You are on page 1of 7

1

Class XII: Mathematics

Chapter 8: Applications of Integrals
Chapter Notes

Key Concepts
b

1. Definite integral f(x)dx of the function f(x) from limits a to b represents
a
the area enclosed by the graph of the function f(x) the x axis, and the
vertical lines x= ‘a’ and x = ‘b’

2. Area function is given by

x

A(x) = f(x)dx , where x is a point in [a, b]
a

3. Area bounded by a curve, x-axis and two ordinates

Case 1: when curve lies above axis as shown below

Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side

Log on to www.topperlearning.com
2

b
Area  
a
f(x)dx

Case 2: Curves which are entirely below the x-axis as shown below

b
Area  a f(x)dx

Case 3: Part of the curve is below the x-axis and part of the curve is above
the x-axis.

c b
Area  a
f(x)dx   f(x)dx
c

4, area bounded by the curve y=f(x), the x-axis and the ordinates x=a and
x=b using elementary strip method is computed as follows

Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side

Log on to www.topperlearning.com
3

Area of elementary strip = y.dx

b b b
Total area =  dA   ydx   f(x)dx
a a a

5. The area bounded by the curve x=f(y), the y-axis and the abscissa y=c
and y=d is given by

d d

c c

6. Area between y1 = f1(x) and y2 = f2(x), x = a and x = b is given by

b b b
 y2dx -  y1dx =  (y2 - y1)dx
a a a

Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side

Log on to www.topperlearning.com
4

Area between two curves is the difference of the areas of the two graphs.

Hence, Its area = (y2 − y1) Δx

b
 (y2  y1)x
Total Area = x a

b
Area   (y2  y1 )dx
a

Area between two curves is also equal to integration of the area of an

elementary rectangular strip within the region between the limits.

Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side

Log on to www.topperlearning.com
5

8. The area of the region bounded by the curve y = f (x), x-axis and the
b b
lines x = a and x = b (b > a) is Area= ydx  
a
 f(x)dx
a
9. The area of the region enclosed between two curves y = f (x), y = g
(x) and
the lines x = a, x = b is
b

Area  [f(x)  g(x)]dx where, f(x) > g(x)
a
in [a,b]

10. If f(x) ≥g(x) in [a, c] and f(x)≤g(x) in [c, b], where a< c< b

then the area of the regions bounded by curves is

Total Area= Area of the region ACBDA + Area of the region BPRQB
c b
=  f  x   g  x   dx   g  x   f  x   dx
a c

Key Formulae
1. Some standard Integrals
xn1
 
xndx 
n1
 C,n  1

  dx  x  C
  cos x dx  sinx  C

Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side

Log on to www.topperlearning.com
6

  sinx dx   cos x  C
 sec x dx  tanx  C
2

 co sec x dx   cot x  C
2

  sec x tanx dx  sec x  C

  co sec x cot x dx   cosec x  C
dx
 1  x  sin x  C
1

2

dx
  1x 2
  cos1 x  C

dx
 1 x 2
 tan1 x  C

dx
 1  x2
 cot 1 x  C

dx 1
  2  sec x  C
x x 1
dx 1
  2   cos ec x  C
x x 1

 e dx  e
x x
 C
ax
  ax dx 
log a
C

1
  x dx  log x  C
  tanx dx  log sec x  C
  cot x dx  log sinx  C
  sec x dx  log sec x  tanx  C
  co sec x dx  log co sec x  cot x  C
2.Integral of some special functions
dx 1 xa
 
2
x a 2

2a
log
xa
C

dx 1 ax
 a 2
x 2

2a
log
ax
C

dx 1 x
  2
x a 2
 tan1  C
a a
dx
  2
x a 2
 log x  x2  a2  C

Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side

Log on to www.topperlearning.com
7

dx x
  a2  x2
 sin1
a
C

dx
  2
x a 2
 log x  x2  a2  C

 Error! = Error!
 Error! = Error!
 Error! = Error!

Get the Power of Visual Impact on your side

Log on to www.topperlearning.com