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Time constraints have separated the architects from traditional architecture.

These constraints can


be economical, social, cultural and political. However, the existence of constraints in the above
cases is due to time. Art and architecture have always been under certain known rules and
regulations and are strongly and constantly connected to culture, behavior patterns and values of
society. This is why the architectural styles of each period reflect the culture and art in that period.
This study, entitled "Application of the central courtyard of traditional architecture in the modern
architecture" studies the effect of local culture in regions, Western culture, and social factors on the
morphology and position of the courtyard in traditional, modern and Iran's current houses. In this
regard, a number of traditional structures, including Rasoulian and Arab homes and modern
structures with a central courtyard including the building of Khavaran culture center were compared.
The results show that although architects have tried to be inspired by the structures of modern
architecture, but many do not adhere to the principles and concepts of traditional designs.

In modern architectural design, the scientific use and development of Chinese traditional
architectural elements is an issue studied in-depth by every building designer. Exploration is made
from the application of humanity concept in traditional Chinese architectural culture. The traditional
architectural space design applications, the use of traditional architecture symbols, traditional
architectural elements applications and other aspects, have important significance to implant
traditional Chinese architectural elements into the development of modern architecture.

This paper investigates the purpose and the functions of buildings and their compatibility with Islamic
culture and the environment. An analysis from ecological and environmental points of view is carried
out. The challenge is how these traditional outlines can best fit the functions of the building and the
facilities intended to be offered, and how the new building has satisfied the requirements of the
traditional environment. The investigation also shows the increasing usage of modern design
materials for the hospital, which does not offer sufficient heat insulation or reasonable lighting.
Although the Mashiakhet Al Azhar and Dar El Eftaa establishments have completely different
functions, their designs consider and recognize the environmental requirements and the historical
background. The sites of the Mashiakhet Al Azhar and Dar El Eftaa compound have achieved
complete harmony with the surrounding environment. The hospital may meet its utilitarian needs and
functions, but lacks a general environmental and traditional balance with the whole district. However,
functional and traditional aspects can be combined successfully at the same time.

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the need to go beyond the “monumentalist” vision
in restoration of built heritage and embrace principles of sustainability in this architectural practice.
Design/methodology/approach Case studies as conceptual reference. Architectural typology.
Findings The environmental crisis that is currently recognized as one of the most important problems
that contemporary society must address urgently is a situation that still has not permeated enough in
the practice of monumental restoration, which is still carried out using unlimited resources. Research
limitations/implications In that sense, the close relationship between the built and the natural
environment as an essential ingredient of the vernacular is analysed. Practical implications Much of
the sustainable principles, that have been put forward as an example to be followed, are elements
that have hundreds of years in the constructive tradition. Social implications In this context,
vernacular architecture has much to contribute in the field of conservation by the enormous
accumulated knowledge that its shapes, materials and social use represent. Originality/value This
experience must be retrieved, but not as an aseptic laboratory experiment, but through its updated
application and active implementation to improve the quality of life for inhabitants and contribute to
the preservation of our cultural and natural environments.

Architecture is not only functional, economic, and technical and other physical characteristics, but
also closely related to human behaviors. Therefore, it also has originality, visual aesthetics and
function to beautify the living characteristics. To keep interest in the exterior, with a strong modern
style of "purity, geometry and sculptural architecture", should not be the best way. It is worth to
integrate the traditional elements, symbols, with modern forms and ideas together to form the
environmental and architectural modes with the cultural heritage and modern atmosphere, and their
cultural patterns. To create an architectural culture in modern buildings that could keep the
traditional cultural spirit and sustainable development may be our target to continually pursue.

This investigation tries to find the most important strategies for passive measures looking at
traditionally built houses in the upper town of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The buildings were
analysed with simulation tools to learn about the effect of the building materials, the form and size of
the windows and the natural ventilation and the location of the buildings inside the city for the
thermal comfort which is known as very good. The result of the investigation will be the basis for a
planning guideline for renovation of houses with a low energy standard and recommendations for
new buildings. Many houses in northern Greece have a very high energy demand concerning both
heating and cooling. The guideline will help architects and planners to develop design and
refurbishment concepts using strategies which have already been used in this region for a long time.
The method of transferring passive strategies found by looking at traditional architecture is shown by
the example of northern Greece, but can be used for other regions in the same or similar way.
Keywords: traditional architecture, vernacular architecture, passive cooling, sustainable, natural
ventilation, thermal comfort.

This study aims to identify the thermal functions of internal courtyards in traditional Chinese
shophouses (CSHs) located in the hot-humid climate of Malaysia with the aim of providing useful
passive cooling strategies for modern urban houses. This chapter investigates the detailed thermal
environments of the selected two traditional CSHs with different courtyard types to discuss the
thermal function of the courtyards. As a result, it was suggested that closed, cross-ventilated
courtyards be embedded to achieve indoor thermal comfort and avoid excessive humidity in hot-
humid climates. Meanwhile, it was also recommended that a staggered form of courtyard with V-
shaped roofs should be designed as a nocturnal cooling source.