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Actividad de aprendizaje 15

Evidencia 5: Summary “Export-import theory”

Contar con los conocimientos necesarios para realizar un proceso de exportación,


requiere no solo de manejar habilidades lectoras para apropiar las normas y pasos
a seguir, sino también comprender y extraer los aspectos más importantes de
cada texto. Existen gran cantidad de textos referentes exportación e importación
en inglés, por lo cual es necesario fortalecer las competencias en dicha lengua.

Para reforzar lo mencionado, realice las siguientes actividades:

1. Lea el siguiente texto:

Export-Import Theory1

Setting up the business

Whether it is a new or existing export-import business, the legal form, or


structure, will determine how the business is to be conducted, its tax liability,
and other important considerations. Each form of business organization has
its own advantages and disadvantages, and the entrepreneur has to select
the one that best fulfills the goals of the entrepreneur and the business.
Selection of an appropriate business organization is a task that requires
accounting and legal expertise and should be done with the advice of a
competent attorney or accountant.

Ownership structure

1
Belay, S. (2009). Export-Import Theory, Practices, and Procedures. (2a ed.). New York:
Routledge.
In this section, we examine different forms of business organizations: sole
proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, and limited liability companies.

Sole proprietorships

A sole proprietorship is a firm owned and operated by one individual. No


separate legal entity exists. There is one principal in the business who has
total control over all export-import operations and who can make decisions
without consulting anyone. The major advantages of sole proprietorships
are as follows:

1. They are easy to organize and simple to control. Establishing an export-


import business as sole proprietorship is simple and inexpensive and
requires little or no government approval. At the state level, registration of
the business name is required, while at the federal level, sole proprietors
need to keep accurate accounting records and attach a profit or loss
statement for the business when filing individual tax returns (Schedule C,
Internal Revenue Service Form 1040). They must operate on a calendar
year and can use the cash or accrual method of accounting.

2. They are more flexible to manage than partnerships or corporations. The


owner makes all operational and management decisions concerning the
business. The owner can remove money or other assets of the business
without legal or tax consequences. He or she can also easily transfer or
terminate the business.

3. Sole proprietorships are subject to minimal government regulations


versus other business concerns.

4. The owner of a sole proprietorship is taxed as an individual, at a rate


lower than the corporate income tax rate. Losses from the export import
business can be applied by the owner to offset taxable income from other
sources. Sole proprietors are also allowed to establish tax exempt
retirement accounts. (Harper, 1991; Cheeseman, 2006a)
The major disadvantage of running an export-import concern as a sole
proprietorship is the risk of unlimited liability. The owner is personally liable
for the debts and other liabilities of the business. Insurance can be bought
to protect against these liabilities; however, if insurance protection is not
sufficient to cover legal liability for defective products or debts, judgment
creditors’ next recourse is the personal assets of the owner. Another
disadvantage is that the proprietor’s access to capital is limited to personal
funds plus any loans that can be obtained. In addition, very few individuals
have all the necessary skills to run an export-import business, and the
owner may lack certain skills. The business may also terminate upon the
death or disability of the owner.

Establishing an appropriate business organization: pointers

 Does the entrepreneur intend to be the sole owner of the export-import


business? If not, how many people have an ownership interest?

 Does the entrepreneur need additional capital and/or expertise?

 What legal form provides the greatest flexibility for management?

 What legal form affords the most advantageous tax treatment for the
business concern and individual entrepreneurs?

 Which legal structure is easy and less expensive to establish and subject
to a low degree of government regulation?
 How important is it to limit personal liability of owners?

o Which legal structure is the most appropriate in light of the goals and
objectives of the export-import business? (Belay, 2009).

2. Elabore una lista de vocabulario sobre el texto, mínimo de 15 palabras y escriba


su respectivo significado en inglés.

WORDS IN ENGLISH TRADUCCION AL ESPAÑOL

Business: A business is a method of forming Negocio: Un negocio consiste en un


or obtaining money in exchange for products, método de formar u obtener dinero a
services, or any activity that you want to cambio de productos, servicios, o
develop. cualquier actividad que se quiera
desarrollar.
Government: The government is the Gobierno: El gobierno es la autoridad
authority that directs a political unit and que dirige una unidad política y cuya
whose function is to administer and control función es la de administrar y controlar
the State and its institutions el Estado y sus instituciones

Entrepreneur: An entrepreneur is that Empresario: Un empresario es aquella


person who, individually or collectively, sets persona que, de forma individual o
objectives and makes strategic decisions colectiva, fija los objetivos y toma las
about goals decisiones estratégicas acerca de las
metas
Advantageous: It is a verb that refers to Ventajoso: Se trata de un verbo que
facilitate an action or an event, making refiere a facilitar una acción o un
something that is conducive suceso, logrando que algo resulte
or favorable. propicio o favorable
Ownership: The property or domain is a Propiedad: La propiedad o dominio es
direct and immediate power over a thing, un poder directo e inmediato sobre una
which attributes to its owner the ability to cosa, que atribuye a su titular la
enjoy and dispose of the thing without further capacidad de gozar y disponer de la
limitations than those established by law. cosa sin más limitaciones que las que
establezcan las leyes.
Management: The administration is the Administración: La administración es la
social science that has for its object the study ciencia social que tiene por objeto el
of the organizations and the technique in estudio de las organizaciones y la
charge of the planning, organization, direction técnica encargada de la planificación,
and control of the resources (human, organización, dirección y control de los
financial, material, technological, knowledge, recursos (humanos, financieros,
etc.) of an organization, in order to obtain the materiales, tecnológicos, del
maximum possible benefit; This benefit can conocimiento, etc.) de una
be social, economic, depending on the goals organización, con el fin de obtener el
pursued by the organization. máximo beneficio posible; este
beneficio puede ser social, económico,
dependiendo de los fines perseguidos
por la organización.
Rate: The tariff is the price paid by users or Tarifa: La tarifa es el precio que pagan
consumers of a public service to the State or los usuarios o consumidores de un
the concessionaire in exchange for the servicio público al Estado o al
provision of the service. concesionario a cambio de la
prestación del servicio.
Disadvantages: Circumstance of being Desventajas: Circunstancia de ser
worse or being in a worse situation one thing peor o estar en peor situación una
with respect to others of the same nature cosa respecto a otras de la misma
with which it is compared. naturaleza con la que se compara.

Insurance: Contract by which a person or an Seguro: Contrato por el que se


object is insured or guaranteed in case of asegura o garantiza a una persona o
damage or loss. un objeto en el caso de que sufrieran
daños o pérdidas.
Accounting: Accounting is a part of finance Contabilidad: La contabilidad es una
that analyzes the different items that show parte de las finanzas que analiza las
the financial movements of a company. diferentes partidas que muestran los
movimientos financieros de una
compañía.
Expertise: Ability to solve successfully, Pericia: Habilidad para resolver con
easily and quickly something that involves acierto, facilidad y rapidez algo que
some difficulty. entraña cierta dificultad.
Liabilities: it represents the debts and Pasivo: representa las deudas y
obligations with which a company finances its obligaciones con las que una empresa
activity and serves to pay its assets. financia su actividad y le sirve para
pagar su activo.
Income: An income is an increase in Ingresos: Un ingreso es un incremento
economic resources. de los recursos económicos.

Liability: Responsibility is a value that is in Responsabilidad: La responsabilidad


the conscience of the person who studies es un valor que está en la conciencia
Ethics on the basis of default de la persona que estudia la Ética
sobre la base de la moral.

Competent:That is adequate or sufficient for Competente: Que es adecuado o suficiente


something. para algo.

3. El texto sugerido al inicio de esta evidencia cuenta con varios párrafos, y al


interior de cada párrafo se encuentran varias ideas principales. Por favor, lea el
material complementario “Identifying the main idea” para conocer cómo se
puede encontrar la idea principal en un párrafo escrito en inglés.

* how to establish a business


* the director in the business that has total control over all export and import operations.
* There are different forms of commercial organizations
* They are easy to organize and control
* They are more flexible to manage than corporations or corporations
* Individual companies are subject to regulations
* The owner of a sole proprietorship is recorded with a lower rate

4. Luego de analizar el material complementario, por favor escriba las ideas


principales de cada párrafo, en presente simple, en inglés. No haga
transcripción literal de los párrafos. A continuación, transforme la oración a
presente progresivo, también en inglés.

Simple Present Tense Present Progressive Tense


5. Organice las ideas en un solo resumen, de manera que se conecten
coherentemente, en 15 líneas.
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Nota: para el desarrollo de esta evidencia se debe tener en cuenta el material de


formación “Using simple present and progressive to export” y el material
complementario asociado a esta actividad de aprendizaje.

Desarrolle esta evidencia con la herramienta ofimática de su preferencia y envíe el


archivo al instructor a través de la plataforma virtual de aprendizaje en formato
.doc o .pdf.

Pasos para enviar la evidencia:

1. Clic en el título de la evidencia.


2. Clic en Examinar mi equipo y buscar el archivo previamente guardado.
3. Dejar un comentario al instructor (opcional).
4. Clic en Enviar.

Nota: esta evidencia es de carácter individual. Recuerde revisar la guía de


aprendizaje con el fin de verificar que ha realizado todas las actividades
propuestas, saber cómo desarrollarlas y entregarlas correctamente.
Criterios de evaluación
Realiza resúmenes de la información relevante y detallada de un texto técnico en
inglés.