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INDUSTRIAL WORK PRACTICE AND TEACHING FACTORY AS A SOLUTION TO

PURCHASE LEADING SCHOOL OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOL WITH INDUSTRIAL


WORLD IN INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 4.0

Mulyanto

Educational Mangement Department


Directorate of Postgraduate Education
university of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Yogyakarta-Indonesia
2019
ABSTRACT

MULYANTO: Industrial Work Practice and Teaching Factory as a Solution to Pur-


chase Leading of Vocational School with industrial worid in Industrial Revolution
4.0. Article, Yogyakarta : Educational Mangement Department, Directorate of Post-
graduate Education, university of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa Yogyakarta-Indonesia, 2019
The writing of this paper aims 1)to illustrate the importance of industrial coöperation for
schools with vocational training to create links and matches between vocational middle schools
and the industrial world. 2) to cut the gap between industrial World and SMK; the industrialized
world has progressed very rapidly in the era of industrial revolution 4.0, although the school has
limited equipment, and other technical capabilities to pursue progress experienced by the
industrial world.
This paper reveals: 1) It is very important for schools and the industrial world as two
institutions that need each other to set up industrial coöperation in the learning process at school.
This form of coöperation is an industry provides opportunities for students to carry out learning
activities in the industry in the form of Industrial Work Practices, which will give learning
experiences in the real work environment for students.
2). Another form of cooperation is the industry helping schools in the formation of industrial
classes in the form of teaching factory and technopark. This teaching factory and technopark activity is
held in schools by bringing the work culture in the industry into the school environment, by designing
learning environments in workshops such as those in industrial workshops and making the learning
atmosphere like an industrial atmosphere.
3) the case study of the research shows: a) The cooperation carried out by SMK Ma'arif 1 Wates
with PT Astra includes industrial work practices (internship), safety riding, place of competency testing
(TUK) and practice tools. b) Factors supporting the implementation of this collaboration are: (1) support
from various parties such as the principal, the board of teachers of all departments, and parents of
students. (2)) providing useful experience from Astra to practicing children. (3)) both parties benefit
equally. c) The inhibiting factors include: (1) a place of industrial practice outside the district which is
quite a distance away. (2) Self-students themselves who are less able to be responsible for their duties
and responsibilities. (3)) The approach used to further improve the quality of education at Vocational
High School 1 Wates is a disciplinary approach.

Key Words: SMK, industrial world, competency


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background

One of the logical consequences of a nation's economic growth theory is the need to
prepare education efforts that are capable of producing quality human resources. his is in line
with the purpose of education in Indonesia as stated in Law Number 20 of 2003 about
National Education Systems, namely education is a conscious and planned effort to create a
learning atmosphere and learning process so that students actively develop their potential to
have religious spiritual power, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and
skills needed by him, society, nation and state. (Law. 23, 2003).
In Indonesia educational institutions are divided into several paths, several levels and
several types. The path of education consists of formal, non-formal and informal education
that can complement and enrich each other. While the formal education level consists of basic
education, secondary education, and higher education. The types of education include general,
vocational, academic, professional, vocational, religious and special education. The path,
level and type of education can be realized in the form of educational units organized by the
Government, Regional Government, and / or the community (UU. 23, 2003).
One of the education units in Indonesia that aims to produce a middle-level workforce
that is skilled and professional in its field is vocational high school. This is in line with the
aim of vocational secondary education, one of which is to prepare human resources who are
ready to enter the workforce, have high leadership, are disciplined, professional, reliable in
their fields and productive. Thus, SMK graduates are ideally middle-level workers who are
ready to use, in the sense that they can directly work in the business and industry (Muhammad
Ph.D, 2014)
In facing the economic, social and cultural openness between countries globally,
especially in the application of the ASEAN economic community (AEC) which was put into
effect at the end of 2015, Indonesia was faced with increasingly fierce competition, including
in the supply of labors that would fill the needs of workers in the field of industry, trade,
tourism, and other employment in AEC member countries. If Indonesia does not prepare the
provision of intermediate to professional skilled labor, starting from increasing access to and
quality of secondary education, it can be ascertained that Indonesia will only be a shelter for
medium-skilled workers to professionals from AEC member countries.
Development Index (HDI) ranks 108th. This ranking is far below Thailand (89), Malaysia
(62), Brunei Darussalam (30), South Korea (16), and Singapore (12). In 2014, Indonesia's
place remained at the 108th rank with a value of 0.684 and this ranking was still below
Thailand (89), Malaysia (62), Brunei Darussalam (30), South Korea (15), and Singapore (9) .
Meanwhile, the World Economic Forum stated that Indonesia's competitiveness (Global
competitiveness Index, GCI) in 2014 was ranked 34th. This ranking is below Thailand (31),
South Korea (26), Malaysia (20), and Singapore ( 2). Meanwhile, in 2015 Indonesia's position
declined, which was in the 37th rank with a value of 4,521, or when compared to 2014 it
decreased by three levels. This ranking is also still below Thailand (32), South Korea (26),
Malaysia (18), and Singapore (2). Based on the HDI and GCI data, it shows that Indonesia's
competitiveness position compared to the competitiveness of ASEAN and Asian countries is
still relatively low (Muhammad Ph.D, 2014). This shows that until now vocational high
school education graduates in Indonesia are still considered to lack competency and
competitiveness to be able to work directly in the industrial world.
In connection with this condition, the education authorities in Indonesia see
problems in the provision of education in vocational secondary schools from two sides,
namely the demand side and the supply side.
On the demand side, the industry stated that the qualifications of graduates were not in
line with the expectations of the business world/industry, both in mastering hard skills (soft
skills), work skills and independence, as well as communication skills needed to expect
technological developments. In short, it takes skilled workers who are good (productive and
resilient).
On the supply side, institutions are faced with limited resources (facilities, human
resources, finance) and the low involvement of the business world/industry as users of
graduates in how t vocational high schools develop, resulting in gaps in information about
industry demands.
This condition must be addressed wisely by all parties who have an interest in
improving the quality of education in Indonesia, because the education responsibility is not
only in the education unit, but also attached to the government and society, of course
including the industrial world who will later use the secondary school graduate to fill the
needs of their workforce.
In order for Indonesian industry to be able to compete globally, it is time for the
Vocational Middle School as an institution to create Human Resources in the mid-level
vocational field to respond quickly to the rapid and dynamic development of information-
based economics. The work in the fast-paced, information-based global industrial revolution
4.0 era demands the importance of new competencies that are able to keep up with rapid
industrial development. Education is directed not just enough at the stage of knowing, but
it must be able to make the capabilities of Higher Order Thinking Skills, namely to apply, to
analyze, to check and to solve problems. (Muhammad Ph.D, 2014)
Education carried out with the aim of achieving Human Resources with thinking skills
formulated as "Higher Order Thinking Skills" (HOTS) aims to set up Human Resources with
the ability to innovate and be able to solve problems. Cognitive, Affective (Behavior /
Attitude) and Psychomotor aspects must be delivered as a whole in learning which as a final
result is innovation-oriented and able to solve problems. This is evidenced by professional,
hardworking, communicative attitudes and behavior, able to work together in teams, be
efficient, honest, fair, and experts in their fields.
Related to the description above, the problems faced by vocational high schools are
generally related to equipment limitations, the low-cost of practice, and a learning
environment that is not yet in line with the world of work. Ideally vocational high schools is
that the learning environment must be the same as the work environment, and the work
environment is their learning environment. This condition can lead to unpreparedness of
vocational high school graduates in entering the workforce. The unpreparedness of vocational
high school graduates in carrying out work in the workforce has an effect on the user industry.
As a user of labor, the industry must give education in the industry (training activities) which
may take for weeks or months to prepare its workforce. Thus the industry must allocate extra
costs beyond the production costs while it also has to pay salaries for those workers who
have not been productive. Actually the industry and the school have their respective
limitations in forming and getting ready-to-use labor. The school has limitations in financing
and providing a learning environment, while the industry has limited educational resources to
form the workforce needed. Therefore, it will be very harmonious if the two institutions set up
coöperation in various forms that are mutually beneficial so that there is a link and match
between the industrial world and vocational middle schools.

B. Purpose

The writing of this paper aims to illustrate the importance of industrial coöperation for
schools with vocational training to create links and matches between vocational middle
schools and the industrial world. The purpose of the industrial class is:
1. Increasing coöperation and mutual understanding between the business world and
the world of education in contributing to educate society;
2. Increasing the ability and professionalism of graduates;
3. Increasing graduates' absorption and competitiveness in the world of work.

C. Problem Formulation

1. Why is industrial coöperation for vocational secondary schools a must?


2. What are the forms of industrial coöperation with vocational high schools that can
be realized?
CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL REVIEW

Based on etymology, education comes from the word "pedagogy", namely "paid" means child
while "agogos" means guiding, so in language education is a science to guide children.
Education is a process for human society. According to Ki Hdjar Dewantara, education is the
process of creating independent people (Baharuddin, 2554). In Indonesia education is the right of
every citizen mandated in the 1945 Constitution, where in the opening of the 1945 Constitution
it is stated that one of the mandates carried out by the Government is "Educating the Nation's
Life". For this reason, the Indonesian Government has an obligation to give education together
with the community and educational institutions. Education is a conscious, planned effort to
create a learning atmosphere and learning process so that students actively develop their
potential to have spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and
skills needed by themselves, society, nation and country. (Law. 23, 2003)
Thus Education is all the efforts and all efforts to make people develop human potential
to have religious spiritual strength, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character,
and possess the skills needed as members of society and citizens. Besides that education is an
effort to form a whole human being born and mind smart, healthy, and noble character.
In Indonesia educational institutions are divided into several levels and several types. The
level of education in Indonesia consists of basic education, secondary education, and higher
education. The types of education include general, vocational, academic, professional,
vocational, religious and special education.
One of the educational institutions in Indonesia that is expected to produce a skilled and
professional workforce is the Vocational High School. This is in accordance with the Purpose of
Vocational High School Education in Law No. 20 of 2003. The purpose of vocational secondary
education according to Law Number 20 of 2003, is divided into general goals and special goals.
The general goal of vocational secondary education is to (a) increase the faith and piety of
students to the Almighty God; (b) develop the potential of students to become citizens who are
noble, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent, democratic and responsible; (c)
develop the potential of students to have national insight, understand and appreciate Indonesian
culture diversity and (d) develop the potential of students to have concern for the environment by
actively participating in maintaining and preserving the environment, and utilizing natural
resources effectively and efficiently. (Wibowo, 2015)
The specific goals of vocational secondary education are as follows: (a) prepare students
to become productive human beings, able to work independently, fill existing job vacancies as
middle-level workforce by the competencies in the chosen ability program; (b) prepare students
to be able to choose a career, resilient and persistent in competency, adapt to the work
environment and develop professional attitudes in the field of expertise that they are interested
in; (c) equip students with science, technology and art to be able to develop themselves later in
life both independently and through higher education levels; and (d) equip students with
competencies that go with the chosen expertise program. (Wibowo, 2015)
In accordance with the vision of the Directorate of Vocational High School, Education
is the realization of Vocational High Schools that can produce entrepreneurial graduates who are
ready to work, are smart, competitive, and have national identity, and are able to develop local
excellence and be able to compete in the global market. (Asriati, 2018).
The process of education in Vocational High Schools is learning to give human resources
that have international competitiveness because international challenges dominate in the years to
come. For this reason, efforts or strategies and policies need to be carried out in anticipation
of the improvement and development of the education process. The industrial world as a user of
vocational education or other professional education always sees and pays great attention to the
competence of human resources. (Wibowo, 2015).
All workers in the international scale industry need mastery of high performance
competency and skill bases. Even so for a company, not all workers with hard skills possessed
can guarantee the success of the company with a lot of profits. In general, some industries want
graduates who have two main competencies, namely hard skills and soft skills. Hard skills
competency is a skill used to work according to the field of ability, while soft skills
competencies are used to support workers to complete their tasks. The basic skills are
learned when graduates are in the School through the learning process while soft skills other than
being in school can also be taught with habituation in school and outside the school environment.
(Asriati, 2018) Furthermore Patric S. O'Brien (1997) describes soft skills including
communication skills, organizational skills, leadership skills, logic skills, effort skills, group
skills and ethics. (Asriati, 2018)
To be able to realize the vision of the Directorate of Vocational High School
Development and the establishment of link and match between vocational high school and
industry, coöperation must be held between Vocational High Schools and the industry. The
education unit must carry out an education that is oriented to the labor market by implementing
the Indonesian National Work Competency Standards (SKKNI). This can be realized if the
school carries out coöperation with industry. The most effective implementation
of coöperation between schools and industries is the learning process that can be implemented in
the form of Industrial Work Practices / On The Job Training as well as Teaching Factory
and Technopark.

1. Industrial Work Practices / On The Job Training


According to Angrayani (2009) Work Based Learning is a program where students can study in
the business world and industry simultaneously with in the world of education (school), work
based learning programs are intended to bring students to learn directly in real business to apply
the learning material he has learned in class. (Stevan, 2017)
The ways that can be done to carry out Work Based Learning programs are through approaches
to Internship, Apprenticeship, Cooperative Educational Placement, School-Based Enterprise,
Service Learning, and Job Shadowing. (Stevan, 2017)
One type of approach is internship, according to Angrayani (2009) internship is one work-based
learning approach that presents an approved school program with students learning about a job
placement / occupation in the industry by working for an employer inside a certain period.
(Stevan, 2017), in this case the implementation of Industrial Work Practices for Vocational High
School students in Indonesia is carried out within six months.
From the description above it can be concluded that the implementation of Industrial Work
Practices in learning in Vocational High Schools has a very important role in equipping students
to enter the workforce, because these activities will give real work experience for students who
are not found in school.
This is in line with Proser (1950: 225) stating "The effective establishment of the process of
learning and learning is not on exercises or pseudo jobs. (Rabiman, 2012)

2. Teaching Factory and Technopark

Teaching Factory is a concept of learning in a real atmosphere, so that it can bridge the
competency gap between industry needs and school knowledge. Innovative learning technology
and productive practices are concepts of educational methods that are oriented to the
management of students in learning to be in harmony with the needs of the industrial world.
(Muhammad Ph.D, 2014)
In another sense that production-based learning is a learning process of ability or skills designed
and implemented based on rules and real work standards (real jobs) to produce goods or services
that are in accordance with market or consumer demands. In other words the goods produced can
be in the form of products or services that can be sold or that can be used by the community,
schools or consumers as proof that vocational students are not only competent in certain skills,
but also able to apply their competencies to be useful. (Muhammad Ph.D, 2014)
Another opinion was expressed by Rentoz, The Teaching Factory paradigm comprising
the industrial project, the relevant educational approach and the necessary ICT configuration for
facilitation of interaction between industry and academia. The current status of the paradigm is a
real-life pilot, between a university and a construction equipment factory. The conclusions of the
pilot, show the promising nature of the teaching factory and the many benefits accruing, both for
academia and industry. (Asriati, 2018)
Dadang Hidayat says the Model Teaching Factory integrates the entire learning process to
produce products and services that have high selling value so that the school has added value.
The teaching factory program is now a new discovery for the world of vocational education
because it is able to create vocational graduates who are competent and ready to work according
to the demands of the workforce. (Asriati, 2018. Ahmad mentions the process of implementing
teaching factory learning is to integrate business concepts and vocational education in
accordance with relevant competency skills. (Asriati, 2018).
To accommodate the production produced from the learning process by applying factory
teaching learning models, a container is needed to market these products to consumers or
industries in need. Technopark is one form of container to connect educational institutions with
the industrial world. With the Technopark it will enable the flow of information and technology
more efficiently and quickly between industries and education, while at the same time
boosting the development of regional potential by accelerating entrepreneurship programs in
Vocational High Schools. (Muhammad Ph.D, 2014)
CHAPTER III
DISCUSSION

The Industrial Revolution 4.0 has brought the industrial world into a new era that requires
workers on all fronts to continue to need a lifelong learning scheme to compete with rapid
advances in production related to technology, advanced equipment and techniques. Progress
in this very fast industrial world will make a long gap with vocational schools. Whereas the
relationship between the industrial world and vocational education has a very close
relationship, vocational education is the main driver of the development of industrial progress.
This is because vocational schools are the main providers of labor for production activities in
the industrial world.
To be able to overcome the problem, good coöperation is needed between the industrial
world and vocational schools, namely the application of industrial classes in the form of
activities in the form of industrial work/on the job training and Teaching Factory and
technopark.
The principle of the activities of Industrial Work Practices is that the School provides
trust in the industry to guide students to meet competencies in accordance with the demands
of the curriculum. This industry work practice will give a very valuable experience for
students. This is due to student learning activities no longer in the classroom in the school
environment, but directly in the workforce. It is no longer learning in the form of a
simulation, but it is direct practice to produce both goods and services. It is no longer facing
teachers to get an assessment but directly dealing with consumers/users of their services.
In order to be able to carry out industrial work practices well the school needs to take
preparatory steps including 1) the school conducts adequate debriefing for students before
carrying out industrial work practice activities, at least students must have basic competencies
ready to be developed; 2) schools conduct assessment and evaluation of the industrial world
that can be done to be used as a place of industrial work practice activities 3) schools conduct
regular guidance on students who are carrying out industrial work practice activities 4)
schools check the effectiveness of industrial work practices in each partner institutions as a
guideline for the following industrial work practice activities. With the implementation
of effective industrial work practice activities, it is hoped that it will provide valuable
provisions for students to enter the workforce.
The second form of learning that will improve the vocational school graduates
competence is teaching factory learning models. The basic conception of Teaching Factory is
"Factory to Classroom" which aims to transfer the production environment in the industry into
the practice room. Real production life is needed to improve teaching competencies based on
real activities from industry practices on a daily basis. This concept seeks to bring the existing
culture in the industry to enter the learning environment that exists in schools. Because for
vocational schools a good learning environment is a work environment. By learning this
factory teaching model will train students to be able to develop their skills and hard skills
according to the demands needed by the industrial world.
This is because learning with teaching models is a production oriented factory as in real
industry. This model implementation fully integrates learning and work, no longer separating
between the place of delivery of theory and practice. Learning is done in practical workshops
that are designed like those in the industrial world and directly produce products
or provide services to consumers.
Learning this factory teaching model will train students to serve consumers by
implementing 6 production activities, namely accepting orders, analyzing orders, stating
readiness to work orders, working on orders, monitoring quality and submitting orders.
Because teaching this factory teaching model applies work concepts in the industry there
will certainly be goods or services that are produced in real terms in this learning activity.
This will need a forum for real product marketing activities from learning activities. For this
reason, technopark must be ready in teaching factory learning that can be used as a container
for the products produced in teaching factory learning activities. Another positive side of
teaching learning activities is this factory will give more entrepreneurial knowledge to
students to market teaching factory learning products. Where understanding the concept of
entrepreneurship is also very much needed by students, because with entrepreneurial learning
from teaching factory activities at least students will form a superior attitude of an
entrepreneur, namely: Full of confidence, optimism, commitment, discipline, responsibility,
initiative, agility in acting, and other positive entrepreneurial attitudes
With two combinations of learning in vocational schools, namely the application
of industrial work practices and the effective teaching factory learning models application
will foster optimism for all parties with the belief that education in vocational schools will
experience rapid progress to offset the progress achieved by industry in this industrial
revolution 4.0 era.
Case study conducted by Esta Nurdianto entitled SCHOOL COOPERATION
PROGRAM WITH PT. AHM TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION
IN MA'ARIF 1 WATES VOCATIONAL SCHOOL, which aims to see what kind
of coöperation conducted by Maárif 1 Wates Vocational School to improve the quality
of education, especially the Department of Motorcycle Engineering (ME) and
the proper approach to support the program, reveals that: 1) The coöperation carried out
by Ma'arif 1 Wates Vocational School with PT Astra includes industrial work practices
(internship), safety riding, place of competency testing (CET) and practice tools. 2) Factors
supporting the collaboration application are: a) support from various parties such as the
principal, the board of teachers of all departments, and parents of students. b) providing useful
experience from Astra to practicing children. c) both parties benefit equally. 3) The inhibiting
factors include: a) a place of industrial practice outside the district which is far away. b) Self-
students themselves who are less able to be responsible for their duties and responsibilities. 4)
The approach used to further improve the quality of education at Vocational High School
1 Wates is a disciplinary approach.
CHAPTER IV
CLOSING

A. Conclusion

The industrial revolution 4.0 has brought progress in the field of technology and industry
is running very fast, resulting in vocational schools as producers of labor in the industry
lagging behind. The best solution to catch up with vocational school is to collaborate with the
industry to play an active role in the learning process at school. Among the forms of co-
operation between vocational schools and the industrial world are industrial work practices,
where the industry provides opportunities for students to learn to work in an industrial
environment that produces real products.
Besides that the industry is expected to help realize the industrial class in schools in the
form of teaching factories and technoparks, where industrial culture will be brought into
school learning activities.
Research on the Cooperation of Vocational Schools with Industry conducted by
Esta Nurdianto shows that all stakeholders support the program and as a result of
such coöperation the school's performance, especially student competence, can increase. Thus
Vocational school and the industrial world cooperations need to be preserved and
continuously improved to face industrial revolusion 4.0.

B. Suggestions

This paper is far from being perfect, so the author expects constructive criticism and
suggestions from the readers for the perfection of this paper.
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