

Area between two curves is also equal to integration of the area of an


elementary rectangular strip within the region between the limits.

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8. The area of the region bounded by the curve y = f (x), x-axis and the
b b
lines x = a and x = b (b > a) is Area= ydx  
a
 f(x)dx
a
9. The area of the region enclosed between two curves y = f (x), y = g
(x) and
the lines x = a, x = b is
b


Area  [f(x)  g(x)]dx where, f(x) > g(x)
a
in [a,b]

10. If f(x) ≥g(x) in [a, c] and f(x)≤g(x) in [c, b], where a< c< b

then the area of the regions bounded by curves is


Total Area= Area of the region ACBDA + Area of the region BPRQB
c b
=  f  x   g  x   dx   g  x   f  x   dx
a c

Key Formulae
1. Some standard Integrals
xn1
 
xndx 
n1
 C,n  1

  dx  x  C
  cos x dx  sinx  C

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  sinx dx   cos x  C
 sec x dx  tanx  C
2

 co sec x dx   cot x  C
2

  sec x tanx dx  sec x  C


  co sec x cot x dx   cosec x  C
dx
 1  x  sin x  C
1

2

dx
  1x 2
  cos1 x  C

dx
 1 x 2
 tan1 x  C

dx
 1  x2
 cot 1 x  C

dx 1
  2  sec x  C
x x 1
dx 1
  2   cos ec x  C
x x 1

 e dx  e
x x
 C
ax
  ax dx 
log a
C

1
  x dx  log x  C
  tanx dx  log sec x  C
  cot x dx  log sinx  C
  sec x dx  log sec x  tanx  C
  co sec x dx  log co sec x  cot x  C
2.Integral of some special functions
dx 1 xa
 
2
x a 2

2a
log
xa
C

dx 1 ax
 a 2
x 2

2a
log
ax
C

dx 1 x
  2
x a 2
 tan1  C
a a
dx
  2
x a 2
 log x  x2  a2  C

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dx x
  a2  x2
 sin1
a
C

dx
  2
x a 2
 log x  x2  a2  C

 Error! = Error!
 Error! = Error!
 Error! = Error!

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