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Chapter 8: Applications of Integrals

Chapter Notes

Key Concepts

b

1. Definite integral f(x)dx of the function f(x) from limits a to b represents

a

the area enclosed by the graph of the function f(x) the x axis, and the

vertical lines x= ‘a’ and x = ‘b’

x

A(x) = f(x)dx , where x is a point in [a, b]

a

Case 1: when curve lies above axis as shown below

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2

b

Area

a

f(x)dx

Case 2: Curves which are entirely below the x-axis as shown below

b

Area a f(x)dx

Case 3: Part of the curve is below the x-axis and part of the curve is above

the x-axis.

c b

Area a

f(x)dx f(x)dx

c

4, area bounded by the curve y=f(x), the x-axis and the ordinates x=a and

x=b using elementary strip method is computed as follows

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3

b b b

Total area = dA ydx f(x)dx

a a a

5. The area bounded by the curve x=f(y), the y-axis and the abscissa y=c

and y=d is given by

d d

c c

b b b

y2dx - y1dx = (y2 - y1)dx

a a a

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4

Area between two curves is the difference of the areas of the two graphs.

b

(y2 y1)x

Total Area = x a

b

Area (y2 y1 )dx

a

elementary rectangular strip within the region between the limits.

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5

8. The area of the region bounded by the curve y = f (x), x-axis and the

b b

lines x = a and x = b (b > a) is Area= ydx

a

f(x)dx

a

9. The area of the region enclosed between two curves y = f (x), y = g

(x) and

the lines x = a, x = b is

b

Area [f(x) g(x)]dx where, f(x) > g(x)

a

in [a,b]

10. If f(x) ≥g(x) in [a, c] and f(x)≤g(x) in [c, b], where a< c< b

Total Area= Area of the region ACBDA + Area of the region BPRQB

c b

= f x g x dx g x f x dx

a c

Key Formulae

1. Some standard Integrals

xn1

xndx

n1

C,n 1

dx x C

cos x dx sinx C

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6

sinx dx cos x C

sec x dx tanx C

2

co sec x dx cot x C

2

co sec x cot x dx cosec x C

dx

1 x sin x C

1

2

dx

1x 2

cos1 x C

dx

1 x 2

tan1 x C

dx

1 x2

cot 1 x C

dx 1

2 sec x C

x x 1

dx 1

2 cos ec x C

x x 1

e dx e

x x

C

ax

ax dx

log a

C

1

x dx log x C

tanx dx log sec x C

cot x dx log sinx C

sec x dx log sec x tanx C

co sec x dx log co sec x cot x C

2.Integral of some special functions

dx 1 xa

2

x a 2

2a

log

xa

C

dx 1 ax

a 2

x 2

2a

log

ax

C

dx 1 x

2

x a 2

tan1 C

a a

dx

2

x a 2

log x x2 a2 C

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7

dx x

a2 x2

sin1

a

C

dx

2

x a 2

log x x2 a2 C

Error! = Error!

Error! = Error!

Error! = Error!

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