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Running head: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ANIMALS 1

Effects of climate change on animals

Kristina Stojnic

Arizona state university

ENG 102
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ANIMALS 2

Annotated Bibliography
Bryndum-Buchholz, A., Tittensor, D. P., Blanchard, J. L., Cheung, W. W., Coll, M., Galbraith,
E.
D., . . . Lotze, H. K. (2018). Twenty-first-century climate change impacts on marine
animal biomass and ecosystem structure across ocean basins. ​Global Change Biology,
25​(2), 459-472. doi:10.1111/gcb.14512
https://onlinelibrary-wiley-com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/doi/full/10.1111/gcb.14512 (Links
to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Summary

In ​Global Change Biology​, a primary research article, the authors provide insight into their own
research on climate change’s effects on marine ecosystems. Based on their research, the authors
have concluded that these changes will significantly alter marine ecosystems function and
structure. There data was collected using six different ecosystem models within fisheries. Also, a
marine ecosystem model intercomparison was used to analyze the responses of these ecosystems
to specific changes in climate.

Evaluation

This research article, found within the vastness of ASU’s online library, has many authors and
contributors to the research used in this article and the article itself. Two of the many authors, are
stationed within the department of biology at Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia. Another
author, Julia L. Blanchard, works in the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the
University of Tasmania in Australia. Therefore, this source is not only credible, but also provides
a great primary outlook on the issue.

Quotes

“Over the coming century, these changes will have significant consequences for marine
ecosystem structure and functioning as well as for ecosystem goods and services, such as the
provisioning of food from fisheries and aquaculture, the production of oxygen, and storage of
anthropogenic carbon (Pörtner et al., ​2014​; Vichi et al., ​2011​).”

“regional surface temperatures in polar marine ecosystems are increasing twice as fast as the
global average, leading to a borealization of Arctic marine animal communities, with decreasing
abundance of species with polar affinity and increasing abundance of boreal species (Fossheim et
al., 2015; Hoegh-Guldberg & Bruno, 2010).”

“overall species abundance in semi-enclosed seas (i.e., the Mediterranean Sea, Baltic Sea) and
tropical ocean basins is expected to decline in the future changing ocean (Cheung et al., 2013).”
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ANIMALS 3

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BIRDS.​ (2019). S.l.: OXFORD UNIV PRESS.

Summary

In ​Effect of Climate Change on Birds, ​the authors Anders Pape Moller, Wolfgang Fielder, and
Peter Burthold, explain exactly what climate change is and how it’s expected to take a turn in the
upcoming century such as drastic temperature changes that are currently seen. With their studies
on what the authors claim to be a reliable species (birds) to observe for these purposes, the
authors conclude that the time of simple correlation and relation between biological trait and
temperature will soon be gone.

Evaluation

The leading author/ researcher responsible for this book is a very well-known Danish researcher,
Anders Pape Moller. Wolfgang Fielder is also a senior researcher at the Max Planck Institute for
Ornithology. With such strong researchers such as these two, the book and the findings listed
within are credible. Also, studying a species such as birds adds credibility to this paper because
changes in population and behaviors are one of the most documented changes reported in the
animal world.

Quotes

“The globe is warming dramatically compared with natural historic rates of change. Global
surface temperature is 0.75 degrees Celsius warmer than at the beginning of the 20th Century”

“A key ingredient in changes in character of precipitation is the observed increase in water


vapour and thus the supply of atmospheric moisture to all storms, increasing the intensity of
precipitation.”
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Kubisch, E., Corbalan, V., Ibarüengoytía, N., & Sinervo, B. (2015). Local Extinction Risk of
three species of lizard from Patagonia as a result of global warming. ​NRC Research
Press,​ ​96​. Retrieved April 6, 2019.

Summary
In Kubisch’s and et al article, “Local Extinction Risk of three species of lizard from Patagonia as
a result of global warming”, reports are made and addressed about the declining lizard
biodiversity due to global warming (also known as climate change). The authors applied a
physiological model to predict the extinction rates of three species of lizards. They analyzed the
vulnerability of Darwin’s Ground Gecko, Bariloche Lizard, and Mountain Slope Lizard to
climate change considering thermal physiological constraints on activity during the reproductive
period.

Evaluation
The NRC Research Press, the publisher of this article, is a Candian Science Publisher that aims
to make vital scientific knowledge easily accessible. It also happens to be Canada's largest
publisher of international scientific journals. Therefore, with a publisher as serious as NRC
Research Press, I believe this source is credible and relevant to the issue talked about in this
paper especially with specific examples of a species that’s directly affected by climate change.

Quotes

“While Sinervo et al. (2010) predicted that the Phyllodactylidae family will not suffer from
impacts of climate change, our physiological model predicted that 20% of the ​H.​ ​darwinii
populations could become extinct by 2080. “

“The most vulnerable populations are those located near the northern and eastern boundaries of
their distributions.”
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Vukovic, A., Vujadinovic, M., Rendulic, S., Djurdjevic, V., Ruml, M., Babic, V., & Popovic, D.
(2018). Global warming impact on climate change in Serbia for the period 1961-2100.
Thermal Science,​ ​22​(6 Part A), 2267-2280. doi:10.2298/tsci180411168v

Summary
In “Global warming impact on climate change in Serbia for the period 1961-2100”, the authors
take interest in a country in the balkans known as Serbia, and the direct impact climate change
has had on this region from the year 1961 to present. The authors report a significant increase in
temperature and change in precipitation patterns which are commonly seen in most regions of the
globe as well. However, a disturbance in heat conditions have been recorded to have an impact
on human health, agricultural production, and forest ecosystems.

Evaluation
This article, although it isn’t directly related to the effect of climate change on animals, it gives
insight into how severe climate change can be and its effect on people rather than animals. With
this source, I can add variety to my paper to establish a pattern of climate changes to further my
point about the effect this has on animals. Nevertheless, the leading author, Ana J. Vukovic,
graduated from Belgrade University with expertise in Climatology and therefore, establishes this
source as a credible one.

Quotes

“Accelerated global warming induced increased climate change signals in all parts of the Earth,
with variety of recorded weather extremes as well as signals of change in slowly evolving
systems”

“Negative impacts of temperature increase, especially in combination with precipitation


inter-annual re-distribution toward extended drought periods and more extreme precipitation
events, are recorded as an increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves [7],floods, forest
fires, and disturbance in food production and general ecosystem health, which is also predicted to
continue, accelerate and intensify in the future [8].”

“Increase of very hot days, besides their negative impacts on food production, endan- gers
human health and safety, and impacts higher energy consumption during summer months.”
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Warley, J. (2018, November 20). The Impact of Climate Change on Animals - OneKind Planet
Blog. Retrieved from ​https://onekindplanet.org/climate-change-animals/

Summary

In her blog, “The Impact of Climate Change on Animals”, Jane Warley, a former marine
scientist, explains the destroying of natural habitats due to droughts and wildfires caused by
Climate change. Although short, this article quickly describes the most troublesome issues
among the most affected species of animals and just how the changes of temperature are causes
some species to migrate to places with cooler/warmer weather and is thus disturbing the natural
order.

Evaluation

As previously mentioned, Jane Warley is a former marine scientist who is currently working as
the editor of “OneKind Planet” which is an informational website that aims to educate people
about animal kind and how to help. Since the author does have a higher understanding of animals
and specifically how climate change affects them, this source is, in fact, credible and very
appropriate for the topic at hand.

Quotes

“Understanding the impact of climate change on animals is not only important to help protect
vulnerable species but also to prevent conflict between human populations and wildlife in areas
where these resources are limited.”

“Climate change is also destroying natural forest habitats around the globe through droughts,
high temperatures and insect infestations.”

“Sand temperatures determine the gender of the turtles that hatch. Increased temperatures can
affect breeding rates so that female turtles may come to outnumber their male counterparts.”
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9 animals that are feeling the impacts of climate change. (2018, December 18). Retrieved from
https://www.doi.gov/blog/9-animals-are-feeling-impacts-climate-change

Summary
In the online article “9 Animals that are Feeling the Impacts of Climate Change” the U.S.
Department of Interior gives insight into the species of animals that are greatly impacted by
climate change. From the untalked about snowshoe hare to the twitter trending polar bear, this
article provides specific reasons such as the rising seas, increasing number of wildfires, and
water shortages that could be catastrophic for nine specific species of animals.
Evaluation
The United States Department of the Interior is​ ​the ​United States federal executive department​ of
the ​U.S. government​ responsible for the management and conservation of most ​federal lands​ and
natural resources​. This department is responsible for about 75% of federal public land and
therefore are very knowledgeable of the species present within this land and if anyone was to
monitor changes in species’ habitats, it would be the Department of the interior. Therefore, this
source is very credible and informative for my topic.
Excerpts
“​If we don’t act on climate now, this list is just the tip of the iceberg of what we can expect in
years to come.”
“Polar bears in many ways have become the symbol of climate change. In 2008, they were listed
as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act -- the first species to be listed because
of forecasted population declines from the effects of climate change.”
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Effects of Climate Change on Animals

As an inhabitant of planet Earth, keeping my home clean and safe is very important to

me; therefore, Climate Change is a rising issue that I am very passionate about and what I chose

to address in this paper. However, because Climate Change is so vast and expansive, I’ve

decided to narrow it down and focus on what exactly the changes in the climate system is doing

to organisms besides humans. The climate system is comprised of five interlacing parts

consisting of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. The

atmosphere is layers of gases surrounding the earth that is held in place by gravity and a very

important aspect when it comes to climate change.

Climate change, also known as “Global Warming”, is one of the most challenging issues

of our time. Human activities have caused changes in long term averages of weather which is

known as “climate”. These changes are seen and felt in the patterns of weather such as

precipitation and droughts and the unexplainable durations of seasons. Ana Vukovic, a Serbian

climatologist explains, “Increase of very hot days, besides their negative impacts on food

production, endangers human health and safety, and impacts higher energy consumption during

the summer months” (Vukovic et al, 2018). Humans are smart enough to know what is

happening to the earth and why, and can see how it affects them and their lives. However,

humans are not the only inhabitants of the earth and are not the only species who are

experiencing these changes in climate. When looking at the scope of this planet, people are

accompanied by thousands of species of animals; animals of which are also affected by these

drastic changes in climate. The question now, however, is how drastic climate change will be for

the future state of these vulnerable animals.


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A basic biology class taken in high school will teach one the wonders of adaptation,

which is the process of change in which an organism or species becomes better suited to its

environment. This usually takes place in the case of offspring to offspring but, what is to say for

a situation in which the climate changes are so rapid that a number of species don’t have enough

time to adjust? In their study of the effects of climate change on three species of lizards,

researchers E. Kubisch, V. Corbalan, N. Ibarüengoytía, and B. Sinervo “​predicted that 20% of

the ​H.​ ​darwinii​ (one of the three lizard populations) populations could become extinct by 2080”

(Kubisch et al, 2010). Through their research, the authors of this article concluded that the effects

of climate can become so severe that species such as lizards aren’t able to adapt to the

extraordinary rises in temperature in regions such as Patagonia.

In her blog, “The Impact of Climate Change on Animals”, Jane Warley, a former marine

scientist, explains the destroying of natural habitats due to droughts and wildfires caused by

Climate change. She mentions the widely known Polar bear as one of the most affected species.

Thawing glaciers have caused the ground to subside more than fifteen feet in Alaska, not to

mention the quickly disappearing glaciers all the way from Switzerland to the equatorial glacier

in Indonesia, leaving almost no ice for polar bears to sustain a species. Although the decline of

polar bears is a trending topic, they are only one of the many species facing extinction at this day

and age.

Climate change is real and it is here. However, contrary to popular belief, these changes

aren’t only affecting humans and their future, but are drastically impacting certain species of

animals as well, so much that extinction rates have risen dramatically within the past decade.
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Animals are faced with climate they can’t adapt to or escape and the results are detrimental. This

is a trying issue and it needs to be addressed.