You are on page 1of 25

Article No.

“LITERATURE REVIEW OF ADOPTION OF


E PROCUREMENT PRACTICES BY CON-
STRUCTION INDUSTRIES"

Avinash Shukla
Research Scholar in Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management
studies & Research, of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

Dr Mohd Afaq Khan


Assistant Professor in the Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management
Studies & Research, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

Dr Mrinalini Shah
Professor Operations Management,Chairperson Entrepreneurship cell
Institute of Management Technology (IMT),Ghaziabad

Abstract: Advent of information technology (IT) has provided more competitiveness in business opera-
tion. Construction industry is also gearing up towards the more usage of information technology driven plat-
form. Cost is the main factor for construction industry. Construction Industry Development Council of India
(CIDC) has estimated that approx. 40-50% cost belongs to material in total building project. Therefore, it is
imperative to optimize the material purchasing in construction activities. E procurement has emerged as panacea
to address most of the problems- cost saving, time saving and best quality, minimization of malpractices asso-
ciates with purchasing.

We have reviewed 103 research papers from various countries and collated the adoption practices of e procure-
ment. Interestingly TOE and TAM model has used by many of researchers.

Keywords: E-procurement, adoption of E-procurement

E- Procurement –Paradigm shift

Invention and adaption of new technologies and ideas increase the productivity of the
business organization, which will in turn translate to high economic growth. Recent
technology advancements in information and communication technologies (ICT) have made a
paradigm shift in the way business processes are conducted. Electronic procurement (E-
procurement) is one of the technological solutions to facilitate corporate buying. E-
procurement is the electronic (B2B or B2C or B2G) sale and purchase of goods and services.
Procurement supports a delivery relationship between buyers and sellers (Subramaniam &
Shaw 2004, Saeed et al. 2005). Raghavan and Prabhu (2004) defined E-procurement as -

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 1
„„the electronic acquisition of goods and services including all processes from the
identification of a need to purchase of products, to the payment for these purchases,
including post-contract/payment activities such as contract management, supplier
management and development‟‟. Traditionally, procurement processes between various
parties were organized through mail, phone, fax and electronic data interchange (EDI) and
more recently internet. E-procurement has evolved into the use of electronic technologies to
streamline and enable the procurement activities of an organization (Hawking et al., 2004).
The benefit of procurement has contributed great saving in bottom line costs of many
companies worldwide and hence procurement is a significant tactic in most companies‟ E-
business strategies. It is claimed that a company engaging in E- procurement can cut cost by
8 to 15% (Ghazaly, 2005). E- Procurement is driven by automated procurement process,
integrating the functional processes and purchase management. The emergence of Web-
based E-procurement is expected to reduce the order fulfilment cycle time, lower
the inventory levels, reduce the administrative cost of procurement, cost of procurement,
and enhance the order fulfilment and performance of suppliers (Subramaniam and Shaw
2002, Son and Benbasat 2007 ) .

Most of the times, terms „procurement‟ and „purchasing‟ are used interchangeably. However,
both differ significantly in their scope. Overall objectives of purchasing are to buy quality
materials at competitive prices, in bulk quantities, at the required time, and from reliable
sources (Fung, 1999).

Procurement is broadly defined to include a company‟s requisitioning, purchasing,


transportation, warehousing, and in-bound receiving processes, also linking suppliers and
buyers into the purchasing network and rethinking of inter-organizational processes driven by
transaction. Various countries have adopted E- Procurement due to inherent advantages.
As per Chhattisgarh government e procurement portal (http://www.chips.gov.in/projects/e-
procurement 16 Dec-15) e-Procurement is helps to bring transparency and efficiency to the
Government Procurement and adoption of e procurement is being increasingly by the Centre
and many states for their procurement needs.

Through implementation of comprehensive integrated e procurement solution will enhance


the efficiently and transparency in public procurement system. AS per CI
(http://www.c1india.com/are-you-hesitant-of-adopting-e-procurement/ 16 Dec-15)
Now days every business is trying to reap benefit of advent of information technology. The
internet has opened the avenue beyond the boundaries of earth; business can stay connected
with suppliers from around the globe. Organization has benefited in terms of dearth of sup-
pliers, cost competitiveness, better quality due to enhance competitions and advantage of new
technologies. Some the challenges refrain people not to use information technology in pro-
curement or tendering:

a) Unwilling to change
b) Security concern about portal
c) Acquiring digital signature certificate

Ramkumar & Jenamani(2012) Adoption of e procurement can be two way, one optional and
other mandatory from the law like in India as per Central vigilance commission Act mandate

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 2
e procurement in public sector organization. Since e procurement is not core business for
many organization in that case three option available: a) Develop in house b) service provider
and c) Both a and b. Many of organization opting for service provider option to utilize the
expertise of service provider. Selection of service Provider Company should be based on
main criteria‟s like technology, vendor base, technical competence, performance, flexibility
of service, worthiness and reputation. To remove the biasness Analytical network process
(ANP) approach also being used in selection of e procurement service provider.

Carayannisa & Popescu(2005) european union seen the improvement in its ability to meet the
high expectations from e procurement due to more transparent and efficient manner because
of advent in internet technology. SIMAP is the main platform used in public procurement in
European Union. Information technology created more transparent information made
available to all the stakeholders, standardize the forms and notification.. Major challenge in
adoption for e procurement in public procurement is cost factor.

Stefano Ronchi et al. (2010) adoption of e procurement technology created advantage over
competitors‟ ability to charge high and build the relationship with suppliers. Value assessment
is very important generated through e procurement. Various method is being used to asses
value creation- pragmatic way is cost benefit; theoretical way through decision theory. Two
level of framework develop to assess the value of e procurement: one financial level through
order cost, administrative cost, lead time and opportunity cost of capital; second organization
level measuring the control, transparency, maverick buying, decentralization and supply base
rationalization.

Corina(2011) Discussed about the major impediment in adoption of e procurement. Broadly


four head in barriers:
a) Management barriers- limited resource, resistance in change and information sharing
b) Organization barriers- different culture, different compatible internal and external,
post supplier relationship
c) IT barriers- security, lack of compatibility, no common technology
d) User barriers- fear, change, lack of information skill system

Focusing on training of employees explaining the benefit of e procurement will provide


environment conducive for adoption of e procurement. Collaborative workings with suppliers
are very important in e procurement.

Bof & Previtali(2010) public procurement has three relevant- a) impact on economy b) gov-
ernment public service( provide goods & services) c) affect National‟s competitiveness and
citizen‟s welfare. Researcher has evaluated the Italy public procurement. E procurements
provides acceleration in execution times of procedure, reducing time of purchasing process,
reducing expenses, simplification of processes , direct and constant monitoring of public
spending to compare the benefits, more time for strategic thinking, transparency due to uni-
form success.

Ali & Alrayes (2014) explained the variables that might affect e procurement adoption in
Kingdom of Bahrain. Researcher has studied perceived organization e readiness factors
(POER) and perceived external e readiness factors (PEER). POER factors comprise of

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 3
awareness, commitment, governance, resources (human, business and technology) effect the
institutional adoption. Main PEER factors are market forces, supporting industries and
government. Licker model called perceived e readiness model (PERM) which includes
internal and external factors for IT adoption. Researcher also define the status of adopters of e
procurement- Non adopters (no connection to web, only email), Initial adopters (web with
interaction with email query etc.) and Institutional adopters (transaction web online selling
and purchasing, integration with suppliers, customers and other back office).

Ruey-Lin Hsiao and Thompson S. H. Teo(2005) explained the three stage e procurement
implementation model.– access the applicability of e procurement, determine e procurement
objective, overcome the barriers of e procurement and finally deliver e procurement promise.
CIO9chief information officers) are key role in implementation of e procurement. CIO should
focus broad technology in e procurement can be used to steam lime procurement and improve
the procurement spending. In fact research shows the 10% decrease in procurement cost can
result in 50% increase in profit margin.

Kevin Moindi Omai(2013) data of the study showed that sharing information demonstrated
the development of partner relationship and support the supply chain integration. Partner
relationship has different variant level of importance across different tea factories (capture
through survey) but price and quality emerged very important. Researcher has defined supply
chain performance depend on four factors- information sharing, partnership relationship,
supply chain integration and suppliers appraisal.

Introduction of construction industry


Construction is the Latin word (from com- "together" and struere "to pile up") means the arts
and science to form material, system and organization to build some structures.

Building Construction is the process of sequencing activities start from planning, design and
financing and continues until the structure is ready for occupancy.

From being single activity to large scale construction is the process of human multitasking.
Normally, jobs are managed by project manager, supervisors, site workers, architects and
project engineers.

Since these activities involved the entire eco system of environment as well as human socie-
ty. So it is very important those involved with design and execution must consider the zoom-
ing of requirement, environment impact, successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site
safety and transportation & logistic of building material.

Definition
Russell Sturgis distinguished between architecture as being artistic structure, where a
building is unadorned and can be "...poor...commonplace, ugly, insufficient, or otherwise of
small importance; " and the use of the word construction as meaning built using scientific
principles in a highly skillful way.

Type of Construction
Broadly construction sector has divided into two sectors- real estate and infrastructure

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 4
sectors, out of which major share holds by infrastructure and is key driver of the overall
growth in construction sector. Residential building, township, commercial, SEZ/IT parks
come under real estate sector. Heavy projects executed on massive scale like roads, railways,
ports, airports come under the infrastructure segment. As per planning commission D&B
report show the data:

Civil Construction
Infrastructure is back bone for any construction activity, civil construction majorly contribute
to infrastructure. Generally government as well as international government agencies are the
typical the builder of this construction. Civil construction primarily serves the interest of the
public interest.

Building Construction
Building constructions are acquired both privately and publicly. Residential, corporate office
and commercial include retail, shopping malls, showroom, hotels are comes under building
construction segment.

Industrial Construction
Usually, this type of construction required a highly specialised skill in construction, planning
and design. The industries which fall under this segment are medicine, power generation,
chemical and petroleum manufacturing.

According to National building code of India (SP :7 – 1983) ,classification of the building
based on occupancy. Different types of buildings:

Group A: Residential buildings: Building in which sleeping accommodation is provided, with


or without cooking or dining or both facilities.

Group B: Educational buildings: Building used for school, college or day care purpose.
Group C: Institutional buildings: Building or part of building is used for medical, disease or
infirmity; convalescent etc.

Group D: Assembly buildings: Group of people congregate or gather for amusement, recrea-
tion, social, religious, patriotic, civil and travel purpose.

Group E: Business buildings: Building used for business transaction purpose.


Group F: Mercantile buildings: Building is used for shops, stores, market for display and
merchandise.

Group G: Industrial buildings: Wherein products or material of all kind and properties are
fabricated, assembled, manufactured or processed.

Group H: Storage building: Primarily used for storage or sheltering of goods, wares or mer-
chandise.

Group J: Hazardous buildings: Used for storage, handling, manufacturing or processing of


highly combustible or explosive materials.

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 5
E Procurement adoption in different countries
Every country has different challenges in adoption of E- procurement in construction
industry. Research has been conducted for different countries with respect to E- procurement
in construction industry base on country wise challenges but no comprehensive study has
done.

India
The Government of India approved the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) on 18 May 2006
(http://india.gov.in/govt/national_egov_plan.php). Government of India can achiever E-
governance through NeGP programme. E-Procurement is an integral component of NeGP.
According to a recent estimate, government is buying five lakh crore materials per annum.
Single portal for E-procurement for all the government departments and agencies can elimi-
nation of „aberration and malpractices‟ in existing procurement procedure. (Prabir Panda, GP
Sahu and Pramod Gupta,2010)

Many companies used the E-procurement to achieve greater efficiencies. Some of the
examples are Tata , Wipro , MUL(Maruti), LML, HDFC, Amtrex, Blue Star, Ballarpur
Industries, Grasim, Asian Paints, Marico Industries, Nerolac Paints. Engineering,
Construction & Contracts (ECC) division of Larsen & Turbo Limited also adopted vertically
integrated supply chain management initiatives implemented in Management (SCM)
initiatives. (Sri Devi Bulusu, ITC., Proceedings of the Fifth Asia Pacific Industrial
Engineering and Management Systems Conference 2004)

eProcurement Trends
Financial No. of Value in
Year Tenders Crores (INR)
2003 - 2004 1549 3623
2004 - 2005 4901 30822
2005 - 2006 9930 11892
2006 - 2007 21985 31487
2007 - 2008 33904 75119
2008 - 2009 44883 130061
2009 - 2010 26062 28208
2010 - 2011 47182 19675
2011 - 2012 49354 24436
2012 - 2013 67593 25191
2013 - 2014 93566 3684
Source: http://www.eprocurement.gov.in/

Austria
In Austria E-procurement adoption is low in construction industry compare to automotive
industry. Probable reasons for low adoption rate are customized project which differ from
each other in material ordered etc. On contrary, automotive industry concentrates on mass
production and distribution of nearly similar products. The Austrian construction industry is

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 6
constituted of numerous small and medium sized firms (SMEs) but only few big players
(Zunk et al, 2014) which might be a reason for the low adoption rate. Austrian construction
companies use E- procurement order to enhance their efficiency due to reduce complexity in
procurement process, improved collaboration with the suppliers and a possibility to reduce
process cost.

Canada
Rankin et al (2005) opined E-procurement as one of the way to increase the top line. The
main barriers for adoption of E- procurement in Canadian construction industry are
organizational and technical issues. Organization characteristics also have an impact on E-
procurement and broadly depend on organizational type, structure, revenues and management
level. In today‟s competitive world personal contact is important for long – term relationships
with customer, as well as the learning curve of using new technologies.

United Kingdom
Eadia et al (2010) has discussed barriers and drivers for E- procurement in UK construction
industry. The most important drivers of E procurement were identified as process, transaction
& administration Cost saving. The most important barriers were Prevention of tampering
with Documents, followed by insufficient assessment of systems prior to installation and
confidentiality of Information or unauthorised viewing.

Malaysia
Deraman et al (2012) has found out 26 critical success factors (CSF) in E- purchasing
through literature review. Nevertheless, results from the exploratory study reveals that only
fourteen factors exist and specific to construction organization in context of Malaysia.

Daud et al, (2013) has applied an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis et
al., 1989) model in a new context of E-procurement. Study has used descriptive analysis for
finding out the factors influencing the usage of E- procurement among contractor companies
in Malaysia. Five factors identified in the study are :Usage of E- procurement, Perceived ease
of use, Perceived usefulness, Attitude toward using E-procurement to understand, Intention
to use E- procurement.

Hashim et al, (2013) has studied perceived value of E-Procurement in the construction
industry in Malaysia. This study concluded that tactical and operational values are more
important than strategic values. Important variables in different heads were defined as
follows:

Tactical Value
• Lower procurement cost
• Reduced time of preparing cost plans
Operations Value
• Reduced non value added activities
• Order process more efficient
Strategic Value
• Improved firm growth and success
• Reduced and eliminate problem with suppliers

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 7
Kuwait
Baladhandayutham & Venkatesh (2012) had defined model from supplier‟s perspective. Cost,
time and opportunity benefits were positively correlated whereas relationship barrier was
negatively correlated in E- procurement adoption in Kuwait construction industry.

Kuwait construction material suppliers can develop appropriate E-procurement strategies


base on drivers and barrier.

Cost benefit

Supplier‟s Time benefit E-procurement


dimensions
adoption
Opportunity
benefit

Relationship
barrier

Exhibit1:E-procurement adoption model in Kuwait construction industry (Baladhandayutham


& Venkatesh 2012)

Tanzania

Mohamed, Kayungi S.(2013) had explained that manual procurement system is considered
inadequate for construction industry due to lack of transparency in various stages of
construction procumbent such as tender evaluation and award. The Manual procurement
system is full of tedious paper work leading to wastage of time and money. Research
(Towards E-procurement implementation in Tanzania: construction industry preparedness)
has found out that low adoption of E-procurement in Tanzania construction industry is mainly
due to of lacks policies & frameworks and low level of awareness of E-procurement to
stakeholders. Model for E-procurement adoption for Tanzania construction industry has
explained three stages for E-procurement adoption, first policy framework stage, second
technology, people and process stage and finally efficiency and transparency stage.

Turkey
Isikdag et al( 2011) has explained the E- procurement provides opportunity for improving
communication and coordination along with expanding marketplace for both suppliers and
buyers. The study has discussed about E-procurement from both supplier and buyer
perspectives in relation to the Turkish Architect, Engineering and construction (AEC)
industry. Legal issues and lack of a legal infrastructure in particular (i.e. rules and regulations
for support of E-Procurement), were identified as a key barrier towards industry-wide
adoption of E-Procurement within the Turkish AEC industry. From strategic perspective, the
top-management of organisations are still very much focused on operational everyday tasks
not focusing on E- procurement for long term benefit. Furthermore, there is a lack of

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 8
awareness towards the real benefits of E-Procurement.

Key technological issues that were identified in the Turkish AEC Industry are mainly related
to security of exchanging information (i.e. protecting competitively advantageous
information, digital signature). The lack of capabilities of re-engineering processes to
facilitating the new way of procurement also major barriers. The results indicate that the
stakeholders within the Turkish AEC Industry continue to refrain from implementing E-
Procurement unless E-procurement as a sine-qua-non in contract.

China
Tran et al (2011) had developed theoretical model to assist the importance of government,
organization, and technology on a construction enterprises‟ E-procurement implementation
readiness level in developing countries. Readiness of enterprise depends on two factors-
enterprise‟s propensity and available capability in implantation of E- procurement.
Organization readiness level is changed over time in the innovation process. After analysing
the adoption of innovation theory was carried out and a Government-Organization-
Technology framework was proposed (GOT). The provided conceptual model needs to be
tested in actual world.

Government aspect Organization aspect


E-procurement  Available
 Government implementation
leadership resources
readiness level  Decision-
 Human
resource makers attitude
management towards E-
procurement
 IT
infrastructure  Internal
management Technology aspect organization
 Legal and  Perceived characteristic
regulatory benefits  External
system  Perceived business
challenges relationships

Exhibit 2: Impact-role-factor structure in E-procurement readiness by Tran et al (2011)

Review of Literature

E-Procurement adoption in construction industry

The term “E-business” has described Internet-enabled systems that provide information,
facilitate transactions or provide shared business processes (Bloor Research, 2005). There are
a number of processes that can be associated with E-business, four of the major processes
related to E-business are depicted in table 3 (MOIE,2003).

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 9
Table 2: E- business process (source: Guillermo et al ,2003)
Process Description

E-procurement Procuring material, services, expert and manpower. Dissemination and


gathering information about project
E-transactions Transactions across the space between the buyer and seller in the supply
chain
E-logistics Delivering parts, components, materials, plant, information

E-collaboration Facilitates coordination of various among supply chain partners.


Collaboration among teams in a virtual space such as collaborative
design, planning and project management.

E-procurement system adoption has been conducted across various geographies and sectors/
industries like manufacturing, construction and healthcare. Procurement process has evolved
electronically with the growth of electronic commerce (Carter et al. 2000). A study conducted
by Malhotra & Galletta (2003) found culture and organization structure play a vital role in E-
procurement adoption. Knowledge management (KM) can address the culture and
organization structure issue by communicating the benefit and the concern by regular
interaction with all the stakeholders. (Malholtra and Galletta, 2003).

E- Procurement benefit can be classified in different categories according to different


researchers as follows:

a) Strategic, tactical and operational benefits (Irani, 2002);


b) Tangible and intangible benefits (Gunasekaran et al., 2001; Irani and Love, 2002);
c) Financial and non-financial benefits (Irani and Love, 2002);

Adoption of E-Procurement is considerably low in construction industry, compare to other


industries such as manufacturing and retail industry (Alam, & Ahsan, 2007, Mansor &Abidin
2010., Tan et al,2009., Pierre & Robert 2010).

E- Procurement in construction industry can be improved by showing the value gain of


manufacturing industries by using E-procurement (Chen and Rankin, 2006). Constructions
companies are using web-based inter organizational information systems (IOISs) (Cash and
Konsynski, 1985) to support their inter-organizational processes with their key suppliers.
Oyegoke et al (2009) In construction projects many stakeholders are involved therefor
important to define the type of procurement route. Generally four type of procurement route:

a) Traditional – lump sum


b) Design and build – degree of risk transfer

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 10
c) Management routes – degree of risk transfer ( combination of traditional and design
build route)
d) Partnering- very strong in public procurement
e) Cost reimbursable – contract provision of incentivize

Construction procurement categorization also depends on organization and method of


finance.

DBB-Design
bid build
CM -Cost Direct
Management DB
MC - Trunkey
Management
contract
Fragmented Integrated
d
DBO-Design build operate
BOO- Build own operate
BOT – Build operate transfer
DBOM- Design build operate Maintain
BOOT- Build own operate transfer
DBFO- Design build finance operate
Indirect

Exhibit3: Construction procurement categorisation based on organisation and financing


strategies by Miller (2002)

Naoum & Egbu(2015) elaborated a critical review of procurement method. Knowledge of


emerging trend in procurement method, will allow practitioners to appreciate as well as
concern in development of new techniques and principles such as build ability/
constructability, innovation, lean construction, supply chain management, sustainability and
value engineering. Integration of construction industry though continuous improvement and
value creation through team is paramount importance. Construction industry can deliver best
to changing client need by adopting better standardization and use of technology: e
procurement.

Lam et al (2015) due to increase complexity of building need to reduce design and time of
construction and improvement in project performance creates pressure to gets the project
through tradition method. CSF (critical success factor) is very important for successful
completion of the project. Since all activities are interrelated, therefore, very important to
have integrated view of the projects. Six CSF are important as postulated in this paper-
project characteristic, project procedure, project management strategy, project work
atmosphere, project environment and project participants.
Md Mahbubur Rahim (2008) posit the point that majority of research focused on factor
effecting adoption of e procurement but not much of focus of factors effecting adoption of e
procurement by the employee. To find out the factor important for employee adoption of e

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 11
procurement, researcher has done empirical case study of Australian city council. Below are
the factors affecting employee adoption?

Perceived usefulness of e
Management support procurement system

E-procurement system
eases of use
Acceptance of e
procurement system
Employee involvement

Reliability of e
procurement system

Customized training for


Vendor support employee

Exhibit4: Identifying factors affecting acceptance of E-procurement systems:

An Initial qualitative study at an Australian City Council By Md Mahbubur Rahim (2008)


Qualitative analysis of case study has established the facts about e procurement adoption by
employee that active support of council management indirectly supported the acceptance
level of employee. Through its influence by factors: employee involvement, customized
training and ease of use.

Onosakponome et al (2011) this research investigate the impact of procurement system on the
performance of East Malaysia construction project in the aspect of time, cost and quality.
Tradition procurement system (TPS) Design and construction carried out by different
companies. In TPS system cost and quality are being achieved but on the cost of time. There
are four stages in TPS:

a) Design build and procurement system (DBPS) single organization is responsible for
design and construction. DBPS achieves the cost and time but not quality.
b) Construction management procurement system (CMPS) All the construction
activities base on fee basis between the client and speciality firm for particular
domain like design, construction etc. DBPS achieves the cost and time but not
quality.
c) Management construction procurement system (MCPS) Construction organization
appoints the professional team during initial stage of a project to provide expertise
of construction management under the direction of contract administration. This fast
track procurement system which overlap the design and construction stage and al-

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 12
lows early alignment of construction process. MCPS achieves the quality as well as
time but on the cost.

Gioconda Quesada et al (2010) defined the research framework on three aspects- e procure-
ment technology usage (EPT), procurement practice (PPR) and procurement performance
(PP). A empirical data shows that EPT has positive impact on PPR. E procurement impacts
on strategically nature in longer terms. Firms pursue better PPR achieve higher level of PP.
Mukhopadhyay et al(2002) explained the operation and strategic benefit of B2B procurement.
A supplier gets the strategic inputs as soon as customer initiates the order process. Fast order
processing is the operation benefit. Research framework explains the three steps approach- 1)
EDI technology adoption 2) Direct strategic and operational impact 3) Longer term strategi-
cally impact.

Shamil Naoum and Charles Egbu(2015) in construction industry various procurement method
has been used like management contracting, project management and design and build. All
the method has been selected on criteria of time, cost and quality. Also depicted the various
trend in procurement method which allow the practitioner to appreciate the key concern in
developing their modern principle and techniques such as supply chain, innovation, lean
construction, sustainability, value engineering and e procurement and BIM (building
information modelling).

Rafikullah Deraman and Abdul Aziz Abdullah(2012) Many of organizations undertaking the
B2B e commerce initiatives. E procurement is one of the initiative that has a far reaching im-
pact on electronic communication, information exchange and business transaction. Driving
factors that promote e procurement can be categorised into four groups- cost, time, quality
and competitive advantage.

Alan Smart (2010) this paper has investigated, the extent of business adoption of e procure-
ment in Design/methodology/ approach. Researcher has developed four level frameworks of
drivers for e procurement adoption:

1) Establish a business case for e procurement


2) Criteria- control, cost, process, suppliers and role
3) Compliance, buying leverage, common process, reduce suppliers number and knowledge
sharing
4) Buy side RTA, Sell side- catalogue, e market/ exchange, reserve auction, e RFX .

T.Baladhandayutham, Shanthi Venkatesh(2015) Macro economic factors such globalization,


rules &regulations, outsourcing and supply market instability are driving more companies to
see procurement as catalyst not only for cost reduction but also for market expansion , prod-
uct innovation and compliance. Enterprises are working hard for optimization and continuous
improvement in supply cost and performance of supply chain. Therefore, increase number of
organizations is transferring towards centre led procurement (CLP). The hybrid model of
CLP comprise of spend leverage, process standardization, procurement automation, knowl-
edge resource sharing, local empowerment and execution characterises of decentralized
model. Since Indian has proposed infrastructure investment of around $1 trillion in twelfth
five year plan (2012-17). This investment will create more infrastructure job and intent lead

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 13
to more of e commerce in India due to poor distribution network in the manufacturing sector
and large demand of construction materials. Success of construction procurement is being
monitored on service, cost and time basis. Mainly two type of procurement methods used by
construction companies:

a) De centralized procurement
b) Centralize procurement

None strategic commodity suited for de centralized procurement and strategic commodity
suited for centralize procurement.

T.Baladhandayutham, Shanthi Venkatesh(2015) explained the hybrid CLP for construction


projects
High R is k / Low Value High R is k / High Value
Contributes: Contributes :
5% of Transactions 5% of Transactions
5% of Value of S pend 80% of Value of S pend
Centralized Procurement C enter Led Decision at Corporate,
at Regional Procurement Dept Centralized e-Sourcing &
Using Hos ted VMI e -Catalogs e-Procurement at
Regional Procurement Dept
Low R is k / Low Value Low R is k / High Value
Contributes : Contributes :
10% of Transactions 80% of Transactions
5% of Value of S pend 10% of Value of S pend
De-Centralized Procurement Centralized Procurement at
at Projects Using P -Cards and Regional Procurement Dept using
Procurement Automation E -Catalogs, Reverse Auctions
and Procurement Automation

There are major Indian companies like L& T, HCC and Bechtel are using CLP in their con-
struction projects. Success of CLP depends on cross functional team, standard process and
policy, incentives and coordination metric and procurement information systems.

T.Baladhandayutham, Shanthi Venkatesh (2012) B2B has developed the efficient procure-
ment process between the business relationships. Primarily B2B relationship is buy side mar-
ket place. E markets needs to adopt the supplier‟s part in online market place. Common per-
ception of e procurement has explained buyer‟s benefits than suppliers. Many suppliers
forced to e market place, fear to lost trade. Since the surge of growth, the construction indus-
try faces issue of material price fluctuation and limited availability of skill resources. Today
big challenge of construction industry to improve supply chain to improve the efficiency and
effectiveness through innovative project delivery mode and procurement practices.

Study posited the not enough awareness in Kuwait market about e procurement. However,
cost saving is the only perceived factor by construction material buyers in the adoption of e
procurement.

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 14
Supplier‟s adoption is very critical in successful implementation of e procurement. Since
every supplier had different needs, hence, once size fit for all cannot be application in suppli-
er‟s adoption strategy.

Prabir Panda and GP Sahu(2012) adoption of e procurement in government entities to opti-


mise and rationalize the public procurement considered as panacea from all the major issues
like corruption and bureaucratic red- tapism. To achieve the objective of optimization of gov-
ernment procurement, govt. has introduction of National e Governance project (NeGP) in
2006, but e procurement progress has been dismal. Researcher has explained Critical Success
Factor (CSF) for successful implementation of e procurement projects.
a) Top management support; Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh successful implemented
e procurement because of top management support.
b) E-procurement implementation strategy; major focus on existing opportunities, ag-
gregation of demand is very important in government procurement (cost reduction).
c) Business case and project management; proper addressable of inertia of procurement
officers can be address with best case and this success story will ensure the project
management.
d) Business process Re-engineering; redefining all the process will assisting in e pro-
curement project.
e) Technology standard; implementation would undergo all side of the system , it is im-
portant that system should adopt best and well accepted technical, content and
process.
f) Security and authentication; ensure the best security due to financial data and dealing
involved.
g) System integration ; system should integrate with existing system
h) Change management; effective change management plan and training of all the stake-
holder will help to address their concerns.
i) Performance measurement; system objective will clearly spell
j) Training and education
k) Adoption by all the stakeholders

Elena Vitkauskait, Rimantas Gatautis(2008) In European economics construction sector plays


an important role, but the adoption of information communication technology(ICT) is very
low, in spite of potential increase of productivity and efficiency through e business. However,
current selection process of construction SMEs is based on four important factors: e tender-
ing, e site, e procurement and e quality. Now a day‟s construction is moving towards demand
driven sector where in product quality, user requirement and sustainability are much more
important than traditional objective of cost reduction. E procurement is very important proc-
ess to achieve the current pre requisition of construction industry that is demand driven.
Three important steps are followed by e procurement: discovery, evaluation and selection of
appropriate suppliers. Future of e procurement scenario would be based on two steps selec-
tion of suppliers and analysis of quotation & selection of suppliers.

Hashim et al(2014) has investigated resource and capabilities affecting e procurement value
in Malaysian construction firms. Research has taken resource base view (RBV) as well as
capabilities base on framework of technology- organization- environment (TOE). RBV the-

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 15
ory explained technological, organization resource and capabilities with competitive advan-
tages. Two factors very important in e procurement value in construction firms in Malaysia-
IT competencies, trading partner relationship. Below is the conceptual model of e procure-
ment value in construction firms.

Exhibit5: E-Procurement Implementation in Malaysian Construction Industry by Hashim et


al(2014)

Quangdung Tran et al(2014) has done empirical study in Vietnam find out the important fac-
tors in initial adopters of construction firms and construction firms institutionalized the e pro-
curement in developing countries. Researcher has frame the conceptual mode base on tech-
nology- organization-environment (TOE) framework and theory of reasoned action
(TRA).Conceptual model:

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 16
Exhibit6: Initial Adoption Versus Institutionalization of E-Procurement in Construction
Firms: An Empirical Investigation in Vietnam by Quangdung Tran et al(2014)

Factors important-Initial adopters of e Factors important- Institutionalization propensity


procurement by construction firms of e procurement by construction firms
Government leadership, legal and regula- Government leadership,
tory infrastructure Information technology infrastructure
External business characteristics, Top Internal business characteristics, Manager ability
management leadership style and perception
Subjective norms,

As per study the synch between the technology and internal organization characteristics are
very important factors in successful adoption of e procurement by construction firms, other-
wise same set of firms are not able to successfully implement the e procurement because of
no well thought strategy and no proper technology in business strategy.

Conclusions
Below is the conclusion on the above detailed analysis on e -procurement adoption in
construction industry:
a) Construction industry adoption of e procurement is low compare to automotive
industry. Since automotive industry concentrates on mass production and nearly
distribution to similar product. On contrary, construction industry highly customized
and every project is different from other project. Adoption of e procurement can be
improved in construction industry by showing the value gain of manufacturing
industries by using e procurement.
b) Main barriers in adoption of e procurement in construction industry are
organizational, technical, legal aspects
c) Main drivers in adoption of e procurement are transaction & administration cost
saving, reduce time, more transparency, improved communication between suppliers
and buyers.
d) Practitioners can use develop various new techniques like build ability, construction
ability, innovation, lean construction, sustainability and value engineering vario
through critical review of procurement method.

Referencing
 Anumba., C.J. and K. Ruikar., eds(2008)., “E-Business in Construction”., Blackwell
Publishing Ltd: UK
 Achmad Nurmandi , Sunhyuk Kimb, Arrachman Mardiansyah , Zuly Qodir d
Muhammad Khozin Dalari (2013).,” Re-examined e procurement in decentralized-
Indonesia‟s local Government procurement system”., Researcher of Jusuf Kalla School
Government of Universities Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
 Antonio Davila, Mahendra Gupta,Richard J. Palmer(2002).,” Moving Procurement Sys-
tems to the Internet: The Adoption and Use of E-Procurement Technology Models”.,
Graduate school of business Stanford university- research paper no.1742

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 17
 Arjun Neupane, Jeffrey Soar, Kishor Vaidya, and Jianming Yong(2012).,” Role of public
e procurement technology to reduce corruption in Government procurement ”., 2012 In-
ternational Public Procurement Conference, August 17-19, Seattle, Washington
 Alam., S.S. and Ahsan.N(2007)., “ICT Adoption in Malaysian SMEs from Services Sec-
tors”., Preliminary Findings Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 12(3)
 Alan Smart (2010).,” Exploring the business case for e-procurement”., International Jour-
nal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management”.,vol. 40 No. 3, 2010
 Abu-Elsamen Amja., Chakraborty Goutam and Warren David (2010)., “A Process-Based
Analysis of e-Procurement Adoption”., Journal of Internet Commerce, 9:243–259
 Ahmad Salma., Ullah Asad(2013)., “Driving Forces of Collaboration in Supply Chain: A
Review”., Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business , Vol. 5, No. 7,
 Ahuja Vanita., Jay Yang and Martin Skitmore, Shankar Ravi(2010)., “ An empirical test
of causal relationships of factors affecting ICT adoption for building project management
An Indian SME case study”., Construction Innovation Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 164-180
 Bloor Research(2005) ., “The answer to my E-commerce fears could be cyberspace”.,
Bloor Research Data Management
 Bernd Markus Zunk., Martin Johannes Marchner., Iris Uitz, Carina Lerch., Holger
Schiele(2014)., “The Role of E-Procurement in the Austrian Construction Industry:
Adoption Rate, Benefits and Barriers”., International Journal of Industrial Engineering
and Management (IJIEM), Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 13-21
 Bikshapathi K., Raghuveer P.,” Implementation of E-procurement in the Government of
Andhra Pradesh: A Case Study”., Information Technology & Communications
Department ,Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad
 Bulusu Sri Devi(2004)., “ E-Procurement in Indian: Public vs private sector” ., J. H.
Bookbinder (ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering and
Management Systems Conference
 Christensen Sharon., McNamara Judith and O‟Shea Kathryn(2007) ., “ Legal and
contracting issues in electronic project administration in the construction industry”.,
Structural Survey , Emerald Group Publishing Limited Vol. 25 No. 3/4, pp. 191-203
 Chunguang Bai and Joseph Sarkis(2012) ., “Supply-chain performance-measurement
system management using neighbourhood rough sets” ., International Journal of
Production Research Vol. 50, No. 9
 Chia Boon Kheng and Suliman AL-Hawamdeh (2002)., “The Adoption of Electronic
Procurement in Singapore”., Electronic Commerce Research,2:61-73
 Chin-Fu Ho, Yi-Ming Tai, Wen-Hsiung Wu and Jau-Jeng Jou(2008).,”
Exploring the Impacts of Web-Based e- Procurement on Organizational Performance”.,
Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems
 Chu-hua Kueia., Christian N. Madua and Chinho Linb(2011)., “Developing global supply
chain quality management systems”., International Journal of Production Research Vol.
49, No. 15, 4457–4481
 Clifford McCue and Alexandru V. Roman(2012).,” E-Procurement: Myth or Reality?”.,
Journal of public procurement ,vol. 12,.issue 2, 221-248
 Carter P, Carter J., Monczka R., Slaight T., Swan A (2002)., “The future of purchasing
and supply”: a ten year forecast. J Supply Chain Manage 36(1):14–26
 Cash, J.I. Jr and Konsynski. B(1985)., “IS redraws competitive boundaries”., Harvard
Business Review, pp. 134-42

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 18
 Carayannis E and Popescu D(2005) ., “Profiling a methodology for economic growth and
convergence : learning from the EU E-procurement experience for central and eastern
European countries”, Technovation, Vol. 25 (2005), 1-14
 Chen, Y.S. and Rankin J.H(2006)., “A framework for benchmarking E-procurement in
the AEC industry in Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Electronic
commerce: The new E-commerce: innovations for conquering current barriers, obstacles
and limitations to conducting successful business on the internet” ACM
 Constantino. N and Pietroforte. R(2006) ., “The adoption rate of E-commerce in the US
and Italian construction markets: some reasons for its variability”., Electronic Journal
Of Information Technology in Construction, Vol. 11, pp. 103-11
 Davila A., Gupta M. And Palmer R(2003)., “Moving Procurement Systems to the
Internet: The Adoption and Use of E-Procurement Technology Models”., European
Management Journal, Vol 21, No.1, 11-23
 Dumortier J. and Van Eecke P(199) ., “The European draft directive on a common
framework for electronic signatures, Computer Law & Security Report”, Vol. 15, No. 2
 Daud Nohd Norzaidi., Nurliyana Mohammad., Arlina Erwany Azmi and Intan Salwani
Mohamed(2013)., “ Factors Influencing the Usage of E-Procurement among Contractor
Companies in Malaysia ”., Business and Management Quarterly Review, 4(3&4), 62-80,
 Deraman.R, Rahim F.A, Mohamed.O, M. Othman(2013)., “E-Purchasing mplementation
Success (e-PIS) Framework in Construction Organization: An Empirical Analysis” .,
Journal of Building Performance ISSN: 2180-2106 volume 4,issue 1
 Deraman Radikyullah., Hafez Salleh., Rahim Faizul A(2012)., “Implementing E-
Purchasing in Construction Organizations: An Exploratory Study to Identify
Organizational Critical Success Factor” ., International Journal of Business and
Management Studies Vol 4, No 1, ISSN: 1309-8047
 Dawar Sanjay., Chandra Manish., Prabhakar Vishvesh(2012)., “High Performance in
Infrastructure and Construction India Perspectives ”., Accenture
 Eadie Robert., Perera Srinath., Heaney George(2010)., “Identification of E- Procurement
Drivers and Barriers for UK Construction Organizations and Ranking of these from the
Perspective of Quantity Surveyors” ., Journal of Information Technology in Construction
Vol. 15
 Egbu. C., Vines., M P and Tookey, J(2003) ., “The role of knowledge management in E-
procurement initiatives for construction organizations”., Greenwood, D J (Ed.), 19th
Annual ARCOM Conference, University of Brighton. Association of Researchers in
Construction Management, Vol. 2, 661-9
 Eadie Robert., Perera Srinath., Heaney George(2012)., “Capturing maturity of ICT
Applications in construction processes”., Emerald Group Vol. 17 No. 2, pp. 176-194
 Eadie Robert., Perera Srinath., Heaney George(2007)., “Drivers and barriers to public
sector E- procurement within Northern Ireland construction industry ”., http://itcon.org
 Eadie Robert., Perera Srinath., Heaney George(2011)., “Analysis of the use of E-
procurement in the public and private sectors of the UK construction industry”.,
www.itcon.org
 Elena Vitkauskait, Rimantas Gatautis(2008);” E-Procurement perspectives in construction
sector-SMES”; Journal of civil engineering and management ,14(4): 287–294
 Francesco Gardenal(2013).,” A model to measure e procurement impacts on organiza-
tional performance”., Journal of public procurement, Vol. 12, Issue2,215-242

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 19
 Francisco Loforte Ribeiro and Jorge Lopes(2002)., “An Approach to E- Business in
Construction”., Greenwood, D (Ed.), 18th Annual ARCOM Conference, University of
Northumbria. Association of Researchers in Construction Management, Vol. 2, 475-84013
 Fynes.B., S. de bu´ Rca and C. voss(2005) ., “Supply chain relationship quality, the
competitive environment and performance”., International Journal of Production
Research Vol. 43, No. 16
 Francisco Loforte Ribeiro and Jorge Lopes(2001)., “Construction Supply Chain
Integration over the Internet and Web Technology”., Akintoye, A (Ed.), 17th Annual
ARCOM Conference, University of Salford. Association of Researchers in Construction
Management, Vol. 1, 241-50
 Guillermo Aranda-Mena and Peter Stewart(2003)., “E-Business Adoption in
Construction: International Review on Impediments”., Cooperative Research Centre for
Construction Innovation CRC-CI
 Gioconda Quesada, Marvin E. Gonza´lez, James Mueller and Rene Mueller(2010).,” Im-
pact of e-procurement on procurement practices and performance”., Benchmarking: An
International Journal, Vol. 17 No. 4, 2010
 Gian Luigi Albano, Federico Dini, Roberto Zampino and Marta Fana(2008).,” The De-
terminants of Suppliers‟ Performance in E-Procurement: Evidence from the Italian Gov-
ernment‟s E-Procurement Platform”., Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper
Collection
 Ghazaly., S.E(2005)., “ Benefits and barriers on B2B E-marketplaces [online]. E-Market
Services”
 Gunasekaran A., McGaughey R., Ngai E., Rai B(2009)., “E-procurement adoption in
South coast SMEs”., Int. J Prod Econ 122:161–175
 Gunasekaran. A and Ngai., E.W.T(2008)., “Adoption of E-procurement in Hong Kong:
An empirical research”; International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 113 No. 1,
pp. 159-75
 Gunasekaran. A., Love, P.E.D., Rahimi, F. and Miele, R(2001).,“A model for investment
Justification in information technology projects”., International Journal of Information
Management, Vol. 21 No. 5, pp. 349-64
 Gunasekaran .A., Ngai EWT(2008)., “Adoption of E-procurement in Hong Kong: an
empirical research”., Int. J Prod Econ 113(1):159-175
 Gebauer J. Beam C. and Segev A(1998) ., “Impact of the Internet on Purchasing
Practices”., Acquisitions Review Quarterly, Vol. 5, No.2, 167-184
 Ho., Chin-Fu., Tai, Yi-Ming., Wu., Wen-Hsiung., Jou, Jau-Jeng(2008)., “Exploring the
Impacts of Web- based E- Procurement on organization Performance”., PACIS
Proceedings. Paper 106
 Helen Walker and Christine Harland(2008).,” E-procurement in the United Nations: in-
fluences, issues and impact”., International Journal of Operations & Production Manage-
ment, Vol. 28 No. 9, 2008
 Hawking P., Stein A., Wyld CD., Foster S(2004)., “E-procurement: is the ugly duckling
actually a swan down under?”., Asia Pac J Mark Logistics 16(1):3–26
 Hayat Ali1 & Amal Alrayes(2014)., “An Empirical Investigation of the Effect of E-
Readiness Factors on Adoption of E-Procurement in Kingdom of Bahrain”., International
Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 9, No. 12; 2014
 Hashim Norfashish., Ilias Said., Nur Hidayah Idris(2013)., “Exploring E-Procurement

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 20
Value for Construction Companies in Malaysia”., The Authors Published by Elsevier Ltd
 Hashim Norfashish., Ilias Said., Nur Hidayah Idris(2014)., “ E-Procurement
Implementation in Malaysian Construction Industry”., Australian Journal of Basic and
Applied Sciences, 8(6)
 Isikdag Umit., Underwood Jason., Ezcan Volkan(2011)., “Barriers to E- procurement in
Turkish AEC industry”., International conference- Sophia Antipolis , France , 26-28
 Irani, Z(2002) ., “Information systems evaluation: navigating through the problem
domain”., Information & Management , Vol. 40 No. 1, PP.11-24
 Irani, Z. and Love, P.E.D(2002)., “Developing a frame of reference for ex-ante IT/IS
investment evaluation”., European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 74-
82
 Jim smith (2004)., “Procurement of construction facilities in Guangdong province, China:
factors influencing the choice of procurement methods”., Emerald publication Vol.22
Number 5/6 ,pp 141-148
 Joe Martin(2003)., “ E-Procurement and Extranets in the UK Construction Industry”.,
FIG Working Week Paris, France, April 13-17
 Jennings D(2001)., “Secure Trading, Supply Management”, 52-53
 Julia-Barcelo R(1999)., “Electronic Contracts: A New Legal Framework for Electronic
Contracts: The EU Electronic Commerce Proposal, Computer Law & Security Report”,
Vol. 15, No.3
 James Mauti Mose, Dr. James Muranga Njihia ,Peterson Obara Magutu(2013).,”
The critical success factors and challenges in e procurement adoption among large scale
manufacturing firms in Nairobi, Kenya”., European Scientific Journal May 2013 edition
vol.9, No.13 ISSN: 1857 – 7881
 Kheng CB., Al-Hawamdeh S(2002) ., “The adoption of electronic procurement in
Singapore”., Electron Commer Res, Res 2:61–73
 Kevin Moindi Omai(2013)., Determinants of e procurement on supply chain perform-
ance: A survey of tea factories in KISII county-Kenya”; Interdisciplinary journal of con-
temporary research in business copy right, vol 4, NO 12
 Knudsen D(2004)., “Aligning corporate strategy, procurement strategy and E-
procurement tools”., International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics
Management, Vol. 33, No.8, 2003, 720-734
 Kalakota R., Tapscott D. and Robinson M(2001) ., “E Business 2.0 : Roadmap for
success”., Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, New Jersey, USA
 Kishor Vaidya, A. S. M. Sajeev and Guy Callender(2006).,” Critical factors that influ-
ence e procurement implementation success in the public sector”., Journal of public pro-
curement, vol. 6, issues 1&3, 70-99
 Matunga., Denish Ateto., Nyanamba, Steve Ondieki., Dr. Walter Okibo(2013) ., “The
Effect of E-Procurement Practices on Effective Procurement in Public Hospitals: A Case
of KISII Level 5 Hospital”., American International Journal of Contemporary Research
Vol. 3 No. 8; “
 Meraj naem, Mohammad tarique khan, Mehboodul Hassan(2014)”., Än e procurement
usage analysis in Indian automobile industry”., Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing & Man-
agement Review(APJMMR), Vol.3 (10), OCTOBER (2014), pp. 49-69
 Mohamed Gamal Aboelmaged(2009).,” Predicting e-procurement adoption in a develop-
ing country”., Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 110 No. 3

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 21
 Mansor., N. and Abidin A.F.A(2010)., “The Application of E-Commerce Among
Malaysian Small Medium Enterprises”., European Journal of Scientific Research, 41(4):
p. 590-604
 Manish Gupta and Rakesh Narain (2012).,” A survey on adoption of e-procurement in
Indian Organisations”., Article in International journal of cross cultural management
 Malholtra.Y., Galletta, F. D(2003)., “ Role of Commitment and Motivation in Knowledge
Management Systems Implementations: Theory, Conceptualization and Measurement of
Antecedents of Success”., Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on
Systems Science
 Minahan, T. and Degan, G(2003)., “Best Practices in E-Procurement”, Boston: Aberdeen
Group, The Abridged Report, http://www.hedgehog.com/resources/E-
 Mukhopadhyay, Tridas;Kekre(2002).,” Strategic and operational benefits of electronic
integration in B2B procurement processes”., Sunder Management Science; Oct 2002; 48,
10; ABI/INFORM Global
 Martin J(2003) ., “E-Procurement and extranets in the UK Construction industry”.,
Conference paper given at FIG Working Week, April 13th-17th , Paris
 Mohamed., Kayungi S(2013)., “Towards E-Procurement implementation in Tanzania
:construction industry preparedness”., Department of Building Economics School of
Construction Economics and Management Ardhi University Dar-es-salamm
 Noor Mohamad Maizura(2010)., “Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Construction
Tendering”., IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7, Issue 2, No 1
 Noor Ismail Shalle, Wario Guyo, Iravo Mike Amuhaya(2013).,” Factors Affecting Im-
plementation of E-Procurement Practices in Public Service in Kenya: A Case of
Ministry of Finance”; International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), India Online
ISSN: 2319-7064, Volume 2 Issue 8, August 2013
 Neupane, Soar, Vaidya, & Yong (2012)., “ Role of public E-procurement technology to
reduce corruption in government procurement”., 2012 International Public Procurement
Conference, August 17-19, Seattle, Washington
 NOIE. (2003). National Office for The Information Economy Index, Australian
Government:50
 Narasimhan Ram and Tobias Schoenherr(2012) ., “The effects of integrated supply
management practices and environmental management practices on relative competitive
quality advantage ”., International Journal of Production Research Vol. 50, No. 4, 15,
1185–1201
 Ogunsanmi, O.E(2013)., “Effects of Procurement Related Factors on Construction Project
Performance in Nigeria”., Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management
Vol. 6 No.2
 Omany (2013)., “Factors Affecting use of E-Procurement : A Survey in selected firms in
KISII town, Kenya” ;Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research in Business
,vol 5, NO 4
 Odhigu Festus Onosakponome, Azhar Yahya, Nazatul Shima Abdul Rani, Junaid M.
Shaikh (2011)., “ Cost Benefit Analysis of Procurement Systems and the Performance of
Construction Projects in East Malaysia”., Information Management and Business Re-
view, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 181-192, May 2011
 Panayiotou N.A. Sotiris G.P. and Tatsiopoulos I.P(2003)., “An E-procurement system for
governmental purchasing”., International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 90

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 22
 Panda, P., Sahu, G.P. & Gupta, P. (2010)., “Promoting transparency and efficiency in
public procurement: E-Procurement”., Initiatives by Government of India. 7th
International Conference on E-Government (ICEG) 2010, 22-24 Apr 2010, IIM
Bangalore, India.
 Pierre, Hadaya & Robert, Pellerin(2010)., “Determinants of construction companies' use
of web-based inter organizational information systems. Supply Chain Management”., An
International Journal, 371-384
 Paul Phillips, Wojciech Piotrowicz, Kent Business School(2006).,” E-Procurement: How
Does it Enhance Strategic Performance?”., Kent Business School, University of Kent,
Canterbury, UK
 Prabir Panda, GP Sahu and Pramod Gupta(2010);” Promoting Transparency and Effi-
ciency in Public Procurement: E-Procurement Initiatives by Government of India”; 7th
International Conference on E-Government (ICEG) 2010, 22-24 Apr 2010, IIM Banga-
lore, India
 Prabir Panda and GP Sahu(2012);” E-Procurement Implementation: Critical Analysis of
Success Factors‟ Impact on Project Outcome”; Electronic copy available at:
http//ssrn.com/abstract=2019575
 P.Priya, Dr.K.Iyakutti, Dr.S.Prasanna Devi(2012).,” E-procurement system with embed-
ded supplier selection DSS for an automobile manufacturing industry
”; International Journal of Database Management Systems ( IJDMS ) Vol.4, No.2, April
 Piotrowicz Wojciech., Irani Zahir(2010)., “Analysing B2B electronic procurement
benefits: information systems perspective” ., Journal of Enterprise Information
Management Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 559-579
 Patrick Fund(1999)., "Managing purchasing in a supply chain context – evolution and
resolution", Logistics Information Management, Vol. 12 Issue: 5, pp.362 - 367
 Pellerin Robert., Hadaya Pierre(2010)., “Determinants of construction companies‟
Use of web-based inter organizational information Supply Chain Management”; An
International Journal 15/5 (2010) 371–384
 Quangdung Tran, Changzheng Zhang, Hongyi Sun, and Dechun Huang(2014);” Initial
Adoption Versus Institutionalization of E-Procurement in Construction Firms: An
Empirical Investigation in Vietnam”; Journal of Global Information Technology
Management, 17: 91–116
 Reddick CG(2004)., “ The growth of E-procurement in American state governments: a
model and empirical evidence”; J Public Procurement , 4(2):151–176
 Ruey-Lin Hsiao and Thompson S. H. Teo(2005).,” Delivering on the promise of e pro-
curement”., MIS Quarterly Executive Vol. 4 No.3 / September 2005
 Rai Arun ., Patnayakuni.R., Seth Nainika (20060., “Firm Performance Impacts of
Digitally Enabled Supply Chain Integration Capabilities”., MIS Quarterly Vol. 30 , No. 2.
pp. 225-246
 Raghavan SNR., Prabhu M(2004) ., “ Object-oriented design of a distributed agent-based
framework for E-procurement”., Prod Plan Control 15(7):731–741
 Rankin, J.H., Chen, Y. and Christian, A.J(2006)., “E-procurement in the Atlantic AEC
industry”., Electronic Journal of Information Technology in Construction, Vol. 11, pp.
75-87
 Ribeiro F.L. and Henriques P.G(2001)., “ How knowledge can improve E- business in
construction”., Proceedings of 2nd International Postgraduate Research Conference in the

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 23
Built and Human Environment, University of Salford, Blackwell Publishing
 Rafikullah Deraman and Abdul Aziz Abdullah(2012).,” The driving factors that promote
e-purchasing implementation in organisations”., African Journal of Business Management
Vol. 6 (7), pp. 2659-2665, 22 February
 Subramaniam.C., Shaw, M(2004)., “The effects of process characteristics on the value of
B2B e-procurement”. Information Technology and Management 5, 161–180
 Sean Lewis-Faupel, Yusuf Neggers, Benjamin A. Olken and Rohini Pande_(2013).,” Can
Electronic Procurement Improve Infrastructure Provision? Evidence from Public Works
in India and Indonesia”
 Shamil Naoum and Charles Egbu(2015).,” Critical review of procurement method re-
search in construction journals”., Procedia Economics and Finance 21 ( 2015 ) 6 – 13
 Shailendra C. Jain Palvia and Sushil S. Sharma.,” E-Government and E-Governance:
Definitions/Domain Framework and Status around the World”
 Subramaniam. C., Shaw, M(2002)., “A study of value and impact of B2B E-commerce:
the case of web-based procurement”., International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 6
(4), 19–40
 Shailendra C. Jain Palvia and Sushil S. Sharma., “E-Government and E-Governance:
Definitions/Domain Framework and Status around the World”., Computer society of India
 Sunam Pal and Kiran Varghese Jacob(2011).,” A Case study on E-Procurement system of
Honeywell & Vedanta”; Journal of contemporary research in management
 Shashank Ojha and I M Pandey(2014).,” e-Procurement Project in Karnataka:
A Case of Public Private Partnership”., VIKALPA ,vol 39,no 4, October-Dec 2014
 Sahay B.S., Maini.A., Gupta A K and Gupta R K(2002)., “Changing the Mindsets for
Success in Supply Chain Management”., Vikalpa, Vol. 27, No. 3
 Sahay B.S and Ranjan Jayanthi (2008) ., “Real time business intelligence in supply chain
analytics”., Information Management & Computer Security Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 28-48
 Sanyalm Manas Kumar., Guha Anindya(2010)., “E-Procurement Initiative in Indian
Industry: A Case Study ”., GITAM Review of International Business., Vol.9
 Sundarraj R.P and Kumari Komal.,” Electronic Procurement Systems in India:
Importance and Impact on Supply Chain Operations”; J. H. Bookbinder (ed.), Handbook
of Global Logistics, International Series in Operations Research & Management Science
 Saeed, K.A., Malhortra., M.K. and Grover, V(2005) ., “Examining the impact of inter
organizational systems on process efficiency and sourcing leverage in buyer–supplier
dyads. Decision Sciences”, 36 (3), 365-396
 Son., J.Y. and Benbasat, I(2007)., “ Organisational buyers‟ adoption and use of B2B
electronic Marketplaces: efficiency- and legitimacy-oriented perspectives”. Journal of
Management Information Systems, 24 (1), 55-99
 Salkute Vijaykumar R. (2013)., “Exploratory Study of E-Procurement Adoption in Indian
and Chinese Companies: Case Study with Innovation Approach”., American Journal of
Economics and Business Administration 5 (3): 107-115
 Tran Quangdung., Huang Dechun., Binhsheng. ,Lieu, Hossain MD Ekram(2011)., “A
construction enterprises readiness level in implementing E-procurement : a system
engineering assessment mode”., Elsevier Ltd
 Taggar Rashi(2014)., “E-Procurement for Prompt Policy Execution”., Pratibimba , Vol.
14, Pages 31 -35

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 24
 T.Baladhandayutham, Shanthi Venkatesh (2015);” Center Led e-Procurement (CLeP) for
Construction Industry– An Indian Perspective”;SRM Management Digest, Vol. 2, No 2
 T.Baladhandayutham, Shanthi Venkatesh (2012);” Construction industry in Kuwait-An
analysis on e- procurement adoption with respect to supplier‟s perspective”; International
Journal of Management Research and Development (IJMRD), ISSN 2248 – 938X(Print),
Volume 2, Number 1
 T.Baladhandayutham, Shanthi Venkatesh (2012);” e-Procurement - An Empirical Study
on Construction Projects Supply Chain Kuwait”; International Journal of Management
(IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print),, Volume 3, Issue 1
 Tero lehtonen and Anssi salonen(2006)., “An empirical investigation of procurement
trends and partnership management in FM services- A Finnish survey” ., International
Journal of Strategic Property Management (2006) 10, 65–78
 Tatsis V., Mena C., Van Wassenhove LN., Whicker L(2006) ., “ E-procurement in the
Greek food and drink industry”., J Purchasing Supply Manage 12:63–74
 Tan, K.S(2009)., “Internet-based ICT adoption: Evidence from Malaysian SMEs”.,
Journal of Industrial Management & Data Systems, 109(2): p. 224-244
 Tobias Mettler and Peter Rohner(2009).,” E-Procurement in Hospital Pharmacies: An Ex-
ploratory Multi-Case Study from Switzerland”., Journal of Theoretical and Applied Elec-
tronic Commerce Research, vol. 4 / Issue 1 / April 2009 / 23-38
 Vaidya Kishore, A.S.M.Sajeev and Guy Callender(2006)., “ Critical factors that influence
E- procurement Implementation in Public Sector”., Journal of Public procurement , Vol 6,
Issue 1-3,70-99
 Westcott T. and Mayer P(2002)., “ Electronic Tendering: Is it delivering? A UK and
European perspective, Proceedings of RICS foundation construction and building
research conference – COBRA ” Nottingham Trent University ISBN 1-84233-074-8.
 Weijun Zheng and Xiaoqing Wang(2008).,” An explorative study of industry influences:
on vertical e-marketplaces‟ adoption of e-procurement auction”., Inf. Syst. E-Bus Manage
(2008) 6:321–340
 Wang, Hsing-I(2012).,” The Planning of the Architecture of a Public E-Procurement
Environment under the Cloud – the Case of Taiwan”; The Journal of Global Business
Management Volume 8, Number 2
 Wong C.H. and Sloan B(2004) ., “ Use of ICT for E-Procurement in the UK Construction
Industry”., A Survey of SMES Readiness, Proceedings of ARCOM
 Wright B(1999) ., “Electronic Signatures: Making Electronic Signatures a reality”.,
Computer Law and Security Report
 Yi-Ming Taia., Chin-Fu Ho and Wen-Hsiung Wu(2010)., “The performance impact of
implementing Web-based e-procurement systems”., International Journal of Production
Research Vol. 48, No. 18, 5397–5414
 YEE .S-T(2005)., “Impact analysis of customized demand information sharing on supply
chain performance”., International Journal of Production Research, vol. 43, no. 16
 Zialcita Sigrid., Goel Siddhart(2014) ., “Investment Market beat” ., A Cushman &
Wakefield Research publication

AIMA Journal of Management & Research, May 2016, Volume 10 Issue 2/4, ISSN 0974 – 497 Copy right©
2016 AJMR-AIMA Page 25