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THE POLICE SYSTEM

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I . THE POLICE I THEIR ROLE AND LIMITATIONS

P o li c e i s the f i r s t agency f o r the administration

o f criminal j u s t ic e and i s considered to be the f i r s t l in e


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of defence against crime. They are the entry point of

the criminal j u s t i c e system fo r the f i r s t offenders and


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r e -e n tr y fo r the f a i l u r e s of other sub-systems, namely

recid iv ists. They occupy a strateg ic position in respect

to so c ia l defence, probably only next to the family and

other personal groups in importance.

They are important because they keep our complex

society together. They keep the c i t i z e n s , working and

prospering within the framework of c i v i l i z e d law and


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acceptable so cial conduct. No society can exist or

function without the support o f an organized p o lic e force.

N evertheless, almost in every part of the world, p o lic e has

f a i l e d t o check completely the onward march of crime and

delinquency. It i s also the most hated in s titu tio n of

any and every type of the government. The only d iffe re n c e

i s that in democracy people are vociferous and loud in

t h e i r complaints against th e p o lic e and in autocracy or

d ic ta t o rs h ip , popular voice i s suppressed.


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In In diai p o lic e i s an object of not only d is l ik e

but hatred. In England, in the words of Holcomb, "Nobody


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loves a policeman", in U.S.A. "Cops are pigs f o r many".

Moreover in many countries, p olice i s corrupt, high­


handed, in e f f ic i e n t and under the influence of p o l it i c ia n s .

They are also inhumane in dealing with the

offenders. Author of the present study sought to know

from the lawyers, judges, prison o f f i c e r s , prisoners,

ex-prisoners and so cial workers, as to what i s the usual

attitu de of the p o lic e o f f i c e r s towards the accused.

TABLE- 3

( IN PERCENTAGE )

USUAL ATTITUDE OF THE POLICE OFFICERS TOWARDS THE ACCUSED

S.No.Responses Lawyers Judges Prison P ri­ Ex- Social Total Mean


O f fic e r s soners P r i - workers Value
soners

1. Hostile 80.0 60.0 80.0 76.67 96.0 88.0 480.67 80.11

2. Friendly 20.0 40.0 20.0 06.66 04.0 12.0 102.66 17.11

3. N il - - - 16.67 - 16.67 2.78

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 600.0 100


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The t a b l e - 3 , re v ea ls that majority of the respon­

dents to the questionnaire ( 80.11% ) were of the opinion

that usual attitu de of the p olic e o f f i c e r s towards the

accused i s h o stile . As a counter check, the p o lic e o f f i c e r s

were interviewed t o discover the amount of sympathy/apathy

they bore towards the offenders. M ajority of them (86.0%)

expressed, that they had no sympathy fo r the accused.

The law r e l a t i n g to the sphere of p olic e work in

the country has remained more or le s s unaltered even a f t e r

independence. Modern P o li c e system in India was established

by th e B r it is h e r s . The Indian P o li c e Act 1861, provided

fo r a uniform system of p o lic e force in India. The powers

and functions are derived from t h i s Statute. Besides power

o f a r r e s t , search, seizu re end in vestigation o f offences

have been c o n f e r r e d on th e p olice by the Code of Criminal

Procedure.

The basic statu te namely the Indian P o lic e Act has

been subjected t o some amendments when applied t o some

cities. In th e recent past, some States have passed new

laws dealing with the P o li c e function. By and la r g e ,

however th e P o lic e Act, has continued t o re gu la te the

functioning o f th e P o li c e . The Criminal Procedure Code

1989 had undergone only minor amendments from time t o tim e,

till i t was repealed and replaced by th e Code o f Criminal

Procedure 1973, as a re s u lt of th e recommendations o f the


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Law Commission. The new Code has maintained the factum

of the old p rov isio ns, even though a large number of

them had become antiquated. The o f f ic e r -i n -c h a r g e of

the P o li c e station, who has continued to be the kingpin

of the lo c a l administration, continues to wield wide

powers which are apparently not in consonance with the

democratic p rin c ip le s . These concern the question of

house-search, arrest on suspicion, watch a ft e r conviction

and even th e dispersal of unlawful assemblies. The

l i s t of th e cognizable and non-cognizable offences.which

define the periphery o f p o lic e action has remained

unaltered. The Evidence Act, has however, remained on


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th e same pedestal without even any marginal change.

Wide ranging powers which th e p o lic e possess

bring in sharp focus th e question of t h e i r exercise in an

e ff i c i e n t manner. Unfortunately, P o li c e by the very

nature o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have always t o bear the


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brunt o f c ritic is m j u s t or unjust. They are frequently

c r i t i c i s e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r p ractices or f a i l u r e s or
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mistakes. Torture, t h i r d degree methods, extraction

o f confession, imputation o f evidence, unduly long

detention and remands-these are a l l causes of tr o u b le

t o th e accused.

P o l i c e Stations and out-posts are very o ld . Almost

in every p o lic e s t a t io n , there i s no adequate arrangement


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fo r accommodation even f o r the P o lic e O f fic e r s . P o lic e

has to face many d i f f i c u l t i e s while tracking the offenders.

Sometimes they have to t r a v e l by p riv a te transport to

f a rflu n g areas. Many P o li c e stations and out posts are

not f u l l y equipped with armoury and means of communication.

Some times the offenders are b etter equipped with the

modern armoury than that o f P o lic e o f f i c e r s . Consequently,

i t becomes very d i f f i c u l t f o r the P o li c e o f f ic e r s to

apprehend such offenders.

Some of the problems of the p o lic e a ris e from

t h e i r use in enforcement of the standards of public morals,

the repression o f th e p ro s titu te s , gambling, possession

and s a le o f drugs and liq u o r. A tremendous amount of

p o l ic e energy i s employed in an attempt t o enforce motor


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v e h ic le laws and protecting the public health and safety.

Besides, in v e s tig a tio n , they have t o see o f f and re ce iv e


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m in isters, and make arrangements f o r V . I . P ' s * Smith Bruce,

has r i g h t l y remarked that the p o lic e have been used as a

'convenient instrumentality* f o r th e performance o f a l l

manner o f public functions.

Another important factor i s that people do not

co-operate with the p o l ic e and do not want to come forward


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as a prosecution witness. The p o l ic e o f f i c e r s also

mentioned about connections between th e p rofession al


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offenders and local p o l i t i c i a n s . In the ’ sample' of

the present study, the respondents revealed that they

were confronted with the following d i f f i c u l t i e s :

TABLE - 4

( IH PERCENTAGE )

DIFFICULTIES OF THE POLICE

S.No. D iffic u ltie s N o.of

1. Non-Cooperation of the Publici 76.80

2. P o l i t i c a l Pressure: 83.60

3. Inadequate Means o f Transport


and Communication: 80.00

4. Being Over-Burdened: 20.00

5. Bias o f the Courts Against Them: 83.60

6. Inadequate Prosecution S t a f f : 43.60

7. N egative Role of th e Defence


Counsel: 26.80

8. H o s t i l i t y of th e Witnesses: 90.00

NOT El RESPONDENTS GAVE MORE TH/IN ONE RESPONSE

However, only 13.60% o f th e respondents stated

that they had no d i f f i c u l t i e s .


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An analysis of t a b l e - 4 reveals that p olice

o f f i c e r s besides non-cooperation of the p u b l i c , p o l i t i c a l

pressure, inadequate means of transport and overloading,

have also to face problems in the court of law. In the

Court, p o l ic e o f f i c e r s f e e l some what disappointed,

because o f the delay in disposal of the cases. Some times

in vestigation o f f i c e r s f e e l that the prosecution s t a f f

upon which they depend i s inadequate. Many o f f ic e r s are

unhappy with the negative r o l e of th e defence counsel.

P o li c e has also to cut a sorry fig u re when the witnesses

turn h o s t ile .

A p o l ic e man is l i a b l e t o be c a lle d to duty at any

time and any place. His duty i s unpleasent and irksome.

He hardly knows a Sunday or holiday and the periods of

f e s t i v a l s and f e s t i v i t i e s are generally periods of stress

and strain f o r him. The p o lic e man of today, when he

looks around, i s subject to an intense fe e l in g of in secu rity

and i n f e r i o r i t y complex, as compared to others in c i v i l i a n

occupations. He finds that not only his sa lary and


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emoluments a re the lowest, but that h is conditions of
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service are equally miserable. In other occupations, the

hours o f duty are fix e d and not subject to v a r ia t io n , but

in h is case, he i s o f f i c i a l l y on duty f o r 24 hours and

f o r him Bight and day merge into one.


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The p o lic e man's exposure to a l l sorts of r is k ,

his s o c ia l back-ground, low-pay, low-morale, a i l combine

to make him suspicional to the lures of the unfair

practices wh ile dealing with offenders.

II. POLICE AND SOCIETY: THEIR INTERACTION

P o li c e i s an in t e g r a l part of the society, but

on account of h o s t i l i t y towards them, they f e e l that

t h e i r occupation i s in c o n flic t with the community. This

r e a l iz a t i o n gives r i s e t o emphasis on secrecy, an attempt

t o coerce p u b lic into respecting them and b e l i e f that


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almost a l l means d i r e c t e d towards a r r e s t a^e l e g i t i m a t e .

This a t t i t u d e o f t h e p o l i c e i s paid back by i n d i f f e r e n c e ,

d i s t r u s t , non -cooperation and h o s t i l i t y on t h e part o f

t h e p u b lic in g e n e r a l.

The reaction of the lawyers, judges, prison

o f f i c e r s , p ris o n ers , ex-prisoners and so c ia l workers

i s revealed by the t a b l e - 5 .
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11-50

Only 10.13%, 9.77%, and 8.88% o f t h e t o t a l respondents,

expressed t h a t t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are good, kind and honest.

Whereas 24.96%, 22.47% and 23.79% expressed, th a t t h e

p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are corrupt^inhumane and h o s t i l e .

The above r e s u l t s o f t h e t a b l e - 6
, are in consonance
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w ith t h e f o l l o w i n g o b serv a tio n made by S h ri S.K. Ghosh

(Former I n s p e c to r General o f P o l i c e ) :

" . . . I t must be admitted th a t p o l i c e in


our country have never enjoyed some
so rt o f res p ec t and f r i e n d l i n e s s on
t h e part o f g en e ra l p u b lic . Today
p u b lic opinion concerning t h e p o l i c e
in our country i s at lo w e s t-P e o p le
lo o k upon t h e p o l i c e , as i f i t i s not
t h e i r own. Anyone connected w ith the
p o l i c e a d m in istra tio n w i l l admit that
abuse o f a u t h o r i t y and co rru p tion do
e x i s t i n t h e p o l i c e rank and f i l e in
v a rio u s f o r m s . . . "

The p o l i c e c o rr u p tio n occures w ith in a numerous

s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n s , each o f which i s a n aly zab le along


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s e v e r a l dimensions. However, t h e major part o f i t tak es

p la c e in p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
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III. POLICE AND THE ACCUSEDt THE INVESTIGATION

I n v e s t i g a t i o n g e n e r a l l y through in t e r v ie w and

i n t e r r o g a t i o n s , i s most important in crim in a l t r i a l .

The s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n can help in a r r iv in g at

c o r r e c t conclu sion s. The sympathetic and h e lp fu l

a t t i t u d e o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g o f f i c e r , w i l l c r e a t e a sort

o f s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n in t h e accused and w i l l m otivate

him t o speak t r u t h . On t h e oth er hand, u n s c i e n t i f i c

methods w i l l c r e a t e a sort o f i l l - f e e l i n g and d is tr u s t

in t h e mind o f t h e accused making his u ltim a te r e ­

s o c ia liza tio n d if f ic u lt .
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Under Chapter X I I o f t h e Criminal Procedure Code ,

t h e p o l i c e has a s t a t u t o r y r ig h t t o c a r r y on i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f an o f f e n c e i s t h e f i e l d ex clu sive ly

r e s e r v e d f o r t h e e x e c u t iv e through t h e p o l i c e department.

The P o l i c e has t h e bounden duty t o i n v e s t i g a t e , and i t

i s t h e i r duty t o c o l l e c t t h e evidence f o r t h e purpose o f


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p r o v id in g t h e eviden ce. These s t a t u t o r y r i g h t s and d u ties

o f t h e p o l i c e are not circum scribed by any power o f

superintendence o r i n t e r f e r e n c e by t h e M a g is t r a t e , nor i s

any s a n c tion r e q u ir e d from a M a g is t r a t e t o i n v e s t i g a t e

i n t o a c o g n iz a b le o f f e n c e .
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The Supreme Court in S.N. Sharma_ V. Bipen Kumar


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T lw a r i and oth ers observed:

" . . . The power o f t h e p o l i c e t o i n v e s t i g a t e


any c o g n iz a b le crim e i s u n co n tro lle d by
t h e M a g is t r a t e , and i t i s only in cases,
where t h e p o l i c e decide not t o i n v e s t i g a t e
t h e ca set t h a t t h e M a g is t r a t e can in t e r v e n e
and e i t h e r d i r e c t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n or in
t h e a l t e r n a t i v e , proceed h im s e lf or depute
a M a g is t r a t e subordinate t o him, t o proceed
to in v e s tig a te th e m a tter..."

Nodoubt, t h e Code o f Crim inal Procedure, g iv e s t o t h e

p o l i c e u n fe t t e r e d power t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l t h e ca ses, where

t h e y suspect a c o g n iz a b le o f f e n c e has been committed. Even

t h e High Court does not i n t e r f e r e w ith such i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,

because i t would be impeding i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h e j u r i s ­

d i c t i o n o f t h e s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s , t o e x e r c is e power in

accordance w ith t h e p r o v is io n s o f t h e Criminal Procedure

Code.

However, i n a p p r o p r ia t e Cases, an agg riev ed person

can always seek a remedy by invoking t h e power o f t h e High

Court under A r t i c l e 226 o f t h e C o n s tit u t io n . The High

C ou rt, in such cases can is s u e t h e w r it o f mandamus, r e s ­

t r a i n i n g t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r from m isasing h is l e g a l powers.


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F u r th e r , in Hazari L a i Gupta V, Rameshwar Prasad t h e

Supreme Court, l a i d down:

" . . . T h e High Court can quash p ro c e e d in g s ,


i f t h e r e i s no l e g a l evidence o r i f
t h e r e i s any impediment in t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n
o r continuance o f p r o c e e d i n g s . . . "
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£
The p o l i c y o f n o n - i n t e r f erlce in the in v e s tig a tio n ,

was w e l l explained by t h e P r i v y C ou n cil, in Kina Emperor


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V. Khwa.la N a z ir Ahmad , in t h e s e words:

" . . . J u s t as i t i s e s s e n t ia l th a t every
one accused o f a crim e, should have
f r e e access t o t h e court o f j u s t i c e ,
so th a t he may be duly a c q u it te d , i f
found not g u i l t y o f t h e o f f e n c e o f
which he i s charged, so i t i s o f
utmost importance th a t t h e j u d i c i a r y
should not i n t e r f e r e with t h e p o l i c e
i n matters which are w ith in t h e i r
p r o v in c e and i n t o which law imposes
on them t h e duty o f i n q u i r y . . . "

Another is s u e r e g a rd in g t h e p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,

i s as t o how long i t continues? F u rth er, question i s

whether o r not t h e p o l i c e can reopen t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,

once t h e ch alla n has been submitted t o t h e M a g is tr a te

concerned.

O r d in a r ily , the righ t and duty o f the p o lic e end,

with th e submission of a report under section 173(l) Criminal


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Procedure Code. There was no provision in the old Criminal
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Procedure Code in t h i s regard. At the same time, th ere was

express provision p ro h ib itin g the p o lic e from launching

upon an in vestigation into the fresh f a c t s coming to lig h t

a f t e r submission of th e report.
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In such cases i t was g e n e r a lly thought by many

High C ou rts, that t h e p o l i c e were not barred from fu r th e r

i n v e s t i g a t i o n , even i f under S. 173(1) Criminal Procedure


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Code, a r ep o rt had been submitted and t h e M a g is t r a t e had

taken t h e cognizance o f t h e o f fe n c e .

The r i g h t o f a p o l i c e o f f i c e r t o make repeated

i n v e s t i g a t i o n s under t h e o ld Criminal Procedure Code, was

r e c o g n iz e d by t h e Madras High C ourt, as e a r ly as in 1919,


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in Djwakar Singh V. A. Rammurthi N aidu . where j u s t i c e

P h i l l i p s and J u s t ic e Krishnan, observed as under:

" . . . t h e number o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s in t o
a crime i s not li m i t e d by law and th a t
when one has been completed another
may begun on f u r t h e r in form a tion r e c e i v e d . . . "
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Further i n Mohd. Nlwaz V. The Crown, t h e Lahore High

C ou rt, c o n s i s t in g o f J u s t i c e Din Mohammed and j u s t i c e

C o r n e lln s , c i t e d w ith approval t h e above d e c is io n o f t h e

Madras High Court. In P ro s e c u tin g In s p e c to r V. Nlnaketan


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Mahato t h e High Court o f O rissa h e ld th a t t h e p o l i c e had

t h e r i g h t t o re-open an i n v e s t i g a t i o n even a f t e r t h e

submission o f t h e charge sh e e t, i f fr e s h f a c t s came t o


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lig h t. In Rama Shankar V. S t a t e o f U .P . . a D iv is io n Bench

o f t h e Allahabad High C ou rt, t o o k t h e view th a t submission

o f fr e s h charge sheet a f t e r submission o f t h e r e p o r t under

S. 173 Crim inal Proced ure Code was not i l l e g a l .


11-55

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In H.N. Rishbud V. The S t a t e o f D e l h i , the

Supreme Court, contemplated th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u r t h e r

i n v e s t i g a t i o n , even a f t e r t h e Court had taken t h e

cognizance o f t h e case. The Court observed:

" . . . I t does not f o l l o w t h a t t h e


i n v a lid it y o f in v e s tig a tio n is
t o be com p letely ignored by a
Court during t r i a l . . . i f brought
t o the n o t i c e o f t h e Court. The
C ourt, w i l l have t o ta k e t h e
necessary step s t o get t h e i l l e g a l i t y
cured and t h e d e fe c t r e c t i f i e d , by
o r d e r in g such r e - i n v e s t i g a t i o n as
t h e circumstances o f an in d iv id u a l
case may c a l l f o r . . . "

These d e c is io n s are c l e a r a u t h o r it y f o r t h e view

t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s not a l t o g e t h e r ru le d ou t,

m erely because t h e cognizance o f t h e case has been taken

by t h e Court. But some High C ou rts, t o o k t h e view th a t

w ith t h e submission o f charge-sheet under s e c tio n 173, t h e

power o f t h e p o l i c e t o i n v e s t i g a t e came t o an end and t h e

M a g i s t r a t e ' s cognizance o f t h e o f f e n c e s t a r t e d . I t was


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f u r t h e r observed t h a t any f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n by t h e

p o l i c e would tre n c h upon t h e m a g i s t e r i a l cognizance. In

Hanuman V. S t a t e o f Rajasthan, t h e Court ob served, th a t

when a case was pending b e f o r e a M a g is t r a t e , t h e a c t io n o f

t h e p o l i c e in resuming i n v e s t i g a t i o n was unauthorised and


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u n law fu l. In St ait e V. Mehar S in g h , t h e Court l a i d down
1
that th e p o lic e became ' functus o f f i c i o 1 , once t h e Court

t o o k t h e cognizance o f an o f f e n c e , on t h e submission o f
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t h e charge sheet by t h e p o l i c e and t h e r e a f t e r , f u r t h e r

i n v e s t i g a t i o n by t h e p o l i c e was not p e r m is s ib le .

The Law Commission in i t s r e p o r t , r e a l i z e d t h e

d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i n g agency. The Commission

observed th a t th e view taken by d i f f e r e n t High Courts

p la ce d a hindrance on t h e i n v e s t i g a t i n g agency, which

could be u n fa i r t o t h e prosecu tion and f o r that m atter,


■2a
even t o t h e accused. The Law Commission, fu r th e r

recommended th a t t h e competent p o l i c e o f f i c e r be a uthorised

to examine such fr e s h evidence and send a rep ort t o t h e

M a gistrate. Copies concerning t h e fr e s h m a teria l must

o f course be furnished t o t h e accused.

A c c o r d in g ly , a new p r o v is io n S. 173(8) was


33
in trodu ced i n t h e Code o f Crim inal Procedure which

reads as f o l l o w s !

"N othin g in t h i s s e c tio n s h a ll be


deemed t o p re clu d e f u r t h e r i n v e s t i ­
g a t io n in r e s p e c t o f an o f f e n c e
a f t e r a r e p o r t under sub-sect io n ( 2)
has been forwarded t o t h e M a g is t r a t e
and, where upon such i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,
t h e o f f i c e r in c h a rg e o f t h e p o l i c e
s t a t i o n ob ta in s f u r t h e r ev id e n c e ,
o r a l o r documentary, he s h a l l forward
t o t h e M a g is t r a t e f u r t h e r r e p o r t or
r e p o r t s r e g a r d in g such ev id e n ce in
t h e form p r e s c r ib e d ; and t h e p r o v is io n s
o f s u b - s e c t io n s ( 2) t o ( 6 ) s h a l l , as
f a r as may be, apply in r e l a t i o n t o
ouch r e p o r t o r r e p o r t s as t h e y apply
in r e l a t i o n t o a r e p o r t forwarded
under s u b -s e e tio n ( 2 ) " .
11-57

34
In Om Prakash Narang V. S t a t e (D e l h i A d m in is tr a tio n ) ,

Supreme Court, w h ile d w e llin g on t h e r ig h t o f t h e p o l i c e

t o r e - i n v e s t i g a t e , enphasised on c o -o r d in a tio n between

t h e d i f f e r e n t seg^ments o f t h e Criminal j u s t i c e . The

Court in t h i s r e g a r d , observed:

" . . . i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f independence o f
t h e magistracy and t h e j u d i c i a r y , in
t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u r it y o f adminis­
t r a t i o n o f crim in a l j u s t i c e and in t h e
i n t e r e s t s o f t h e comity o f t h e variou s
agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s , entrusted
w ith t h e d i f f e r e n t stages o f such
a d m in is t r a t io n , i t would o r d i n a r i l y
be d esiri-a ble t h a t p o l i c e should inform
t h e court and seek formal permission
t o make f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s when
fr e s h f a c t s come t o l i g h t . . . "

There i s always a b a t t l e o f w i t s between t h e

c r im in a l and t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r . Criminal t r i e s t o o u t ­

do i n v e s t i g a t i o n by adopting new ways and means t o

accomplish e v i l designs. But t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r has t o act

in accordance w ith t h e law and not in derogation o f i t .

Adoption o f e x t r a - l e g a l methods can never be j u s t i f i e d .

One crime i s c e r t a i n l y not n e u t r a liz e d by t h e commission

o f another crim e, and t h a t t o o by a person who i s charged


35
w ith sacred duty o f upholding t h e law, because means are

le s s important than t h e end i t s e l f and both must be


U. 36
scrup^ously clean .
11-58

In I n d ia i law p r o v id e s th a t t h e o ffe n d e r must be

informed o f the^grounds o f h is a rr e s t and h is r i g h t t o

engage a counsel. However, some p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are not

conscious o f t h i s duty, t h e r e f o r e t h e y do not inform

th e accused o f t h e grounds o f h is a r r e s t and th ey hardly

inform t h e accused t h a t he has a r i g h t t o engage a

counsel. They u su a lly proceed on t h e assumption t h a t t h e

accused i s aware o f such r i g h t s . 33.305


/0o f t h e p o l i c e

o f f i c e r s in t e r v ie w e d responded th a t t h e y inform t h e accused

o f t h e grounds o f h is a r r e s t . 46.40% o f t h e p o l i c e

o f f i c e r s in t e r v ie w e d responded th a t t h e accused was informed

t h a t he had a r i g h t t o engage a counsel.

F u r th e r , law p r o v id e s t h a t p o l i c e can keep t h e

o f f e n d e r i n t h e i r custody o n ly f o r 24 hours, in a d d itio n

t o t i m e tak en by them in t a k in g t h e o f fe n d e r t o t h e Court,

unless remand has been taken from t h e Court o f Law f o r


38
f u r t h e r custody. In K h a t r i And Others V. S t a t e o f B ih a r ,

t h e Supreme Court s t r o n g ly urged upon t h e S t a t e o f Bihar

and i t s p o l i c e a u t h o r i t i e s t o ensure t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l

and l e g a l requirement t o produce an a r r e s t e d person b e fo r e

a j u d i c i a l m a g is t r a t e , w it h in 24 hours was scrupulously

observed. But in p r a c t i c e , i t i s some what d i f f e r e n t .

The o f f e n d e r s a re kept i n P o l i c e custody f o r more than 24

hours without t a k in g p r o p e r remand from t h e Court o f Law.


11-59

The P o l i c e o f f i c e r s circumvent t h e law by not showing,

t h e a ctu a l date and t im e o f a r r e s t , and t h e entry in

p o l i c e d ia r y i s , some t im e p o st-d a te d . However, 96.40/a

o f t h e P o l i c e O f f i c e r s have expressed t h e op in ion , th at

t h e o f fe n d e r s are kept in t h e P o l i c e custody f o r t h e

maximum p e r io d o f 24 hours. It is only in 3.60% cases

where t h e response has been th at t h e o ffe n d e r s are kept

in t h e P o l i c e custody f o r more than 24 hours.

P o l i c e custody i s not f r e e from f e a r and a n x iety .

O ffen d ers always remain i n constant f e a r o f p o s s ib le

t o r t u r e and abuses. The f i r s t o f fe n d e r s a ls o f a c e mental

and emotional shock and damage t o t h e i r rep u ta tio n .

P o l i c e O f f i c e r s , P r is o n e r s and e x -p r is o n e r s expressed t h e

f o l l o w i n g views r e g a rd in g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e accused

during t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
11-60
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11-61

The above a n a ly s is r e v e a l s th a t t h e o ffe n d e r s

during t h e i r p o l i c e custody, have t o fa ce accommodation,

d ie t and oth e r d i f f i c u l t i s s . O ffenders a ls o remain in t h e

f e a r o f being beaten up and u su a lly s u f f e r from mental and

emotional shock. M a j o r i t y o f t h e respondents (24.05%)

expressed t h e opin ion th a t t h e o ffe n d e r s remain in t h e constant

f e a r o f being beaten up. I t i s fo llo w e d by th a t o f ' d i e t

problem' (22,61%). U s u a lly , t h e o f fe n d e r i s not i n a p o s it i o n

t o bear such hardships.

In I n d i a , personal l i b e r t y i s guaranteed by A r t . 21

o f t h e C o n s titu tio n and p r o t e c t e d by t h e p r o v is io n s o f t h e

Criminal Procedure Code. A r t . 21 says:

"No person s h a ll be dep rive d o f h is l i f e


or personal l i b e r t y except according t o
procedure e s ta b lis h e d by la w ".

Law p r o v id e s th a t where t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n cannot be

completed w ith in t h e p e rio d o f 24 hours, f i x e d by S . 57 o f

t h e Criminal Proced ure Code, then t h e case i s t o be r e f e r r e d

t o th e M a gistrate. S, 167(2) o f Criminal Procedure Code

empowers t h e M a g is t r a t e t o a u t h o r is e t h e d e te n tio n o f an

accused in such custody as he th in k s f i t f o r a term 0ot

exceeding 15 days On t h e whole. But by way o f p r o t e c t io n o f

p erson a l freedom, i t i s p ro v id e d t h a t no M a g is t r a t e s h a ll

a u t h o r is e t h e d e te n tio n o f t h e accused exceeding 90 days in

g ra v e cases and 60 days in l e s s e r cases. Supreme Court in


39
M a n to c M anjum dar V . S t a t e o f B i h a r , o b s e rv e d :
11-62

"On t h e e x p ir y o f t h e said p e r i o d . . .
t h e accused sh a ll be r e le a s e d on
b a i l i f he i s prepared t o and does
fu rn ish b a i l . . "

In,U.p..it i s provided th a t remand to P o lice

custody should not be applied f o r or g iven , unless th e

o f f i c e r making t h e a p p lic a t io n i s a b le t o g i v e d e f i n i t e and

s a t i s f a c t o r y grounds. A general statement th a t t h e accused


40
maybe able t o g i v e fu r th e r inform ation i s not t o be accepted.

It i s also p rov id e d that th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n should be

completed as e a r ly as P o s s i b l e and when complete t h e i n v e s t i ­

g a t in g o f f i c e r must comply w ith t h e p r o v is io n s o f Ss.168 t o


41
171 and 173 o f t h e Criminal Procedure Code 1973.

In U . S . A . , a subject i s t o be brought b e fo r e a

M a g i s t r a t e 's Court or J u s t ic e o f peace w ith in a ' s h o r t - t i m e ' ,

a f t e r h is a r r e s t . What c o n s t it u t e s a 's h o r t - t i m e ' i s t h e

most inportant p o in t f o r c o n s id e r a t io n . The P r e s i d e n t 's

Commission (1 9 6 7 ), r e p o r te d t h a t in 1965 in D i s t r i c t Columbia

20% o f t h e defendants were d eta in ed f o r more than 24 hours.

A study conducted in 1969 by t h e American C i v i l L i b e r - t i e s

Union (ACLU) i n d ic a t e d th a t p e o p le were s t i l l being i l l e g a l l y

detained f o r e x c e s s iv e p e r io d s o f t im e without e i t h e r formal

booking o r appearance b e fo r e a i n f e r i o r Court. The study has


42
f u r t h e r observed t h a t even t o d a y , such p r a c t ic e s are continued.

The present study a ls o r e v e a l s t h a t t h e o f fe n d e r s a re detained

without proper booking and are su b je cted t o i l l - t r e a t m e n t and


II- 63

t h e r e are long delays in t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 30% o f th e

P o lic e O ffic e rs , expressed t h e i r opinion th a t i t takes 6

months t o complete t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 42.40% expressed

th a t i t ta k e s one yea r t o complete t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . However,

50% o f t h e respondents opined th a t i t depends upon th e

nature o f t h e case. In otheywords, o ffen d ers are detained

even f o r more than 24 hours.

There i s a presumption o f law, that a person i s deemed

t o be in n o cen t, unless proved otherw ise in t h e Court o f Law.

But response t o t h i s question showed th a t t h e accused is

u s u a lly t r e a t e d as a Criminal. 85.60% p o l i c e o f f i c e r s

expressed t h e i r o p in io n , th a t t h e accused i s taken as a

c r im in a l during t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 14.40% o f t h e respondents

expressed t h e i r op inion th a t he i s taken as a f e l l o w human-

b e in g . None o f t h e respondents considered t h e accused as a

s ic k -p erson .
43
No doubt, S . 156 Criminal Procedure Code gives t o th e

P o l i c e u n fe t t e r e d power t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l cases where th ey


44
suspect t h a t a c o g n iz a b le o f f e n c e has been committed.

N e v e r th e le s s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i n g o f f i c e r i s supposed t o

i n t e r r o g a t e t h e accused without su b je c tin g him t o h u m iliatin g

treatm ent and in c r im in a t in g q u e stio n s. The U .P. P o l i c e


45
R e g u la tio n s , p r o v id e th a t when any person i s a r r e s t e d i n t h e

course o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i n g o f f i c e r , s h a ll as
11-64

t h e f i r s t step ask him whether he has any conplaint t o

make o f i l l - t r e a t m e n t by t h e p o l i c e , and s h a l l r e c o r d in

t h e 'c a s e d ia r y ' both question and answer. I f th e i l l -

treatm ent has been a l l e g e d , then i n v e s t i g a t i n g o f f i c e r s h a ll

suspend t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and forward t h e case t o t h e concerned

M a g is t r a t e . i3ut, co n tra ry t o t h i s p r o v i s i o n , t h ir d - d e g r e e

methods are used by t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . I t i s p h y s ica l

t o r t u r e , which may co n sist o f b e a tin g s , o f long g r i l l i n g s

by r e l a y s o f i n t e r r o g a t i o n s under b lin d in g l i g h t s o f booking

t h e p r is o n e r i n a c e l l without food or water f o r long periods


46
or p la c in g him in a c e l l where mosquitoes fe a s t on him. I t
47
may a l s o c o n s is t in gouging t h e e y e s , th e r e b y c r e a t in g the

complete b lin d n e s s , causing i n j u r i e s on vagina and i n s e r t i n g


48
i r o n rod i n t o t h e anus.

As t o t h e tech n iqu es used 77.60% o f t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ,

admitted t h e employment o f c o e r c i v e methods, 26.40% o f t h e

respondents spoke o f s c i e n t i f i c methods. I t i s p e r tin e n t t o

n o t e th a t 33.20% o f t h e P o l i c e O f f i c e r s favoured both

s c i e n t i f i c as w e l l as c o e r c i v e methods. With a view t o avoid

t h e s e c o e r c i v e methods, t h e second Law Commission.recommended

r e s t r i c t i v e p r o v i s i o n s in law r e l a t i n g t o t h e r e c o r d in g o f
49
t h e statements and co n fe ssio n s by t h e P o l i c e . J u s t i c e Mahmood,

was a l i v e t o t h i s crude p r a c t i c e o f crim inal i n v e s t i g a t i o n .


50
H is d is s e n tin g op in io n i n Babu L a i ' s case was an eloquent
11-65

expression o f t h e d e s ir e t o p r o t e c t people against


51
t o r t u r e in p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The Supreme Court

has a ls o r u le d th a t a statement recorded by t h e p o l i c e

during i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s not a dm issible. Further, in


52
Daqdu and oth ers V. S t a t e o f Maharashtra, t h e Supreme

Court remarked:

"The p o l i c e should remember that confession


may not always be a short cut t o a s o lu t io n .
Instead o f t r y i n g t o ' s t S r t ' from confession
th e y should s t r i v e t o ' a r r i v e ' at i t . E ls e,
when th e y are busy on t h i s s h o r t-r o u te t o
success, good evidence may disappear due t o
in a t t e n t i o n t o r e a l clu es. Jnce a confession
i s o b ta in ed , t h e r e i s o f t e n f l a g g i n g o f z e a l
f o r f u l l and thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n w ith a
view t o e s t a b lis h t h e c a s e . . . I t i s o f t e n a
sad exp erie n ce t o f i n d , t h a t on t h e
c o n fe s s io n , l a t e r , being in a d m iss ib le f o r
one reason or t h e o t h e r t h e case founders
in t h « C o u r t .. . "

The c o e r c i v e methods a re not only v i c i o u s , but also

u s e le s s and should never be used. F i r s t l y , t h e s e do not

induce d is c lo s u r e o f t r u t h . Under s u f f i c i e n t t o r t u r e , a man

w ill t e l l anythin g, t h e i n v e s t i g a t i n g o f f i c e r s , wants him

to t e ll. S econ d ly , t h e p u b lic confidence i s s h a tte r e d , i f


ci 53
use o f such methods i s publi,zed. T h i r d l y , 't h ir d - d e g r e e *

methods can not be used on i n f l u e n t i a l and c l e v e r persons.

L a s t l y , s in c e law g iv e s p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , enough power t o

deal w ith t h e o f f e n d e r s , e x t r a - l e g a l methods should not be

enployed.
11-66

P o l i c e O f f i c e r s , have no r i g h t t o t o r t u r e t h e

accused. One crime cannot be prevented or detected by

t h e Commission o f t h e another crime. About p o l i c e


54
b r u t a l i t y , Me C lea ry observed:

"The extent t o which a l l p ris o n ers


made an is s u e o f p o l i c e b r u t a l i t y
and t h e w ealth o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s
which th e y supplied was s u f f i c i e n t
t o convince t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r that
t h e r e i s some foundation in fa ct
f o r t h e i r claim s, in any event t h e
b e l i e f th a t p o l i c e p h y s i c a l l y
abuse o f fe n d e r s in combination w ith
t h e c o n v i c t i o n , th a t f o r c e j u s t i f i e s
f o r c e in r etu rn becomes a major
foundation stone f o r t h e i r explanation
f o r c r im in a l b e h a v i o u r . . . "

Supreme Court o f India in Niranjan Singh and another


55
V. Probhakar Ralaram and o t h e r s .observed

"No one s h a l l be su bjected t o t o r t u r e or


t o c r u e l , inhuman o r degrading treatment
or punishment, i s a part o f t h e U n iv e rs a l
D e c la r a tio n o f Human R ig h ts. A rt. 21 o f
our C o n s t it u t io n , read in t h e l i g h t o f
A r t . 19, i s s i m i l a r l y e l e v a t i n g . But
romance about human r i g h t s and r h e t o r i c
about c o n s t i t u t i o n a l mandates l o s e
c r e d i b i l i t y i f , in p r a c t i c e , t h e p r o t e c t o r s
o f law and minions o f t h e S t a t e become
engin eers o f t e r r o r and panie p e o p le i n t o
fea r".
56
The N a t io n a l P o l i c e Commission, in i t s firs t in te r im

r e p o r t , recommended f o r t h e establishment o f t h e D i s t r i c t

In q u ir y A u t h o r i t i e s , each headed by a person o f t h e statu s

o f an a d d it i o n a l se ssion s ju d g e, in order t o i n s t i t u t e
11-67

immediate j u d i c i a l i n q u i r i e s , in t o complaints o f serious

misbehaviour by t h e P o l i c e . Further, t h e Commission

recommended, t h a t complaints such as death or g rievous

in ju r y caused t o t h e people and rape o f women in p o l i c e

custody, should be immediately in q u ired in t o by t h e proposed


57
a u th o rities, in ord e r t o avoid s o c i a l te n s io n s .

58
The Law Commission in i t s 14th Report .w h ile p o in tin g

out t h e weakness o f p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , observed!

"At t h e p la c e s we v i s i t e d , we heard
vehement complaints about in o r d in a t e
delays i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f
evidence and general i n e f f i c i e n c y o f
th e in v estig a tin g o f fic e r s . Some
high ranking p o l i c e o f f i c e r s fr a n k ly
admitted t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n had
t e r r i b l y d e t e r i o r a t e d . . . The q u a l i t y
o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a ls o p o o r . . . I t
has been r e p e a te d ly asse rte d th a t a
l a r g e number o f a c q u i t t a l s in th e
courts i s due t o i n e f f i c i e n t i n v e s t i g a ­
t i o n . Very l i t t l e has been done t o
i n i t i a t e them in t h e use o f modem
s c i e n t i f i c methods".

A l a r g e number o f w itn e ss es th a t t h e Law Commission

examined were o f t h e view th a t t h e r e was not o n ly incompe­

tence and n e g l i g e n c e , but a g rea t deal o f co rru p tion amongst

th e p o lic e o ffic e r s . Not only were i n v e s t i g a t i o n s p e rfu n cto ry

but evidence was d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s t o r t e d and o f t e n a dishonest

r e c o r d o f t h e evidence was prepared by t h e p o l i c e .


11-68

The o b j e c t i o n a b l e p r a c t i c e s in i n v e s t i g a t i o n s are:
59
1. Delay in r e c o r d in g t h e f i r s t inform ation.

2. I n t e r p o la t io n s and a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t

in form a tion r e p o r t and oth er documents.


60
3. A vo id in g r e g i s t r a t i o n o f co gn iza b le o f fe n c e .

4. Conversion o f c o g n iza b le offe n c e s in t o non-


c o g n iz a b le o f fe n c e s .

5. Burking o r minimising crime

6. Padding o f evidence

7. I r r e g u l a r i t i e s in t h e preparation o f search
and s e iz u r e l i s t s .

8. D e l i b e r a t e a r r e s t o f innocent persons and


i l l e g a l detention o f t h e suspects.

9. F a b r ic a tio n o f evidence

10. Use o f t h i r d degree methods f o r o b ta in in g


c o n fe s s io n a l and o t h e r statements.

11. Use o f t o u t s and agents

12. Harassment o f w itn e ss es

13. B rib e and oth er corrupt p r a c t ic e s

14. I n s t i t u t i o n o f f a l s e cases.

Many o f t h e above p r a c t i c e s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e

f a c t th a t t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i s judged by t h e

number o f cases booked and c o n v ic te d .


11-69

IV . POLICE AND THE OFFENDERS; THEIR CORRECTION.

The main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e punishment i s preven tion

and c o n tr o l o f t h e crime. The h i s t o r y o f t h e punishment

r e v e a l s , t h a t such o b j e c t i v e s can be achieved only by

r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t h e o f fe n d e r s . No doubt, p o l i c e and

c o r r e c t io n s are two elements o f t h e crim in a l j u s t i c e

system, and v e r y o fte n d i f f e r in t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards

crime and c r im in a l. But p o l i c e and c o r r e c t io n s serve

important fu n c tio n s in s o c i e t y ’ s response t o crime, and

cooperation between them i s e s s e n t i a l , i f t h e crim inal

j u s t i c e system i s t o op e r a te e f f e c t i v e l y .

S i n c e , p o l i c e i s concerned with t h e maintenance o f

law and o r d e r , t h e y o fte n ta k a t h e view t h a t lo c k in g up

an o f fe n d e r i s e x c e l l e n t , though temporary remedy t o a

p o l i c e problem. The p o l i c e view t h e community, at l a r g e

as t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and removal o f known o ffe n d e r s

from i t , s h i f t s t h e problem t o t h e shoulders o f some one

els e. P o l i c e o f f i c e r s o f t e n spend more t im e w ith v ic t im

than with t h e o f fe n d e r . Consequently, t h e y a re subjected

t o and in f lu e n c e d by emotional r e a c t io n o f t h e community.

I t i s thus understandable t h a t p o l i c e may r e f l e c t , and be

more r e c e p t i v e t o concepts o f r e t r i b u t i o n and in c a p a c it a ­

t i o n r a t h e r than r e i n t e g r a t i o n as o b j e c t i v e s o f c o r r e c t io n s .

As f a r as community based c o r r e c t i o n a l programmes

a r e concerned, t h e y cannot be a success without understanding


11-70

and cooperation on t h e part o f t h e p o l i c e , because t h e

o ffe n d e r s in t h e s e programmes are l i k e l y t o come in contact

w ith t h e p o l i c e . The nature o f t h e contact and t h e r e a c t io n


61
o f t h e p o l i c e may d i r e c t l y a f f e c t an o f f e n d e r ' s adjustment.

On t h e oth er hand, f e a r o f being beaten up, mental

and emotional shock, long and i l l e g a l d e te n t io n , delay in

t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , presumption o f being g u i l t y , su bjectin g

t h e accused t o h u m ilia tin g treatment and in c rim in a tin g

q u e s tio n s , a l l t h e s e c r e a t e a sort o f i l l - f e e l i n g and

hatred in t h e mind o f t h e o f fe n d e r . A ll these fa c to r s ,in

one way or t h e oth e r a ls o o p era te in such a way that r e ­

s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o f fe n d e r becomes v e ry d i f f i c u l t .

In otherw ords, more i s t h e h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e o f t h e

i n v e s t i g a t i n g agency, t h e l e s s are t h e chances o f r e s o c i a l i ­

z a t io n . The responses t o t h i s e f f e c t , were as shown in t h e

ta b le-7 .
11-71

TABLE - 7

( IN PERCENTAGE )

MORE HOSTILE THE ATTITUDE OF POLICE OFFICERS, THE


LESS ARE CHANCES OF RESOCIALIZATION

S.No. Respondent s Responses

Yes No N il Total

1. Lawyers 92.0 08.0 - 100.0

2. Judges 86.0 14.0 - 100.0

3. P r is o n O f f i c e r s 93.0 07.0 - 100.0

4. S o c i a l Workers 90.0 10.0 - 100.0

Tota l 361.0 39.0 - 400.0

Mean Value 90.25 09.75 - 100.0


11-72

An a n a ly s is o f t h e t a b l e - 7 , r e v e a l s th a t t h e h o s t i l e

a t t i t u d e o f t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s during i n v e s t i g a t i o n

e f f e c t s , t h e u ltim a te r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o f fe n d e r s .

I f th e a t t i t u d e i s higHy h o s t i l e , t h e chances o f r e s o c i a l i ­

z a t io n are l e s s , 90.25% o f t h e respondents, which i s q u it e

s i g n i f i c a n t , agreed w ith t h i s hypothesis. Only a small

number o f t h e respondents ( 9.75% ) expressed t h e i r opinion

oth erw ise .

P o l i c e keep c lo s e s u r v e ill a n c e on r e le a s e d o f fe n d e r s ,

s in c e t h e y a re more i d e n t i f i a b l e r is k than t h e average

c i t i z e n . When t h e y make i t a p r a c t i c e f i r s t t o check ex-

p r is o n e r s , whenever a crime i s committed, t h e e x -p r is o n e r

may begin t o f e e l t h a t th e presumption o f innocence has

turned i n t o a presunption o f g u i l t . When a p r is o n e r r e tu r n in g

t o community i s r e q u ir e d t o r e g i s t e r w ith t h e p o l i c e and his

name and address are published in p o l i c e jo u r n a ls , t h e


62
d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h is r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n are confounded.

P o l i c e can do a l o t f o r t h e r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e

e x - p r is o n e r s . I f t h e e x -p r is o n e r s are not disturbed or are

allowed t o l i v e p e acefu l l i f e and are not im p lic a te d in

f a l s e cases, t h e i r r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n w i l l become e a s ie r . In

order t o a ch ie v e t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e punishment,th a t

i s p re ven tio n and c o n t r o l o f t h e crim e, i t i s necessary

t h a t t h e p o l i c e must t r y t o analyse t h e problems o f t h e


11-73

o f f e n d e r s , and consider t h e circumstances which

f o r c e them t o commit crime. They must ta k e minimum

p o s s ib le t im e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and i t must be c a rried

out without any bias or fa vo u r. They have a ls o t o

perform m u lt ifa r io u s a c t i v i t i e s , but th e y must also

bear in mind t h a t t h e o f fe n d e r i s t h e v ic t im o f t h e
w
circumstances and he must,\dealt w ith a c c o rd in g ly .
11-74
CHAPTER* I I

NOTES AND REFERENCES

1. P a l.N .C : Crime, Cause and Cure(1963)47

2. V e t t e r , H.G.and Simonson,C.Es Criminal J u s t i c e in


A m srica (1976)9

3. G o ffe r y ,A .R :A d m in is t r a t io n o f Criminal J u s t i c e : - A
Management's System Approach(1974)216

4. Varma,P: P a t h o lo g y o f Crime and Delinquency(1972)480


See a l s o N a y a r , K : " P o l i c e fin d t h e i r Image i s P o o r " ,
Sunday (May 30-June 5,1982)7

5. Nath.Ts The Indian P o l i c e : A Case For New Image(1978) 180

6. Ghosh,S.K: Indian P o l i c e at Cross Roads(1975)3

7. Potholm ,C.P: Focus on P o l i c e ( 1976)15

8. Tannenbaum.F: Crime and t h e Community(1951)223

9. See Research Memorandum Dn P o l i c e ( i n ) Tannenbaum.F:


Supra n o te 8

10. S t e t e o f U.P. V. L a l l a Singh and others A . I . R . 1978


S . C . 368

11. A High School pass Constable in D e lh i,g a t s a t o t a l o f


Rs. 353.25 per month. Whereas an u n s k ille d worker
i n Bharat Heavy E l e c t r i c a l , g e ts to.421 per month
and s k i l l e d worker Rs.491/2. See a ls o Data India
(1979)113

12. Ghosh,S.K: P o l ic a - O r g a n iz a t io n And P r o c e d u r e (1973)102

13. Westley.W .A: V io le n c e and t h e P o lic e (in )N o r m a n J.and


Leonard,S j ( ed) S o c i o lo g y o f Punishment and
C o r r e c t i o n ( 1962) 586

14. Ghosh,S.K: Supra note 6 at 53

15. Roebuck,J. and Barker,T» A T y p o lo g y o f P o l i c e C orruption,


( i n ) A l k e r s , R . L . : (e d ) Crime P r e v e n tio n and S o c i a l
C o n t r o l ( 1972)125
11-75

16. Act N o , I I o f 1974

17. S ta te o f Bihar V. J.A.C . Saldanna And Others A . I . R .


1980 S . C . 326

18. A . I . R . 1970 S . C . 786, See a lso S t a t e V. Balaram Singh


And Another A . I . R . 1970 Orissa 107

19. A .I.R .1 9 7 2 S .C .484 See a ls o R.P.Kapur V. S t a te o f Punjab


A .I.R .1 9 6 0 S . C . 866 and S t a t e o f West Bengal V.S.N.
Basak, A . I . R . 1963 S.C. 447

20. (1944 ) 71 Ind. App.203

21. Act No. I I o f 1974

22. Act No.V o f 1898

23. Ib id .

24. A . I . R . 1919 Mad.751, See a ls o r e Palaniswaml Goundan


A . I . R . 1946 Mad. 502

25. (1947) 8 C r i. L . J . 774

26. A . I . R . 1952 Orissa 350, See a ls o Re S t a t e o f Kerala


1973 C r i . L . J . 1288

27. A . I . R . 1956 A l l . 525

28. (1955) I.S .C .R . 1150. Tara Singh V. S ta te (1951) S .C .729

29. Ram Gopal V. S t a t e o f WestBengal A . I . R . 1969 Cal.316

30. A . I . R . 1951 Raj. 131

31. 1974 C r i . L . J . 970

32. F orty F i r s t Report o f t h e Indian Law Commission


(September 1969)

The Law Commission observed:


" . . . A r e p o r t under S. 173 i s normally t h e end
o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Some t im e s , however, t h e
p o l i c e o f f i c e r a f t e r subm itting t h e report,com es
upon evidence bearing on t h e g u i l t or innocence
o f t h e accused. We should have thought th a t
p o l i c e o f f i c e r , can c o l l e c t t h a t evidence and send
i t t o t h e M a g is t r a t e concerned. I t appears th a t
courts have some tim e s taken t h e narrow vie w t h a t ,
once a f i n a l r e p o r t has been submitted, t h e p o l i c e
can net touch t h e case agdin & reopen t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . "
11-76

33. Act No. I I o f 1954

34. A .I.R . 1979 S.C. 1791

35. Ram,D: Law and Methods o f P o l i c e I n v e s t i g a t i o n ( 1947) 21

36. Kiriarnath V. S t a t e o f Punjab 1960 C r i , L . J . 3 , and Jham


Singh V. P rofu lla ch an d T r i v e d i , A . I . R . 1971 M.P.219

37. See Criminal Procedure Code 1973

38. A .I.R . 1981 S.C. 928, See a ls o Natabar Pa rid a And Others
V. S t a t e o f O rissa A . I . R . 1975 S.C. 1465

39. A .I.R . 1980 S.C. 847

40. The U.P. P o l i c e Regulations R-121

41. I d . R-122

42. Ghosh,S.Kt Indian P o l i c e at Cross Roads(1975)153

43. Act N o . I I o f 1974

44. S.N.Sharma V. Bipen Kumar T i w a r i , A . I . R . 1970 S . C . 786

45. The U.P. P o l i c e Regulations.R-152

46. Samuel R: C rim inal I n v e s t i g a t i o n and I n t e r r o g a t i o n (1962)396

47. S e e , Sunday 21(Dec.l980) 21-6 and The I l l u s t r a t e d Weekly


o f In d ia V o l . C . I I ( J a n . 11-17,1981)

48. The Hindustan Times (J a n .5 & 6,1981) 1 & 9

49. S i d d i q i , M . Z t " J u s t i c e Mahmood on Criminal Procedure Code"


A lig a r h Law Jou rnal,V o l . V ( 1973) 229-224

50. Queen Empress V. Babu L a i , 6 A11.509(FB) See a ls o S i d d i q i ,


M.Z: I b i d .

51. Podda Narayana V. S t a t e o f Andhra Pradesh A . I . R . 1975


S.C. 1252

52. A . I . R . 1977 S.C. 1579


11-77

53. The Bureau o f P o l i c e Research and Development,


in a nation wide survey on 'The Image o f
P o l i c e in I n d i a ' , found th a t 82% o f t h e
people responded th a t t h e p o l i c e did not
discharge t h e i r duties in s t r a ig h t forward
and im p a r tia l manner. 11% o f t h e people
blamed th e p o l i c e f o r p r o t e c t i n g nr s h ie ld in g
goondas. P e o p le fu r th e r blamed thfim of
m a l- p r a c t ic e s , f a l s e im p lic a t io n s , non
r e g i s t r a t i o n o f com plaints, use o f t h i r d
methods and i l l e g a l d e te n tion s.

-See Sunday (May 30-June 5,1982) 7

54. Me Cleer^(,Rs P o l i c e and t h e Courts( 1963) 296

55. A .I.R . 1980 S.C. 785

56. N a t io n a l P o l i c e Commission , has baen formed by


th e Government on N o v . 15 ,1977,with S h ri Dharam
V i r as Chairman.

57. Data India,(M arch 5-11,1979)113

58. On Reforms o f J u d ic ia l A d m in is tr a ti ) n , V o l . I I 1961

59. Th ulia K a l i V. S t a t e o f Tamil Nadu,1972 C r i . L . J .


1296 and G .B .P atel V. S t a t e o f Maharashtra
A . I . R . 1979 S.C. 135

60. Hasib V. The S t a t e o f Bihar A . I . R . 1972 S.C. 283

61. Felk enes,G .Ti C o n s t it u t io n a l Law f o r Crim inal


J u s t i c e ( 1978) 387

62. Id . at 389