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Heat Transfer

:

Heat conduction equations in three

dimensional for rectangular and cylindrical

coordinates

:

Sir Bilawal

:

Rana Abu Bakar

:

2017-CH-729

:

25-02-2019

Three Dimensional Heat Conduction

Equations of Rectangular Coordinates

length ∆x, width ∆y, and height ∆z, as

shown in.

specific heat is C. An energy balance on this

element during a small time interval t can be

expressed as in equation:

Rate of Rate of

Heat heat

Conduction - conduction +

At x, y and z at ∆x, ∆y and ∆z

Heat energy contents

generation = of the element

Inside

The element

. . . . . . .

Q x + Q y + Q z - Q x+ x - Q y+ y - Q z+ z + G element

∆ ∆ ∆ =

∆E element

∆t

(1)

Noting that volume of element is

Velement = ∆x∆y∆z

So change in energy of the system can be

expressed as

∆Eelement = mC (Tt+∆t + Tt)

As

ρ= 𝑚𝑣

so

m = ρv

m = ρ∆x∆y∆z

so change in energy of element becomes

∆Eelement = C ρ∆x∆y∆z (Tt+∆t + Tt)

Now heat generation within the element can

also be represented as

G.element = g.Velement

G.element = g. ∆x∆y∆z

Substituting the values of change in energy

and heat generation within the element in

equation (1).

Q.x + Q.y + Q.z - Q.x+∆x - Q.y+∆y - Q.z+∆z + g.

C ρ∆x∆y∆z (Tt+∆t + Tt)

∆x∆y∆z =

∆t

Q.x − Q.x+∆x Q.y − Q.y+∆y Q.z − Q.z+∆z

+ + +

∆x∆y∆z ∆x∆y∆z ∆𝑥∆𝑦∆𝑧

g.∆x∆y∆z C ρ∆x∆y∆z (Tt+∆t + Tt)

=

∆x∆y∆z ∆t ∆x∆y∆z

1 Q.x − Q.x+∆x 1 Q.y − Q.y+∆y 1

+ +

∆y∆z ∆x ∆x∆z ∆y ∆𝑥∆𝑦

Q.z − Q.z+∆z C ρ(Tt+∆t + Tt)

+ g. =

∆𝑧 ∆t

1 Q.x+∆x − Q.x 1 Q.y+∆y − Q.y

- - -

∆y∆z ∆x ∆x∆z ∆y

1 Q.z+∆z − Q.z C ρ(Tt+∆t + Tt)

+ g. = (2)

∆𝑥∆𝑦 ∆𝑧 ∆t

In X direction

1 Q. x + ∆x − Q. x

lim

∆𝑥 → 0 ∆y∆z ∆x

1 𝜕𝑄𝑥

=

∆y∆z 𝜕𝑥

1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇

= -k ∆y∆z

∆y∆z 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

In Y direction

1 Q.y+∆y − Q.y

lim

∆𝑦 → 0 ∆x∆z ∆y

1 𝜕𝑄𝑦 1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇

= -k ∆x∆z

∆x∆z 𝜕𝑦 ∆x∆z 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

𝜕 𝜕𝑇

=- k

𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

Now in Z direction

1 Q.z+∆z − Q.z

lim

∆𝑧 → 0 ∆𝑥∆𝑦 ∆𝑧

1 𝜕𝑄𝑧

=

∆x∆y 𝜕𝑧

1 𝜕 𝜕𝑇

= -k ∆x∆y

∆x∆y 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

𝜕 𝜕𝑇

=- k

𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

C ρ(Tt + ∆t + Tt)

lim

∆𝑡 → 0 ∆t

𝜕𝑇

= Cρ

𝜕𝑡

Equation 2 becomes:-

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇

k + k + k +g. =C ρ

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑡

Equation becomes

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 g. C ρ 𝜕𝑇

+ 𝜕𝑦 + + =

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝑘 𝒌 𝜕𝑡

Thermal diffusivity

𝑘

α=

𝜌𝐶

1 Cρ

=

𝛼 𝒌

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 g. 1 𝜕𝑇

+ + + =

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝑘 𝛼 𝜕𝑡

1 𝜕𝑇

=0

𝛼 𝜕𝑡

g.

=0

𝑘

𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇 𝜕 𝜕𝑇

+ + =0

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

Cylindrical Coordinates Equation

The

general heat conduction equation in

cylindrical coordinates can be obtained

from an energy balance on a volume

element in cylindrical coordinates,

Shown in Figure:-

small time interval ∆t can be expressed as

Net heat Heat energy

Accumulated in + generated = stored __1

Element due to within to the

Conduction element element

Use Fourier’s law

Of thermal conduction Qg Q= mc∆t

𝑑𝑡

Q = -KA

𝑑𝑥

Net heat:-

Radial direction

. 𝑑𝑡

Q r = -k drdФdz dτ

𝑑𝑟

. 𝜕 ..

Q r+dr = Q r + Q r dr

𝜕𝑟

. . . 𝜕 .

dQ r = Q r - Q r - Q r dr

𝜕𝑟

. 𝜕 .

dQ r = - Q r dr ___________2

𝜕𝑟

.

Put the value of “Q r” in eq. 2

. 𝜕 𝑑𝑡

dQr =- -k drdФdz dτ dr

𝜕𝑟 𝑑𝑟

𝜕 𝜕𝑡

= k drdФdz 𝜕𝑟

r

𝜕𝑟

dτ

𝜕2 𝑡 𝜕𝑡

= k drdФdz r 2 + dτ

𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟

𝜕2 𝑡 1 𝜕𝑡

= k rdФdzdr + 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 dτ

𝜕𝑟 2

Tangential direction:-

. 𝜕𝑡

Q Ф= -k drdz dτ

𝑟𝜕Ф

. . 𝜕 .

Q Ф+dФ = Q Ф + Q Ф rdФ

𝑟𝜕Ф

. . .

dQ Ф = Q Ф - Q Ф+dФ

𝜕

= Q.Ф - Q.Ф - .

Q Ф rdФ

𝑟𝜕Ф

𝜕 .

=- Q Ф rdФ

𝑟𝜕Ф

.

Put the value of “Q Ф”

𝜕 𝜕𝑡

=- -k drdz dτ rdФ

𝑟𝜕Ф 𝑟𝜕Ф

1 ∂2 𝑡

= k rdФdrdz dτ

𝑟 2 𝜕Ф2

Axial direction

𝜕𝑡

.

Qz = -k rdФdr dτ

𝜕𝑧

. . 𝜕 .

Q z+dz = Q z + Qz dz

𝜕𝑧

𝜕

= Q .z - Q .z - Qz

.

dz

𝜕𝑧

𝜕 .

=- Qz dz

𝜕𝑧

.

By putting value of “Q z”

𝜕 𝜕𝑡

=- -k rdФdr dτ dz

𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧

∂2 𝑡

= k rdФdrdz 𝜕𝑧 2

dτ

Net Heat

𝜕2 𝑡 1 𝜕𝑡 1 ∂2 𝑡 ∂2 𝑡

= k rdФdrdz 𝜕𝑟 2

+ 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 +𝑟2 𝜕Ф2 + 𝜕𝑧 2

dτ

Heat generated

.

Qg = qg rdФdrdz dτ

Q = mc∆t

By substituting values of “m” & “v” we get

As

ρ= 𝑚𝑣

So

m = ρv

= ρ rdФdrdz

𝜕𝑡

Q = ρ rdФdrdz C dτ

𝜕τ

heat conduction equation of cylindrical coordinates

𝜕2 𝑡 1 𝜕𝑡 1 ∂2 𝑡 ∂2 𝑡 𝜕𝑡

k 𝜕𝑟 2

+ 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 + 𝑟2 𝜕Ф2 + 𝜕𝑧 2

+ qg = ρC

𝜕τ

References

1. Heat Transfer by Yunus A.Cengal

2. https://www.google.com/search?safe=active&biw=16

00&bih=757&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=smlyXJHgLM-

R9QPIlo5w&q=heat+conduction+cylindrical+coordi

nate+system&oq=heat+conduction+cylindrical+coor

dinate+system&gs_l=img.3...0.0..16...0.0..0.0.0.......0.

.....gws-wiz-

img.ewsa14JUw9A#imgrc=MCQaumcelF7Y3M:

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