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 very few studies apply the SPH method to model saturated or submerged soil problems.
Our recent studies of this matter revealed that significant errors may be made if the
gradient of the pore-water pressure is handled using the standard SPH formulation.
 To overcome this problem and to enhance the SPH applications to computational
geomechanics, this article proposes a general SPH formulation, which can be applied
straightforwardly to dry and saturated soils.
 For simplicity, the current work assumes hydrostatic pore-water pressure. It is shown that
the proposed formulation can remove the numerical error mentioned earlier. Moreover,
this formulation automatically satisfies the dynamic boundary conditions at a submerged
ground surface, thereby saving computational cost.
 Discussions on the applications of the standard and new SPH formulations are also given
through some numerical tests. Furthermore, techniques to obtain the correct SPH solution
are also proposed and discussed throughout. As an application of the proposed method,
the effect of the dilatancy angle on the failure mechanism of a two-sided embankment
subjected to a high groundwater table is presented and compared with that of other
solutions. Finally, the proposed formulation can be considered a basic formulation for
further developments of SPH for saturated soils.
 As an example of the application of the improved method to geotechnical problems, this
article discusses the failure mechanism of a two-side slope embankment with a
groundwater table and a reservoir. The elastoplastic soil behavior is modeled by the
Drucker–Prager model implemented in the SPH code. The computed results, in particular,
the slip surface, are compared with the limit equilibrium method (Bishop’s modified
method) to validate and highlight the SPH-based approach.

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 The features of the landslides triggered by the Kumamoto earthquake were presented
and the damages caused were described based on the field investigation.
 a mesh-free particle method called smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) was
introduced and a 3D numerical model was established based on a Bingham flow
model and the equations of continuity and motion.
 Applying this model, two typical fast landslides in the Kumamoto earthquake zone
were simulated. Their propagations were reproduced and the time histories of the
velocity and run-out distance were obtained.
 In this paper, the 3D SPH model is introduced to simulate the propagation of two
typical landslides induced by the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. Combining with the
field investigation, the post-failure behavior of the landslides is analyzed and the
performance of the SPH model is evaluated. The sliding path, run-out distance,
velocities, and the distribution deposits obtained in the simulation could play
important roles in mapping hazardous areas and estimating hazard intensity, and also
the identification and design of appropriate protective measures.

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 This paper presents an application of SPH to the problem of interaction between
the soil skeleton and the pore water in saturated soils. The formulation of the
equations of conservation in SPH has been modified so that a drag force due to
seepage is introduced and calculated using Darcy’s law.
 Two test cases are considered for the analysis: a basic drainage of a vertical sand
column due to gravity and seepage through a vertical dam (also known as the
Muskat problem). Both simulations show very good agreement with the analytical
solutions.
 This paper focuses on the application of SPH to saturated soils and its validation for
seepage problems, namely a permeability test and the seepage through a vertical
dam known as the Muskat problem. The results of the numerical analysis of the two
problems are compared to well-known analytical solutions. The second part of this
paper will cover coupled deformation-seepage analysis.

Paper-8
 The earthquake response analysis of earth structures using the Smoothed Particle
Hydrodynamics (SPH) was introduced in this paper.
 We showed that the corrective smoothed particle method (CSPM), which is a
modified version of the conventional SPH, could achieve higher accuracy than the
conventional SPH for earthquake response analysis.
 To illustrate this, three numerical simulations were carried out; the one-
dimensional elastic wave propagation problem with reflection, the earthquake
response analysis of the one-dimensional elastic soil and the two-dimensional
elasto-plastic soil.
 Finally, we demonstrated the SPH simulation of the collapse behavior of an earth
structure.
 In the present paper, the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is examined to
simulate dynamic behavior of earth structures excited by strong ground motion. The
objective of this paper is to present the earthquake response analysis of earth
structures. In the first section, the fundamental equations of the SPH are
introduced. Also, the corrective Smoothing Particle Method (CSPM) which achieves
higher accuracy than the SPH is described. In the second section, several numerical
tests are conducted to illustrate the capability of the SPH and the CSPM.

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 Based on the advanced smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, this work
proposed a two-phase-coupled SPH model in coordination with a novel constitutive
model for unsaturated soils.
 Then, a triaxial compression test is simulated to check the applicability of the SPH
method on the soil phase.
 After that, the failure test of a dike due to water level-up is discretized and
simulated, from which the seepage process, the distribution of maximum shear
strain, the slip surface, and pore water pressure are obtained.
 The two-phase-coupled SPH model is also applied to a slope failure test of heavy
rainfall, and the results are compared to the model test.
 Finally, a dike failure test due to rainfall is analyzed using the proposed SPH model
to reproduce the surface infiltration and suction reduction. The proposed SPH
model provides several insights of seepage failures and can be a helpful tool for the
analysis of dike failures induced by water level-up and rainfall.
 This research proposes a two-phase-coupled SPH model in coordination with a
novel constitutive model for unsaturated soils, proposed by Zhang and Ikariya ,
in order to simulate the surface infiltration, suction reduction, and soil deformation.
This soil model has already been applied to the analysis of unsaturated slope failure
and thermo-hydro-mechanical-air coupling problems with FEM method, and
related results have demonstrated that this model can give a description of
unsaturated behavior [22, 26]. In the proposed SPH model, the water phase is
regarded as a quasi-compressible fluid, whereas the behavior of the soil phase is
described by the unsaturated constitutive model. Then, a triaxial compression test
is simulated to check the applicability of the proposed SPH method. After that, a
failure test of dike due to water level-up is discretized and simulated, from which
the seepage process, distribution of maximum shear strain, and slip surface are
obtained. The two-phase-coupled SPH model is also applied to a slope failure test
under heavy rainfall, and simulation results are compared to the test data. Finally,
a dike failure test of rainfall is analyzed using the two-phase coupled SPH model
getting the surface infiltration and suction reduction.

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 The new SPH model with the coupling of water, air and soil has been proposed based on
the basic principles of SPH method.
 The model test of slope failure conducted before was simulated by the proposed SPH
method with two cases, one without the effect of air blow and another one with.
 SPH simulated infiltration process and failure mechanism were compared with observed
results in the model test, which proved that the proposed model can be a useful tool to
evaluate the stability of slope and levee under heavy rainfall.
 So far, the research was rarely found in literature on simulations of slope and levee failure
under heavy rainfall considering the effect of air phase and it is needed to develop a new
three-phase SPH model to evaluate the stability of slope and levee under heavy rainfall.
This research is aimed at proposing a new numerical tool and investigating the failure
mechanism of slope and levee under heavy rainfall. The new three phase SPH model
considering the coupling of water, air and soil has been proposed based on the basic
principles of SPH method. Water-air coupled case was built to simulate the rise and burst
of air bubble in water in order to validate the application of proposed SPH model. The
model test of slope failure conducted before was simulated by the proposed SPH model
with two cases, one without the effect of air blow and another one with. SPH simulated
infiltration process and failure mechanism were compared with observed results in model
test, which proved that the proposed SPH model can be a useful tool to evaluate the
stability of slope and levee under heavy rainfall.

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 We discuss the application of a dynamic refinement procedure to reduce the computational
requirements of an elasticplastic model to simulate non-cohesive soil.
 In the refinement procedure, the diagonal components of the strain tensor are used as the
criterion for the refinement, and an SPH particle is refined by replacing it with new daughter
particles which are located according to a square pattern centered at the refined particle
position.
 The position of the daughter particles and their smoothing distance are determined such
that the error introduced due to the refinement is kept small.
 Further, possible numerical instabilities are identified and avoided by using adequate
refinement parameters. Obtained results are compared with those of simulations using a
fine discretization in the whole domain. The comparison shows a good agreement, while
the savings in computational time and memory consumption are considerable.
 In this work we discuss the application of a dynamic refinement procedure to reduce the
computational requirements of the method while still achieving a similar accuracy. The
application of this strategy allows the simulation of larger physical domains using the same
computational resources.

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 Application of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method to the simulation of
granular materials under large deformation is presented.
 The Drucker–Prager constitutive model with nonassociated flow rule is implemented in the
SPH formulations to model granular flow in a continuum framework.
 The model developed is validated by experiments on the collapse of two dimensional
granular columns as reported in the literature. Simulations of the collapse of three-
dimensional axisymmetric sand columns with various aspect ratios are also conducted.
Numerical results of the granular flow pattern, final runout distance, final deposit height,
and nondeformed region are in good agreement with the experimental observations as
reported in the literature.
 It is suggested that despite being a continuum-scale model, the SPH model developed can
be used to effectively simulate large deformation and dense flow of granular materials, and
geomaterials in general, if proper constitutive models are implemented. The model
developed may thus find applications in various problems involving dense granular flow and
large deformations, such as landslides and debris flow.
 Following the work of Bui et al. (2008) on application of the SPH method to the simulation
of granular materials in 2D conditions, this paper presents a 3D SPH model for granular
materials and demonstrates its accuracy and stability for simulating granular materials
under large deformation. The Drucker–Prager constitutive model with nonassociated flow
rule is implemented in the SPH formulations to model the granular flow in a continuum
framework. The model developed is validated by experiments on the collapse of 2D
granular columns as reported in the literature. Simulations of the collapse of 3D
axisymmetric sand columns with various aspect ratios are also conducted. Numerical
results for the granular flow pattern, final runout distance, final deposit height, and
nondeformed region are compared with experimental observations as reported in the
literature. In the following sections, numerical implementation of the SPH model is first
presented, followed by model validation and numerical simulation of granular flows in 3D
conditions.

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 The new Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model with the coupling of three phases,
water, soil and air, has been proposed based on the basic principles.
 Using the proposed SPH program, the rising and burst of air bubble in water was simulated
to validate the application in fluid phase (water and air).
 After that, a conceptual slope model with different coefficients of permeability has been
built and analyzed by the SPH model. The simulated infiltration showed that the proposed
SPH model can simulate the interaction force between soil and water well.
 The model test of slope failure conducted before was simulated by the proposed SPH model
with two cases, one without the effect of air phase and another one with the effect of air
phase.
 The infiltration process, slope deformation and air behavior were revealed from the three-
phase SPH simulations and the results proved that the proposed SPH model could be a
useful tool to evaluate the stability of slope and levee under heavy rainfall.
 This research aimed at proposing a new numerical tool and investigating the failure
mechanism of slope and levee under heavy rainfall. The new three-phase SPH model
considering the coupling of water, air and soil has been proposed based on the basic
principles of SPH method. Using the proposed SPH program, the rising and burst of air
bubble in water and a conceptual slope model were simulated to validate the application
of the proposed SPH model. The model test of slope failure conducted before was
simulated by the proposed SPH model with two cases, one without the effect of air phase
and another one with the effect of air phase. The infiltration process, slope deformation
and air behavior were revealed from the SPH simulations.

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 this paper presents an extension of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method to
evaluate the stability of a slope, and to simulate the post-failure behaviour of soil.
 For the slope stability analysis, the shear strength reduction technique with a modified
failure criterion for distinguishing convergent from non-convergent solutions is applied to
estimate the safety factor of a slope,
 the critical slip surface is determined from a contour plot of accumulated plastic strain.
 To take the pore water pressure into account, a new SPH formulation for soil motion is
developed. demonstrate its accuracy by comparing it with the results of slope stability
analysis and show that it automatically satisfies the dynamic boundary condition between
water and submerged soil.
 As an application of the proposed method, several smoothed particle slope stability
analyses and corresponding slope failure simulations are presented and compared with
other solutions. The results show good agreements with other methods in terms of the
safety factor and the critical slip surface.

Paper-16
 In order to resolve this problem, the development of smoothed particle hydrodynamics
(SPH) to simulate large deformation and failure of geomaterials has been presented
recently by our group (Bui et al., 2007). As an application of our proposed method to
geotechnical engineering, the interaction between soil and solid structure is modelled
herein by the SPH method.
 The Drucker-Prager model with non-associated plastic flow rule is implemented into the
SPH-code to describe the elasto-plastic soil behaviour while the solid structure is simulated
as an elastic-perfectly plastic material using the Von-Mises yield criterion.
 The contact between soil and solid structure is modelled by means of coupling condition
associated with a Lennard-Jones repulsive force between the two phases.
 The method is then applied to simulate slope failure and slope with reinforcing pile.
Numerical results show that the gross discontinuities failure of geomaterial can be
simulated very well through SPH, and the proposed soil-structure interaction algorithm
works well in the SPH framework. This suggests that SPH can be applied to model soil-
structure interaction in geomechanics.
 However, no implementations of SPH that solve plastic soil behaviour were available until
our group implemented elastoplastic soil constitutive models (Bui et al., 2007), which has
demonstrated successful performance of SPH for simulating such problems as slope failure,
landslides, bearing capacity that are commonly found in geotechnical engineering. In this
study, to enhance our proposed method for computational geomechanics, soil-structure
interaction is developed. The soil is modelled by the Drucker-Prager model with non-
associated plastic flow rule while the solid is simulated using the Von-Mises yield criterion.
In contrast to the usual SPH simulation of solid where the hydrostatic pressure is often
calculated as a function of density change using an “equation of state”, this paper proposes
to calculate the hydrostatic pressure of solid directly from its constitutive relation. The
interaction between soil and solid structure is modelled by means of coupling condition on
the interface between soil and structure. In addition, a penalty force in the form of the
Lennard-Jones repulsive force is also applied pair-wise to two approaching particles along
the centreline in order to prevent them from penetrating through each other. Finally, SPH
is applied to simulate slope failure. Two study cases are considered throughout: slope
results obtained from this study show that SPH can predict well the potential failure surface
of a slope by using contour plastic strain. Furthermore, gross discontinuities failure of slope
along the failure surface, which can not be simulated by FEM, can be well described through
SPH. Regarding the soil-structure interaction, numerical results demonstrate that the
proposed contact algorithm works well. In particular, slope is shown to be stabilized by the
reinforcing pile, and distribution of stress tensor on the reinforcing pile, and its real bending
mechanism are also well simulated through SPH. This suggests that SPH is a promising
method for geotechnical applications especially for large deformation and failure
simulation.

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