You are on page 1of 7

Concentration of Caffeine in Top 3 Leading Brands of Energy Drinks Consumed

by the High School Student Athlete of FSUU


1ErikkaMae L. Janozo, 2Joseph Daniel Navarro, 3Dexter Greg Polo, 4Kristine
Acasio, 5Lars Cussack Cepe
Father Saturnino Urios University, Butuan City, Philippines
Emails: dexterpolo76@gmail.com, rafael123656@gmail.com,
josephdaniel5619@gmail.com, kristyyyn802@gmail.com, erikkajanozo2@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Most of the population of the world is exposed to caffeine to a greater or
lesser extent since it occurs in a number of plants used in the preparation of
widely consumed drinks, and has in addition a limited therapeutic use. Caffeine is
readily absorbed and can have pharmacologic effects on adults or on children
who consume quantities of coke beverages, energy drinks, or chocolate. The
caffeine concentration was determined based on the results obtained and it was
found that 138.55 mg, 99,17 mg and 15.80 mg respectively were found. ANOVA
result showed a result of 0.001 < 0.05 significance level, concluding that there’s a
highly significant difference between the means of the amount of Caffeine found
in Energy Drinks.

Keywords: Caffeine, Energy Drinks, Concentration


Chapter One

Introduction

Energy drinks (sometimes referred to as “stimulant drinks”) are caffeinated soft


drinks that claim to boost performance and endurance. (Richards G., Smith A.P.,
2016.). Energy drinks combined with alcohol are also gaining popularity in young adults,
which poses significant concerns about health risks. (Dutchan, 2010). It is a widely used
group of beverages known for their stimulant effects on central nervous system. The
main components of ED are caffeine, taurine, carbohydrates, glucuronolactone, inositol,
niacin, pantenol and B-Complex Vitamins. (Alessandro Oteri, F.S 2007).

Studies reviewed show that energy drink consumption is generally low, but the
monitory who drink the most may be consuming at unsafe levels. They boost energy
and alertness in some conditions, but may have adverse hemodynamic effects. (Striley
CW., et al. 2014). Considering the idea that energy drink use may cause behavioral
problems and negatively impact on mental health and well-being, it is concerning to find
that the products are often aggressively marketed at young people. (Richards, 2016).
Examining this phenomenon, a review of the negative effect of AmED found that
consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks was more dangerous than consuming
alcohol alone because of the stimulant effects of caffeine contained in energy drinks.
(Striley & Khan, 2014). In 2008, the National Federation of State High School
Associations, while recommending water and sports drinks for rehydration, specifically
did not recommend energy drinks and cited potential risks, the absence of benefit and
drug interaction. (AA Alsunni, 2015). With the rising consumption of so-called energy
drinks over the last few years, there has been a growing body of literature describing
significant adverse health events after the ingestion of there beverages. ( Fahad Ali, H.R.-D.
2015).

The primary ingredient of energy drink is the drug caffeine. In 2004, caffeine was
removed from the restricted substances list of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)
but remains on WADA’s monitoring program (Desbrow & Leveritt, 2007). But at high
levels of consumption, many negative effects can materialize. In comparison to hot
coffee, which is normally drank slowly; energy drinks may taste good,are cold and can
be consumed quickly (Fornicola, 2007). Caffeine is probably the most frequently
ingested pharmacologically active substance in the world. It is found in beverages
(coffee, tea, soft drinks) Because of its wide consumption at different levels by most
segments of the population, the public and the scientific community have expressed
interest in the potential for caffeine to produce adverse effects on human health. (S.
Jordan, J.E. (2002).

Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now


appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sports gel, alcoholic
beverages and diet aids. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly,
but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer.
(Graham, 2001).
Introduced to it, this research is successful in testing the said energy drinks that
had different presence of concentration of caffeine. Additionally, the study would be
beneficial to the students, teachers, government agencies like Food and Drug
Administration, Department of Health and also for the future researchers.
Chapter Two

Materials and Methods

Collection of Energy Drinks


The energy drink samples will be randomly collected within the area of Butuan
City, Agusan Del Norte. There will be three energy drinks which is the gatorade, cobra
and sting to be prepared which will indicate to determine if there is significant difference
among these three (3) top leading brands. The researchers will credit the three brands
in which will be purchase on the selected store in Butuan City. Each energy drinks
samples will have different volumes. The samples will be taken to MSU-IIT to test the
concentration.
Preparation of Samples
The tartrazine of top three energy drinks will be find in the collected bottles, after
that they will remove or take the samples in a small bottle for the test and will transport it
or bring it to the testing center or laboratory which will be in Iligan City.
Data Analysis
There are three (3) energy drinks in total. Every three (3) energy drink samples
will be tested twice. When the energy drink test will be done, the researchers will
examine if what concentration of tartrazine will be found and compare each given
samples whether it passed the standard count set by the Department of Science and
Technology Regional Testing Center. It would also be compared to the National
Standard Coliform Count set by Food and Drug Administration
Statistical Analysis
The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is use to determine whether there
are any statistically significant differences between the means of two or more
independent groups. This compares the mean concentration of tartrazine in the top 3
leading brands of energy drinks
Chapter Three

Results and Discussion

Caffeine Concentration in the Energy Drinks


The analysis of caffeine in the energy drinks was done using the Analysis of Variance
(ANOVA).
The results show that Energy Drinks in the Category A showed the highest mean
concentration of caffeine with 139.80 ppm followed by the Energy Drinks in Category C with a
mean concentration of 99.17 ppm. Lastly, the Energy drinks in Category B have the lowest mean
concentration with 15.80 ppm (Table 3).

Concentration of Caffeine found in Top 3 Leading Brands of Energy Drinks


Sample code Mg caffeine per Average mg caffeine Standard deviation
bottle per bottle
COBRA
S1R1 129.40
S1R2 147.70
S1R3 143.30 138.55 12.94

GATORADE
S2R1 17.20
S2R2 13.70
S2R3 16.50 15.80 1.85

STING
S3R1 88.30
S3R2 115.10
S3R3 94.10 99.17 14.10
Table 1. The presence of caffeine concentration found in energy drinks.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the present concentration of caffeine in
top 3 leading brands of energy drinks which is the Cobra, Gatorade and Sting. Research suggests
that there are both negative and positive effects of caffeine like increases alertness and reduces
fatigue, improves performance on vigilance tasks and simple tasks that sustained response.
(Smith, 2002).
As shown in the table above, it is stated that the highest amount of average mg of
caffeine was Cobra which has 138.55 mg followed by the Sting which has an average of 99.17
and gatorade 15.80 mg of caffeine respectively.
The amount of concentrations for Caffeine were varied as shown in the tables above.
There are 3 examples of energy drinks which is Cobra, Gatorade and Sting. For the first bottle of
cobra it has 129.40 mg of caffeine. While the second bottle has 147.70 mg of caffeine and the
last sample has 142.30 mg of caffeine. They got an average of 138.55 mg of caffeine since they
are divided by 3.
The second sample which is the Gatorade shows a bigger difference in the amount of first sample
which is Cobra. The first bottle of Gatorade got 17.20 mg of caffeine while the second bottle of
Gatorade got 13.70 mg of caffeine and 16.50 mg of caffeine respectively. And 15.80 mg of
caffeine for the average concentration. And lastly which is the Sting sample, the first bottle got
88.30 mg of caffeine and the second bottle got 115.10 mg of caffeine and 94.10 mg of caffeine
respectively with the average of 99.17 mg of caffeine

SAMPLE Average Concentration

Cobra 138.55

Gatorade 15.80

Sting 99.17

Table 2. Significant difference among the caffeine concentration found in Energy Drinks

According to the data above in Table 2, it is highly shown that there are significant difference of
caffeine concentration among the 3 samples.

Sample Average Standard Interpretation Standard Interpretation


Concentration (DFA) (JECFA)

Cobra (A) 138.55 255.6 ppm Did not exceed 80 ppm Passed
the specified
standard

Gatorade (B) 15.80 255.6 ppm Did not exceed 80 ppm Did not exceed
the specified the specified
standard standard

Sting (C) 99.17 255.6 ppm Did not exceed 80 ppm Passed
the specified
standard

Table 3. Conformity of Caffeine Concentration to the specified standards

The mean concentration of the three samples does not conform to the standard set by the Drug
and Food Additives (DFA). Meanwhile, only two samples conform to the standard set by the Joint Expert
Committee and Food Additives (JECFA) which is the Sample A and Sample C which is 138.55 ppm and
99.17 ppm. Thus, the null hypothesis states that the concentration of caffeine in the energy drinks do
not conform to standard set by DFA is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted.
Chapter Four
Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion
The results of this study showed that the mean concentrations in the caffeine found from
the energy drinks. Category A 139.80 pm; Category B 15.80 ppm; Category C, 99.17 ppm.
Based on the ANOVA test, the Concentration of Caffeine found in Top 3 Leading Brands of
Energy Drinks does have significant difference. Based on the standards set by Joint Expert
Committee for Food Additives (JECFA) and Drug and Food Additives (DFA), the concentration
of Caffeine found in the top 3 leading brands of energy drinks did not conform to the standards
for the concentration of caffeine and therefore it is not safe for human consumption
Recommendation
The researchers of this study would like to recommend for future researchers a few things
for future studies relating to this. First, dissemination of the caffeine concentration in energy
drinks so that it can help send awareness to the people who usually consumed energy drinks.
Second, conduct a survey in the community who are consuming energy drinks to determine if
there are observed cases of health problems that may relate to caffeine concentration. Third,
more energy drinks categories, in order to come up with a good estimate of the levels of
concentrations of caffeine. Lastly, determination of caffeine concentration in Energy Drinks.
References

FDA's Welcome Action: Caffeine is a Drug. (2015, 09 02). Retrieved march 10, 2019, from
www.acsh.org: https://www.acsh.org/news/2015/09/02/fdas-welcome-action-caffeine-is-
a-drug

The Effects of Caffeine on Your Body. (2017, August 7). Retrieved March 11, 2019, from
Healthline: https://www.healthline.com/health/caffeine-effects-on-body#1

ADF - Drug Facts - Caffeine. (2018, November 15). Retrieved March 11, 2019, from Alcohol
and Drug Foundation: https://adf.org.au/drug-facts/caffeine/

Caffeine: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning. (n.d.). Retrieved March 11,
2019, from WebMD: https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-979/caffeine

Migala, J. (2018, April 3). What is Caffeine? Health Benefits, Risks, and Sources | Everyday
Health. Retrieved March 11, 2019, from Everyday Health:
https://www.everydayhealth.com/diet-nutrition/diet/caffeine-health-benefits-risks-
sources/

Petre, A. (2016, May 1). What is Caffeine, and is it Good or Bad For Health? Retrieved March
11, 2019, from Healthline: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-is-caffeine