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UNI

TI

I
ndust
ri
alJur
ispr
udence

I
ndust
rialJur
ispr
udenceisadevel
opmentofmai
nlyPost
-i
ndependence.
Thegr owt
hcan
benoti
cednotonlyfrom i
ncr
easeinl
abourandi
ndust
ri
all
egisl
ati
onbutalsofrom l
arge
numberofindust
ri
allawmatter
sdeci
dedbySupr
emeCour tandHighCourts.

Thi
sbr
anchofl
aw:

• modi
fi
est
het
radi
ti
onal
lawr
elat
ingt
omast
erandser
vant
.

• and Had cutdown the ol


dt yofl
heor ai
ssezfai
re.
(Based upon f
reedom of
contr
act
)because thattheory was found wanti
ng forthe devel
opmentof
harmoni
ousandamicablerel
ati
onsbetweenemployersandempl oy
ees.

Outoft hest r
ugglebetweenworker
s,demandi ngforbet
tershar
ei nproduct
ionand
prof
itoftheindustr
yandtheemployers’cer
tai
nbasicpri
nci
pleshavegrownwhi char
e
consider
edtobef undamental
inal
mostalldevel
opedcountr
iesoft
hewor l
d.

1.Ther
ightofwor
kment
ocombi
neandf
orm associ
ati
onsoruni
ons.

2.The ri
ghtofwor kmen t
o bar
gai
n col
l
ect
ivel
yfort
he bet
ter
mentoft
hei
r
condi
ti
onsofser
vice.

3.Thereal
i
sat
iont
hateconomicstr
uggl
eisinev
itabl
ebecausei
tisbutnat
uralt
hat
l
abourwoul
dagi
tat
eforbett
ercondi
ti
ons.

4.Ashi
ftf
rom t
hedoct
ri l
neof“ai
ssezf
air
”toa“
wel
far
est
ate”
.

5.Sol
utionoft
hei
ndust
ri
alorl
abourdi
sput
est
hrought
hepar
ti
cipat
ionofwor
ker
,
employer
sandt
heGover
nment.

6.Thest
atecannomorebeaneut
ralonl
ookerbutmusti
nter
fer
east
hepr
otect
or
oft
hesoci
algood.

7.Mi
nimum st
andar
dsmustbeguar
ant
eedt
roughst
atel
egi
slat
ion.
LABOURPOLI
CYI
NINDI
A

HI
STORY

Af
terI
ndependence

Itwaslargel
yfel
tthatthel abourpol i
cymustemphasi suponsel
freli
anceont hepartof
thewor ker
s.Thi
scr oss-currentofapproacht othelabourpoli
cygavepl acetoanew
approachknownas“ Tr
ipar t
ism” .ThusTr
ipart
ism becamethecentralthemei nt
heso-
call
ed“ Nanda-
peri
od”t hatbegani n1957.Duringt hi
speriodtheGov er
nmentpai d
rel
ianceont hr
eepar tyappr oach,namel
yt hetradeunionrepresenti
ngt heWor ker
s,
Empl oy
ersandtheGov ernment .

Themai
npost
ulat
esofl
abourpol
i
cymaybesummedupasf
oll
ows:

• Recogni
ti
onofthestat
easthecustodi
anofthei
nter
est
soft
hecommuni
ty,as
thecat
aly
stof“
change”andwel
far
eprogrammes.

• Recogni
ti
onoft
her
ightofwor
ker
stopeacef
uldi
rectact
ioni
fjust
icei
sdeni
edt
o
them.

• Encouragementt
o mut
ualset
tl
ement
,col
l
ect
ive bar
gai
ning and v
olunt
ary
arbi
tr
ation.

• Int
erv
enti
onbythest
atei
nfav
ouroft
heweakerpar
tyt
oensur
efai
rtr
eat
mentt
o
all
concer
ned.

• Pr
imacyt
omai
ntenancei
findust
ri
alpeace.

• Evolvi
ngpartnershi
pbetweent heemployerandempl
oyeesinaconst
ruct
ive
endeavourtopromotet
hesat i
sfact
ionoft
heeconomi
cneedsoft
hecommunity
i
nt hebestpossi
blemanner.

• Ensur
ingf
airwagesst
andar
dsandpr
ovi
sionsofsoci
alsecur
it
y.

• Co-
oper
ati
onf
oraugment
ing‘
product
ion’
andi
ncr
easi
ng‘
product
ivi
ty’
.

• Adequat
eenf
orcementofl
egi
slat
ion.

• Enhanci
ngt
hest
atusoft
hewor
keri
nindust
ry.

• Tr
ipar
ti
teconsul
tat
ion
LABOURPROBLEMS

• Itconst
it
utesaseri
ousmenacet
othesocietyandneededsol
uti
oni
fnott
o
eradi
cat
ethenatl
eastt
omi
ti
gatet
hem i
ntheverybegi
nni
ng.

• Employer
spai dthei
rsoleattenti
ontot
hemaintenanceofmachi nesandthe
i
mprovementoft hetechni
calknowhowt
otheut
terneglectofthehumanhands
employ
edt omant hemachinebecauset
heywer
er eadi
lyavai
labl
eandcoul
dbe
easi
l
yreplaced.

Fol
l
owi
ngpr
obl
emsf
aced:

• Wor
ker
swer
eil
l
iter
ateandpoorandt
her
efor
eunconsci
ousoft
hei
rri
ght
s.

• Thesoci
o-economi
cst
atusoft
hewor
ker
swasf
arbel
ow t
hest
atusoft
hei
r
empl
oyer
s

• Assucht
heycoul
dnotexer
ciset
hei
rfr
eewi
l
linnegot
iat
ingwi
tht
heempl
oyerf
or
empl
oyment
.

• Theemployert
aki
ngadvant
ageoft
hepoorcondi
ti
onofthewor
kersdictated
thei
rownter
msandcondi
ti
onswi
thr
egar
dst
owages,hour
sofwor
k,l
eav
e, etc.

• Theworker
swerelef
twithnochoicebutacceptsucht
erm becauseser
vicewas
thesol
emeansofearni
ngthei
rli
veli
hood.

• Neit
hertheGovernmentnott
hel
awcour
tst
ookspeci
alnoti
ceoftheseprobl
ems
becausetheyl
aidtoomuchemphasi
sonthepol
icyofthenon-
inter
fer
enceand
fr
eedom ofcont
ract.

I
NDUSTRI
ALPEACEANDI
NDUSTRI
ALHARMONY

I
ndust
ri
alPeace”and“
Indust
ri
alHar
mony
”mayhav
esamemeani
ngbut
,

 theconceptofindust
ri
alpeaceissomewhatnegat
iveandr
est
ri
cti
veandi
t
emphasi
sesabsenceofst
ri
feandst
ruggl
e.

 andt heconceptofi ndust


rialharmonyisposit
iveandcompr ehensi
veandit
postulates t
he exi
stence of underst
andi
ng,co-oper
ati
on and a sense of
part
ner shi
pbetweentheempl oy
ersandemploy
ees.
I
NDUSTRI
ALRELATI
ON

 I
ndust
ri
alrel
ati
onplaysav
italpar
tint
heest
abl
i
shmentandmai
ntenanceof
i
ndust
ri
aldemocracy
.

 Theeconomi
cact
ivi
tyi
sthecent
ral
fiel
dofi
ndust
ri
alr
elat
ions.

 Theeconomicsyst
em ofanynat
ionaf
fect
sthei
ndust
ri
alr
elat
ion,whi
chi
ntur
n
aff
ect
sthesoci
alorder
.

SOCI
ALSECURI
TY

Themut ualconfl
ictbetweentheempl
oyerandtheemployeesoverthequest
ionof
adequacyofthei
rrespecti
veshar
esi
nsoci
alpr
oduce,
consti
tut
esthecr
uxofthelabour
probl
em,ofwhich

1. Col
l
ect
iveBar
gai
ning

2.I
ndust
ri
alConf
li
ct

ar
ethet
womosti
mpor
tantaspect
s

Howt
hepr
obl
em ofSoci
alSecur
it
yar
ises?

Asindustr
ial
isati
onadvancest heworkeri
ncreasi
ngalienatedfr
om hi
sprevi
oussoci
o-
cul
turalworld and thus faces var
ious i
nsecuri
ti
es wi t
hr egar
ds toincome and
employmenti naddi
tiontot henatur
alonesf orwhichthenew order
sdoesnothav e
str
uctur
alprovisi
on.

 Socialsecuri
ti
esisthesecur
it
ythatthest
atefurni
shesagai
nsttheriskswhich
anindi
vidualofsmallmeanscannott
odaystanduptobyhimselfeveninpri
vate
combinati
onwi t
hhisfel
l
ows.

 TheconceptofSoci
alSecur
it
yisbasedoni
deal
sofhumandi
gni
tyandsoci
al
j
usti
ce.

 SocialSecuri
tymeansaguarant
eepr
ov i
dedbyt
hest
atet
hroughit
sappropr
iat
e
agencies,againstcer
tai
nri
skstowhichthemember
soft hesociet
ymaybe
exposed.

LABOURLEGI
SLATI
ONI
NINDI
A

Labourlegi
slat
ioni
nIndiagrewwit
hthegrowt
hofindust
ry.Inthe18thcentur
yIndi
awas
notonlyagreatagr
icul
tural
count
rybutal
soagreatmanufacturi
ngcountrytoo.

Br
it
ishGov
t.Di
scour
agedi
nor
dert
oencour
aget
her
isi
ngofEngl
and.
Whi
chl
edt
ogr
owt
hofI
ndi
anNat
ional
i
sm andt
ovi
gor
ousr
enai
ssance.

Nati
onali
sm hasanobvi
ouseconomicaspectwhichi
nourcount
rywasr
efl
ect
edi
nthe
ur
gef oreconomi
cref
orm andf
orindust
ri
ali
sat
ion.

Swadeshi
andNon-
co-
oper
ati
onst
art
ed.

Aft
er30’
splanningwasaccept
edbythenati
onalmov
ementasi
tseconomi
cideol
ogy
.
Thuspl
annedindust
ri
esbecameourmaingoal
.

Dev
elopmentofl
abourl
egi
slat
ion

InIndi
a,numberoflabourlegi
slat
ionhav ebeenenact edt
opromot ethecondi
ti
onofthe
l
abourkeepinginvi
ewt hedevelopmentofi ndustryandnati
onaleconomy.It
’shi
ghti
me
thattheemployer
smustr eal
iset hatitistheirpri
vi
legeasaci ti
zenofademocr ati
c
countryt
oreli
nqui
sht hei
racquisi
tivetendenciesofthepastandsetanewi dealf
orthe
futur
eofthecount
ry.

• Toimprov
etheworkeffi
ciencyandhel
pinsecuri
ngbet
terproduct
ionr
esul
ti
ngin
gr
eaterprof
it
sandpr osperi
tyoftheindust
rytobeul ti
matelyshar
edbyt he
management,wor
ker
sandt hecommunityatl
arge.

• Theemployersshouldconcedet
owor
ker
sar
epr
esent
ati
vev
oicei
nthecont
rol
oft
heindustr
ial
system.

Pr
inci
plesofl
abourl
egi
slat
ion

 Soci
alj
ust
ice

 Soci
alequal
i
ty

THETRADEUNI
ONACT,
1926

 Intr
oductionTr adeUni onsAct ,1926deal swi thther egistrationoft radeuni ons,
theirr
ights,
t hei
rli
abi l
iti
esandr esponsibil
i
tiesaswel lasensur est hatt hei
rfunds
areut i
li
sedpr operl
y .Itgiveslegalandcor poratest atust ot her egisteredtrade
unions.Italsoseekst opr otectthem from civ i
lorcr i
mi nalpr osecut ionsot hat
theycouldcar ryont heirlegi
timateactivi
ti
esf orthebenef i
toft hewor kingclass.
TheActi sappl i
cablenotonl ytotheunionofwor kersbutal sot ot heassoci ation
ofempl oyers.Itextendst owhol eofIndia.Definit
ionSect ion2oft heActdef i
nes
vari
oust ermsusedi ntheAct ,someoft hedef initi
onsar egi venher eunder :
Executivemeanst hebody ,bywhat evernamecal led,towhi cht hemanagement
oft heaffai
rsofat radeuni onisentrusted.[Sect i
on2( a)]Of fi
ce-bear erint he
caseofat radeuni on,includesanymemberoft heexecut ivet hereof ,butdoes
noti ncludeanaudi tor.
[Sect ion2( b)]Regi ster edof fi
cemeanst hatof ficeofa
tradeuni onwhi chi sr egisteredundert hisActast heheadof fi
cet hereof .[ Secti
on
2( d)]Regi ster ed t rade uni on means a t rade uni on r egi stered undert hi
s
Act .[Sect ion2( e)]Tr adedi sput emeansanydi sputebet weenempl oy ersand
wor kmen,orbet ween wor kmen and wor kmen,orbet ween empl oy er s and
empl oyerswhi chi sconnect edwi tht heempl oy mentornon- empl oyment ,orthe
termsofempl oy mentort hecondi ti
onsofl abor ,ofanyper son,and“ wor kmen”
means al lper sons empl oy ed i nt rade ori ndust ry whet herornoti nt he
empl oymentoft heempl oy erwi thwhom t het radedi sput ear ises.[Sect ion2( g)]
Tr adeuni onmeansanycombi nation,whet hert empor aryorper manent ,f ormed
primar i
l
yf ort hepur poseofr egul ating t her elationsbet ween wor kmen and
empl oyers orbet ween wor kmen and wor kmen,orbet ween empl oy ers and
empl oyers,orf ori mposi ngr est ri
ct i
v econdi ti
onsont heconductofanyt radeor
busi ness, andi ncl udesanyf eder at i
onoft woormor etradeuni ons.[Sect i
on2( h)]
Modeofr egi strat i
onSect ion4pr ov i
dest hatanysev enormor emember sofa
Tr adeUni onmaybysubscr ibingt hei rnamest ot her ulesoft heTr adeUni onand
by ot herwi se compl yi
ng wi tht he pr ov i
sions oft his Actwi thr espectt o
regist r
ation,appl yf orregist rationoft heTr adeUni on.Howev er,noTr adeUni on
ofwor kmenshal lber egisteredunl essatl eastt enpercent .oronehundr edoft he
wor kmen,whi chev eri sl ess,engaged orempl oy ed int he est ablishmentor
i
ndust rywi thwhi chi tisconnect edar ethemember sofsuchTr adeUni onont he
dat eofmaki ngofappl i
cat i
onf orr egi st r
ation.Appl i
cationf orr egistr
ationSect i
on
5st ipulatest hatev eryappl i
cat ionf orr egistrati
onofaTr adeUni onshal lbemade
tot heRegi strarandshal lbeaccompani edbyacopyoft her ulesoft heTr ade
Uni on and a st atementoft he f oll
owi ng par ticulars,namel y:– the names,
occupat i
onsandaddr essoft hemember smaki ngappl ication;–i nthecaseofa
Tr adeUni onofwor kmen,t henames,occupat i
onsandaddr essesoft hepl aceof
wor koft hemember soft heTr adeUni onmaki ngt heappl i
cat ion;–t henameof
theTr adeUni onandt headdr essofi t
sheadof fice; and–t het i
tl
es,names, ages,
addr essesandoccupat i
onsoft heof fice-bear ersoft heTr adeUni on.

 Wher eaTr adeUni onhasbeeni nexi stenceformor et hanoney earbeforethe


makingofanappl icati
onf orit
sr egistr
ati
on,thereshal lbedel i
veredtot he
Registrar
,toget herwiththeapplicati
on,agener alstatementoft heassetsand
l
iabil
it
ies oft he Trade Union prepared in such form and cont aini
ng such
parti
cularsasmaybepr escri
bedPr ovisi
onscont ai
nedi nt herulesofaTr ade
UnionATr adeUni onshallnotbeentitl
edt oregi
strat
ionundert heAct ,unl
essthe
executivethereofisconst i
tut
edinaccor dancewiththepr ovi
sionsoft heAct,and
therulesther eofprovideforthefoll
owi ngmat t
ers,namel y
:— –t henameoft he
TradeUni on;– t hewhol eoft heobject sforwhi chtheTr adeUni onhasbeen
establ ished;– t hewhol eoft hepur posesf orwhi cht hegener alf undsoft he
TradeUni onshal lbeappl i
cabl e, allofwhi chpur posesshal lbepur posest owhi ch
suchf undsar elawf ullyappl icabl eundert hisAct ;–t hemai nt enanceofal istof
themember soft heTr adeUni on and adequat ef aci l
itiesf ort hei nspect i
on
ther eofbyt heof fice- bear ersandmember sofTr adeUni on;–t headmi ssionof
ordinar ymember swhoshal lbeper sonsact ual lyengagedorempl oy edi nan
i
ndust rywi thwhi cht heTr adeUni oni sconnect ed,andal sot headmi ssi onoft he
numberofhonor aryort empor arymember sasof fice- bear er sr equi r
edunder
sect ion 22 t of or m t heexecut iveoft heTr adeUni on;– t hepay mentofa
mi nimum subscr iptionbymember soft heTr adeUni on–t hecondi ti
onsunder
whi chanymembershal lbeent itl
edt oanybenef i
tassur edbyt her ul esandunder
whi chanyf ineorf or feituremaybei mposedont hemember s;–t hemanneri n
whi cht her ul esshal lbeamended, variedorr esci nded; –t hemanneri nwhi cht he
member soft heexecut iveandt heot herof f
ice- bear er soft heTr adeUni onshal l
beel ect edandr emov ed; –t hedur ationofper iodbei ngnotmor et hant hreey ear s,
forwhi cht hemember soft heexecut i
veandot herof fi
ce- bear er soft heTr ade
Uni onshal lbeel ect ed;–t hesaf ecust odyoft hef undsoft heTr adeUni on,an
annualaudi t, i
nsuchmannerasmaybepr escr ibed, oft heaccount st her eof, and
adequat ef aci l
iti
esf ort heinspect i
onoft heaccountbooksbyt heof ficebear er s
andmember soft heTr adeUni on;and–t hemanneri nwhi cht heTr adeUni on
maybedi ssol vedCer tifi
cateofRegi st r
ationTheRegi st rar ,onbei ngsat i
sf i
edt hat
theTr adeUni onhascompl iedwi thal lther equi rement soft heActi nr egar dt o
regist ration,shal lr egi stert he Tr ade Uni on byent ering i nar egi ster ,to be
mai nt ainedi nsuchf or m asmaybepr escr ibed,t hepar ticul arsr el atingt ot he
Trade Uni on cont ai ned i nt he st at ementaccompany ing t he appl icat i
on f or
regist ration.TheRegi strar,onr egist eri
ngaTr adeUni onundersect ion8,shal l
i
ssueacer tifi
cat eofr egi str
at ioni nt hepr escr ibedf or m whi chshal l beconcl usi ve
evidence t hatt he Tr ade Uni on has been dul yr egi ster ed undert he Act .
Incor por at i
onofr egi st eredTr adeUni onEv er yr egist er edTr adeUni onshal lbea
bodycor por atebyt henameunderwhi chi tisr egist er ed, andshal lhav eper pet ual
successi onandacommonsealwi thpowert oacqui reandhol dbot hmov abl e
andi mmov ablepr oper tyandt ocont ract ,andshal lbyt hesai dnamesueandbe
sued.

 Cancel l
ationofregist
rati
onAcer t
if
icateofr egist
rati
onofaTr adeUnionmaybe
withdrawnorcancel l
edbyt heRegi straront hef ol
l
owi nggrounds––ont he
applicati
on oft he Trade Uni on t
o be v er
ifi
ed in such manneras maybe
prescribed;–iftheRegistrarissati
sfiedthatthecer t
if
icatehasbeenobtai
nedby
fr
audormi st
akeort hattheTr adeUni onhasceasedt oexistorhaswilf
ull
yand
afternot i
cefrom theRegi st
rarcontravenedanypr ovi
sionofthisActorall
owed
anyr uletoconti
nuei nforcewhi chisinconsistentwithanysuchpr ov
isi
onorhas
resci ndedanyr ulepr ovi
di ngf oranymat terpr ov i
sionf orwhi chisr equi redby
sect ion6; –i ftheRegi strari ssat isfi
edt hatar egi st
eredTr adeUni onofwor kmen
ceasest ohav et her equisi tenumberofmember s:Ret ur nsSect ion28oft heAct
prov idest hatther eshal lbesentannual lyt ot heRegi st rar ,
onorbef oresuchdat e
asmaybepr escr i
bed,agener alst atement ,audit edint hepr escr i
bedmanner ,of
allr ecei ptsandexpendi tureofev eryr egi st
eredTr adeUni ondur ingt hey ear
endi ngont he31stdayofDecembernextpr ecedi ngsuchpr escr i
beddat e, andof
the asset sand l iabili
ti
esoft heTr ade Uni on exi st i
ng on such 31stdayof
December .Thest atementshal lbepr epar edi nsuchf orm andshal lcompr ise
suchpar ti
cularsasmaybepr escr i
bed.Toget herwi tht hegener alst atement
thereshal lbesentt ot heRegi strarast atementshowi ngchangesofof fice
bear er smadebyt heTr adeUni ondur i
ngt hey eart owhi cht hegener alst atement
referst oget heral sowi t
hacopyoft her ul esoft heTr adeUni oncor rectedupt o
thedat eoft hedespat cht hereoft otheRegi st
rar.Acopyofev eryalterat
ionmade
i
nt her ulesofar egist
er edTr adeUni onshal lbesentt ot heRegi strarwi thin
fi
fteenday soft hemaki ngoft heal ter ation.Fort hepur poseofexami ningt he
abov ement ioneddocument st heRegi strar ,oranyof ficeraut hori
sedbyhi m by
gener alorspeci alor der,mayatal lreasonabl et imesi nspectt hecer t
ificateof
regist ration,accountbooks,r egist ers,andot herdocument s,relati
ngt oaTr ade
Union, ati tsregister edof ficeormayr equi retheirpr oduct i
onatsuchpl aceashe
mayspeci fyint hisbehal f ,butnosuchpl aceshal lbeatadi stanceofmor ethan
tenmi lesf rom t her egister edof ficeofaTr adeUni on.
Uni
tII&I
II

I
ntr
oduct
ion:

The f i
rstenact mentdeal ing wi tht he set tl
ementofi ndust ri
aldi sputes was t he
Empl oyer s’andWor kmen’ sDi sput esAct ,1860.Thi sActwei ghedmuchagai nstt he
wor ker sandwast her efor er eplacedbyt heTr adeDi sput esAct ,1929.TheActof1929
cont ainedspeci alpr ov isionsr egar di ngst rikesi npubl icut i
li
t yser vicesandgener al
stri
kesaf fect
ingt hecommuni t
yasawhol e.Themai npur poseoft heAct ,howev er,was
topr ovideaconci li
at ionmachi ner yt obr i
ngaboutpeacef ulset tl
ementofi ndust rial
disput es.TheWhi t elyCommi ssionmadei nt hisregar dt heper cept i
veobser vationt hat
theat t
emptt odealwi thunr estmustbegi nr atherwi tht hecr eationofanat mospher e
unfav our abletodi sput est hanwi thmachi ner yf orthei rset tl
ement .Thenextst agei nt he
devel opmentofi ndust r
iall awi nt hiscount rywast akenundert hest ressofemer gency
causedbyt heSecondWor l
dWar .Rul e81- Aoft heDef enceofI ndiaRul eswasint ended
topr ov idespeedyr emedi esf ori ndust r
ialdi sputesbyr eferri
ngt hem compul sor i
lyt o
conci li
ationoradj udi cat ion,bymaki ngt heawar dsl egallybi ndi ngont heparti
esandby
prohi bit
ing st ri
kesorl ock- out sdur ing t hependencyofconci l
iati
onoradj udi cation
proceedi ngsandf ort womont hst her eafter.Thi srul eal soputabl anketbanonst ri
kes
whichdi dnotar i
seoutofgenui net radedi sput es.Wi tht het er minationoft heSecond
Wor ldWar ,Rule81- Awasaboutt ol apseon1stOct ober ,1946,buti twaskeptal iveby
i
ssui nganOr dinancei nt heexer ciseoft heGov ernment ’
sEmer gencyPower s.Then
foll
owedt heI
ndust rialDi sput esAct , 1947.Thepr ov isionsoft hisAct ,asamendedf r
om
ti
met ot i
me,hav ef urni shedt hebasi sonwhi chi ndust r
ialj uri
spr udencei nthi
scount ry
i
sf ounded.

IndustrialDi sput eshav eadv erseef fectsoni ndust rialpr oduct i


on,ef fi
ciency,cost s,
quality,humansat i
sfaction,discipli
ne,t echnol ogi calandeconomi cpr ogr essandf i
nal l
y
ont hewel fareoft hesoci et
y.A di scontentl abourf orce,nur singi ni tshear tmut e
grievancesandr esent ment s,cannotbeef ficientandwi llnotpossessahi ghdegr eeof
i
ndust rialmor al
e.Hence, theIndust ri
alDi sput eActof1947waspassedasapr ev entive
andcur ativ
emeasur e.Indust r
ialdi sput esar et hedi sput eswhi char iseduet oany
disagreementi nani ndust r
ialrelation.I ndust rialr elationi nvolvesv ar i
ousaspect sof
i
nt eractionsbet weent heempl oy erandt heempl oy ees.I nsuchr elati
onswhenev ert here
i
sacl ashofi nterest,itmayr esultindi ssatisfact ionf orei theroft hepar tiesinvol
v edand
hencel eadt oi ndust rialdisputesorconf li
ct s.Thesedi sput esmayt akev ari
ousf orms
suchaspr otests, st
rikes, demonst rat i
ons, l
ock- out s, r
et renchment ,dismi ssalofwor kers,
etcIndust ri
alDisput esAct ,1947pr ov idesmachi ner yf orpeacef ulr esol utionofdi sput es
andt opr omot ehar moni ousr elationbet weenempl oy ersandwor ker s.TheActi sa
benignmeasur ewhi chseekst opr e-empti ndust rialtensi ons,pr ov i
det hemechani csof
disputer esolutionsandsetupt henecessar yi nf r
ast ructur esot hatt heener giesof
par t
nersi n pr oduct i
on may notbe di ssipat ed i n count erpr oduct iv e batt
les and
assur ance ofi ndust
rialmaycr eate a congeni alcl i
mat e.The Actenumer ates the
cont ingenci eswhenast ri
keorlock- outcanbel awfullyresor tedt o,whent heycanbe
decl ared i l
legalorunl awful,condi ti
ons forl ayi
ng of f
,r etrenching,dischar ging or
dismi ssi ngawor kman,ci r
cumst ancesunderwhi chani ndust ri
alunitcanbecl osed
downandsev eralothermat ter
sr elatedtoindust r
ialempl oy eesandempl oyers.Under
the Act v ari
ous Aut hori
ti
esar eest ablished forI nvestigation and settlementof
i
ndust rialdi sputes.They ar e Wor ks Commi tt
ee;Conci l
iation Of fi
cer
s;Boar ds of
Conci l
iation;Cour tofI nquir
y;LabourTr ibunals;I ndust r
ialTr ibunals and Nat i
onal
Tribunal s.Theknowl edgeoft hisl egisl
ati
oni samustf ort hest udentssot hatt hey
dev elopapr operperspectiveaboutt helegalframewor kst ipulatedundert heI ndustrial
Disput esAct ,1947.

ScopeandObj
ect
s:

TheI ndustr
ialDisputesAct
,1947makespr ovi
sionfort
heinvesti
gationandsettl
ement
ofindustri
aldisputesandforcert
ainot herpurposes.I
tensur
espr ogressofindust
ryby
bri
ngingabouthar monyandcordi
alrelati
onshipbetweentheemploy ersandemployees.
Definit
ions oft he words ‘
i
ndustr
ialdi spute,workmen and industry’car
ryspecifi
c
meani ngsundert heActandprovi
det heframewor kfort
heappli
cationoftheAct.

• TheI
ndust
ri
alDi
sput
eActof1947,
camei
ntof
orceont
hef
ir
stdayofApr
il
,1947.

• I
tsai
mist
opr
otectt
hewor
kmenagai
nstv
ict
imi
zat
ionbyt
heempl
oyer
s.

• Toensur
esoci
alj
ust
ice.

• Theuniqueobj
ectoftheActistopr
omotecol
lecti
vebar
gaini
ngandtomaint
ain
apeaceful
atmospher
einindust
ri
esbyav
oidi
ngill
egal
str
ikesandl
ockout
s.

• TheActal
sopr
ovi
desf
orr
egul
ati
onofl
ayof
fandr
etr
enchment
.

• Theobj
ect
iveoft
heI
ndust
ri
alDi
sput
esActi
stosecur
eindust
ri
alpeaceand
har
mony

• Toprovi
demechani
sm andpr ocedur
efort
hei
nvest
igat
ionandset
tl
ementof
i
ndust
ri
aldi
sput
esbynegot
iat
ions.

• Thi
sactdealswit
htheret
renchmentprocessoftheemploy
ees,pr
ocedur
efor
l
ayoff
,pr
ocedur
eandrul
esforstr
ikesandl
ockout
softhecompany

I
MPORTANTDEFI
NITI
ONS

(
i)Appr
opr
iat
eGov
ernment[
Sec.2(
a)]
:
“Appr opr i
ateGov er nment ”means:( i)inr elat i
ont oanyi ndust ri
aldi sput esconcer ning
anyi ndust r
ycar r
iedonbyorundert heaut horit
yoft heCent ralGov ernmentorbya
rail
waycompanyorconcer ni nganysuchcont r
olledi ndust ryasmaybespeci fiedi nthis
behal fbyt heCent ralGov er nmentori nr elat i
ont oani ndust r
ialdi sput econcer ninga
DockLabourBoar dest abl i
shedunderSect ion5- Aoft heDockWor kers( Regul ationof
Empl oy ment )Act,1948ort heI ndust rialFi nanceCor por at ionofI ndi aLi mi tedf ormed
andr egister edundert heCompani esAct ,1956,ort heEmpl oyees’St at eI nsurance
Corpor ationest abl i
shedunderSect ion3oft heEmpl oy ees’ St ateI nsur anceAct , 1948or
theBoar dofTr ust eesconst itutedunderSect i
on3- Aoft heCoalMi nesPr ov identFund
andMi scel l
aneousPr ov i
sionsAct ,1948ort heCent ralBoar dofTr ust eesandt heSt ate
Boar dsofTr usteesconst itutedunderSect ion5- AandSect ion5- B,r espect i
v ely,oft he
Empl oy ees’Pr ovidentFunds and Mi scel laneous Pr ov i
si ons Act ,1952 ort he Life
Insurance Cor por at i
on ofI ndi a est ablished underSect ion 3 oft he Li feI nsurance
Corpor ationAct ,1956ort heOi landNat uralGasCor por at ionLi mi t
edr egi steredunder
theCompani esAct ,1956,ort heDeposi tInsur anceandCr edi tGuar ant eeCor poration
establishedunderSect i
on3oft heDeposi tI nsuranceandCr editGuar anteeCor poration
Act,1961,ort heCent ralWar ehousi ngCor por ationest abl ishedunderSect i
on3oft he
War ehousi ngCor por ationAct ,1962, ort heUni tTr ustofI ndi aest ablishedunderSect ion
3oft heUni tTr ustofI ndiaAct , 1963, ort heFoodCor por ationofI ndiaest abl i
shedunder
Section3,oraBoar dofManagementest abl i
shedf ort woormor econt iguousSt ates
underSect i
on16oft heFoodCor porationsAct ,1964,ort heAi rpor tsAut hor ityofI ndia
const i
tut edunderSect i
on3oft heAi r
por tsAut horityofI ndi aAct ,1994,oraRegi onal
RuralBankest ablishedunderSect ion3oft heRegi onalRur alBanksAct ,1976ort he
Expor tCr editand Guar ant ee Cor por ation Li mited ort he I ndust rialReconst r
uction
Corpor ationofI ndiaLi mi ted,t heNat i
onalHousi ngBankest abl i
shmentunderSect ion3
oftheNat i
onalHousi ngBankAct ,
1987ort heBanki ngSer viceCommi ssionest abli
shed
underSect ion3oft heBanki ngSer viceCommi ssionAct ,1975,oranai rt ranspor t
service, orabanki ngorani nsur ancecompany ,ami ne, anoi l
-fi
el d,aCant onmentBoar d
oramaj orpor t
,t heCent ralGov ernment ,and( i
i)i nr el ationt oanyot herI ndust rial
Disput e,theSt ateGov ernment .[Sect i
on2( a) ](i
i)Indust ry

“Industry ”meansanybusi ness, trade,under taking, manuf actureorcal l


ingofempl oyers
andi ncludesanycal li
ngser vice,empl oy ment ,handi craft,ori ndustri
aloccupat ionor
av ocationofwor kmen.[Sect i
on2( j
)]TheSupr emeCour tcarri
edoutani ndept hst udyof
thedef i
nitionoft hetermi ndust r
yi nacompr ehensi v
emanneri nt hecaseof Bangalor e
Wat erSuppl yandSewer ageBoar dv .
ARaj iappa, AIR1978SC548( herei
naf terreferredt o
asBangal oreWat erSuppl ycase) ,afterconsi deringv ariouspr eviousjudi cialdeci si
ons
ont hesubj ectandi nt hepr ocess,i tr ejectedsomeoft hem,whi leev olvinganew
conceptoft het erm“ i
ndust r
y”.Test sf ordet ermi nati
onof“ indust r
y”Af terdi scussi ng
thedef i
nitionfrom vari
ousangl es,intheabov ecase,t heSupr emeCour t,laiddownt he
followingt eststodet er
mi newhet heranact i
vityiscov eredbyt hedef i
nit
ionof“ industr y

ornot .Itisal sor efer redt oast het ri
pl et est.I.( a)Wher et herei s(i)sy stemat icact ivi
ty,
(i
i)organi sedbyco- oper at i
onbet weenempl oy erandempl oyee,( ii
i)fort hepr oduct ion
and/ordi stri
but i
onofgoodsandser v icescal culatedt osat i
sfyhumanwant sandwi shes
(notspi ri
tualorr eligiousbuti ncl usiv eofmat erialthingsorser vicesgear edtocel estial
bli
sse. g.,maki ng, onal ar gescal e, pr asadorf ood)pr imaf acie,therei san“ i
ndust ry”in
thatent erprise.( b)Absenceofpr of itmot iveorgai nf ulobj ectiveisi r
relev antwher ever
theunder taki ngi swhet heri nthepubl ic,joint, privat
eorot hersect or.(c)Thet r
uef ocus
i
sf unct i
onalandt hedeci sivet esti st henat ureoft heact ivit
ywi thspeci alemphasi son
theempl oyer -empl oy eer el at
ions.( d)I ft heor ganisationi sat radeorbusi ness,i tdoes
notceaset obeonebecauseofphi l
ant hrophyani mat i
ngt heunder taking.I I
.Al though
Section2( i)useswor dsoft hewi destampl i
tudei nitst wol i
mbs,t heirmeani ngcannot
be magni f
ied t o ov er-stretch i tsel f.Under taking mustsuf fer a cont ext ualand
associat i
onalshr i
nkage,soal so,ser vice,cal l
ingandt hel i
ke.Thi sy i
eldst hei nfer ence
thatal lorgani sedact iv
itypossessi ngt het ripleel ement si n( i)althoughnott r
adeor
business,mayst il
lbe“ indust ry” ,pr ov idedt henat ur
eoft heact i
vit
y,viz .
,theempl oyer-
empl oyeebasi s,bear sresembl ancet owhatwef i
ndint r
adeorbusi ness.Thi st akesi nto
thefol dof“ indust ry”,under taking,cal li
ngsandser vi
ces,adv enturesanal ogoust ot he
carryi
ngonoft r
adeorbusi ness.Al lf eatur es, othert hant hemet hodologyofcar ryingon
theact ivi
ty,viz. ,
inor gani singt heco- oper ati
onbet weenempl oy erandempl oyee, maybe
dissi
mi lar.I
tdoesnotmat t
er, i
font heempl oy mentt erms, thereisanal ogy .

(
ii
i)I
ndust
ri
alDi
sput
e

“I
ndust r
ialDispute”meansanydi sputeordi f
ferencebetweenempl oyersandempl oyers,
orbet weenempl oyersandwor kmen,orbet weenwor kmenandwor kmen,whi chis
connect edwi ththeempl oymentornon- employ mentort het er
msofempl oymentor
withthecondi t
ionsofl abour,ofanyper son.[Secti
on2(k) ]Theabovedef i
nit
ioncanbe
analy
sedanddi scussedundert hefoll
owi ngheads:(i)Ther eshoul
dexi stadisputeor
dif
ference;(i
i)Thedi sputeordi ff
erenceshoul dbebetween:( a)employerandempl oyer;
(b)empl oyerandwor kmen; or(c)workmenandwor kmen.( i
ii
)Thedisputeordiff
erence
shouldbeconnect edwi t
h( a)theempl oymentornon- employment,or( b)termsof
employ ment, or(c)thecondi t
ionsoflabourofanyper son; (i
v)Thedisputeshouldrel
ate
toani ndustr
yasdef inedinSect i
on2(j)
.

(
iv)Wor
kman

“Wor kman”meansanyper son( i


ncludinganappr enti
ce)empl oyedinanyi ndustrytodo
anymanual ,unski
ll
ed,ski
l
led,
t echnical,
oper ati
onal,cl
ericalorsuper v
isor ywor kforhir
e
orr eward,whetherthetermsofempl oymentbeexpr essedori mpliedandf orthe
purposesofanypr oceedi
ngundert hi
sActi nr el
ationtoani ndustr
ialdisput e,i
ncludes:
(a)anysuchper sonwhohasbeendi smissed,dischargedorr etr
enchedi nconnect i
on
with,orasaconsequenceoft hatdispute, or(b)anyper sonwhosedi smi ssal,dischar
ge
orretrenchmenthasl edt othatdi
spute,
butdoesnoti ncludeanysuchper son:(i
)whoi s
subjecttotheAr myAct ,1950,ortheAirForceAct,1950ort heNavyAct ,1957;or( i
i
)
whoi sempl oyedint hepol iceserv
iceorasanof fi
cerorot heremployeeofapr i
son;or
(i
ii
)whoi semploy edmai nlyinamanager i
aloradmi nistrativ
ecapacity;or( i
v)whoi s
empl oyedinasuper visorycapacit
ydrawingmoret hanRs.1, 600permont haswages;
or(v)whoi sexercisingei t
herbyt henatur
eoft hedut i
esat t
achedtot heof f
iceorby
reasonoft hepower sv estedinhim,functi
onsmai nl
yofamanager ialnature.[Sect
ion
2(s)]

Someoftheexpressi
onsusedinthedefi
nit
ionof“workman”hav
ebeent
hesubj
ectof
j
udi
cial
int
erpr
etat
ionandhencetheyhav
ebeendiscussedbel
ow:

(
a)Employedin“anyindust
ry”Tobeawor kman,
apersonmusthavebeenemployed
i
nanact iv
itywhichisan“ i
ndustry
”asperSecti
on2( j
).Ev
enthoseemployedin
operat
ioninci
dentaltosuchi ndustr
yar eal
socoveredunderthedef
ini
ti
onof
workman.

(
b)Personempl oy edAper soncannotbeawor kmanunl esshei sempl oy edbyt he
empl oy erinanyi ndustr y
.Ther elati
onshipofempl oy erandwor kmani susual l
y
suppor tedbyacont ractofempl oy mentwhi chmaybeexpr essedori mpl i
ed.Thi s
i
sal soamustf orr egardinganappr enticeasawor ker( Achut anv .Babar ,1996-
LLR-824Ker .).Butsuchaquest i
oncannotbeder i
v edmer elyont hebasi sof
apprent iceship cont r
act( R.D.Paswan v .L. C.,1999 LAB 1C Pat1026) .The
empl oy eeagr eest owor kundert hesuper visionandcont r
ol ofhi sempl oyer.Her e
onemustdi sti
ngui shbet weencont r
actf orempl oy mentorser viceandcont ract
ofempl oy mentorser vice.Int hef or
mer ,theempl oy ercanr equi rewhati stobe
donebuti nt hel atter,hecannotonl yor derwhati st obedone,butal sohowi t
shallbedone.I nt hecaseofcont r
actforempl oyment ,theper sonwi llnotbehel d
asa‘ wor kman’ butonl yan‘ independentcont ractor’.Ther eshoul dbeduecont rol
and super vi
sion by t he empl oyerf or a mast er and ser vantr elati
onshi p
(Dhar angadhar aChemi calWor ksLt d.v.St ateofSaur ashtra,AI R1957SC264) .
Paymentonpi ecer atebyi tselfdoesnotdi spr ovet her elati
onshi pofmast erand
servant( 19834SCC464) .Ev enapar tti
meempl oy eei sawor ker( P.N.Gul ativ.
LabourCommi ssioner1977( 35)FLR35) .Si ncehei sunderanobl i
gat i
ont owor k
forfixedhour sev eryday ,juralrelati
onshipofmast erandser vantwoul dexist.A
casualwor keri snonet helessawor kman( G.YeddiReddiv .Br ookeBondI ndia
Ltd.
, 1994Lab1C186) .

(
c)Employ
edtodoski
l
ledorunski
l
ledet
c.Onl
ythosepersonswhoareengagedi
n
thef
oll
owi
ngty
pesofwor
karecover
edbythedef
ini
ti
onof“workman”
:

(
i) Ski
l
ledorunski
l
ledmanual
wor
k;
(
ii
) Super
visor
ywor
k;

(
ii
i) Techni
cal
wor
k;

(
iv) Cl
eri
cal
wor
k.

Whereaper soni sdoi


ngmor ethanonewor k,hemustbehel dtobeempl oyedto
dotheworkwhi chisthemainwor kheisrequir
edtodo( BurmaShellOilStor
age
&Distri
but
ingCo.ofI ndi
av.Bur maShellManagementSt af
fAssociati
on,AIR
1971 SC 922) .Manualwor kr eferr
ed i
nt he def
init
ion i
ncl
udes wor kwhich
i
nvolv
esphy sicalexer
tionasdi
stingui
shedfrom mentalori
ntel
lect
ualexert
ion.

(
V)St
ri
ke

“St
rike”meansacessat i
onofwor kbyabodyofper sonsemploy
edi nanyindustr
y
acti
ng i n combi nat
ion,ora concerted refusal
,ora r ef
usalundera common
understandi
ngofanynumberofper sonswhoar eorhav
ebeensoemployedtoconti
nue
to wor kort o acceptemployment.[Sect
ion 2(q)]St
ri
keisaweapon ofcol l
ecti
ve
bargaini
ngint hear mourofworker
s.Thefollowingpoi
ntsmaybenotedregar
dingthe
defi
niti
onofstr i
ke:

(
i) Stri
kecant akeplaceonl ywhentherei sacessat i
onofwor korr
efusal t
owor k
bythewor kmenact i
ngi ncombinati
onori naconcert
edmanner .Timef act
or
ordurati
onoft hest r
ikeisimmat er
ial.Thepur posebehindthecessat i
onof
workisir
relevanti ndeter
miningwhet herther
ei sastr
ikeornot.I
tisenoughi f
thecessationofwor kisindef i
anceoft heempl oyersauthori
ty.Proofof
formalconsultationsisnotrequir
ed.Howev er,merepresenceinthest riki
ng
crowdwoul dnotamountt ostr
ikeunl essitcanbeshownt hatt herewas
cessat
ionofwor k.

(
ii
) A concertedrefusalorar ef usalunderacommonunder standingofany
numberofper sonstocont i
nuet owor kortoacceptempl oymentwi llamount
toastrike.Ageneralstrikei sonewhent hereisaconcertofcombi nat i
onof
workersstoppingorr efusingt or esumewor k.Goingonmasscasuall eave
underacommonunder standi ngamount stoast ri
ke.However,t
her efusalby
workmenshoul dbeinr espectofnor mallawf ulworkwhi
cht hewor kmenar e
underanobl i
gati
ontodo.Butr efusalt odowor kwhicht
heempl oy erhasno
ri
ghttoaskf orperformance,suchar efusaldoesnotconst i
tuteast r
ike
(Nort
hbrookeJut eCo.Lt d.v .Thei rWor kmen,AI R1960SC879) .Ifont he
suddendeat hofaf ellow- wor ker,thewor kmenact ingi
nconcer tr efuset o
resumewor k,i
tamount st oast rike( Nati
onalTextil
eWor ker
s’Unionv .Shree
Meenakshi Mil
ls,
(1951)I IL.L.J.516) .
(
ii
i) Thestr
iki
ngwor
kman,
mustbeempl
oyedi
nan“
indust
ry”whi
chhasnotbeen
cl
oseddown.

(
iv) Even when workmen cease t o work,the rel
ati
onship ofemployerand
employ eei
sdeemedt oconti
nuealbeiti
nastateofbell
iger
entsuspension.In
ExpressNewspaper( P)Ltd.v .MichaelMark,1962-I
I,L.
L.J.220S.C. ,the
SupremeCour tobservedthatifthereisast ri
kebywor kmen,itdoesnot
i
ndicate,even when stri
ke isi l
legal,t
hatt hey have abandoned t hei
r
employ ment
.Howev er
,foril
legalstr
ike,t
heempl oyercant akedi
scipli
nary
acti
onanddi smi
ssthestri
ki
ngwor kmen.

TYPESOFSTRI
KEANDTHEI
RLEGALI
TY

(
i) Stay -
in,sit
-down, pen-downort ool-downst r
ikeInal l
suchcases,thewor kmen
aftert aki
ngt heirseat s,r ef
uset odowor k.Ev enwhenaskedt ol eavethe
premi ses,theyr efuset odoso.Al lsuchact sont hepartofthewor kmen
actingi ncombi nat ion,amountt oast ri
ke.Si ncesuchst ri
kesar edirect
ed
againstt heempl oy er,theyar eal socal ledpr imarystri
kes.Int hecaseof
Punj ab Nat i
onalBankLt d.v .Al lIndi a Punjab Nat i
onalBankEmpl oyees’
Feder ati
on, AI
R1960SC160, theSupr emeCour tobser
vedthatonapl ainand
grammat icalconstruct i
onoft hisdef initi
oni twoul dbediffi
cul
ttoexcl udea
stri
kewher ewor kmenent erthepr emi sesoft heiremploymentandr efuseto
taket heirtoolsinhandandst ar
tt heirusualwor k.Refusalundercommon
under standingnott o wor kisast r
ike.I finpur suanceofsuchcommon
under standingtheempl oyeesent erthepr emisesoft heBankandr efuseto
taket heirpensi nt heirhandst hatwoul dnodoubtbeast ri
keunderSect i
on
2(q).

(
ii
) Go-sl
ow Go-sl
ow doesnotamountt
o st
ri
ke,buti
tisaser
iouscaseof
misconduct
.

(
ii
i) Sympatheti
cst ri
keCessat i
onofwor ki nthesupportoft hedemandsof
workmenbel ongingt ootheremployeriscalledasympat heticstri
ke.Thisis
anunjust
ifi
ableinv asi
onoft her
ightofempl oyerwhoisnotatal li
nv ol
vedin
thedi
spute.Themanagementcant akedi sci
pli
nar
yacti
onf ortheabsenceof
workmen.Howev er,in Ramali
ngam v .Indian Met
allurgicalCor por
ation,
Madras,1964-IL. L.J.81,i
twashel dt hatsuchcessationofwor kwi l
lnot
amounttoast ri
kesi ncetherei
snoi ntenti
ontouset hest r
ikeagainstthe
management .

(
iv) Hungerstri
keSomewor kersmayr esor
ttofastonornearthepl
aceofwor k
orr
esidenceoftheemployer.I
fiti
speacefulanddoesnotr
esul
tincessat
ion
ofwork,itwil
lnotconst
it
uteast ri
ke.Butifduetosuchanact,eventhose
presentf
orwork,coul
dnotbegiv
enwor
k,i
twi
l
lamountt
ost
ri
ke(
Pepar
iach
SugarMil
lsLt
d.v.Thei
rWorkmen).

(
v) Work-
to-
rul
eSi
ncet
her
eisnocessat
ionofwor
k,i
tdoesnotconst
it
utea
st
ri
ke.

LEGALI
TYOFSTRI
KE

Thel egali
tyofstr
ikeisdet erminedwi thr eferencet ot hel egalprovisionsenumer at edin
theActandt hepur posef orwhicht hest ri
kewasdecl ar edisnotr el
ev antindi r
ectingt he
l
egality.Sect
ion10( 3),10A(4A),22and23oft heActdeal swi t
hst rike.Sections22and
23 imposer est
ricti
onson t hecommencementofst r
ikewhi leSect i
ons10( 3)and
10A(4A)pr ohibi
titscont i
nuance.Thej usti
fiabil
ityofst ri
kehasnodi rectrelat
iont ot he
quest i
onofi t
slegalit
yandi l
l
egali
ty .Thej ustifi
cationofst ri
keashel dbyt hePunj ab&
HaryanaHi ghCour tint hecaseof Mat chwel lElectricalsofI ndiav.Chi efCommi ssioner,
(1962)2LLJ289,i sent ir
elyunrelatedt oitslegal it
yori ll
egalit
y.Thej ustif
icationof
stri
keshast o bev i
ewedf r
om t hest andpoi ntoff ai
rnessandr easonabl enessof
demandsmadebywor kmenandnotmer elyfrom st andpoi ntoft heirexhaust i
ngal l
otherlegit
imatemeansopent othem f orget ti
ngt heirdemandsf ulf
il
led.

(
vi) Lock-
out

“Lock-
out”meansthetemporar
yclosi
ngofaplaceofempl
oyment
,ort
hesuspensi
onof
work,ort her
efusalbyanempl oyertocont
inuetoemployanynumberofpersons
employedbyhim.[Sect
ion2(
l)]

Inlockout ,theemploy errefusest oconti


nuet oempl oythewor kmanempl oyedbyhi m
event hought her
eisnoi ntent
iont ocl
osedownt heuni t.Theessenceofl ockoutisthe
refusaloftheempl oyert ocont inuetoempl oywor kman.Ev eni fsuspensionofwor kis
ordered,itwoul d const it
utel ock out
.Butmer e suspension ofwor k,unl ess i
tis
accompani edbyani ntent i
onont hepartofempl oyerasar etali
ation,
willnotamountt o
l
ockout .Lockingoutwor kmendoesnotcont empl ateseveranceoft her el
ati
onshipof
empl oyerandt hewor kmen.I nt hecaseLor dKr ishnaSugarMi ll
sLtd.v .Stat
eofU. P.,
(1964)IILLJ76( Al
l)
,acl osureofapl aceofbusi nessf orashor tdurati
onof30day sin
retal
iati
ont ocert
ainact sofwor kmen( i
.e.toteacht hem alesson)washel dtobeal ock
out.Butclosur ei
snotal ockout .

(
vii
)Lay
-of
f


Lay-of
f”(withi
tsgrammat i
calvari
ati
onsandcognat
eexpr
essions)meanst hefai
lur
e,
r
efusalorinabi
l
ityofanempl oyertogiveemploy
mentduetof ol
lowingreasons,toa
workmanwhosenameappear sonthemuster
-r
oll
sofhi
sindustri
alestabl
ishmentand
whohasnotbeenr et
renched:(a)shor
tageofcoal
,powerorr aw mat eri
als,or(b)
accumulati
onofst ocks,or(c)break-
downofmachi
ner
y,or(
d)nat
uralcal
ami
ty,or(
e)
foranyotherconnectedreason.[
Secti
on2(kkk)
]

(
vii
i
)Ret
renchment

“Retrenchment ”meanst het ermi nat ionbyt heempl oy eroft heser viceofawor kmanf or
anyr easonwhat soev er, other wi set hanasapuni shmenti nfl
ict edbywayofdi scipl i
nar y
action,butdoesnoti nclude:( a)v olunt aryr etir
ementoft hewor kman;or( b)r etir
ement
oft hewor kmanorr eachi ngt heageofsuper annuat ioni ft hecont r actofempl oy ment
betweent heempl oy erandt hewor kmanconcer nedcont ai nsast i
pul ationi nthatbehal f;
or(bb)t er mi nationoft heser viceoft hewor kmanasar esul toft henon- renewaloft he
cont r
actofempl oy mentbet weent heempl oyerandt hewor kmanconcer nedoni ts
expiryorofsuchcont ractbei ngt er minat edunderast ipul ationi nt hatbehal fcont ained
therein.( c)t ermi nat i
onoft heser viceofwor kmanont hegr oundofcont i
nuedi l
l
-heal th.
Thus,t hedef i
nit i
oncont empl atesf ol
lowi ngr equi r
ement sf orr et renchment :( i
)Ther e
shoul dbet ermi nationoft heser v i
ceoft hewor kman.( ii)Thet ermi nat i
onshoul dbeby
theempl oy er.( i
ii)Thet ermi nat ioni snott her esultofpuni shmenti nfli
ctedbywayof
discipli
nar yact ion.( iv)Thedef ini t
ionexcl udest er minat i
onofser viceont hespeci f i
ed
groundsori nst ancesment ionedi ni t.[ Sect i
on2( oo)]Thescopeandambi tofSect i
on
2(oo)i s expl ained i nt he case of Sant osh Gupt av .State Bank ofPat i
ala,( 1980)
Lab. I
.C.687SC) ,wher eini twashel dt hati ft hedef initionofr etrenchmenti sl ookedat
unaidedandunhamper edbypr ecedent ,onei satoncest r
uckbyt her emar kablywi de
l
anguageempl oy edandpar ti
cul arlyt heuseoft hewor d‘ termi nat i
onf oranyr eason
what soev er’.Ifduewei ghti sgi v ent ot hesewor ds,i.e.t heyar et obeunder stoodast o
meanwhatt heypl ainlysay ,iti sdi ffi
cul tt oescapet heconcl usiont hatr etrenchment
musti ncludeev eryter mi nationofser v iceofawor kmanbyanactoft heempl oy er.In
thecaseofPunj abLandDev elopmentCor porationLt d.v .LabourCour t,Chandi gar h,
(1990)I ILLJ70SC,t heSupr emeCour thel dthatexpr essi on“ retr enchment ”means
terminat ionbyempl oyerofser vicesofwor kmanf oranyr easonwhat soev erexcept
thoseexpr essl yexcl udedi nt heSect i
oni t
sel f
.

(
ix)Awar
d

“Award”meansani nter
im oraf inaldetermi nat ionofanyi ndustri
aldisput eorofany
questi
onr elat
ingtheretobyanyLabourCour t,Indust r
ialTribunalorNat ionalI ndust ri
al
Tri
bunalandi ncl
udesanar bit
rat
ionawar dmadeunderSect ion10-A.[Sect ion2( b) ]This
defi
nit
ionwasanal y sedinthecaseof Cox&Ki ngs( Agent s)Ltd.v.TheirWor kmen,AI R
1977S. C.1666asf oll
ows: Thedef i
nit
ionof“ awar d”isint wopar t
s.Thef i
r stpar tcov er
s
adetermi nati
on,fi
nalori nter
im,ofanyi ndust rialdispute.Thesecondpar ttakesi na
deter
mi nati
onofanyquest ionrel
atingtoani ndust r
ialdispute.Howev er,basict hingto
boththepar t
sist heexistenceofani ndust ri
aldi spute,act ualorappr ehended.The

determinationcontemplatedisoft heindustrial disputeoraquest i
onrelatingt her etoon
merit
s.Thewor d‘ det
erminati
on’impli
esthattheLabourCour
tortheTr
ibunalshoul
d
adj
udicatethedisputeuponr el
evantmateri
alsandexerci
sei
tsownjudgement.The
def
ini
tionof‘award’al
soincludesthe‘i
nter
im awar
d’,

(
x)Empl
oyer

“Employer
”means:(i)inrelati
ont oani ndustrycar r
iedonbyorundert heauthorit
yof
anydepar t
mentoft he CentralGov er
nmentora St ate Gov er
nment ,the authori
ty
prescr
ibedint
hisbehalf
,orwher enoaut horit
yi sprescri
bed,theheadoft hedepartment ;
(i
i)inrel
ati
ontoani ndustrycar r
iedonbyoronbehal fofal ocalauthor
ity
,thechi ef
executi
veoffi
cerofthataut hori
ty.[
Section2( g)]“Employerincludesamongot hersan
agentofanemployer,gener
al manager ,
director,occupieroffactoryet
c.

(
xi)Wages


Wages”meansal lr
emuner
ationcapableofbei
ngexpr
essedi
ntermsofmoney,which
would,i
fthet
ermsofempl oy
ment ,expr
essedori
mpli
ed,wereful
fi
ll
ed,bepay
ableto
workmani nr
espectofhisemploy mentorofworkdonei nsuchempl oy
ment,and
i
ncl
udes:

Lesson14I ndustr
ialDisputesAct ,1947223( i)suchal l
owance( i
ncl udingdear ness
allowance)ast heworkmani sf orthet i
mebei ngent itl
edto;(ii
)thev alueofanyhouse
accommodat i
on,orofsupplyofl ight,water,medicalat t
endanceorot herameni tyorof
anyser vi
ceorofanyconcessi onalsuppl yoff oodgr ai
nsorot herar t
icles;(i
i
i)any
travelli
ngconcessi
on,butdoesnoti nclude:(a)anybonus;( b)anycont ri
but i
onpai dor
pay ablebytheempl oy
ert oanypensi onf undorpr ovidentfundorf ort hebenef i
toft he
wor kmanunderanyl aw fort het i
mebei nginfor ce;(c)anygr atui
typay abl
eont he
termi nati
onofhisservice.(
d)anycommi ssi
onpay ableont hepr omot ionofsal esor
busi nessorboth.[
Secti
on2(r r
)]

AUTHORI
TIESUNDERTHEACTANDTHEI
RDUTI
ES

TheActpr
ovi
desf
orf
oll
owi
ngAut
hor
it
iesf
orI
nvest
igat
ionandset
tl
ementofi
ndust
ri
al
di
sput
es:

(
i) Wor
ksCommi
tt
ee.

(
ii
) Conci
l
iat
ionOf
fi
cer
s.

(
ii
i) Boar
dsofConci
l
iat
ion.

(
iv) Cour
tofI
nqui
ry.
(
v) LabourTr
ibunal
s.

(
vi) I
ndust
ri
alTr
ibunal
s.

(
vii
) Nat
ional
Tri
bunal
.

(i
)Wor ksCommi tt
ee-Sect i
on3oft heActpr ovi
dest hattheappr opriat
eGov ernment
maybygener alorspeci
alorderrequi
ret heempl oyert oconstitutei nt heprescri
bed
manneraWor ksCommi t
teeinindustr
ialestabli
shment s,where100ormor ewor kmen
areempl oy
edorhav ebeenempl oyedonanywor kingdayi nthepr eceding12mont hs.
TheWor ksCommi tt
eewi l
lbecompr isedoft her epresentat
ivesofempl oyersand
workmenengagedi ntheestabli
shment.Itshallbethedut yoftheWor ksCommi t
teeto
promotemeasur esforsecuri
ngandpr eservingami t
yandgoodr elationsbetweent he
employerandwor kmenand,t othatend,t ocommentuponmat ter soft hei
rcommon
i
nterestorconcernandendeav ourtocomposeanymat er
ialdi
ff erenceofopi nionin
respectofsuchmatter
s[Secti
on3(2)]
.

(i
i)Concil
iat
ionOf fi
cers-Wi t
hthedut yofmedi at
inginandpr omot ingthesettl
ementof
i
ndustrialdisputes,theappr opri
ateGov ernmentmay ,bynot if
icati
oni nt heOf ficial
Gazette,appointsuchnumberofConci l
i
ationOfficersasi tt hi
nksf i
t.TheConci l
iation
Offi
cermaybeappoi ntedf oraspeci f
iedar eaorf orspeci f
iedi ndust r
iesi
naspeci fied
areaorf oroneormor especi f
iedindust r
iesandei t herpermanent lyorf oral i
mi ted
peri
od.Themai nobj ectiveofappoi ntingtheConci l
iationOf fi
cer s,bytheappr opr i
ate
Government ,i
stocr eatecongeni alatmospher ewithint heestablishmentwher ewor kers
andempl oyerscanr econcileont heirdi sputesthr
ought hemedi ationoftheConci l
iation
Offi
cers.Thus,theyhelpi npromot ingt heset t
lementoft hedisput es.(Sect
ion4)

(i
ii
)Boar dsofConci l
iat
ion-Forpr omot ingt heset t
lementofani ndust r
ialdispute,the
appropr i
at eGov ernmentmay ,asoccasi onar i
ses,const i
tutebyanot ifi
cationi nthe
Offi
cialGazet te,aBoar dofConci l
iati
on.ABoar dshal lconsistofaChai rmanandt woor
fourot hermember sast heappr opriateGov ernmentt hinksf i
t.Itshallbet hedut yof
Boardt oendeav ourt obri
ngaboutaset t l
ementoft hedi sputeandf orsuchpur posei t
shall
, withoutdel ay,invest
igateintothedi sputeandal lmat ter
saf fecti
ngt hemer itsand
therightset tlement .TheBoar dmayal sodoal lsucht hingswhi chmaybeconsi deredf i
t
byit,fori ncludingt hepar t
iestocomef oraf airandami cablesettl
ementoft hedi spute.
Incaseofset tl
ementoft hedi spute,t heBoar dshal lsendar eportthereoft othe
appropr i
at eGov ernmentt ogetherwi thamemor andum ofset t
lementsi gnedbyal lt
he
parti
est ot hedi sput e.Incasenoset tlementi sarrivedat ,theBoar dshal lforwar da
reportt oappr opr i
at eGov er
nmentenl istingt herei
nt hest epst akenbyt heBoar df or
ascertainingt hef act sandcircumst ancesr el
atedt othedi sputeandf orbringingabouta
settl
ementt hereof .TheBoar dwi l
lalsoenl i
stt her easonsonaccountofwhi chi nits
opini
onaset tl
ementcoul dnotbear rivedatandi tsr ecommendat i
onsfordet er
mi ni
ng
t
hedi
sput
es.(
Sect
ion5)

(iv)CourtsofI nquiry-Accor dingt oSect i


on6oft heAct ,theappr opri
ateGov ernment
mayasoccasi onar ises,bynot if
icationint heOf fi
cialGazet teconstit
uteaCour tof
Inquir
yi nt
oanymat terappear ingt obeconnect edwi t
horr el
evanttoani ndust ri
al
dispute.A Cour tmayconsi stofone i ndependentper son orofsuch numberof
i
ndependentper sonsast heappr opriateGov ernmentmayt hinkfitandwher eaCour t
consistsoft woormor emember s,oneoft hem shallbeappoi ntedastheChairman.I tis
thedut yofsuchaCour ttoinquireintomat t
ersreferr
edt oitandsubmi ti
tsreporttothe
appropriat
e Gov ernment or dinaril
y wi thi
n a per iod of si x mont hs from t he
commencementoft hei nquir
y.Theper i
odwi t
hinwhi chther eportistobesubmi tt
edi s
notmandat oryandt her eportmaybesubmi ttedevenbey ondt heperi
odofsi xmont hs
withoutaffecti
ngt helegalityofthei nquiry.

(v)LabourCour t
s-UnderSect ion7,theappr opr
iat
eGov ermenti sempower edto
const
it
uteoneormor eLabourCour t
sforadjudi
cati
onofi ndustr
ialdisput
esr elati
ngto
anymatterspecif
iedintheSecondScheduleandforperf
or mingsuchot herfunctionsas
maybeassi gnedtothem undertheAct.ALabourCourtshallconsistofoneper sononly
tobeappoi ntedbyt heappropri
ateGov er
nment.A personshal lnotbequal ifi
edfor
appoi
ntmentast hepresidi
ngoff
icerofaLabourCourtunless–

(
a)hei
s,orhasbeen,
ajudgeofaHi
ghCour
t:or

(b)hehas,foraperi
odnotl
essthanthr
eeyear
s,beenadist
ri
ctJudgeoranAddi
ti
onal
Dist
ri
ctJudge;or(
c)hehashel
danyjudi
cial
off
icei
nIndi
afornotl
essthansev
enyear
s;
or

(d)hehasbeent hepr esidi


ngof fi
cerofaLabourCour tconstit
utedunderanypr ovi
ncial
ActorSt at
eActf ornotl essthanf i
vey ear
s.Whenani ndust ri
aldisputehasbeen
referr
edt oaLabourCour tf oradjudication,itisthedutyoft heLabourCour tto(i
)hold
i
tspr oceedi
ngsexpedi ti
ousl y
,and( ii)submi titsawardtot heappr opri
ateGovernment
soonaf tert
heconclusionoft hepr oceedi ngs.Not i
meper i
odhasbeenl aiddownforthe
compl eti
on ofproceedi ngs buti ti s expect ed thatsuch Cour ts wil
lholdt heir
proceedingswit
houtgoi ngi ntothet echnicali
ti
esofaCi vi
lCour t.LabourCourthasno
powert opermitsuomot ut hemanagementt oav ai
ltheoppor tuni
tyofadducingfresh
evidenceinsupportofchar ges(1998Lab1C540AP) .Provisi
onsofAr t
icl
e137oft he
Limitati
onActdonotappl yt oref erenceofdi sputetotheLabourCour t
.Incaseof
delays,Courtcanmoul drel i
efbyr efusingbackwagesordi recti
ngpay mentofpast
wages( 1999LAB1CSC1435) .

(v
i)Tribunals-(1)Theappropr
iat
eGov ernmentmaybynot i
fi
cati
oni ntheOffi
cial
Gazet
te,constit
uteoneormoreIndust
ri
alTribunal
sf ort
headjudi
cati
onofindust
rial
di
sputesrelati
ngtoanymat
terwhetherspeci
fiedintheSecondScheduleort
heThird
Schedul
eandf
orper
for
mingsuchot
herf
unct
ionsasmaybeassi
gnedt
othem under
thi
sAct.

(2)A Tr
ibunalshal
lconsi
stofoneper
sononl
ytobeappoi
ntedbyt
heappr
opr
iat
e
Gover
nment .

(3)Aper sonshallnotbequal
if
iedforappoi
ntmentasthepresi
dingoffi
cerofaTr
ibunal
unless:(
a)hei s,orhasbeen,aJudgeofHi ghCourt
;or( b)hehas,foraperi
odofnot
l
esst hanthreeyears,beenaDi
stri
ctJudgesoranAddi
tionalDi
stri
ctJudge.

(4)The appr opr i


at e Gov ernmentmay ,i fi tso t hinks f i
t,appoi ntt wo per sons as
assessor st oadv iset heTr ibunali nt hepr oceedi ngsbef orei t.Fur t
her,theper son
appoint edasaPr esidingOf ficershoul dbeani ndependentper sonandmustnothav e
attai
nedt heageof65y ear s.(Sect ion7- A)TheI ndust ri
alTr i
bunal getsi t
sjuri
sdi cti
onon
ar eferencebyt heappr opriat eGov ernmentunderSect ion10.TheGov er
nmentcan
nomi nat eaper sont oconst i
tut eaTr i
bunalf oradj udicationofi ndust ri
aldisputesasand
whent heyar iseandr ef ert hem t oi t.TheTr ibunalmaybeconst itutedf oranyl i
mi t
edor
forapar ti
cularcaseorar ea.I fappoi ntedf oral i
mi tedper i
od, i
tceasest ofunctionaf ter
theexpi ryoft het er m ev enwhensomemat tersar estil
lpendi ng( J.B.Manghar am &Co.
v.Kher ,A. I
.R.1956M. B. 113) .Fur ther ,whenaTr ibunalconcl udesi tswor kandsubmi ts
i
t sawar dtot heappr opr iateGov ernment ,itdoesnotext i
ngui sht heaut horit
yoft he
Tribunalnordoesi trendert heTr i
bunal funct usof fi
cio.TheGov ernmentcanr efertoi t
forcl arif
icationonanymat terr elated t o apr i
orawar d( G.Cl aridge& Co.Lt d.v .
IndustrialTr i
bunal ,A.I.
R.1950Bom. 100) .Thedut i
esofI ndustrialTr ibunalarei dentical
withthedut iesofLabourCour t,i
.e.,onar eferenceofanyi ndustrial dispute,t
heTr i
bunal
shallhol di ts proceedi ngs expedi ti
ouslyand submi ti ts awar dt ot he appr opri
at e
Gov ernment .

(v
ii
)NationalTri
bunals-( 1)UnderSecti
on7-B,theCent r
alGovernmental onehasbeen
empower ed to consti
tut
e one ormor e Nati
onalTribunal
sf ort he adjudi
cati
on of
i
ndustr
ialdisput
eswhi ch( a)i
nvol
vequesti
onsofnationalimportanceor(b)ar eofsuch
anatur
et hatindustr
ialestabl
ishmentssit
uatedinmoret hanoneSt at
ear eli
kel
ytobe
i
nter
estedinoraf f
ectedbysuchdi sput
es.

(2)ANat
ionalTr
ibunalshal
lconsi
stofoneper
sononl
ytobeappoi
ntedbyt
heCent
ral
Gover
nment.

(3)Aper
sonshall
notbequal
if
iedforappoi
ntmentast
hePresi
dingOf
fi
cerofaNat
ional
Tri
bunal
unl
ess:heis,
orhasbeen,
aJudgeofaHi ghCour
t;or

(4)TheCentr
alGovernmentmay,ifi
tsothinksfit
,appointt
woper sonsasassessor
sto
advi
set heNati
onalTri
bunalintheproceedingbeforeit.Sect
ion7-Cfurt
herprovi
des
thatsuchapr esi
dingoff
icershoul
dbeani ndependentpersonandmustnothav e
at
tainedtheageof65y ears.Dut
iesWhenamat terhasbeenr
efer
redtoaNat
ional
Tri
bunal,i
tmustadjudi
catet hedisput
eexpedi
ti
ousl
yandsubmititsawar
dtothe
Central
Gover
nment
.(Secti
on15)

STRI KESANDLOCK- OUTSSt ri


kesandl ock-out sar et het woweaponsi nthehandsof
worker sandempl oyer srespectiv ely,whicht heycanuset opr esst heirvi
ewpoi ntsi nthe
processofcol l
ectivebar gaini
ng.TheI ndust ri
alDi sput esAct ,1947doesnotgr antan
unrest ri
ctedr ightofst r
ikeorl ock- out.UnderSect ion10( 3)andSect i
on10A( 4A) ,the
Gov ernmenti sempower edt oissueor derforpr ohi biti
ngcont inuanceofst r
ikeorl ock-
out.Sect ions22and23makef urtherprov isionsr estrictingt hecommencementof
stri
kesandl ock-out s.( i
)Gener alpr ohi bi
ti
onofst r i
kesandl ock-out sNowor kmanwho
i
sempl oy edi nanyi ndust ri
alest ablishmentshal lgoonst rikei nbreachofcont ractand
noempl oy erofanysuchwor kmanshal ldeclareal ock- out :(a)dur ingthependencyof
conci l
iation pr oceedi ngs bef ore a Boar d and sev en day st he concl usi
on ofsuch
proceedi ngs;( b)dur ingt hependencyofpr oceedi ngsbef oreaLabourCour t,Tri
bunalor
NationalTr ibunalandt womont hsaf t
ertheconcl usi onofsuchpr oceedings; (
bb)dur ing
thependencyofar bitrati
onpr oceedi ngsbef oreanar bitratorandt womont hsaf terthe
concl usionofsuchpr oceedings, wher eanot if
icat ionhasbeeni ssuedundersub- section
(3A)ofSect ion10A;or( c)dur inganyper iodi nwhi chaset tl
ementorawar di sin
oper ati
on, i
nr espectofanyoft hemat terscov eredbyt heset tl
ementorawar d.(Sect ion
23)Thepur poseofabov epr ov isi
onsi stoensur epeacef ulat mospher edur i
ngt he
pendencyofanypr oceedi ngbef or
eaConci l
iationOf ficer ,LabourCour t,Tribunalor
NationalTr i
bunalorAr bitr
atorunderSect ion10A.( ii)Pr ohi biti
onofst ri
kesandl ock-
outsi npubl icut il
ityser v i
ceTheabov ement ionedr estrictionsonst ri
kesandl ock- outs
areappl i
cabl et obot hut ili
tyserv i
cesandnon- utilit
y

Sect i
on 22 pr ovides for following addi tionalsaf eguar ds f or the smoot h and
uninterr
upt ed r unning ofpubl ic ut i
l
ity serv i
ces and t o obv i
atet he possi bil
it
y of
i
nconv eniencet othegener alpubl i
candsoci ety(StateofBi harv .DeodarJha, AIR1958
Pat.51).(1)Noper sonempl oyedi napubl icut i
li
tyserviceshal lgoonst ri
kei nbr eachof
cont r
act.(a)wi thoutgi v
ingtot heempl oyernot i
ceofst r
ike,asher ei
nafterpr ovided,
withinsixweeksbef orestr
iki
ng,i .
e.,f
rom t hedat eoft henot icet othedateofst r
ikea
periodofsi xweeksshoul dnothav eelapsed;or( b)wi thi
n14day sofgi vingofsuch
notice,i
.e.,aper iodof14day smusthav eel apsedf rom thedat eofnot i
cetot hedat eof
stri
ke;or( c)bef oret heexpiryoft hedat eofst ri
kespeci f i
edi nanysuchnot i
ceas
aforesaid,i.e.
,thedat especif
iedi nthenot i
cemusthav eexpiredont hedayofst ri
king;
or(d)dur ingt hependencyofanyconci l
iationpr oceedingsbef oreaconcili
at ionof fi
cer
andsev enday saf tertheconci l
iati
onofsuchpr oceedings.( 2)Noempl oyercar ryi
ngon
anypubl i
cut il
ityser viceshalllock-outanyofhi swor kmen:( a)withoutgi vingt hem
noticeofl ock- outasher ei
nafterpr ovi
dedwi t
hinsixweeksbef or
el ocki
ng- out;or( b)
within14day sofgi vi
ngsuchnot i
ce;or( c)bef oretheexpi ryoft hedat eofl ock-out
specifiedi nanysuchnot iceasaf oresaid; or( d)dur ingt hependencyofanyconci li
ation
proceedi ngsbef oreaConci li
at ionOf fi
cerand7day saf t ert heconci l
i
at i
onofsuch
proceedi ngs.Ri ghttoSt ri
kei st obeexer cisedaf tercompl y ingwi thcer t
ai ncondi ti
ons
regardingser vi
ceofnot iceandal soaf terexhaust i
ngi nt ermedi ateandsal utaryr emedy
ofconci liati
onpr oceedi ngs( Dhar am Si nghRaj putv .BankofI ndia,Bombay ,1979Lab.
I.
C.1079) .TheActnowher econt empl atest hatadi sput ewoul dcomei nt oexi stencei n
anypar t
icularorspeci fi
edmanner .Forcomi ngi nt oexi stenceofani ndust rialdisput e,a
wr i
tt
endemandi snotasi nequanonunl essofcour sei nt hecaseofpubl icut il
it
y
servicebecauseSect ion22f orbi dsgoi ngonst rikewi thoutgi vi
ngast ri
kenot i
ce( 1978- I
LabourLawJour nal484SC) .( 3)Thenot iceofl ock- outorst rikeundert hisSect i
onshal l
notbenecessar ywher et her ei sal readyi nexi st enceast r i
keor ,ast hecasemaybe,
l
ock- outint hepubl icutili
tyser vice, butt heempl oy ershal lsendi ntimat i
onofsuchl ock-
outorst rikeont hedayonwhi chi tisdecl ar ed,tosuchaut hor it
yasmaybespeci fi
edby
theappr opr iateGov ernmentei thergener allyorf orapar ti
cul arar eaorf orapar ti
cular
classofpubl i
cut i
l
ityser vices.( 4)Thenot iceofst ri
ker eferr edt oinSect ion22( 1)shal l
begi venbysuchnumberofper sonst osuchper sonorper sonsandi nsuchmanneras
maybepr escri
bed.( 5)Thenot i
ceofl ock- outr ef erredt oi nSect i
on22( 2)shal lbegi ven
i
nsuchmannerasmaybepr escr ibed.( 6)Ifonanydayanempl oyerr ecei vesf rom any
personsempl oyedbyhi m anysuchnot i
cesasar er eferredt oi nsub- sect i
on( 1)orgi ves
toanyper sonsempl oyedbyhi m anysuchnot icesasar er ef erredt oinsubsect ion( 2),
heshal lwi thinf i
veday st her eofr epor tt ot heappr opr i
at eGov ernmentort osuch
authorityast hatGov ernmentmaypr escr i
bet henumberofsuchnot icesr eceivedor
givenont hatday .(Section22)

(
ii
i)I
ll
egal
str
ikesandl
ock-
out
s

(
1)A st r i
ke orl ock-outshal lbe i l
l
egali f:( i)i ti s commenced ordecl ared in
cont rav enti
onofSect i
on22orSect i
on23;or( ii
)Itiscont i
nuedi ncontr
avention
ofanor dermadeunderSect ion10(3)orSect ion10A( 4A).(2)Wher eastri
keor
l
ock- outi npursuanceofani ndustri
aldisput ehasal readycommencedandi sin
exist enceatt het i
meofr eferenceoft hedi sput etoaBoar d,anarbi
trator,a
LabourCour t
,TribunalorNat i
onalTribunal ,t hecont inuanceofsuchst ri
keor
l
ock- outshal lnotbedeemedt obei ll
egal ,pr ovidedt hatsuchst ri
keorlock-out
wasnotati tscommencementi ncont rav entionoft hepr ov isi
onsofthi
sActor
thecont inuancet hereofwasnotpr ohi bited underSect ion 10(3)orSect ion
10A( 4A) .(3)A lock-outdeclaredi nconsequenceofani l
legalstr
ikeorst ri
ke
decl aredi nconsequenceofani ll
egallock- outshal lnotbedeemedt obei l
legal.
(Sect ion24)Noper sonshal lknowinglyexpendorappl yanymoneyi ndi r
ect
further anceorsuppor tofanyill
egalstr
ikeorl ock- out( Secti
on25) .

(
2)JUSTIFI
ED AND UNJUSTI
FIED STRIKES I
fastr
ikei
si ncontrav
ent
ionoft
he
aboveprov
isi
ons,i
tisani
ll
egalstri
ke.Si
ncest
ri
keistheessenceofcol
l
ect
ive
bar
gaining,
ifworker
sresor
ttostri
ket
opressfort
hei
rlegi
ti
materi
ght
s,t
henitis
j
usti
fi
ed.Whet herst
ri
keisjust
if
iedorunj
usti
fi
edwil
ldependuponthefai
rness
andreasonabl
enessofthedemandsofworker
s.

Thus,i fwor kmen go on st r


ikewi thoutcont raveni ng st atutor yr equi r
ement s,in
suppor toft heirdemands,t hest rikewi l
lbej usti
fied.Int hebegi nningst r
ikewas
j
ust ifi
edbutl ateronwor kmeni ndulgedi nv iolence,i twillbecomeunj ustifi
ed.Int he
caseofI ndianGener alNav igationandRl y.Co.Lt d.v .Thei rWor kmen, (1960)IL. L.
J.
13,t heSupr emeCour thel dt hatt hel aw hasmadeadi stinctionbet weenast ri
ke
whichi si ll
egalandonewhi chi snot ,buti thasnotmadedi stinctionbet weenan
i
ll
egalst rikewhi chmaybesai dt obej usti
f i
ableandonewhi chisnotj ust i
fiable.This
distinctioni snotwar rant edbyt heActandi swhol l
ymi sconcei ved,speci al
lyint he
caseofempl oy eesi napubl i
cut il
ityser v i
ce.Ther efor
e,ani l
legalst ri
kei salway s
unjust if
ied.I ti swel lset tl
edt hati nor dert oent i
tl
et hewor kment owagesf ort he
periodofst ri
ke,st r
ikeshoul dbel egalaswel lasj ust i
fi
ed.Ast rikei slegali fitdoes
notv i
olate anypr ovision oft he st at ut
e.Agai n a st ri
ke cannotbe sai dt o be
unjust if
iedunl essther easonsf oritareent i
relyper v erseorunr easonabl e.Whet hera
particularst rikei sj
ust ifiedornoti saquest i
onoff actwhi chhast obej udgedi nt he
l
ightoft hef act sandci rcumst ancesofeachcase, itisalsowel lset t
ledt hatt heuse
off or ceorv iolenceoract sofsabot ager esor tedtobyt hewor kmendur ingast ri
ke
disent it
led t hem t o wagesf ort he st ri
ke per i
od ( Crompt on Gr eav esLi mited v .
Wor kmen,1978Lab.I .C.1379) .Wher ependi ngani ndust r i
aldi sput et hewor kers
wentonst ri
ket hestri
ket husbei ngi l
legal ,thel ock-outt hatf ol
lowedbecomesl egal,
adef ensiv emeasur e( 1976- ILabourLawJour nal,484SC) .

WAGESFORSTRI
KEPERI
OD

Thepay mentofwagesf ort hest ri


keper i
odwi l
ldependuponwhet herthest r
ikei s
j
ust if
iedorunj ustif
ied.Thi sal sodependsuponsev eralf actorssuchasser v i
ce
condi ti
onsofwor kman,t hecausewhi chl edt ost ri
ke,t heur gencyofcauseor
demandofwor kman,t her easonf ornotr esortingt odi sputeset t
lementmachi ner y
undert heActorser vicer ul es/regulat
ionset c.( 1994- SCC- 1197) .No wagesar e
pay ableifthest r
ikei si l
legalori ti sunjustif
ied.Fur t
her ,i
ft hewor kersi ndul
gei n
violence,nowageswi llbepai dev enwhent heirst ri
kewasl egalandj ustified(Dum
Dum Al umi nium Wor ker sUni onv .Aluminium Mf g.Co. ).Thewor kmenmustnott ake
anyhast ystepsinr esor ti
ngt ost r
ike.Theymust , fi
rsttakest epst oset tl
et hedisput e
throughconci l
i
at i
onoradj udi cat i
onexceptwhent hemat terisur gentandofser i
ous
nature.Thus,i nChandr amal aiEst atev .Wor kmen,i twas obser ved t hatwhen
wor kmenmi ghtwel lhav ewai t edf orsomet i
me, afterconci l
iati
onef f
ortshadf ai led,
befor estarti
ngast rike,andi nt hemeant i
mecoul dhav easkedt heGov ernmentt o
makear ef
erence,t hest r
ikewoul dbeunj ustif
iedandt hewor kmenwoul dnotbe
entitl
edt owagesf ort hest rikeper iod.
DI
SMI
SSALOFWORKMENANDI
LLEGALSTRI
KE

Ifwor ker spar ti


cipat ei nani llegalst rike,t heempl oy eri swi thinhi sr ightt odi smi ss
thest rikingwor kmenongr oundofmi sconduct .Fort hisi ti snecessar yt hatapr oper
andr egul ardomest icenqui ryi shel d.I nt hecaseofI ndi anGener alNav i
gationand
Rly.Co.v .Thei rWor kmen,t heSupr emeCour tlaiddownt hegener alr ulet hatmer e
takingpar tinani l
legalst rikewi t
houtany thingf urtherwoul dnotnecessar il
yj ust ify
thedi smi ssalofal lwor kment akingpar ti nt hest rikeandt hatitwasnecessar yt o
holdar egul ari nqui ryaf terf ur nishi ngchar ge- sheett oeachoft hewor kmansought
tobedeal twi t
hf orhi spar ticipat ioni nt hest ri
ke.I twasf urtherobser ved,t hat
becausewor kmengoonst ri
ke,i tdoesnotj ustifyt hemanagementi nt ermi nat ing
theirser vices.I nanycasei fal legat ionsofmi sconducthav ebeenmadeagai nst
them, thoseal l
egat ionshav et obeenqui redi ntobychar gi ngt hem wi thspeci ficact s
ofmi sconductandgi vingt hem anoppor tuni tytodef endt hemsel vesatt heenqui ry.
InthecaseofExpr essNewspaper( P)Lt d.v .Mi chael Mar k, (1962)I IL. L.J.220( S.C.),
theSupr emeCour thel dt hatwher et hewor kmenwhohadpar t
icipatedi nani l
legal
stri
ke,di dnotj oi
nt hei rdut ieswhi chr esul tedi nt heirdi smi ssalundert heSt andi ng
Order s,par ticipationi nst rikemeanst hatt heyhav eabandonedt hei rempl oy ment .
Howev er ,theempl oy ercant akedi sci plinar yact ionagai nstt heempl oy eesundert he
Standi ngOr der sanddi smi sst hem.Fur ther ,thequant um ofpuni shmentshoul d
dependupont heext entofi nvol vementi nt hest rike.Thosewhoar egui l
tyofv iolence,
encour ageot herwor kerst oj oi nani ll
egalst rikeandphy sicallyobst ructt hel oy al
wor kersf rom j oiningt hei rdut ies,t heycanbedi smi ssedf rom t hei rser vice.But
dismi ssalofpeacef ulst ri
ker swhomer elyact edasdumb- driv
encat tlecannotbe
j
ust i
fied.The quest ion ofpuni shmenthas t o be consi dered byt he indust rial
adjudicat i
onkeepi ngi nv iew t heov er ri
di ngconsi der ationoft hef ullandef f i
cient
wor ki
ngoft hei ndust ryasawhol e.

UNFAI
RLABOURPRACTI
CES

AnewChapt erVCr elatingtounf ai


rlabourpracti
ceshasbeeninsert
ed.Secti
on25T
underthi
sChapt erlaysdownt hatnoempl oyerorwor kmanoraTr adeUni on,
whetherr
egisteredundert heTr adeUnionsAct,1926ornot ,
shal
lcommi tanyunfair
l
abourpractice.Sect i
on25U pr ovi
dest hatanypersonwhocommi tsanyunf air
l
abourpracti
ceshal lbepunishabl ewithimpri
sonmentforat er
m whichmayext end
tosixmonthsorwi thfinewhi chmayext endt oonethousandrupeesorwi t
hbot h.
Theunfairl
abourpr acticeshav ebeenl i
stedinScheduleVwhi chisreproducedat
theendofthet opi
coft hisstudylesson.

PENALTI
ES

1.Penal
tyf
ori
l
legalst
ri
kesAnywor
kmanwhocommences,cont
inuesorot
her
wise
actsinf urtheranceofast ri
kewhi chi si l
legalunderthisAct ,
shallbepunishablewith
i
mpr isonmentf orat erm whi chmayext endt oonemont h,orwi thfi
newhi chmay
extendt of iftyrupeesorwi thbot h.[Section26(1)]InthecaseofVi j
ayKumarOi l
Mi l
lsv .Thei rWor kmen,i twashel dt hatt heactofawor kmant oparti
cipateinan
i
llegalst r
ikegi vest heempl oyercertainr i
ghtsagainstthewor kman,whi char enot
thecr eati
onoft heSt atutebutar ebasedonpol i
cy,andt heempl oyerhasev eryri
ght
towai vesuchr ights.Inadi sputebef or etheTr i
bunal,waivercanbeav ali
ddef ence
byt hewor kman.Howev er,waiverbyt heempl oyercannotbeadef enceagai nst
prosecut i
onunderSect ion26andsomet hingwhichi sill
egalbySt at
utecannotbe
madel egal bywai ver(PunjabNat ional Bankv .Thei
rWor kmen) .

2.Penal tyf oril


legallock-out
s Any empl oyerwho commences,cont inues,or
otherwise,actsinfurt
heranceofal ock-
outwhi chi
sil
legalunderthi
sAct,shallbe
punishablewi t
himpr i
sonmentf oraterm whichmayext endtoonemont h,orwith
fi
newhi chmayext endt oonethousandrupees,orwi
thboth.[Sect
ion26(
2)]

3.Penalt
yfori
nst
igati
onetc.Anypersonwhoinsti
gatesorinci
tesotherst
ot akepart
i
n,orotherwi
seactsinfur
theranceof,ast
ri
keorl ock-
outwhichisill
egalunderthis
Act,shal
lbepunishablewithimpri
sonmentf orat erm whichmayext endtosi x
months,orwithf i
newhichmayext endto onet housandr upees,orwi t
hbot h.
(Sect
ion27)

4.Penal t
yf orgivi
ngfinanci
alaidtoil
legalst
rikesandl ock-out
sAnyper sonwho
knowinglyexpendsorappl i
esanymoneyi ndirectf
urtheranceorsuppor tofany
i
ll
egalstrikeorlock-
outshallbepuni
shablewit
hi mpri
sonmentf oraterm whichmay
extendtosi xmonths,orwithfi
newhichmayext endtoonet housandrupees,orwi
th
both.(Secti
on28)

5.Penal tyforbreachofset t
lementorawar dAnyper sonwhocommi tsabreachof
anyt er
m ofanyset t
lementorawar dwhi chisbi ndingonhi m undert hisAct,should
bepuni shablewithi mprisonmentf orater m whichmayext endtosixmont hs,orwith
fi
neorwi thboth,andwher ethebreachisacont inuingonewi t
haf urtherfi
newhi ch
mayext endtot wohundr edr upeesforev er
y daydur ingwhi chthebr eachcontinues
aft
ert heconv ictionf orthef i
rst
,andt heCour ttry i
ngt heof fence,i fitfi
nest he
off
ender ,maydi rectthatt hewhol eoranypar tofthef inereal
isedf rom him shallbe
paid,bywayofcompensat i
ont oanyper sonwho,i ni t
sopi ni
onhasbeeni nj
uredby
suchbr each.(Sect i
on29)

6.Penaltyf
ordisclosi
ngconfidenti
ali
nfor
mationAnyper sonwhowi l
ful
lydiscl
oses
anysuch information as i
sr efer
red t
oi n Secti
on 21 in cont
rav
enti
on oft he
provi
sionsofthatsectionshall
,oncompl ai
ntsmadebyoronbehal fofthetrade
unionorindi
vidualbusinessaffect
ed,bepunishabl
ewi t
hi mpri
sonmentforat er
m
whi
chmayextendtosixmont hsorwi
thf
inewhi
chmayext
endt
oonet
housand
r
upees,
orwi
thbot
h.(Sect
ion30)

7.Penaltyforclosur
e withoutnotice Any empl oyerwho cl oses down any
under
taki
ng wi
thoutcomplying wi
tht he pr
ovisi
ons ofSection 25-FFA shal
lbe
puni
shabl
ewithimpri
sonmentf oraterm whichmayext endtosixmont hsorwi t
h
fi
newhichmayextendtof
ivethousandrupees,orwit
hboth.(Sect
ion30-A)

8.Penal tyforotherof f
encesAnyempl oy erwho contravenest heprovi
sionsof
Section33shal lbepunishablewit
himprisonmentforat erm whichmayext endto
sixmont hs,orwi t
hfinewhi chmayextendt oonet housandr upees,orwithboth.
Further,whoevercontravenesanyofthepr ovi
sionsofthisActoranyr ul
esmade
thereundershall
,ifnootherpenaltyi
selsewherepr ov
idedbyorundert hi
sActfor
suchcont raventi
on,bepuni shabl
ewithf i
newhi chmayext endt o onehundred
rupees.(Secti
on31)

9.Offencebycompani es,
etc.Whereaper soncommi tt
inganof f
enceunderthisAct
i
sacompany ,orot herbodycor por
ate,oranassoci at
ionofper sons(whet her
i
ncorporatedornot)ev erydir
ect
or ,manager,secret
ary,agentorot heroff
iceror
personconcernedwithmanagementt hereofshal
l,unl
esshepr ovest
hattheof f
ence
wascommi t
tedwithouthisknowledgeorconsent ,bedeemedt obegui lt
yofsuch
off
ence.(Secti
on32)

TheI
ndust
ri
alEmpl
oyment(
Standi
ngOr
der
s)Act
,1946


StandingOr ders’def i
nest hecondi tionsofr ecruitment ,discharge,disciplinaryact i
on,
holi
days,l eav e,et c.,go a l ong way t owar ds mi nimisi
ng f ri
cti
on bet ween t he
managementand wor ker si ni ndust rialunder takings. The I ndustri
alEmpl oyment
(St
andingOr der s)Actr equiresempl oy ersinindust ri
alest abli
shment stocl earlydefine
thecondi ti
onsofempl oymentbyi ssui ngst andingor dersdulycer ti
fi
ed.I tappliest o
everyindust ri
alest abli
shmentwher ein100ormor ewor kmenar eempl oyedorwer e
employedonanydaydur ingt hepr ecedi ngt welvemont hs.Modelst andi ngor ders
i
ssuedundert heActdealwi thclassi ficati
onofwor kmen,hol i
days,shifts,pay mentof
wages, leaves,t er
mi nati
onet c.Thet extoft heSt andi ngOr dersasf i
nallycer tifi
edunder
thi
sActshal lbepr omi nentlypost edbyt heempl oy erinEngl ishandi nt hel anguage
understoodbyt hemaj orit
yofhi swor kmenonspeci alboardst obemai nt ainedfort he
purposeatorneart heent rancet hroughwhi cht hemaj orit
yoft hewor kmenent ert he
i
ndustrialest abl i
shmentand i n al ldepar t
ment st her
eofwher et he wor kmen ar e
employed.St udent smustbeconv ersantwi ththet ermsandcondi ti
onsoft hei ndustrial
employmentst andingor derswhi cht heempl oyeesmustknow bef oret heyacceptt he
employment .

OBJECTANDSCOPEOFTHEACTTheobj
ect
soft
heActar
e:
Fi
rst
ly,t
o enfor
ce unif
ormi
tyinthe condi
ti
ons ofser
vices underdi
ff
erent
empl
oyersi
ndiff
erenti
ndust
ri
alest
abl
i
shment
s.

Secondly
, t
heempl oy
er,oncehavi
ngmadet hecondi
tionsofempl
oymentknown
t
ohisemployedwor kmencannotchangethem t
ot hei
rdet
ri
mentortothepr
ejudi
ceof
t
hei
rri
ght
sandi nter
ests.

Thi
rdl
y,witht
heexpressorwr i
tt
encondi
ti
onsofempl oy
ment,i
tisopenf
ort
he
pr
ospecti
veworkert
oacceptthem andjoi
nthei
ndust
ri
alest
abli
shment
.

Fourthl
y,for mai
ntai
ning i
ndust
ri
alpeace and cont
inued pr
oduct
ivi
ty,the
si
gnifi
canceoft heexpr
esswr i
tt
encondit
ionsofempl
oymentcannotbemini
mi sedor
exaggerated.

The obj ectoft he Acti st o hav e uni form st anding or der si nr espectofmat t
er s
enumer atedi nt heSchedul et ot heAct ,applicabl etoal lwor ker si rr
espect i
v eoft hei r
ti
meofappoi ntment( Bar auniRef iner yPr agatiSheelPar ishadv .Indi anOi lCor por ati
on
Ltd.( 1991)1SCC 4) .TheActext endst ot hewhol eofI ndi
aandappl i
est oev er y
i
ndust rialest ablishmentwher ein100ormor ewor kmenar eempl oy edorwer eempl oyed
onanydaydur i
ngt hepr ecedi ngt wel v emont hs.Fur ther ,theappr opriateGov ernment
may ,af tergi v ingnotl esst han2mont hsnot i
ceofi t
si nt entiont odoso,bynot ificat i
on
i
nt heOf ficialGazet te,ext endt hepr ov isionsoft hisActt oanyi ndust ri
alest ablishment
empl oy i
ngsuchnumberofper sonsl esst han100asmaybespeci f
iedi nt henot ification.
Howev er ,theActdoesnotappl yto( 1)anyi ndust rytowhi chpr ov i
sionsofChapt erVI Iof
theBombayI ndust ri
alRel ationsAct ,1946,appl y;or( 2)anyi ndust rialest ablishmentt o
whi chpr ov i
si onsofMadhy aPr adeshI ndustrialEmpl oyment( Standi ngOr der s)Act ,
1961appl y.Not wi t
hst andi ngany thingcont ai
nedi nthesai dAct ,thepr ov i
sionsoft his
Actshal lappl yt o alli ndust r
ialest abl i
shment s undert he cont roloft he Cent r al
Gov er nment .Cer ti
fi
edst andi ngor der sbecomepar toft hest atutoryandnotcont ract ual
terms and condi ti
ons ofser vice and ar e bindi ng on bot ht he empl oyerand t he
empl oy ees( Der byText ilesLt d.v .Kar amchar iandShr ami kUni on( 1991)2LLN 774) .
Apar tf rom t heabov est atedpr ov isionsofSect ion1oft heActl i
mi tingt hescope, extent
andappl icat i
onoft heAct , thef ollowi ngSect i
onsf ur
therl i
mi titsappl i
cat ion:Sect ion13
-Boft heActspeci fi
cal lyexemptcer taini ndustrialest abl i
shment sf rom t hepur v iewof
theAct ,viz.,thei ndust rialest abli
shmenti nsof arast hewor kmenempl oy edt her ei nar e
persons t o whom t he Fundament al and Suppl ement ary Rul es,Ci vil Ser v i
ces
(Classi ficat i
on,Cont r olandAppeal )Rul es,Ci vilServ ice( Tempor ar ySer vi
ces)Rul es,
Rev ised Leav e Rul es, Ci vil Ser vice Regul ations, Ci vil
ians i n Def ence Ser vice
(Classi ficat i
on,Cont rolandAppeal )Rul esort heI ndianRai l
wayEst ablishmentCodeor
anyot herr ulesorr egul at i
onst hatmaybenot i
fiedi nt hi
sbehal fbyt heappr opr i
at e
Gov er nmenti nt he Of ficialGazet te appl y.Fur ther,Sect ion 14 pr ov i
des t hatt he
appr opr iateGov ernmentmaybynot i
ficat ionint heOf ficialGazet teexemptcondi tional ly
oruncondi
ti
onal
lyanyindustr
ialest
abl
i
shmentorcl
assofi
ndust
ri
alest
abl
i
shment
s
fr
om al
loranyofthepr
ovi
sionsofthi
sAct.

IMPORTANTDEFI NI TIONSAppel lateAut hor ityI tmeansanaut hor ityappoi nt edbyt he


appr opr i
at eGov ernmentbynot ifi
cat i
oni nt heOf fi
cialGazet te,toexer cisei nsuchar ea,
asmaybespeci fi
edi nt henot ifi
cat i
ont hef unct ionsofanappel lateaut hor i
tyundert his
Act .[Sect ion2( a)]Appr opr iateGov ernment“ Appr opr iat eGov ernment ”meansi nr espect
ofi ndust r i
alest ablishment sundert hecont roloft heCent ralGov ernmentoraRai lway
admi nistrat i
onori namaj orpor t,mi neoroi lfiel d,t heCent ralGov ernment ,andi nal l
othercasest heSt at eGov ernment :Pr ovidedt hatwher eanyquest ionar isesast o
whet heranyi ndust ri
alest ablishmenti sundert hecont r
oloft heCent r
alGov ernment ,
thatGov er nmentmay , eitheronar efer encemadet oi tbyt heempl oy erort hewor kman
orat radeuni onorot herr epresent ativebodyoft hewor kmenoroni tsownmot i
onand
aftergi vingt hepar tiesanoppor tunityofbei nghear d,deci det hequest ionandsuch
deci sionshal lbef inalandbi ndi ngont hepar t
ies.[ Sect ion2( b) ]Cer tifyingOf fi
cer
“Cer tifyi
ngOf fi
cer”meansaLabourCommi ssi oneroraRegi onalLabourCommi ssi oner,
andi ncludesanyot herof ficerappoi ntedbyt heappr opr iateGov ernmentbynot i
ficat i
on
i
nt heOf ficialGazet te, toper form al loranyoft hef unct ionsofaCer tifyi
ngOf ficerunder
thi
s Act .[ Section 2( c) ]Empl oyer“ Empl oy er ”means t he ownerofan i ndust ri
al
establ ishmentt owhi cht hisActappl iesandal soi ncl udest hef ollowi ngper sons:( i)A
managersonamedunderSect i
on7( 1) (f)oft heFact or iesAct ,1948.( ii
)Theheadoft he
depar tment or any aut hority appoi nted by t he Gov ernment i n any i ndust ri
al
establ ishmentunderi tscont rol.( ii
i)Anyper son r esponsi blet ot heownerf ort he
super vi
sionandcont rolofanyot heri ndust rialest abl ishmentwhi chi snotundert he
cont rolofGov ernment .[Sect i
on2( d)]I ndust rialEst abl i
shmentI tmeans( i)ani ndust ri
al
establ ishmentdef inedbySect ion2( ii)oft hePay mentofWagesAct ,1936,or( i
i)a
factor yasdef inedbySect ion2( m)oft heFact or iesAct ,1948, or(iii
)ar ailwayasdef i
ned
bySect i
on2( 4)oft heI ndianRai lway sAct ,1890,or( iv)t heest abl ishmentofaper son
who,f ort he pur pose off ul fi
l
ling a cont ractwi tht he ownerofany i ndust ri
al
establ ishment ,empl oy swor kmen.[ Sect ion2( e) ]St andi ngOr der s“ Standi ngOr der s”
meansr ul esr elatingt omat t
erssetouti nt heSchedul et otheAct .[Sect i
on2( g) ]Wages
andWor kmenThet er ms“ Wages”and“ Wor kmen”hav et hemeani ngsr espect ively
assi gnedt ot hem i ncl auses( rr)and( s)ofSect ion2oft heIndust rial Disput esAct , 1947.
[Sect ion2( i)
]

CERTIFICATIONOFDRAFTSTANDI NGORDERSSubmi ssi


onofdr aftStandi
ngOr dersby
employerstot hecerti
fyi
ngoffi
cerSecti
on3providesthatwi t
hinsixmont hsfrom the
dateonwhi cht hi
sActbecomesapplicablet
oanindustri
alestabli
shment,t
heempl oy er
ofthatestablishmentshallsubmittot heCer
tif
yingOf f
icerfivecopiesoft hedr aft
Standi
ng Or ders pr
oposed byhim f oradopt
ion inthatest abli
shment.Such dr aft
Standi
ngOr dersshallbeinconfor
mitywitht
heModelSt andingOrdersifany,and,shall
contai
nev erymat tersetouti ntheSchedul ewhi chmaybeappl i
cabl etothei ndustrial
establ
ishment .The dr aftStanding Or ders shallbe accompani ed by a statement
contai
ning pr escribed par ti
cul
ar s of t he wor kmen empl oyed i n the i ndustrial
establ
ishmenti ncl
udi ngt henameoft het r
adeuni on,i
fany , t
owhi chtheybelong.Ift he
i
ndustrialest abli
shmentar eofsi mil
arnat ur
e,agr oupofempl oyersowni ngt hose
i
ndustrialestabl i
shmentmaysubmi taj oi
ntdraftofSt andingOr der ssubjecttosuch
condit
ions as maybe pr escri
bed.Condi t
ions forcer t
if
icati
on ofSt anding Or ders
Accordingt oSect ion4oft heAct ,StandingOrdersshal lbecer ti
fiableif(a)provisi
oni s
madet hereinf orev er
ymat t
erstat edintheSchedul etot heActwhi chisappl i
cablet o
i
ndustrialestabl i
shment ;and(b)t heStandingOr dersar eot herwisei nconformi t
ywi th
theprov i
sionsoft heAct .

Fair
nessorr easonabl enessofSt andi ngOr dersItisfurtherpr ov i
dedi nSect i
on4t hati t
shallbet hef uncti
onoft heCer tifyi
ngOf fi
cerorappel l
ateaut hor i
tytoadj udicateupon
thefairnessorr easonabl enessoft hepr ovisionsoft heSt andi ngOr ders.TheAct ,has
i
mposedadut yont heCer ti
fyingOf ficer, t
oconsi derther easonabl enessandf air
nessof
theSt andi ngOr dersbef orecer ti
fy i
ngt hesame.TheCer tif
yingOf f
iceri sunderal egal
dutyt oconsi derthatt heSt andingOr der sar einconformi t
ywi tht heAct .IftheCertifyi
ng
Offi
cerf indst hatsomepr ov i
sions, aspr oposedbyt heempl oy errelatet omat ter
swhi ch
arenoti ncludedi nt heSchedul e,ori fhef i
ndssomepr ov i
sionsar eunr easonablehe
mustr efuset ocer ti
fythesame.Cer tif
icationofanysuchSt andingOr derwoul dbe
wit
houtj urisdict
ion.TheCer ti
fyingOf fi
cerhasamandat orydut yt odi schargeandhe
actsinaquasi -j
udicialmanner .Wher eamat teri
snoti ncludedi ntheSchedul eandt he
concer nedappr opr i
ateGov ernmenthasnotaddedanysuchi t
em t ot heSchedul e,
nei
thert heempl oy erhasar ightt oframeaSt andingOr derenabl inghi mt otransferhis
empl oyeesnort heCer t
if
yingOf ficerhasj urisdict
iontocer ti
fyt hesame.Theconsentof
theempl oy eest osuchst andi ngor derswoul dnotmakeanydi fference( AirGases
MazdoorSangh, Varanasi v.IndianAi rGasesLt d.
,1977Lab.I .
C.575) .

Certi
fi
cat i
onofSt andingOr dersPr oceduret obef oll
owedbyt heCer tif
yingOf fi
cer
:Secti
on5oft heActl aysdownt hepr ocedur etobef ollowedbyCer ti
f yi
ngOf f
icer
.On
recei
ptoft hedr aftSt andi
ngOr derf rom t heempl oy er,theCer t
if
yingOf fi
cershal l
forwardacopyt hereoft othet radeuni onoft hewor kmenorwher et herei snot rade
union,thentothewor kmeni nsuchmannerasmaybepr escribed, togetherwi thanot i
ce
requir
ingobject i
ons, i
fany ,whicht hewor kmenmaydesi retomakei nthedr aftStanding
Orders.Theseobj ectionsar erequi r
edt obesubmi ttedt ohim wi thi
n15day sf rom the
recei
ptoft henot i
ce.Onr ecei
ptofsuchobj ecti
onsheshal lpr ov i
deanoppor t
unit
yof
beinghear dtot hewor kmenort heempl oyerandwi l
lmakeamendment s, i
fany ,r
equired
tobemadet her ei
nandt hiswi l
lrendert hedr aftStandi ngOr der scert
ifiableundert he
Actandhewi llcer ti
fythesame.Acopyoft hecer t
if
iedSt andingOr derswi l
lbesentby
himt obot ht heempl oyerandt heempl oyeesassoci ationwi t hinsev enday soft he
cert
ifi
cati
on.Ef fectofcer ti
fi
cation:The Acti s a speciall aw inr egar
dt o mat t
ers
enumer atedintheSchedul eandt her egulati
onsmadebyt heempl oyerwithr espectto
anyoft hosemat ters.Thesear eofnoef fectunlesssuchr egulati
onsar enotif
iedbyt he
Gov er
nmentunderSect i
on13Borcer ti
fi
edbyt heCert
ify
ingOf fi
cerunderSect ion5of
theAct.RegisterofSt andingOr ders:Section8empower st heCer t
if
yingOf f
icertofilea
copyofal lt
heSt andingOr dersascer ti
fiedbyhi mi nar egist
ermai ntai
nedf orthe
purposei nthepr escribedf orm.Heshal lfur
nishacopyoft hesamet oanyper son
applyi
ngt her
eforonpay mentoft hepr escribedfee.

APPEALSAccor di
ngtoSect ion6oft heAct ,theorderoft heCer ti
fyi
ngOf f
icercanbe
challenged by any empl oy er
,wor kman,t rade union or any ot her prescr
ibed
representati
vesoft hewor kmen,whocanf i
leanappealbef or et
heappel l
ateauthorit
y
within30day sfrom thedat eonwhi chcopi esaresentt oempl oy erandthewor kers
representati
ves.Theappel l
at eauthori
ty,
whosedeci si
onshal lbefi
nal,hasthepowert o
confirmt heStandingOr dersascer t
if
iedbytheCer ti
f y
ingOf fi
cerort oamendt hem.The
appel l
ateauthorit
yisr equiredt osendcopi esoft heSt andingOr dersasconf i
rmedor
modi fi
edbyi t
,totheempl oy erorworkersrepresentativ
eswi thin7day sofit
sor der.

DATEOFOPERATI
ONOFSTANDI
NGORDERS

Standi
ngOr dersshallcomei ntooperati
onont heexpi
ryof30day sf r
om thedateon
whichtheaut henti
catedcopiesaresentt oemployerandwor ker
sr epr
esent
ati
vesor
whereanappealhasbeenpr eferr
ed,theywil
lbecomeeffect
iveontheexpiryof7days
fr
om thedat eonwhi chcopiesoft heorderoftheappellat
eaut hori
tyaresentto
employerandwor kersrepr
esentat
ives.(
Secti
on7)

POSTI NGOFSTANDI NG ORDERSThet extoft heSt andingOr der sasf inal


lycer t
if
ied
undert hisActshal lbepr omi nent l
ypost edbyt heempl oyeri nEngl i
shandi nt he
l
anguage under st
ood by t he maj orit
y ofhi s wor kmen on speci alboar ds to be
maint ai
nedf ort hepur poseatorneart heentrancet hroughwhi cht hemaj or i
tyofthe
workmenent erthei ndustrialest abli
shmentandi nalldepar t
ment st hereofwher ethe
workmenar eempl oy ed.(Sect ion9)DURATI ON AND MODI FICATI ON OFSTANDI NG
ORDERSSect ion10pr ohibitsanempl oy ertomodi fytheSt andingOr dersoncet heyare
cert
ifiedundert hisActexceptonagr eementbet weent heempl oy erandt hewor kmenor
atradeuni onorot herr epresent ati
v ebodyoft hewor kmen.Suchmodi f
icationwi l
lnot
beaf fectedunt ilt
heexpi r
yof6mont hsf rom thedat eonwhi cht heSt andingOr ders
werel astmodi f
iedorcer ti
f i
edast hecasemaybe.Thi sSect i
onf urtherempower san
empl oyerort hewor kmenorat radeuni onorot herrepresentati
v ebodyoft hewor kmen
toappl yt otheCer tifyi
ngOf fi
cert ohav et heStandingOr dersmodi fi
edbymaki ngan
appli
cat i
ont ot heCer ti
fyi
ngOf fi
cer.Suchappl i
cati
onshoul dbeaccompani edby5
copiesoft hepr oposedmodi f
icat i
onsandwher esuchmodi fi
cationsar eproposedt obe
madebyagr eementbet weent heempl oy erandt hewor kmenorat radeuni onorot her
represent
ati
vebodyoft hewor kmen,acer
tif
iedcopyofsuchagr eementshouldbef i
l
ed
along wit
ht heapplication.Wor kmen ar
eent i
tl
ed to appl
yf ormodi f
icati
on ofthe
StandingOrder
s.(1977- I
ILabourLawJour nal503).Secti
on10( 2)doesnotcontainany
ti
mel i
mitformakingmodi f
icati
onappli
cation.Itcanbemadeatanyt i
me.[Indi
an
ExpressEmployeesUni onv .I
ndianExpr
ess(Madur ai
)Ltd.(1998)1CurLR1161( Ker)
]

PAYMENTOFSUBSI
STENCEALLOWANCE

Statutoryprovi
sionforpay mentofsubsi stenceal
lowancehasbeenmadeunderSect i
on
10Aoft heActwhi chwasi nsert
edbyt heamendi ngAct( No.18)of1982.Sect i
on10A
prov i
desasf oll
ows:Wher e anywor kman i ssuspended byt he empl oy erpending
i
nv esti
gationori nqui
ryi ntocompl aintsorchar gesofmi sconductagai nsthi m,the
empl oyershallpaytosuchawor kmant hesubsistenceall
owance( a)atther at
eoff i
ft
y
percentoft hewageswhi cht hewor kmanwasent i
tl
edtoi mmedi at
elypr ecedingthe
dateofsuchsuspensi on,fort hefi
rstni netydaysofsuspensi on:and(b)att herateof
seventyf i
vepercentofsuchwagesf ort heremainingperi
odofsuspensi oni ft
hedelay
i
nt hecompl eti
onofdi sci
plinaryproceedi ngsagai nstsuchwor kmani snotdi r
ectl
y
attri
butabletotheconductofsuchwor kman.

Anydi sput eregardi ngsubsi stenceal l


owancemayber efer
redbyt hewor kmanort he
empl oy er,tot heLabourCour tconstit
utedundert heI ndustr
ialDi sput
esAct ,1947.
Howev er,ifthepr ovisionsrel ati
ngtopay mentofsubsi stenceall
owanceunderanyot her
l
awf ort het i
mebei ngi nforcear emor ebeneficial
,thenthepr ov
isionsofsuchot herlaw
shallbeappl i
cable.I NTERPRETATI ONOFSTANDI NGORDERSSect ion13-Aoft heAct
providest hatt hequest ionr elati
ngt oappli
cationori nterpr
etat
ionofaSt andingOr der
certi
fiedundert hisAct ,canber efer
redtoanyLabourCour tconst it
utedundert he
Indust ri
alDi sputesAct ,1947byanyempl oyerorwor kmanorat radeuni onorot her
represent ativebodyoft hewor kmen.TheLabourCour ttowhi cht hequest i
oni sso
referred,shal ldeci dei taftergi vi
ngt hepartiesanoppor t
unit
yofbei nghear d.Such
decisionshal lbefinal andbi ndingont hepart
ies.

TEMPORARYAPPLI
CATI
ONOFMODELSTANDI
NGORDERS

Section12-Apr ovidest hatf ortheper iodcommenci ngont hedateonwhi cht hi


sAct
becomesappl i
cablet oani ndustr i
alest abl
ishmentandendi ngwi t
hthedat eonwhi ch
theSt andi
ngOr dersasf inallycer tif
iedundert hisActcomei ntooperationi nthat
establi
shment ,
thepr escr i
bedmodelSt andingOr dersshallbedeemedtobeadopt edin
thatestabl
ishmentandt hepr ovisionsofSect i
ons9,13( 2)and13-Ashallappl y
.Wher e
therearet wocat egoriesofwor kers,dai l
yratedandmont hlyrat
edbutt hecer t
if
ied
StandingOrdersar einrespectofdai lyratedwor kmenonl y
,thenModelStandi ngOrders
canbeappl iedt omont hlyr atedwor kmen( Indi anIronandSt eelCo.Lt d.v .Ninth
Industri
alTri
bunal,1977Lab.I .C.607) .Incasewher etherearenocertif
iedSt anding
Order
sappli
cabl
etoanindust
ri
alest
abl
ishment,t
hepr escr
ibedModelStandi
ngOr
der
s
shal
lbedeemedtobeadoptedandappl
i
cable(1981-
IILabourLawJournal25)
.
UNI
TIV

Phi
l
osophyofLabourWel
far
eandHi
stor
ical
Dev
elopmentofLabourWel
far
e

Introduct i
onThet er m wel farebr i
ngsi nmanyi deas,meani ngt ost at ewel lbei ng,good
heal th, happi ness, pr osper it
yandt hedev elopmentofhumanr esour ces.Theconceptof
wel far ehasbeenat otalconcepti nvol vi
ngphy si
cal ,ment al,mor alandemot ionalwel l
beingofi ndiv i
dual .Thesoci alconceptofwel farei mpl iest hewel fareofman, hisf ami ly
andhi scommuni ty .I tisani nter connect i
onoft hr eest hreeaspect si nt hesenset hatal l
thesewor kt oget herandi ndi vi
dual lysuppl ementoneanot her .TheConceptWel farei s
calledasar elativ econceptf ori ti sr elat edt ot i
meandspace.Changesi ni thav ean
i
mpactont hesy st em.Asar esul tt hepot ent i
alchangesi nt hewel farecont entkeep
changi ngwi tht imeandspace.I ti sal sobeenobser v edt hatt hewel fareasaconcept
differsf r
om count ryt ocount r
yandf rom pl acet opl ace.Secondl y,wel farei saposi tive
concept ,as t o est abli
sh a mi nimum st andar d ofl i
v i
ng;i twoul d demand cer tain
mi nimum accept abl econdi tionsofexi stencei nbot hbi ologi calandsoci al
.Thus,when
thisi sdef i
nedi ti snecessi tyf ort hecomponent sofwel far ei nt ermsofheal th,food,
clothi ng,housi ng,medi calassi stance,i nsur ancesoonar et obet akencar eof .Fur ther,
l
abourwel fareasaconcepthasbot hposi ti
veandnegat iv esi desl ike,i tdealswi ththe
prov isionofoppor tunitieswhi chenabl et hewor kerandhi sf ami lyt ol eadagoodl i
fe,
soci allyand per sonal lyand on t he negat i
v e si de i tpr ov ides oppor tunit
ies f orun
desi rabl econsequencesand l abourpr obl ems.Theconceptofl abourdi ffer sf r
om
count ryt ocount ry ,i ndust ryt oi ndust ryandf rom t i
met ot imeandr egiont or egion.
Fur theri tal sodependsont heki ndofpr oblemswi thwhi cht hesoci etyisconf ronted
thati smoul dedaccor di ngt ot heagegr oup,sex,socicul t uralbackgr ound,economi c
statusandeducat ionall ev eloft heempl oy eesi nv ariousi ndust ri
es.Theut i
li
zat i
on
philosophyoft hel abourwel farewor kasamot i
v atingf or cet owar dsev erylabourand
fort hosei nt erest edi nit.Copyr ightr eser vedwi t hDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherDef initi
on
Ther ecoul dnotbej ustonesi ngl edef initiont of i
nduni ver salaccept ance.Thesi mplest
ofal lcoul dbet ounder standt hatl abourwel far eas“ef fortst omakel ifewor thl ivingf or
wor ker“ .TheEncy clopedi aofsoci alsci enceswel farei st er medasv oluntaryef fortsof
th e empl oy erst o est ablish wi t hi
nt he exi sting i ndust rialsy st em,wor king and
somet imesl i
vingandcul turalcondi ti
onsoft heempl oy eesbey ondwhati sr equi redby
l
aw, thecust om oft hei ndust r
yandt hecondi ti
onsoft hemar ket .”Anot herdef ini t
ionon
l
abourwel farest at est hat“ any thingdonef ort hecomf or tandi mpr ov ement ,int ell
ect ual
andsoci aloft heempl oy eesov erandabov et hewagespai d, whi chi snotanecessi tyof
thei ndust ry .
”I tcoul dal sobedef inedas“ suchser vices, faci li
t i
es, ameni ti
es,whi chmay
beest abli
shedi nori nt hev icinityofunder t
aki ngst oenabl eper sonsempl oyedt her ein
toper formt hei rwor ki nheal t
hyandcongeni alsur roundi ngsandt opr ov i
det hem wi th
ameni ti
esconduci v et ogoodheal thandgoodmor al s.”Labourwel farei salsodef ined
as“any thingdonef ort hei ntellectual,phy si
cal ,mor alandeconomi cbet ter mentoft he
worker s,whet herbyempl oyers,bygov ernmentorbyot heragenci esov erandabov e
whati sl aiddownbyl aw orwhati snor mal l
yexpect edaspar toft hecont ract ual
benef itsf orwhi cht hewor kersmayhav ebar gained”.Anot herdef i
niti
ononl abour
welfar edef i
nesi tas“t hatcov eral ltheef fort
swhi chempl oy ersmakef ort hebenef itof
thei
rempl oyeesov erandabov et hemi nimum st andar dofwor kingcondi tionsf i
xedby
thef act oriesactandov erandabov et hepr ovisionofsoci all egislat i
onpr ov i
dingagai nst
accident ,oldage,unempl oymentandsi ckness. ”Anot herdef i
nitiononl abourwel fare
statest hat“suchser vices,f acili
tiesandameni t
iesasadequat ecant eens,r estand
recreat ionf acili
ties,sani t aryandmedi calf acil
ities,ar r
angement sf ort r
av eltoandf rom
workandf ort heaccommodat i
onoft hewor ker sempl oy edatadi stancef rom t heir
secur itymeasur es,ascont ri
but et oani mpr ov ementi nt hecondi ti
onsunderwhi ch
worker sar eempl oy ed. ”Thust hesedef init
ionsenabl esust ounder standasone“i n
whichmuchcanbedonet ocombatt hesenseoff r
ustrat
ionoft hei ndust rialwor ker s, t
o
rel
ivet hem ofper sonalandf ami lywor ries,t oi mprovet hei rheal th,t oaf fordt hem
meansofsel fexpr ession, tooffert hem somespher einwhi cht heycanexcel other sand
tohel pt hem t oawi derconcept i
onofl ife.“Themostsi gni ficantdef init
ionsdescr ibes
l
abourwel farewor kas“t hev olunt aryef fortoft heempl oy ert oi mpr ovet helivingand
worki ngcondi ti
onsofhi sempl oyees,t heunder l
y i
ngassumpt ionofcour sebei ngt hat
thef irstessent ialst ot hewel fareoft heempl oy eesar est eadywor k,af airwageand
reasonabl ehour sofl abour“ .

Ofal lthesedef i
niti
ons, i
ti sv er
ymucht ranspar entt onot et hatnoneoft hesedef i
nition
i
scompl eteorcompr ehensiv e.Ther ei snopr eci
se,def initi
veout li
neordemar cat
ioni n
thi
ssubj ectandt hust heymaygi veov erlapandambi gui t
yi ncer tainar easofact ion.
Howev er,i tisawel lknownf actt hatl abourwel f
arepr omot est hewel l
bei ngoft he
worker sinav ari
etyofway s.Anyki ndofv oluntaryser vicewi l
lcomeundert hepur v
iew
oflabourwel f
arei fitaimsathel pingt hewor kertowor kbet terandi nmor econgeni al
surroundi ngsand al so t ol i
v ebet t erphy sicall
y,soci ally,mor ally,economi call
yand
i
ntellectual l
y.ObjectivesofLabourWel f areI nthebegi nni nghumani tarianism andsoci al
awar eness mot i
vated l abourwel fare act i
viti
es.Dr i
ven by t he desi r
ef orgr eater
eff
iciencyandoutputf rom wor ker sandwi thav i
ewt oat tractbet terwor ker s,employ ers
l
uredt hem i ntotheirOr ganisat iont hroughl abourwel faremeasur es.Fur ther ,someof
thef ew issuest ackledbyl abourwel f
ar emeasur esar easst at edbel ow.Suchl abour
welfaremeasur esper suadewor ker stoacceptmechani zationandsomet i
mesl abour
welfaremeasur eswer eusedbyt heempl oy ersasat ool tocombatt heout si deagenci es
ont heirempl oyees.Labourwel faremeasur esar eof t
enunder t
akent oav oidpay ingof
taxonsur plusandsi mul taneousl ybui ldingupgoodr el
at ionswi t ht heempl oyee.Some
ti
mesl abourwel f
aremeasur esar eunder takent omeett hemi nimal requir
ement st
hati s
fol
lowedbyot heror ganisat i
onsi nt hei ndust ry.Theor i
esofWel fareThePol iceTheor y–
i
sbased ont hecont entiont hatami ni
mum st andar d ofwel farei snecessar yf or
l
abour ers.Thet heor yassumest hatwi thoutcompul si on,per iodi calsuper visionand
fearofpuni shment ,empl oy er swi l
lnotber eadyt opr ov ideev ent hemi nimum wel fare
ameni t i
es.Fur ther,thet heor yisbasedont heconcl usiont hatmani ssel fcent er edand
selfishandal way st ri
est oachi evehi sownendsev enatt hecostoft hewel fareof
other s.I fweal th,aut hor ityar eathi sends,hewoul dt akeadv ant ageoft hesameand
exploi tt hewor kf orcef orhi si ndividualsake.Ther efor et het heor ypost ulat et hatt he
wel farest atehast ost epi nt opr ev entt heseat r
oci tiesandexpl oi tationandf or ce
i
ndust r i
alistst oof fermi ni mum st andar dofwel faret ot hei rwor ker s.Thusv ariousl aws
are pr omul gated i n or dert o compelev eryor gani sat ion t o pr ov i
de t he mi nimum
standar dwel f
ar emeasur esl eadi ngt oCopyr ightr eser vedwi t hDr .S.Edwi nChr ist opher
Thepassi ngofl awsr el atingt ot hepr ov i
si onofmi ni mum wel f ar ef orwor ker s, Per iodi cal
super visiont oascer taint hatt hesewel far emeasur esar epr ov idedandi mpl ement ed
andPuni shmentofempl oy er swhoev adeordi sobeyt hesel aws.I ti sseenf rom t he
abov et hatt heemphasi sbyt het heor yi sont hef earandnotont het ruespi r
itofwel far e.
Assuchmanybi gindust ri
alistsdonotunder t
aket hewel far emeasur est hatar enot
backedbyl aw,ev ent hought hesemaybr i
ngi nsomegoodr elieft ot hewor ker sand
i
mpr ov et heirlife.Whi l
et heot her sinspi teofbei ngcapabl et ocar r
yout ,theyar enot
i
nt erest edt ocar ryoutanywel far ePr ogr ammeswhi let heot her st r
yt of indl oophol esi n
thel aw and conv i
ncet hef act oryi nspect or st heyhav edul ycar ried outt hel egal
requi rement s.TheRel igi ousTheor y– i spr opoundedont heconceptt hatamani s
essent iallyar eligi
ousani mal .Ev ent odaymanyact sofmanar er el atedt or el igious
sent iment sandbel iefs.Hencet heser el igiousf eelingssomet imespr omptanempl oy er
tot akeupwel fareact i
v itiesi nt heexpect ationoff utur ebenef itsei t
heri nhi sl ifeori n
somef utur elife.Accor di ngt ot het heor y,anygoodwor ki sconsi der edani nv est ment
bot ht hebenef actorandt hebenef iciar yar er ewar ded,basedont hisphi losophymany
char itabl eandot herr eligiousi nstitutionshav ecomei nt oexi st ence.Anot heraspectof
ther el i
gi oust heor yist heat onementaspect, assomepeopl et akeupwel farewor ki na
spiritofat onementf ort hei rsi nsandanywel fareacti st r eat edei therasani nv est ment
oranat onement .Fur t
her ,accor dingt ot hist heor ymani spr imar il
yconcer nedwi thhi s
ownwel far eandonl ysecondar i
lywi tht hewel fareoft heot her s.Ther el i
giousbasi sof
wel farecannotber ational ,noruni versalorcont i
nuous.Phi lant hr opi cTheor y–i sbased
onmansl ov ef ormanki nd.I nGr eekphi losmeansl ov i
ngandant hr opesmeanmanand
hencel ov i
ngmanki ndbecomest hekeyf act oryf ort het heor y .Mani sbel iev edt ohav e
ani nst i
nct iveur gebywhi chhest r
ivest or emov et hesuf fer i
ngofot her sandpr omot e
thewel lbei ng and t hi sbei ng v er ypower fuldr ivei ti mpel shi m t o per f orm nobl e
sacr ifi
ces.Thust hel abourwel faremov ementbegani nt heear lyy ear soft hei ndust rial
revol utionwi t
hsuppor tofRober tOwenandi nI ndiat hemov ementbeganwi tht he
ardentsuppor tofMahat ma Gandhi ,who st rov ef ort he wel fare oft he l abour .
Trust eeshi pTheor y–al socal l
edaspat ernal istictheor yofl abourwel f aresay st hatt he
i
ndust r i
alistorempl oyerhol dst het otali ndust rialest ate, pr oper tiesandpr ofitsaccr ui ng
Copyr ightr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr i
st opherf rom t hem i nt r ust .Henceheuses
them f orhi msel fandf ort hebenef itofhi swor kersandf ort hesoci et y.Her et hewor ker s
aret reat edasmi nor sandt heyar ei gnor antbecauset heyl acki neducat ionandt heyar e
notabl et ol ookaf terthemsel ves.Ther efor eempl oyershav et hemor alr esponsi bilityt o
l
ookaf tert hei nt er estoft hei rwar dswhoar et hewor ker s.Her et her ei snobi ndi ngor
obligat ionl egal lybutonl ymor ali
tyi ssuesar er aised.Her e,thewel far eoft hel abour
dependsont hei ni tiati
v eoft het opmanagementandmor er elatedt omor alconsci ence
oft he i ndust rialist s and hence maycr eat e a good wi llbet ween t he l abourand
management .The Pl acat ing Theor y–i sbased on t he actt hatl abourgr oupsar e
becomi ng demandi ng and mi li
tant .Theyar e mor e consci ous oft hei rr i
ght s and
pri
v il
egest hanev erbef or e.Thei rdemandf orhi gherwagesandbet terst andar dscannot
bei gnor edandhencei tsai dt hatt het imel yandper iodi calact sofl abourwel farecan
appeaset hewor ker s.Publ i
cRel ationsTheor y–pr ov i
dest hebasi sf oranat mospher e
ofgoodwi llbet weenl abourandmanagementandal sobet weenmanagementandt he
publ ic.Labour wel f
are pr ogr ammes under t hist heor y wor k as a sor t of an
adv er ti
sementandhel pani ndust rialistt obui l
dupgoodandheal thypubl icr elations.
Thet heor yi sbasedont heassumpt i
ont hatt hel abourwel faremov ementmaybe
uti
lizedt oi mpr ov er elationsbet weenmanagementandl abour .Thusanadv ertisement
oft hei ndust ri
alisti npr omot ingl abourwel far eschemesmayi mpr ov ehi sr elationswi th
thepubl icandatt hesamet i
met heseki ndofpr ogr ammesmayl acksi ncer ityand
cont inui tyassuch pr ogr ammeswhen l osesi tsadv er t
isementv aluemaybecome
redundantandbewi t
hdr awnorev enabandonedmaybecomeonl yapubl icityst int
rathert hanl abourwel fare.TheFunct ionalTheor y–al soknownasef fi
ciencyt heor y,
wel farewor ki susedasameanst osecur e,pr eser veanddev elopt heef ficiencyand
product i
v i
tyofl abour .Itisobv ioust hati fanempl oyert akesgoodcar eoft hesewor kers,
theywi lltendt obecomemor eef f i
ci entandwi lltherebyst epuppr oduct ion.Thust his
dependsont heheal t
hyr elat i
onshi pbet weent heuni onandmanagementandt heir
mut ualconcer nf ort hegr owt hand dev el opmentoft hei ndust ry.Thushi ghert he
product i
oni sofbenef ittobot hmanagementandl abour ,ast hel abour erwi llgetbet ter
andhi gherwagesandal sot oshar epr ofits.Thi sconceptwoul dwor kwel lwhenbot h
thepar ti
eshav ei dent i
calai m.I nI ndi aiti ssai dt hatthei ndust r
ialsy st em cl ingsl argel y
tot hepat er nalisticappr oachandsomemanagementt ryt oachi evet hi st hroughpol i
ce
cont rol .Ei therwaywor ker sst ar texpect i
ngt oomuchf rom empl oy er sasar esul tof
whi chempl oyerspr ovidewel f
ar emeasur esi nasomewhathal fhear t edmanner .Thus
thet heor ywor ksmor eef fectivelybyr easonofani ntell
igentandwi llingpar ti
cipat ionof
wor ker s.

Pri
nci
ples ofLabourWelf
are Pr
incipl
e ofAdequacy ofWages – l abourwelfar
e
measurescannotbeasubst
it
uteforwages,workershavear i
ghttoadequatewages,
buthi
ghr at
eofwagesalonecannotcreateahealthyenv
ironmentnorwouldbri
ngin
commitmentont hepar
tofthewor ker
s.Acombi nati
onofsocialwel
fare,emot
ional
wel fareandeconomi cwel f ar etoget herwoul dachi ev egoodr esul ts.Pr i
nci pleofSoci al
Responsi bilit
y– accor dingt ot hispr incipl e,i ndust ryhasanobl igat iont owar dsi ts
empl oyeest olookaf tert hei rwel fareandt hi si sal sobackedbyt heconst it
ut i
onofI ndia
i
ni tsdi rect ivepr inciplesoft hest atepol icy.Pr i
nci plesofEf ficiency–pl ay sani mpor t
ant
rolei nwel far eser vi
cesandi sbasedont her elat i
onshi pbet weenwel fareandef ficiency ,
thoughi ti sdi ffi
cultt omeasur et hisr elationshi p.Whet heroneaccept st hesoci al
responsi bilityofi ndust ryornot ,theempl oy erqui teof tenaccept st her esponsi bi l
ityfor
i
ncr easi ngsuchl abourmeasur esaswoul di ncr easeef fi
ciency .Foreg.Di etpl anni ngi n
cant eens.Pr i
ncipleofRe- per sonal isat ion-t hedev elopmentofhumanper sonal ityi s
foundt obet hegoalofi ndust ri
alwel fareandt hispr incipl eshoul dcount eractt he
banef ulef fect soft hei ndust ri
alsy st em.Ther efor ei tisnecessar yt oi mpl ementl abour
wel fareser v i
ces,bot hi nsideandout si det hef act ory .Princi pleofTot alityofWel fare–
emphasi zest hatt heconceptofl abourwel f aremustspr eadt hr oughoutt hehi erar chyof
anOr gani sat i
onandempl oy eesatal ll ev elsmustacceptt hi st ot alconceptofl abour
wel farewi t
houtwhi cht hel abourwel f arewoul dnotbei mpl ement ed.Pr i
nci pleofCo-
ordinat ion – i s a conceptofco- or dinat ed appr oach t hatwi llpr omot e a heal t
hy
dev elopmentoft hewor keri nhi swor k,homeandcommuni ty .Thi si sessent ialf ort he
sakeofhar monyandcont inuityinl abourwel f areser vices.Pr incipleofDemocr atic
Values–cooper at i
onoft hewor keri st hebasi soft hispr i
nci pleandt husconsul tat i
on
andt heagr eementoft hewor ker sint hef or mul at ionandi mpl ement at i
onoft hel abour
wel fareser vicesar ev er ynecessar yf ort hei rsuccess.Mor eov erwor ker sal lowedt o
participat ei n pl anni ng t hese pr ogr ammes getkeenl yi nt er est ed i nt hei rpr oper
i
mpl ement ation.Thi spr i
nci pl eisbasedont heassumpt iont hatt hewor keri samat ure
andr ationali ndividualandi ndust rialdemocr acyi sthedr i
v i
ngf or ceher eandwor ker s
also dev el op a sense ofpr i
de when t heyar e made t of eelt hatl abourwel fare
progr ammes ar e cr eat ed by t hem and f ort hem.Pr inci ples ofResponsi bili
ty–
recogni sest hef actt hatbot hempl oy ersandwor ker sar er esponsi blef orl abourwel fare.
Tradeuni onst ooar ei nv olv edi nt hesepr ogr ammesi naheal t hymanner ,forbasi cally
l
abourwel far ebel ongst ot hedomai nofhet radeuni onact i
v i
ty .Copyr ightr eser vedwi th
Dr.S.Edwi nChr istopherFur ther,whenr esponsi bil
ityi sshar edbydi fferentgr oups,
l
abourwel farewor kbecomessi mpl erandeasi er .Accor dingl yv ar i
ouscommi tteesar e
elect edornomi natedandv ar i
ouspower sandr esponsi bilit
iesi nt hewel faref ieldar e
delegat edt ot hem.ForEg.Saf etycommi t
t ee,t hecant eensuper visioncommi t
teeet c.,
Princi ple ofAccount abi l
it
y– i s al so known as pr i
nci ple ofev aluat ion.Her e one
responsi bleper songi vesanassessmentorev aluat i
onofexi st ingwel far eser vicesona
periodi calbasi st oahi gheraut hor ity.I nt hi scr iteriaonej udget hesuccessofl abour
wel farepr ogr ammes.Pr i
nci pl eofTi mel iness–Thet i
mel inessofanyser vicehel psi ni ts
success.Toi dent i
fyt hel abourpr obl em andt odi scov erwhatki ndofhel pi snecessar y
sosol vei tandwhent opr ov i
det hi shel par eal lv erynecessar yi npl anni ngl abour
wel farepr ogr ammes.Pr incipl eofSel fHel p–i st hef actst hatl abourwel faremustai m
athel pi ngwor ker st ohel pt hemsel v esi nt hel ongr un.Thi shel pst hem t obecomemor e
responsi bleandmor eef fi
cient .NeedandScopeofLabourWel fareLabourwel far ehas
become essent ialbecause oft he v er y nat ur e oft he i ndust rialsy stem and t he
appr oachest ot hi ssy stem di fferf rom count r yt ocount ry .Sinceourcount r yisst il
l going
through t he pr ocess ofeconomi c dev el opment ,i ti s ofgr eatconsequence and
somewhateasi ert ocount eractt hebanef ulef fect soft hei ndust rialrev ol utiont hathas
adv ersel yaf fect edt hepeopl eal lov ert hewor ld.Thust heneedf orl abourwel f arewas
strongl yf eltbyt hecommi tt
eeoft heRoy alCommi ssi ononLabourasf arasbackasi n
1931,pr i
mar i
lyt opr otectev er yi ndust rialwor kerf r om t hehandsoft hei rempl oy er s.
Fur ther, t
heabov ecommi ssionsmi ssi ont opr ot ectl abourwasemphasi zedi nt hest at e
directiv epr inci plesoft hef ol l
owi ngar ticle.Ar ticle41–Thest at eshal lwi thint hel imi t s
ofi tseconomi ccapaci tyanddev el opmentmakeef f
ect i
v epr ovi
sionf orsecur i
ngt he
ri
ghtt owor k, toeducat ionandt opubl icassi stancei ncasesofunempl oy ment , oldage,
sicknessanddi sabl ementandi not hercasesofunder ser vedwant .Ar ticle42–The
stat eshal lmakepr ovisionf orsecur ingj ustandhumanecondi t
ionsofwor kandf or
mat ernityr elief.Ar ti
cle43–Thest at eshal lendeav ourt osecur e,bysui tabl el egi slat i
on
oreconomi cor gani sat i
onori nanyot herway ,t oal lwor ker s,agr i
cul tural ,indust rialor
other wi sewor kal ivi
ngwage, condi t
ionsofwor kensur ingadecentst andar dofl ifeand
fullenj hoy mentCopyr i
ghtr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr i
st opherofl eisur eandsoci al
andcul tur al oppor tuni t
iesandi npar ticul art hest ateshal l endeav ourt opr omot ecot tage
i
ndust riesonani ndiv i
dualorcooper at ivebasi si nr ur alar eas.Someoft henecessi ties
fort heLabourWel f
ar eMeasur est oi nt roduced-Ther ewer eonl y25mi lliondur ingt he
i
ni t
ialper iodofi ndust rialgr owt h,whi let hest rengt hoft hewor kersi si ncr easi ngy ear
aftery earandhence,needf oramechani sm t ol ooki nt ot hewel fareoft hel abour .-
Wor kersputi nl onghour sofwor ki nunheal thysur roundi ngandt hedr udger yoft he
fact orywor kcont i
nuest ohav eadv erseef fect .Tocount ert hesewel far emeasur eswer e
feltnecessar y.-Asar esul tofhar dwor k,t heyf allpr eyt oal chohol ism,f ambl ingand
otheri mmor alact iviti
esr esul t sinabsent eei sm andot herpr obl emsi nt heor gani sat ion.
Hencet heneedwasf elt.-Goodeducat i
onandt rainingf acilit
iesf orwor ker swer eal so
feltnecessar yast herewashi ghr atei lliter acyandl ackofpr opereducat ionbackgr ound.
-Goodt rainingpr ov idedwi llr educei ndust rialacci dent s,i ncreaseswor ker sef ficiency
andcr eat easenseofcommi t mentamongt hewor ker s.-Wel fareact ivitiesl ikef ami ly
planni ng,chi ldwel faref aciliti
esandmat er nitycar eassi stwor kersi nav ar i
et yofway s,
whi chwoul dr educet hemor talityr at eandmai ntai ngoodheal t
hoft hespouseand
childrenoft hef ami ly,whi chwoul dcr eat eaconf identnot ei nt hewor ker s.-Pr omot i
ng
wel fareact iviti
esl eadt obet terwor kingcondi t
ionsandst andar dsf ori ndust rialwor ker s.
ScopeofLabourWel fareCont ri
but et ot hepr oduct iv i
tyofl abourandef ficiencyoft he
ent erpriseRai set hest andar dofl iv i
ngofwor ker sbyi ndi rect l
yr educi ngt hebur denon
theirpur seBei nt uneandhar monywi t
hsi mi larser vicesobt ainingi nanei ghbour i
ng
communi tywher eanent erpr isei ssi tuat ed.Bebasedonani nt el
li
gentpr edi ctionoft he
futureneedsofi ndust r
ialwor kandbesodesi gnedast oof feracushi ont oabsor bt he
shockofi ndust riali
zat ionandur bani zat ionBeadmi nistrat i
v elyv i
abl eandessent ially
dev elopmenti nout l
ook.Howev ernol abourwel fareact i
v i
tiescanbel imi tedt of aci lities,
withinorneart heunder taki ngnorcani tbecompr ehensi veasembr acet hewhol er ange
ofsoci alwel fareorsoci alser vi
ces.I tt her ef or ef ollowsal lt heext ramur alandi nt ra
mur alwel far eact ivi
t i
esasst at utor yornonst atut orywel faremeasur esunder t akenby
empl oy ers.I tbr i
ngunderi tspur v i
ew al lwel f areact ivit
iesandameni tieisr elat edt o
cant een,r estandr ecr eat ionf aciliti
es,medi calassi stance,bet terheal th,nut ritionand
sani tation, trav eltoandf rom wor k,educat ion, housi ng, hol idayf aci l
iti
esandsoon.Copy
ri
ghtr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherCl assi fi
cat ionofLabourWel fareAct iv it
ies
Int hey ear1959,gov er nmentofI ndi aappoi nt edast udyt eam t oexami net heent ire
rangeofl abourwel f areact ivitiesandt omaker ecommendat ionsf ort hei ri nclusi oni n
theThi r dFi v eYearpl an.Thet eam di v i
dedt heent irer angeofl abourwel far eact iv it
ies
i
nt ot hr ee gr oups.Wel fare wi thint he pr eci nct sofan est abl i
shment ,medi caland
crèches,cant eensandsuppl yofdr inkingwat er.Lat ri
nesandur i
nal sWashi ngand
bathi ngf aci litiesCr echesRestshel ter sandcant eensAr rangementf orDr inki ngwat e
Arrangementf ort hepr ev ent i
onoff atigueHeal thser vices, i
ncl udi ngoccupat ional saf et y
Admi nist r
at iv ear rangement swi t
hi napl antf orwel fareUni for msandpr ot ect ivecl ot hing
andshi ftallowance.Wel far eout sidet heest abl ishment , prov isionofi ndoorandout door
recreat ion,housi ng,adul teducat ionandv isuali nst ruct ions.Mat erni tybenef itsSoci al
i
nsur ance measur es, i ncludi ng gr atuity , pensi on, pr ov ident f und, r ehabi li
tat ion
Benev ol entf und Medi calf aci l
ities i ncl udi ng pr ogr ammes f orphy sicalf itness and
effi
ci ency ,f ami ly pl anni ng and chi ld wel far e Educat i
on f acilit
ies,i ncl udi ng adul t
educat ionHousi ngf aci li
tiesRecr eat ionf aci lities,i ncl udi ngspor t
s,cul turalact iv it
ies
l
ibrar yandr eadi ngr oom Hol i
dayHomesandl eav et rav el faciliti
esWor ker scooper at ives
i
ncl udi ngconsumer s,cooper at i
vesst or es,f ai rpr i
ceshopsandcooper ativet hr if
twi th
credi tsoci et ies.Vocat ionalt rainingf ordependant sofwor ker sot herpr ogr ammesf or
wel fareofwomen,y out handchi ldr enTr anspor tf aciliti
est oandf rof r
om wor k.Soci al
Secur i
ty .Ov erandabov eal lt heset heactmakesapr ov i
si onf ort heappoi nt mentofa
wel fareof ficeri nt heest ablishmenti tsel fwhowi lllookaf tert hei mpl ement ationoft he
variousst at ut orypr ov isions.Copyr ightr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherLabour
Wel far ei nI ndi a–Pr e–I ndependenceTheor iginofl abourwel fareact ivityi nI ndi agoes
backt o1837,f oll
owi ngt heabol itionofsl av er yi nt hey ear1833andBr iti
shcol oni es
startedi mpor tingI ndi anl abour .Thent hel abourwel fareact iv i
tywasmai nlycont rolled
byl egi slationandt heear li
estacti nt hisr egar dwast heAppr ent i
cesActof1850,t hat
waspassedt opr ot ectt heor phanedchi ldr ent ol ear nv arioust radeswi t ht hehel pof
exper i
encedcr aftsmen.Thenextactwast heFat alAcci dent sActof1853ai medat
prov idingcompensat iont ot hef ami liesofwor kmenwhol ostt heirl i
v esasar esul tof
anyact ionabl ewr ongatwor kpl ace.Thi sactwasf ol l
owedbyt heMer chantshi ppi ngact
of1859,whi chi nt endedt or egul atet heempl oy mentofseamenandpr ov i
dedf ort hei r
health, accommodat ionandpr otect ion.Ther eviewofal lt heseear lyenact ment sshows
thatt heywer edr awnupwi thspeci ficobj ectivesandt hatt heydonoti ndi cateany
plannedpol icyorappr oacht ot hel abourwel fare.Thust heywer eonl yat tempt ingt o
regul ateempl oy mentr athert hani mpr ov et hei rwor kingcondi ti
onsofl abour .22y ear s
elapsedaf tert heshi ppi ngactbef or et hef i
rstI ndi anf act orieswaspassedi n1881,
whichmar kedt hebegi nni ngofaser i
esofl abourl awst hatbr oughti mpr ov ement sint he
wor kingcondi ti
onsofl abour .Thecondi ti
onsoft hel abourt hatwor kedi nt het ext il
e
mi l
lsi nBombayi nt he1870onwar dswer et hei mmedi at ecausef ort hisactt obe
enact ed.Someoft hecondi tionsoft hewor kersdur i
ngt hoset i
mewer e, chi l
drenbel ow
theageof08y ear swer eempl oy ed,t hehour sofwor kwasbet weensunr iset osunset ,
therewer enof ixedhol iday sandunderal lnor malcondi tionst hemi ll
swer ewor kingf or
notl esst han320day si nay earandt hecondi tionsi nsi det hewor kingar eawer enotf i
t
forhumanst owor kandt hel ev elsofsaf etywasi nadequat e.Thust heI ndianFact or ies
Actof1881wasmadeappl icabl et oal l thef act oriesusi ngmechani cal powerempl oy i
ng
notl esst han100per sonsandwor ki ngmor et han04mont hsi nay ear .Fur thert he
foll
owi ngi shi ghl ight edoft heact .Chi ldrenbel owt heageof07coul dnotbeempl oy ed,
whilet hosebet weent heageof07and12wer enotwor kf ormor et han09hour saday .
Theywer eal sot oget04hol iday sev erymont hSt at ewasempower edt oappoi ntf actor y
i
nspect orst oov er seet hef unct ionsoft hef act oriesDanger ousmachi nerieswer et obe
proper l
yf encedandev eryacci dentneedt ober epor t
edt ot hef act or yinspect or .Copy
ri
ghtr eser vedwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherFol l
owi ngt hei nt ernat i
onalconf er enceon
l
abouratBer lin,andont headv iceoft hespeci alcommi ssiononl abourt hef ol l
owi ng
amendment swer emadei nt hey ear1891t ot hef act oriesactof1881.I tappl iedt oal l
thef act oriesempl oy i
ng50per sonsormor eandcoul dbeext endedt ot hosewhohav e
20wor ker s.Ami ddaybr eakf orhal fanhourwasmadecompul sor yAweekl yof fday
waspr escr ibedWomenwer eal lowedt owor kforamaxi mum of11hour swi thabr eak
for1andhal fhour s.Thel oweragel imi tf ort hewor kerwasr aisedf rom 09y ear st o14
yearsandwer enotal l
owedt owor kf ormor et han07hour saday .Localgov erning
bodi eswer eempower edt omaker ul esr egar dingsani tationandot herameni ti
esf or
wor ker sPr ov isionswer emadef ori nspect ionandpenal tiesf orbr eachofanypr ov i
sion
ofFact or yAct .Thi sactcoul dal sonotcomeofcer taindr awbacksl ikeI tdi dnotappl y
forthosef act oriest hatdi dnotwor kf ormor et han120day si nay earSaf etypr ov isions
i
nt heactwer eal sof oundt obei nadequat eandl egal l
yt hemanageroft hef act orywas
notanoccupi erandcoul dnott her efor ebepuni shedf orbr eachoft hepr ovisionsoft he
act.Dur i
ngt heseper iodsv ar i
ousv olunt aryact ionsi nt hef ieldsofl abourwel fareal so
madeconsi der abl epr ogr ess.Gr oupef fortscamet ot hef or efront .Theamal gamat ed
societ yofr ailwayser v ant sofI ndiaandBur ma,f ormedi nt hey ear1897st arteda
numberoff riendl ybenef itschemes,t hepr intersuni oni nCal cut taandt hepost aluni on
i
nBombaywer er espect ivelyor gani sedi n1905and1907.Theyi ntroducedmut ual
i
nsur anceschemes,ni ghtschool s,educat i
onalst ipendsandf uner alal l
owance.I nt he
year1910t heKamgarHi twar dhakSabhawasest abl i
shedwi t
ht heai mt ohel pwor ker s
i
nav ar i
et yofway sandt hemosti mpor t antbei ngt hel abourwel far ef unct i
ons.Af ter
Independence The l abourwel fare mov ementacqui red new di mensi ons.Fort he
requi rementofmassi vei nv est ment sini ndust rydur ingt hi sper iod, itwasf el tnecessar y
thatl abourwel far e pl ay ed a posi tiver ol ei ni ncr easi ng pr oduct ivityand r educi ng
i
ndust rialt ensi ons.Thest at et ooser iousl yt ooki tssoci alr esponsi bi l
ityt ot heweaker
andwor kingsect ionsoft hepopul ati
on.Thust hef act oriesactof1948wasenact edt hat
replacedal lpr eviousl egisl ations.Fact or i
esActof1948.Thef act oriesactof1948i sa
mi l
est onei nt hef act or yl egi sl ationandt hemai npr ov isionsoft heactar easf ollows.
Copyr ightr eser vedwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr ist opherPr ov isionsr egar dingsaf et yguar di ng
machi nes,heal thandcl eanl iness,dr i
nki ngwat er,washi ngandl atrinef aci l
ities,l unch
roomsandr est rooms,si ttingar r
angement s,f i
rstanddi spensar yf aci li
tiesi nal lt he
factor iesempl oyingmor et han500wor kmen,cr ècheswer emor et han50women
wor ker sar eempl oy ed,wel far eof fi
cerwher emor et han500wor kmenar eempl oy ed,
prov isionsf orspi ttoons,hol iday swi thwagesatt her at eofonedayf orev er y20day s
wor ked, weekl yhour sl i
ke48hour sf oradul t sand27hour sf ory oungerper sons, r
at eof
pay mentf orov ertimewor k,r estf orhal fanhouraf termaxi mum 05hour sofwor kand
weekl yhol iday .Theactpr ov idedf ordev el opmentofl abourwel faremov ementi nt wo
streams.Onemov ementt hr oughv olunt aryef for ttodev eloppr ogr ammeswi thav iewt o
mi nimi zi nghar dshi pandt heot heranagi t at i
onalmov ementf orbet terl egi slation.Thus
thegov ernmenti spl ay i
ngat ripler oleofl egi slator,admi nistratorandpr omot er.The
Indianconst i
tut i
onmakesaspeci fi
cment ionofdut i
est hest ateowest ol abourapar t
from t hef act or i
esactof1948.Thegov er nmentofI ndi aal sopassedt hewel f areact
knownasempl oyeesst at ei nsur anceact ,whi chpr ov idesf orbenef itst owor ker si ncase
ofsi ckness, mat er nity, empl oy menti njur y
, hospi tal
izat ionet c.,Wel farepr act icesi nI ndia
Manywel fare ameni ties descr ibed i nt he mai nr epor toft he l abouri nv est igat ion
commi tt eehav ebecomeapar toft hest at utor yobl igat i
ons.Thedi fferentwel fare
ameni tiesar eundert hev ar i
ousheadi ngasf ollows.Sani t
ar yandHy gieneFaci l
itiesThe
mai nt enanceofacl ean, sani tar yandhy gieni cwor kingenv ironmenti snowaccept edas
ani mpor t
antbasi cwel far eameni tyt hatwoul di ncludet oilkets,wat erf ordr inki ngand
washi ng.Thef act or i
esactr equi rest hatev er yf actor ymustbekeptcl eanandf r eef rom
effluv i
af l
owi ngf rom anydr ai n,t hatasuf fici entsuppl yofwhol esomedr inki ngwat er
mustbemadeav ailabl eatsui tabl eandconv enientpoi ntsandsepar atel atrinesand
urinal sf ormal eandf emal ewor ker sbepr ov idedandspi ttoonsandwashi ngf aci li
tiesbe
prov ided.Restf acilitiesThi sameni typr escr ibesapr escr ibednumberofseat sont he
shopf l
oorandi nr estr oomsorshel tersi nor dert or educef at i
gueasi tenabl esawor ker
tot akeabr eak.Fur thert heactal somakespr ov isi
onsf orl unchr oomst obepr ov i
dedi f
ther ear emor et han150wor ker sandt hesepl acesbecl ean,wel ll i
ght edandv ent i
lat ed
andpr ov idedwi thadequat ef ur nitureanddr inkingwat erwher evernecessar y.Feedi ng
facili
t i
esCopyr ightr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherEv eryf act oryempl oy ing150
ormor ewor ker sshoul dpr ov i
deal unchr oom wi thpr ov isionf ordr inki ngwat ert oenabl e
wor ker st oeart hemeal sbr oughtbyt hem andwher eov er250ormor ewor kersar e
empl oy ed,t her eshoul dbeacant eenorcant eens.I nf ulfi
lli
ngt heobj ect ivesofan
i
ndust rialcant een,sev er alpoi ntsl iket hef ol lowi ngshoul dbekepti nmi nd.I tshoul dbe
managedonanonpr of i
tbasi s.,Thecant eenhast ober oomy ,clean,br i
ghtandwel l
placed i nt hef actor yShoul d hav ecomf or tabl eand f riendl yat mospher eThef ood
suppl iedi nt hecant eenshoul dbeadequat eandofgoodqual it
y .Thet hr eeway sof
admi ni steringt hei ndust r i
alcant eensar eDi rect lybyt heempl oy ersByacont ract orand
byaco- oper ativ esoci et yofwor ker s.Medi calFaci l
itiesSi ncet heSecondWor ldWar ,the
i
mpor t
ance ofpr event iv e and cur ative medi calcar e has i ncr eased and i ti s now
accept ed t heor ythatheal thcar ef orwor ker swi l
lhel pt or educet hei ncidenceof
sicknessandt herefor eabsent eei sm amongt hem andwi llincr easepr oduct iv i
ty.The
factor i
es actof1948 pr ov ided f orcl eanl iness,di sposalofwast es and ef fl
uent s,
vent i
lat i
onandt emper at ur econt rol,dustandf ume,ar tif
icialhumi dification,r est riction
regar dingov er crowdi ng,l ight i
ng,dr inkingwat erar rangement s,l atrinesandur inal sand
spi t
toonset c.,St at utor ymedi calf aci li
tieswer eal sopr ovidedundert heEmpl oy ees
Stat eI nsur ance Act1948,wi th subsequentamendment s.Thi s actext ends such
benef itst oi ndust rialwor ker sasmat ernitybenef its,di sabl ementbenef i
ts,dependant s’
benef its,si cknessbenef i
tsandmedi calbenef i
ts,whi lemedi calcar eandcashbenef its
wer eal sopr ov idedf orwor kers.Apar tfrom t hemedi calandheal thf aci l
iti
espr ov idedby
l
egi slationandbysomeempl oy ersonav ol unt arybasi s,ot hersi mi larser vi
ceshav e
been or gani sed by wor ker s by l abourwel fare cent r e and some t rade uni ons.
Occupat i
onalHeal thSer vicesThesear eessent iallypr ev ent i
v e,v er ycommoni nt he
i
ndust riall
yadv ancedcount r
iesoft hewestandi tisgai ningi mpor tanceandr ecogni tion
i
nt hel argesi zedunder takingsi nourcount ry.Oneoft hemai nf unct ionsundert his
ser vi
cei stopr otectwor ker sagai nstt heheal thhazar dsar i
singoutoft henat ureoft hei r
wor kort hewor kenv ironment .Thi sser vicei ncl udescar ryi
ngoutper iodicalmedi cal
checksf orcat egor iesofwor ker st odet ectear lysi gnsofi l
lheal thandpr eventt hem
from ser iousheal t hcompl aint s.Copyr ightr eser vedwi t
hDr .S.Edwi nChr istopher
Fami lyPl anni ngI ncr easi ngpopul ationhasi ncr easedt hest rengt hoft hel abourf or ce
andcr eat edanumberofeconomi cpr oblems,i ncl udi ngt hepr oblem ofunempl oy ment
and i ndust rialunr est .A gr eatdealofat tent i
onhast her ef or ebeenpai dt of ami ly
planni ngpr ogr ammesf ori ndust rialwor ker s.Var iouscommi tt
eest hatwer ef or medt o
l
ooki nt ot hewel f
ar emeasur esunderl abourwel far eact i
v i
tieswasoft heopi niont hat
fami l
ypl anni ngpr ogr ammef ori ndust rialwor ker sshoul dbeapar tofl abourwel far e.
Cr echeThi si sawel faref acilitywhi chi spr ov i
dedf orwomenwor ker s.Thi si sapl ace
wher ebabi esofwor kingmot herar et akencar eofwhi let hemot heri satwor k.The
prov i
si onf ort hisf aci l
itywasmadei nt hef actor i
esactof191934andt heneedwas
emphasi zedi nt he1948enact mentst at i
ngt hati ti smandat or yf oranOr gani sat ion
whi chhasar ound30womenwor ker s,andshoul dbeadequat elyl ight edandv ent il
at ed
wi t
hcl eansani tar ycondi tion.Soci alSecur ityMeasur esTheconceptofsoci alsecur ity
hasbeenment ionedi nt heear lyVedi chy mnwhi chwi shesev eryonet obehappyf ree
from i llheal t
handenj oybr ightf ut ureandsuf fernosor row.I nt ot ali ti sbasedont he
i
dealofhumandi gni tyandsoci alj ust ice.Soci alsecur it
yi sdef inedas“ thesecur it
yt hat
societ yf ur nishes,t hroughappr opr iateOr gani sat i
on,agai nstcer tainr iskst owhi chi ts
member sar eexposed”Theser i
sksar eessent iallycont ingenci esagai nstwhi cht he
i
ndi vidual ,whohassmal lmeans,cannotpr ot ecthi msel f.Thesecont i
ngenci esi ncl ude
empl oy menti njur y,si ckness,i nv alidism ordi sabl ement ,i ndust rialdi sease,mat er nity,
oldage,bur i
al ,wi dow hood,or phanhoodandunempl oy ment .Soci alsecur it
yi sal so
def i
nedas“ thesecur ingofani ncomet ot aket hepl aceofear ningswhent heyar e
i
nt errupt edbyunempl oy ment ,si cknessoracci dent ,t opr ovidef orr etirementt hrough
oldage, topr ov ideagai nstl ossofsuppor tbyt hedeat hofanot herper sonandt omeet
except i
onalexpendi tur econnect edwi thbi rth,deat hormar ri
age…Thepur poseofsoci al
secur ityi st opr ov ideani ncomeupt oami nimum andal somedi calt r
eat mentt obr ing
thei nter rupt i
onofear ningst oanendassoonaspossi ble“ .Fr iedl anderdef i
nedsoci al
secur ity as “ a pr ogr amme of pr ot ect i
on pr ovided by soci ety agai nst t hese
cont i
ngenci esofmoder nl ife–si ckness, unempl oy ment ,ol dage, dependency ,indust rial
accident sandi nv alidism –agai nstwhi cht hei ndi vidualcannotbeexpect edt opr ot ect
himsel fand hi sf ami lybyhi s own abi li
tyand f oresight ”.Thus Ar ti
cle 41 oft he
const itutionofI ndi asay st hat“Thesat eshal lwi thint hel i
mi tsofi tseconomi ccapaci ty
anddev elopment , makeef fecti
v epr ov isionf orsecur i
ngt her ightt oCopyr ightr eser v ed
wi t
hDr .S.Edwi nChr i
st opherwor k,t oeducat ionandt opubl icassi stancei ncasesof
unempl oy ment,ol dage,si cknessanddi sabl ementandi not hercasesofundeser v ed
want .”Thus, thesoci alsecur i
tymeasur eswoul dhel pmant of acet hecont i
ngenci esas
suchi ti sdi f
f i
cul tf orhi m ei t
hert owor kort ogetwor kandsuppor thi msel fandhi s
fami ly.Thussoci alsecur i
tymeasur epr ov i
desasel fbal anci ngsoci ali nsur anceor
assist ancef rom publ icf unds.Thet hreemaj orway sofpr ov i
dingsoci alsecur ityar e
SocialI nsur ance–i sdescr i
bedast hegi vingi nr eturnf orcont ri
but ion,benef i
t supt o
subsi stencel ev el,asofr ightandwi t
houtameanst est,sot hatani ndi v i
dualmaybui l
d
freelyuponi t.Thussoci ali nsur ancei mpl iest hati tiscompul soryandt hatmenst and
toget herwi tht heirf el l
ows. ”Thef eat ur esofsoci alinsur ancear e-I tisf inancedent i
rel y
byormai nlyf rom t hecommonmonet ar ycont ri
but ionsofwor kers,empl oy ersandt he
state.Thi sf undt akescar eofal lthebenef i
tspai di ncashorki nd.Secondt hest ateand
theempl oy er smakeamaj orcont ribut iont ot hef und,whi let heempl oy eespayonl ya
nomi nalamount ,accor dingt ot hei rcapaci tyt opay .Thi rd,whent her ei sat otalorpar tial
l
ossi ncome,t hesebenef it
swi thinl i
mi ts,ensur et hemai nt enanceoft hebenef i
ciar ies
mi ni
mum st andar d ofl iv i
ng.Four th,soci ali nsur ancebenef i
tsar egr anted wi thout
wi t
houtanexami nat i
onofani ndi vidual sneedsandwi thoutanymeanst est,wi thout
affect i
ngt hesenseofsel fr espectoft hebenef i
ciary .Fiftht hesebenef itsar esopl anned
ast ocov er,oncompul sor ybasi sal lthosewhoar esoughtt obecov er ed.Last l
y ,soci al
i
nsur ancer educest hesuf feringar isingoutoft hecont ingenci esf acedbyani ndi v i
dual
cont ingencywhi chhecannotpr ev ent .Soci al Assi st ance–i spr ov idedasansuppl ement
tosoci alinsur ancef ort hoseneedyper sonswhocannotgetsoci ali nsur ancepay ment s
andi sof fer edaf t
erameanst est .Thegener alr ev enuesoft hegov er nmentpr ov idet he
fi
nancef orsoci al assistancepay ment s, whi chi smadeav ailabl easal egal r
ightt ot hose
wor ker swhof ulfi
llgivencondi tions.Soci alassi stanceandsoci ali nsur ancegosi deby
side.Soci alassi stance pr ogr ammes cov ersuch pr ogr ammes as unempl oy ment
assist ance,ol dageassi st ance,publ icassi stanceandnat ionalassi st ance.Thussoci al
secur i
tyi sacombi nationoft hepr inci pleofsoci alassi st anceandsoci ali nsur ance.
Soci ali nsur ancehowev erf allsi nmi dwaybet weent het wof ori ti sf inancedbyCopy
ri
ghtr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istophert hesat easwel lasbyt hei nsur edandt heir
empl oyer s,wher eassoci alassi st ancei sgi vengr ant st ot heneedybyt hest at eort he
communi ty .Commer ciali nsur ancei sent ir
el yapr ivat econt ract.Publ icSer v ice–i sa
progr ammeconst i
tuti
ngt het hirdmai nt ypeofsoci al secur ity.Theyar ef i
nanceddi rectly
byt hegov er nmentf r
om i tsgener alr ev enuesi nf or m ofcashpay ment sorser vicest o
everymemberoft hecommuni tyf allingwi thinadef i
nedcat egor y.Someoft heser v i
ces
beingr ender edundert hisschemei s,nat ionalheal thser vi
cepr ov i
di ngmedi calcar efor
everyper soni nt hecount ry ,oldagepensi on,pensi onf ori nv ali
dism,sur v i
vor spensi on
toev erywi doworor phanandaf ami l
yal l
owancet oev er yfami lyhav ingagi v ennumber
ofchi l
dr en.Apar tfort hest at e,t her ear emanyot heragenci eswhi chpr ovidesecur ity
againstcont ingenci es.I n manyot hercount r i
es,t he t rade uni ons hav et hei rown
sickness,ol dageandunempl oy mentschemes.Sav ingsf unds,si cknessbenef it
sand
oldagepensi onshav eal sobebeenpr ov idedbyal ar genumberofOr gani sat i
onsf or
theirempl oy ees.“Theunder lyingi deaofsoci alsecur itymeasur esi st hataci tizenwho
hascont ribut edori sl ikelyt o cont ribut et o hi scount r
y ’swel far eshoul dbegi ven
protect ionagai nstcer t
ai nhazar ds. ”I ndi anSoci alSecur itySy stem I nI ndia,t hesoci al
secur i
tysy st em wasi nacr udef or m ofsoci alpr otect i
ont hatwasmadeav ailabl et ot he
needyandt heunf ortunat eundert hej ointf ami lysy st em,whi l
eaddi t
ionalhel pwas
render edbyt hecommuni t
ypanchay at s,or phanagesandwi dowshomeandal soby
i
ndi vidual s of fer i
ng al ms and char ity.Wi tht he j oi ntf ami lysy st em pr obl ems l i
ke
unempl oymentoranyot hereconomi char dships, ol dageandot hercont ingenci eswer e
notsuf feredbyt hei ndiv idual s,si ncet her ewer enoti ni solat ion.Si mi lar lymember sofa
particul arcastwer eof fer edsecur ityandbenef itssuchasmedi calai d,f inanci alhel pto
widowsandor phans, educat ionalassi stancei nt hef or m ofschol ar shi psandf reeshi ps
wer eof fer ed.Howev ert heseassi st ancewer eof f eredonl yt ot hemember soft heir
communi tyandt herewasnodef initel aworpr incipl et owar dst hese.Dur ingt het i
meof
urbani zat ionandi ndust rial i
zat ionbot ht hesesy stemsofsoci alsecur itysy st em l ostits
holdont hesoci etyandt heconceptofsecul arst atei nI ndi ahasf urtherer odedt he
cont inuance oft he sy st em.Moder ni ndust riali
zat i
on has cr eat ed anew cl ass of
i
ndust rialpor t
raitoft hecount rywi thi t sr uralbackgr oundandwi thv er yl i
t t
lesoci aland
mat erialr esour ces,i si n gr eatneed ofsy stemat ized hel pt hr ough soci alsecur ity
agenci es.Thesoci alsecur itysy stem i nI ndiahasev ol vedi nobedi encet ot hei mpactof
west erni nfluenceandoft hemoder nur bani ndust rialsy stem.Copyr ightr eser vedwi th
Dr.S.Edwi nChr ist opherThussoci alr efor mer s,labourwel fareOr gani sat ionsandmany
progr essi ve empl oy er s per suaded t he gov er nment t o under take soci alsecur ity
measur esasapr otect ionf ort hewor ker satl eastagai nstaf ew cont ingenci es.Soci al
secur it
yi samaj oraspectofpubl i
cpol icyt odayandt heext entofi tspr ev alencei sa
measur eoft hepr ogr essmadebyacount ryt owar dst hei deaofawel far est ate.The
foll
owi ngmaj orenact ment shav ebeenmadebyt heGov er nmentofI ndi at opr ovide
soci alsecur ityt oi ndust rialWor kmensCompensat ionAct1923–wasputi nt oef f ecton
1stJul y1924andwasamendedsev er alt i
mes.I twasext endedandenf or cedbyt he
IndianI ndependenceOr derof1948andadapt at i
onofl awsor deri n1958,wart ime
i
njur ieswer eal socov er edbyt heact .Empl oy eesSt at eI nsur anceAct1948– The
Gov ernmentofI ndi acoul dnotadoptt heheal thi nsur anceschemesduet of i
nanci al
difficultiesandhenceaf tersev eralconf erences,t heheal thi nsur ancef ort hewor ker s
wasr ecommendedascompul sor yandcont ribut or yi nAugust1944andt heEmpl oy ees
Stat eI nsur anceActwasenact edi nt hey ear1948t hatwoul dcov ert hecashbenef iti n
cont ingenci esofsi ckness, mat ernityandempl oy menti njurybutdi dnotpr ov idesecur ity
i
nsuchcont ingenci esasunempl oy mentandol dage. ,TheESIschemesof ferbot h
directandi ndi rectmedi calcar e.Thedi r
ectmet hodi scal ledt heser vicesy stem by
whi cht heESIcor por at i
onpr ov i
desmedi calcar eei thert hroughi tsownempl oy eesst at e
i
nsur ancehospi talort hr oughr eser vationofbedsi nst ategov ernmenthospi tals.The
i
ndi rectmet hodi sknowaspanelmet hodunderwhi chmedi calcar ei spr ov idedt hr ough
privat e doct or s sel ect ed by t he st at e gov ernmentwi t
ht he appr ov aloft he ESI
cor por at i
ont hatwoul dcov erSi cknessbenef itMat ernit yBenef itDi sabl ementBenef i
t
Dependant sBenef itFuner alBenef itandMedi calbenef it.Empl oy eesPr ov identFundAct
1952 – appl ied t o al lf actories mi nes and ot hercoalmi nes and commer cial
establ i
shment sempl oy ingmor et han20wor ker sandt heirear ningnotexceedi ngRs.
3,500/ -.Thepr ov i
dentf undactof1q952wasamendedf oll
owi ngwhi cht heempl oy ees
fami l
ypensi onschemehasbeenenf orcedf rom Mar ch11971wi thav i
ewt opr ot ectt he
fami l
yaf tert hewor ker sdeat h.Mat ernityBenef itAct1961–f ollowi ngt heenact ment , i
t
prov idedf orbet terandmor ef arr eachi ngbenef itsandhencet hest ateactofmat ernity
benef itt hatwer eenact edear li
erlosti tsi mpor tanceandgr adual lyt hecent ralactwas
adopt ed.Copyr ightr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherI ndust rialDi sput eAct1947-
wast heactt hatpr ov idesf orwor ker sunempl oy mentduet ol ayof f.Thi sr eliefwasgi ven
bywayofcompensat iont ot heaf fect edwor ker satacer tainspeci fiedr ates.The
compensat ioni ncaseofr etrenchmentcasesamount st o15day sav er ageear ningsf or
ever ycompl etedy earofser viceorpar tt her eof .Int heev entofcl osur eofunder taki ng,
ther etrenchedwor ker sr ecei vecompensat ionatt hesamer ate,howev eri ti sl imi tedt o
amaxi mum of03mont hsav erageear ni ngs.Empl oy er’sf ami lypensi onscheme1971–
wasnot i
fi
edbyt heGov ernmentofIndiaundertheempl oyee’spr ovi
dentfundandf ami l
y
pensionact .Herethef amil
ypensionmeansar egularmont hlyamountpay ablet oa
personbel ongingtothef amil
yofamemberoft hepensi onfundschemei ntheev entof
hisdeat hdur ingtheper i
odofr eckonabl
eser vice.Thedef initi
onoft hewor d,fami l
y
coverswi feorhusband,mi norsons,andunmar ri
eddaught ersofamemberoft he
familypensi onfund.Pay mentofGratui
tyact1972–accor dingt ot heact,
gratuit
yshall
bepay abl
et oanempl oyeeOnt erminati
onofhi sempl oymentaf terhehasr endered
conti
nuousser vi
cefornotlessthanf i
veyears.Onhi ssuper annuat i
onOnhi sretir
ement
orresignationOnhi sdeathordisablementduetoacci dentordi sease

LABOURWELFARE

LabourWel fare – Labouri st he mosti mpor tantf act orofi ndust ri


alpr oduct ion.
Managementseeksco– oper ationofl abourf or cebypr ovi
dingwel farei nt ermsof
prov i
sionsf orbet t
erwor kingcondi ti
onsadequat el i
ght ingandv ent i
lationet c.Labour
welfar ewor kai msatpr ovidi ngsuchser vi
cef acilitiesandameni tieswhi chenabl et he
wor ker sempl oyedi ni ndust riest oper for mt heirwor ki nheal t
hycongeni alsur roundi ng
conduci v
et ogoodheal thandhi ghmor ale.“ Anyt hingdonef ori ntel l
ectual,phy si cal
mor alandeconomi cbet termentoft hewor kerwhet herbyempl oy er,byGov ernmentor
byagenci esov erandabov ewhati slaiddownbyl aworwhati snor mal lyexpect edon
partoft he cont ractualbenef itsf orwhi ch wor ker s may hav e gai ned” .-Labour
Investigat i
onCommi t
teeCopyr ightr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopher“Labour
welfar emeanssuchser vices, faci l
iti
esandameni tieswhi chmaybeest ablishedi n, ori n
thev icini
tyorunder takingt oenabl eper sonsempl oy edt her eint oper for mt heirwor ki n
healthyandcongeni alsur roundi ngsandt opr ovidet hem wi thameni tiesconduct ivet o
goodheal thandgoodmor al s”-I nternat ionalLabourOr gani sation“Ef fortst omakel ife
wor thl i
vingf orwor ker”-Theoxf ordDi ctionar y“ Wel far eisf undament allyanat t
itudeof
mindont hepar tofmanagementi nf luenci ngt hemet hodsbywhi chmanagement
activi
tiesar eunder t
aken”-R R Hopki n“Thev olunt ar yef fort
soft heempl oy ert o
establ i
shwi thi nt heexi stingi ndust r
ialsy stem,wor ki ngandsomet imesl ivingand
culturalcondi ti
onsofempl oy erbey ondwhati sr equi redbyl aw,t hecust omsoft he
i
ndust ryandt hecondi ti
onsoft hemar ket ”-Ency clopedi aofSoci alSci ence.“ Thel abour
welfar ewor kcov ersal ltheef fortswhi cht heempl oy ersmakef ort hebenef itoft heir
empl oy eesov erandabov et hemi nimum st andar dswor kingcondi ti
onsf ixedbyt he
factoryactandov erandabov et hepr ov isi
onsoft hesoci all egislationspr ov iding
againstacci dent ,oldagesunempl oymentandsi ckness”-NM Joshi“Thet erml abour
welfar e connot es any t hing t hatmakes condi tions i nt he f actory conduct ivet o
happi ness,heal thandpr osper ityoft hewor ker s”-Si rEdwar dPant om Thel abour
welfar eoper atest oneut rli
set hehar mf ulef fectsofl argescal ei ndust rial
izationand
urbani sation.Pr ov i
sionofwel fareameni tiesenabl et hewor kert ol iveanr icherand
mor esat isfactoryl if
eandcont ri
but est ot hei ref ficiencyandpr oduct ivi
ty.I thel pi n
mai nt aini ngi ndust ri
alpeace.Obj ect i
vesofLabourwel f areact ivities.Fol l
owi ngar et he
object iv es oft he v ol unt aryl abourwel fare ser vices byempl oy er:1.To wi n ov er
empl oy eesl oy al tyandi ncreaset hei rmor ale.2.Todev elopef ficiencyandpr oduct ivity
amongwor ker s.3.Tosav eonesel ff rom heav yt axesonsur pluspr of it
s.4.Tor educeof
threatoff urthergov er nmenti nt erv ention.5.Tomaker ecr ui tmentmor eef f ect ive.Copy
rightr eser vedwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopher6.Togi veexpr essi ont ophi l
ant hropi cand
pat erni sticf eel ings.7.Tocombatt radeuni oni sm andsoci alisti deas.8.Toear ngood
wi l
landenhancepubl ici mage.9.Tobui ldupst ablel abourf or ce,t or educel abour
turnov erandabsent eei sm.I mpor t
anceofLabourwel f ar eact i
vities.Labourwel f arei n
Indiahasaspeci alsi gni f
icanceast heconst itut i
onpr ov idesf ort hepr omot ionof
wel fareoft hel abourf orhumanecondi t i
onofwor kandsecur i
ngt oal lwor ker sl ei sur e,
soci alandcul tur aloppor tuni ties.Labourwel far ei smeasur et opr omot et heef ficiency
ofl abour .Thev ar iouswel far emeasur espr ov idedbyt heempl oy erwi llhav ei mmedi ate
i
mpactont heheal th,phy sicalandment alef ficiency ,al er tness,mor aleandov erall
ef f
iciencyoft hewor ker sandt her ebycont ribut ingt ot hehi gherpr oduct ivi
ty .Mor eov er,
thewor kmenr equi r
epr otect i
onf rom cer taincal ami ti
eswhi chi mper ialthei ref ficiency .
Soci alsecur i
tymeasur epr ov idedbyempl oy erwi l
lactasapr ot ect iont ot hewor ker s.
Soci alsecur ityai msatpr ov idingcol lect ivemeasur est opr otectt hemember sofa
communi tyagai nstsoci alr iskast heiri ndi v idualr esour cesar esel dom adequat et o
af t
erpr otect ionagai nsthar dshi p.Bot hassi stanceandsoci ali nsur ancef r om i nt egr al
par tsoft hesy st em ofsoci al secur ity.Labourwel farei nt roducest heext radi mensi ont o
i
ndust r i
alr elat ionshi pwhi chev erasat isfact orywageal onecannotpr ov i
de.Labour
wel fareexpr esst hehumanei nt erestasenl i
ght enedempl oy erhasi nt hewel lbei ngand
cont ent mentoft hepeopl ewhowor kf orhi m.Labourwel far emeansact ivitiesdesi gned
fort hepr omot i
onoft heeconomi c, soci alandcul turalwel lbei ngoft heempl oy ees.The
term l abourwel farei ncludes anyt hi ng done f ori nt ellect ual ,phy si
cal ,mor aland
economi cbet termentofwor kerbygov ernmentorbyot heragenci esov erandabov e
whatl ai ddownbyl aw i nv ar iouscont ingenci esl i
kei llness,unempl oy ment,di sabi lity
anddeat hwhi chhav edi r
ecti mpactont hewel lbei ngoft hewor kerandt hedependent .
Reasonsf ort hel abourwel far eact ivi
tiesi nI ndi a.Fol lowi ngar et her easonsf ort he
l
abourwel far eact ivi
t i
esi nI ndi a.Byunder st andi ngt heser easons,t hei mpor tanceof
l
abourwel far eact ivitiescanbeunder st ood:a)I ncr easei nt heef ficiencyofempl oy ees.
b)Hel pf uli nr educi ngt hest at eofpov er tyamongempl oy ees.c)Est abl ishmentof
i
ndust r i
alPeace.d)Hel pfuli nmai nt ainingheal t
handphy si calabi lityofempl oy ees.e)
Hel pfuli nr educi ngt her ateofabsent eei sm andl abourt ur nov er.a.I ncr easei nt he
ef f
iciencyoft heempl oy ees– Labourwel far eact i
vi
t i
esi ncr easei nef ficiencyoft he
empl oy eest owor k.Thesef aci l
itieshel pi ndev elopi ngt hef eelingofdedi cat ingamong
them.Due t ot he i ncr ease i n ef f i
ciency t he pr oduct ion and pr oduct i
v ity oft he
ent erpr isesi ncr easeconsi der abl y.Copyr ightr eser vedwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherb.
Hel pfuli nr educi ng t hest at eofpov er t
yamong empl oy ees– A gr eatpr obl em i n
i
ndust rialdev elopmentofourcount r yi sext remepov ertyamongI ndi anwor ker s.Most
oft he wor ker si n ourcount ry ar e unabl ei n pr ov i
ding f orbase necesi ci ti
es f or
themsel vesandt ot heirf ami lymember s.Pr ov i
si onofl abourwel far eact i
viti
espl ay san
i
mpor tantr olei nr educi ng such pov ertyand pr ov iding essent ialameni ties t ot he
wor ker s.c.Est abl i
shi ngI ndust rialpeace.–Labourwel fareact ivitieshel pinest abl ishi ng
harmoni ousr elat ionsbet weenempl oy eesandempl oy ers.Empl oy eesr eali
zet hatt hey
areget ti
ngal lpossi blef aci l
ities,andt heempl oy ert akecar eoft hem,Suchf eel ing
amongempl oy eesi shel pfuli nest abl ishi ngi ndust rialpeace.d.Hel pf ulinmai nt aini ng
heal thandphy si calabi l
ityofempl oy ees–mostoft heI ndi anwor ker sar eunheal t
hyand
i
llfed.I treducest hepr oduct ioncapaci tyoft heempl oy ees.Pr ov i
si onofnour i
shi ngf ood
andmedi calf aci li
tieshel pi nmai nt ainingheal thphy sicalabi l
ityoft heempl oy ees.e.
Helpf uli nr educi ng t he r ate ofabsent eeism and l abourt urnov er -The r at e of
absent eei sm andl abourt urnov eri smuchhi gheri nI ndiaascompar ed t ot hatof
dev elopedcount riesoft hewor ld.Pr ov isionofl abourwel f
ar eact ivitieshel pr educi ng
thisar tebecauset hewor ker sf eelt hemsel v eswel lset tl
edatonepl ace.2.Whatdoy ou
meanbyl abourwel fare?Di scusst hepr inci pl eofl abourwel f
ar e.ORDi scusst hev arious
element sofmaki ngt hel abourwel far eef fect ive.Pr inciplesofLabourwel fare.–The
foll
owi ngpr i
nci plesshoul dbekepti nmi ndpr oper lyf ollowi ngt oachi ev esuccessf ul
i
mpl ement ati
onofwel far epr ogr ammes: 1.Pr inci plesofsoci al responsi bil
ityofi ndust ry.
2.Pr inci plesoft ot alit
yofwel far e.3.Pr inci pleofaccount ability.4.Pr inci pleoft imel ines
5.Pr inci pleofr esponsi bility6.Pr i
nci pleofassoci ationordemocr aticv alues.7.Pr inci ple
ofef ficiency8.Pr incipl eofcoor dinat i
onori nt egr ation9.Pr inci pleofadequacyof
wages10.Pr inci pleofr e-per sonal isat i
on11.Pr inci pl eofsel fhel p1.Pr i
ncipleofsoci al
responsi bi l
ityofi ndust ry– I ndust ry,i sasub sy st em oft hesoci et y.I tdr awsi ts
manpowerf r
om t hesoci et y.Obv i
ousl y ,indust ryhasanobl igat ionordut yt owar dsi ts
empl oy eest ol ookaf tert hei rwel far e.Accor dingt ot hispr i
nci pl e,t opr ovidewel f are
facili
tiest ot heempl oyeesi ssoci alr esponsi bilityofi ndust ry .2.Pr inci pleoft ot alityof
welf are–Accor di ngt ot hispr inci ple,l abourwel f areact i
vitiesandf aci li
tiesmustbe
extendedt oal ltheempl oy eesoft heor gani sat ionCopyr ightr eser v edwi t
hDr .S.Edwi n
Chr i
st opherwi llbeachi ev edi fasect i
onoft heempl oy eesar eunabl et ocount er actt he
banef ulef f
ect sofi ndust ri
alsy stem.3.Pr incipl eofaccount abi li
ty–Thi spr inci plei s
alsocal ledaspr inci pleofev aluat i
on.Thi spr incipl esuggest st hatwel far epr ogr ammes
mustbeev al
uat edper iodi cal l
y.Thi si sv erymuchnecessar yt oj udgeandanal y set he
successofwel f arepr ogr ammeand r ecogni zei tf orbet terr esul ts.4.Pr inci pleof
ti
mel i
ner s–Thet imel i
ner sofanywel far epr ogrammehel pi t
ssuccess.Tof indoutwhat
aret hel abourwel fareneedsandwhatki ndofwel far epr ogr ammear enecessar y,t he
ti
mer equi redi sv er yimpor tant .Ti mel yact ioni npr operdi r
ect ioni sessent i
ali nanyki nd
ofwel fareact ivities.5.Pr inci pleofr esponsi bility– Thepr i
nci pl eofr esponsi bi li
tyi s
basedonassumpt i
ont hatl abourwel far ei st hej oi ntr esponsi bilityofempl oy ersand
empl oy ees.Accor dingt ot hi spr inci ple, labourwel far ebecomessi mpl eandeasi estt ask
becauser esponsi bi l
ityi sshar edbydi ffer entgr oups.6.Pr inci pleofassoci ationor
democr aticv alues–Fort hesuccessofawel f
ar epr ogrammeassoci ationofempl oy ees
i
npl anni ng,or gani zingandi mpl ement ationi smostessent ial .Empl oy eeswhohav e
associ at edi npl anni ng,or gani zing,andi mpl ement ati
onofwel far eact ivi
t i
esgetkeenl y
i
nt erest edi nt hewel farepr ogr ammes.7.Pr i
nci pleofef f
ici ency– Ef ficiencyoft he
wor ker sandwel far ef aci l
iti
esar ei nter dependent .Hencepr i
nci pleofef ficiencypl ay san
i
mpor t
antr olei nor gani zingwel faref aci l
iti
est ot hei
rempl oy eesasi twoul di ncr ease
theiref fi
ciencywhi chwoul di nt ur nl eadt oi ncreasepr oduct ivity.8.Pr i
nci pleofco
ordinat ion ori nt egr at ion – Thi spr inci ple ofco or dinat i
on ori ntegr ation pl ay san
i
mpor t
antr ol ei nt hesuccessoft hewel farepr ogrammes.Wel f
aremeasur et obe
effect i
venewcoor dinat ionori ntegr at i
onappr oachwi llpromot eaheal thydev elopment
oft heempl oy eesi nhi swor k,homeandcommuni ty.Thi si sessent i
alf ori nt egr ating
empl oy eest ot hei rwor kenv ironment .9.Pr i
nci plesofadequacyofwages–Accor ding
tot hispr i
nci plewor kerhav ear ightt oadequat ewages.Labourwel far ef aci li
tiesmust
bepr ov i
dedov erandabov et headequat ewages.Thatmeansl abourwel far emeasur es
cannotbeasubst itut ef orwages.Att hesamet ime,i tisal sot ruet hathi ghwager at e
alonecannotcr eat eaheal thyat mospher enorbei ngaboutsenseofcommi tmenton
thepar tofwor ker s.Acombi nat i
onofwagesandl abourwel f ar et oget herwoul dachi ev e
goodr esul ts.10.Pr i
nci pleofr e–per sonal isation-Thi spr i
nci pl esuggest st hatgoalof
l
abourwel far eshoul dbeov er alldev el opmentoft heempl oy ees.Accor dingt ot his
principle,l abourwel fare measur es hel p wor ker st or esistt he banef ulef fect s of
i
ndust ri
alsy st em;t her ef ore,i ti snecessar yt oor gani zel abourwel far eact ivit
iesbot h
i
nsi deandout sidet hef act ory .11.Pr incipleofsel f–hel p–Thi spr inciplesuggest st hat
thel abourwel f ar emustai m athel pingempl oy eest ohel pt hemsel v esi nf ut ure.Thi s
helpsempl oy eest obecomemor er esponsi bleandmor eef ficient .3.Di scussi nbr ieft he
variousconst i
t ut i
onalpr ov i
si onsf orl abourwel far einI ndia.Copyr i
ghtr eser v edwi thDr .
S.Edwi nChr ist opherLabourwel far ei nI ndi a-Thedi rectivepr i
nci pleofst atepol icyi n
ourconst itutionexpr esst heneedf orl abourwel fare.Fol l
owi ngact sar et her ei nt he
const itution f orl abour .Ar ticle 32 -The st at e shal lmake ef fectiv e pr ov i
sionsf or
secur ing t he r ightt o wor k,t o educat ion and t o publ ic assi stance i n case of
unempl oy ment ,ol dage,si ckness,di sabl ementandot hercasesofundeser vedwant .
Article33-Thest at eshal lmakepr ov isionsf orsecur ingj usthumancondi t i
onsofwor k
andf ormat er ni tyr elief.Ar t
icle39–Thest at eshal linpar ticul ardi recti tspol i
cyt owar ds
secur ing:a.t hatt heci t
izen,menandwomenequal l
yhav et her i
ghtt oanadequat e
meansofl ivelihoodb.t hatt heoper at ionoft heeconomi csy st em doesnotr esul ti nt he
concent rationofweal thandmeansofpr oduct i
ont othecommondet riment .c.Thatt he
owner shi pandcont roloft heoft hemat erialr esour cesar esodi stribut edast osub
ser vet hecommongood.d.t hatt heheal t handst r
engt hofwor ker smenandwomen
andt enderageofchi ldr enar enotabusedandt hatcitizensar enotf or cedbyeconomi c
necessi tytoent erav ocat i
onunsui tedf ort heirageandst r
engt h.e.t hatt her ei sequal
payf orequalwor kerforbot hmenandwomen.Ar ti
cle41–Thest ateshal lwi thinthe
l
imits ofi ts economi c capaci tyand dev elopment,make ef fective pr ovi
sions for
securingt her i
ghttowor k,t oeducat i
onandt opublicassi stancei ncasesofunder
servedwant s.Art
icle42-t hest ateshal lmakepr ovi
sionf orsecur ingj ustandhuman
conditionsofwor kandmat ernit
yr eli
ef.Articl
e43–Thest ateshal lendev ourt osecure
bysui tablelegisl
ati
onoreconomi cor ganisat i
onori nanyot herway ,toal lwor kers,
agricultur
alindustri
alorot her wise,wor k,al iveni
ngwage,condi tionofwor kensur i
ng
decentst andards ofl if
e and f ul
lempl oy mentofl ei
sure and soci aland cul tural
oppor t
unitiesandi npar t
icular,t
hest ateshal lendevourtopr omot ecot tagei ndustri
es
onani ndi
v i
dualorco–oper ati
vebasi sinr uralareas.Arti
cle43A–t hest ateshalltake
stepsbysui tabl
elegislati
onori nanyot herwayt osecur epar t
icipat i
onofwor kersin
developmentofunder taking,establishment sorot herorganisationsengagedi nindustry.

Labourwel fareof ficer-TheI ndianFact or iesAct1948, madei tobl i


gator yont hepar tof
theempl oy erst oappoi ntwel fareof fi
cer st ol ookaf tert hel abourwel fareact ivitiesin
thef act orieswher et her ear e500ormor et han500wor ker sar eempl oy ed.Thust he
appoi ntmentofl abourwel f areof ficerisst at ut oryr equi r ement .Hi swor kwi thhuman
resour cesof ficerst osol vet hel abourr elat edpr oblems.Dut i
esandf unct i
onofl abour
officer–1.Toencour aget hef ormat i
onofwor ker sandj ointpr oduct i
oncommi ttees, co
–oper at iv
esoci et iesandsaf etyandwel f
ar ecommi tteesandsuper vi
set hei rwor ks.2.
Toadv iseandassi stt hemanagementi nt hef ulfi
llmentofobl igations,st atut or yor
other wi se,concer ningt heappl i
cat i
onofpr ov isionsoft heFact or i
esActof1948and
rulesmadet her eunderandt oest abli
shl i
ai sonwi tht hef act oryi nspect orandt he
medi calser vicesconcer ningmedi calexami nat ionofempl oy ees, recor dssuper visionof
hazar dous j obs,v i
siting t he si ck and conv alescence ,acci dentpr ev ention and
super visionofsaf et ycommi ttees, safet
yeducat i
onandi nv estigationofacci dent s.3.To
encour aget hef or mat ionofwor kersandj ointpr oduct i
oncommi ttees,cooper ativ
e
soci etiesandsaf etyandwel farecommi tteesandsuper v i
set heirwor k.4.ToPr omot e
rel
at ionsbet weenmanagementandwor ker swhi chwi llensur epr oduct iveef f
iciencyas
wel lasamel ioratet hewor kingcondi t
ionsandt ohel pwor ker st oadj ustandadapt
themsel ves t ot hei r wor king env ir
onment .5.To est ablish cont act s and hol d
consul tat i
ons wi th a v iew t o mai nt aining har moni ous r elati
ons bet ween t he
managementandwor ker s.6.Toadv i
seandassi stmanagementi nt hepr ov isionof
ameni tiessuchascant een, shel tersforr est, crèches, adequat el atri
nef aci li
ties, drinking
wat er, sicknessandbenev ol entschemepay ment, pensi onsandsuperannuat ionf unds
andgr at uit
ypay ment s.7.Tobr i
ngt othenot iceofwor ker st heirright sandl iabi li
ti
es
undert hest andi ngor der soft heest abli
shmentandot herr uleswhi chgr antr ight st oand
def i
net hedut iesofwor ker sorwhi char edi rect edt ot hedi scipl i
nesaf et yandpr ot ect i
on
ofwor ker sandest ablishment8.Toadv iseassi stt hemanagementi npr ov idingwel f
are
faciliti
essuchashousi ngf aci l
it
ies,f ood,soci alandr ecr eat i
onalf aci l
ities,sani tation,
educat ion ofchi ldren and adv i
se on i ndi vidualper sonalpr oblems.9.To suggest
measur eswhi chwi llser vet or aiset hatst andar dofl ivingofwor ker sandi ngener al
promot ewel lbei ng.10.Tobr i
ngt ot henot iceoft hemanagementt hegr iev ancesof
wor ker s, i
ndi vidual aswel lascol l
ect ivewi thav i
ewt osecur ingt heirexpedi tiousr edr ess.
Copyr ightr eser vedwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopher11. Toadv i
sewor kersagai nstgoi ng
oni llegalst ri
kesandt hemanagementagai nstdecl ar ingi l
legall ock–out sandt ohel p
i
npr ev ent ingant isoci alact ivit
ies.12. Tost udyandunder standt hepoi ntofv i
ew of
l
abouri nor dert ohel pt hemanagementt oshapeandf or mulatel abourpol iciesand
i
nt erpr ett heirpol iciest othewor ker si nl anguaget heycanunder stand.13.Tohel pt he
managementi nr egul at i
ngt hegr antofl eav ewi thwagesandexpl aint ot hewor ker si n
the mat tersubmi ssion ofappl icat ion f orgr antofl eav ef orr egul ati
ng aut hor ised
absence.14.Tomai nt ainani mpar tial at t
itudedur ingi llegal stri
kesl ockout sandhel pt o
bringaboutapeacef ulst atement .5.Di scussi nbr ieft hev arioust heoriesofl abour
wel far e.ORWr i
tebr iefnot eont hef ollowi ngs:a.Phi lant hropi ct heor yofl abourwel far e
b.Publ icr elationt heor yofl abourwel farec.Thef unct ionalt heoryofl abourwel fared.
Thepol i
cingt heor yofl abourwel fare.Labourwel far et heor ies–Labourwel f ar et heor i
es
tri
est ogi v et heanswert ot hequest i
on– whati nducesempl oy ert oor gani zeand
establ i
shl abourwel faref ort heirempl oyees?I tissai di ni ti
allythatt heempl oy ersdo
thispr imar il
yonhumani tar i
anism andsoci alawar enessgr ound.I nsomecasesi ti s
donet oi ncreaseef fi
ci encyandout putf rom t hewor ker s.Labourwel fareact i
v i
tiesar e
organi zedal sot oat tractbet t
erandqual ifi
edwor ker s.Suchact ivi
tiesar emadei t
possi bl ef orempl oy eest oper suadewor ker st oacceptshow of fandadv ertiset heir
concer nf orl abourwel farebyor gani zi ngl abourwel far eact i
viti
es.Thus,i tcanbesai d
thatt hemot i
v ebehi ndwel fareact ivitiesar eof tencompl ex,f ort hebel i
efv ariesf rom
per sont oper son.Ther ear esev enappr oachest ot hephi l
osophyort heor yofl abour
wel far e.These ar e:1.Phi lanthr opict heor y2.Rel igious t heor y3.Pat er nalist i
c or
trusteeshi pt heor y4.Publ icr elat i
onst heor y5.Thef unct ionalt heor y6.Thepol icing
theor y7.Pl acat i
ngt heor y1.Phi lant hr opict heor y–Phi l
ant hropi ctheor ymeansl ov i
ng
manki nd.Thephi lanthr opict heor yisbasedonman’ sl ov ef ormanki nd.Mani sbel iev ed
tospont aneousur get obet terCopyr ightr eser vedwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr i
stophert hel ot
ofhi sf ellow bei ngs.Fort hisr easonmanst ri
v est or emov esuf fer i
ngofot her sand
promot et heirwel lbei ng.Expl ainedf r om t hispoi ntofv iew l abourwel far eact i
v iti
es
coul dbeactofpi tyont hepar tofempl oy er swhowantt or emov ethesuf feringst ot heir
wor ker s.Thel abourwel faremov ementbegani nt heear lyy ear sofi ndust rialr ev ol ut i
on
wi t
hsuppor tofRober tOwen–aphi lant hropi sts.I nI ndi a, Mahat maGandhi ,Lokhande, B
PWadi awer ewel lknownphi l
ant hropi st swhost rov ef ort hewel f
ar eoft hewor ker s.2.
Rel i
gi oust heor y–Manyhumanbehav iour sar ei nf luencedbyr eli
gioussent iment sand
belief s.Owner s,ashumanbei ngsubscr ibet or eligi ousst atementandbel ief s.These
reli
gi ousf eelings,somet i
mespr omptanempl oy ert ot akeupwel fareact i
v iti
esi nt he
expect at ionoff ut urebenef itint hisl ifeandi nf ut urel ife.Andcl osel yal liedt ot his
reli
gi oust heor y,wecoul dal sor ecogni zet heat onementt heory .Accor di ngt ot his
theor ysome empl oy er s are pr ompt ed t ot ake up wel far e act ivities i n a spi r
itof
atonementf orhi ssi ns.Thi st heor ypr eferst hei deat hatmani spr i
mar ilyconcer nedwi th
hisownwel f areandonl ysecondar i
lywi tht hewel fareofot her s.Ther eligiousbasi sof
wel far e howev er,can notbe r at i
onal .I ti s nei theruni ver salnorcont inuous.3.
Pat er nal i
sticort rust eeshi pt heor y–Accor di ngt ot hist heor y ,thei ndust rialistsort he
empl oy ershol dt het ot alindust ri
alest ate,pr oper tiesandpr of itsoccur ringf rom t hem i n
trust .Hehol dst hepr oper t
ynotonl yf orhi susebutal sof ort hebenef i
tofhi swor ker s.
Anot herassumpt ionoft hist heor yi st hatt hewor ker sar el ikemi nor s.Theyar ei gnor ant
becauseofl ackofeducat i
onandar enotabl et ol ookaf terowni nter est .Owner s,
ther efor e,hav et hemor alr esponsi bili
tyt ol ookaf tert hei nterestoft hei rwor ker s.
Though,t het r
ust eeshi phasnol egalsanct ion,i ti sv er ymuchef fect ivebecauseofi t s
mor alr ecogni sat ion.I tcoul d be ment i
oned her et hatMahat ma Gandhiwas a
prot agoni stoft het rust eeshi pt heor yofi ndust rialest ate.4.Publ icr elat iont heor y–
Accor di ngt ot hi st heor y,labourwel fareact ivitiesar eor gani zedbyt heempl oy ert o
creat egoodwi llbet weenwor ker sandmanagementasasor tofanadv ertisementand
hel pempl oy eest obui ldupgoodandheal thypubl icr elat i
ons.Publ i
ci tyofl abourwel fare
Pr ogr ammeshel pani ndust ri
al i
stt opr ojectagoodi mageofhi scompany .Thus,f or
i
nst ance,sev eralcompani esdohav eexpensi v espor tsact iv iti
esandmai nt ainaspor t s
team.Theset eamsandt hei rper i
odi calscompet it
ionsandnamesoft hecompani es
appeari npopul arnewspaper s.I tisbel iev edt hatsuchf requentpr esent ationoft he
company ’snamebef or epubl i
ccr eatesaf av our abl ei mageoft hecompany .5.The
funct ionalt heor y–Thi stheor yi sal socal l
edasef ficiencyt heor y .Accor dingt ot hi s
theor ywel f
ar eact i
v i
tiesar eunder takent osecur e,pr eser v eanddev el opt heef fici
ency
andpr oduct ivityofwor kers.I ti sobv i
oust hati fanempl oy erunder t
akesCopyr i
ght
reser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherwel far eact iv i
tiesf orhi swor ker s, theywi ll tendt o
becomemor eef ficientandwi llther ebyi ncreasepr oduct iv ity.Consequent l
y ,thewor kers
wi l
lgetbet terwagesandi ncent i
v esandt hemanagementwi llgethi gherpr of its.Thi si s
thef unct ionalaspectofwel far ehav ingef fi
ci encyasi tsobj ectwhi chi nt ur ni ncr eases
product i
v i
ty.Thi st heor ywor ksv er ywel lifbot ht hepar tieshav ei dent icalai mi nmi nd
thati shi gherpr oduct iont hr oughbet t
erwel far e.I nI ndi a,i ndust rialistsbyandl arge,
adher et opat ernal isticappr oach.Someowner s,howev er ,under takewel fareact ivit
ies
becauseofst ri
ngentl aws.Buti nmanyaspect s,t hef unct ionalt heor yofl abourwel fare
wor ksmor eef fect ivel ybyr easonofi ntelligentandwi l
li
ngpar ti
cipat ionofwor ker s.6.
Pol i
ci ngt heor y–Thi st heor yi sbasedont heassumpt iont hatt hemani ssel fishand
sel fcent eredandal way sat tempt st oachi ev et hathi sownend,ev enatt hecostof
wel far eofot her spar ti
cul arifhei spl acedi nadv ant ageousposi ti
on, byr easonofweal th
oraut hor ity.Accor dingt ot hisv iewt hef act or ypr ov i
desampl eoppor tuni tiesf orowner s
toexpl oitwor ker s.Thest at ehast herefore, t
ost epi nt opr ev entt hiski ndofexpl oi t
ation
andcoer ceowner st oof f
ermi nimum st andar dofwel far ef acili
t i
est ot hei rwor ker s.
Lawsar eenact edandenf orcedt ocompelt heowner st opr ov i
decongeni alwor king
condi tions t he pol ice t heor yt her efor e,pr escr ibes:a.Passi ng ofl aws r equi ring
empl oy erst o pr ov ide f ort he wel fare oft he wor kers,b.Per iodi calsuper v i
sion t o
ascer tai nt hatt hesewel faremeasur esar epr ov ided.c.Puni shmentofempl oy er si n
caseofnegl ectordi sobedi enceoft hel aw.7.ThePl acat ing t heor y– Thebasi c
assumpt i
onbehi ndt hi st heor yar e,wor ker sar ebecomi ngconsci ousoft heirr ightand
priv
ilegesandt heyar ewel di ngt hemsel v esi ntomor epower f
uldemandi ngandmi l
itant s
groupt hanev erbef or e.Thewor ker ’sdemandscannol ongerbei gnor ed.Ther ef ore, itis
necessar yt o appease t he wor ker s.Thi s coul d be done byt aki ng up t i
mel yand
periodi calwel far eact ivi
ties.Thewel fareact ivitiesar econsi der edaspaci fi
er s.Thi si s
alsot hebestmeansofsecur i
ngwor ker sco–oper at i
on.6.Wr itebr i
efnot eont he
foll
owi ng:a.Const ituent sofl abourwel far eact i
v i
tiesb.Causesf ort hesl owpr ogr essof
l
abourwel fareact ivitiesi nI ndi a.a.Const i
tuent sofl abourwel f areact ivit
ies– Dr .
Brought onhasdi videdl abourwel fareact iviti
esi nt ot wo br oadcat egor ies1.Ext ra
mut ualact iv i
ti
es 2.I ntra mut ualact iv i
ties Copyr i
ghtr eser v ed wi th Dr .S.Edwi n
Christ opher1.Ext ramut ualact ivities–Thesear etheact iviti
est hatar epr ovidedbyan
enter prisef ort hewel fareoft hei rempl oy eesout sidet heent er pr i
ses.Theseact iv i
ties
i
ncludet hef oll
owi ngi .Faci liti
esofr ecr eat ion.Fort hispur pose, thear rangementcanbe
madef orcl ubs,l ibrar i
es,r eadi ngr oom,gy mnasi um et c.i i
.Pr ov isionsf ornour ishi ng
food t ot he empl oy ees att he pr ice t hatt heycan af for d.i ii.Ar rangementofco
–oper at i
vesoci et i
esf rom wher et heempl oy eesmaypur chaset hegoodsandser v i
ces
ofdai lyuseatr easonabl epr i
ces.i v.Pr ov i
si onsf orgr atui tyandpensi on.v .Ar rangement
fort heeducat i
onandt rai ningf ort hewor ker sandt hef acili
tiesofeducat i
onf ort he
chil
dr en orwor ker s.v i.Ar r
angementofpr operhousi ng accommodat i
on f ort he
empl oy eesatt her entt hatt heycanaf for deasi ly.v i
i.Pr ov i
sionsf orpr ovidentf undv ii
i
.
Prov i
si onsf ort hebenef i
tsofsi cknessandmat ernity.i x.Faci litiesoft ranspor tationt o
coll
ectt heempl oy eesf r
om t heirhomesandt odr opt hem back.x.Gr oupi nsur ance
scheme.2.I ntramut ualact ivi
ties–I nt hi scat egor yofl abourwel far eact ivitiest hose
facil
itiesar ei ncludedwhi char emadeav ai lablet ot hewor kerswi thint heor gani sat ion.
Thesef aciliti
esi ncl udet hef ollowi ng:i .Ar rangementf ort hepr ev ent ionofacci dent s.It
i
ncludest hear rangementorpr ot ect ionagai nstdanger ousmachi nes,f i
reandext reme
fl
uct uat ionsofpoweret c.i i
.Faci l
itiesofheal thandmedi cal casef ort heempl oy eesand
theirf ami l
ymember si ii
.Ar rangementofpr operwor kingcondi tionssuchaspr oper
l
ight i
ng,f reshai r,dr inki ngwat er ,v ent il
at ionet c.iv .Sci ent ifi
csel ect i
onappoi nt mentof
wor ker sf ordi f
fer entj obs.v .Ot heract ivitiesf ort hewel fareofwor ker s,suchas–t he
facil
itiesofcant een,r estr oom cl ubset c.v i
.Pr ov i
sionofi ndust rialt rainingf ordi ffer ent
j
obs.b.Causesf ort hesl ow pr ogr essofl abourwel f
ar eact i
vitiesi nI ndia-Copyr ight
reserv edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr ist opher1.Theact spassedi nI ndi af ort hewel far eof
wor ker sar enotcoor dinat i
v ei nnat ur e.Theseact shav ebeenpassedi nunpl annedand
unsci ent if
icmanner .2.I nmostoft hei ndust ries,wor ker sar enotuni ted.Theyar enot
awar eoft hei rright s.3.Ther ei sal ackofi nitiat i
v eamongempl oy erst opr ov idesuch
facil
i
tiest ot hei rwor ker s.Theyf eelt hatt hemoneyspentonl abourwel fareact ivitiesi s
onlywast ageofmoney .What everf aci l
itiest heypr ov ide,t heyar epr ov i
di ng ei ther
becauseofl egalcompul sionorbecauseoft hepossi bilityofst r i
kebywor kers.4.Ther e
i
sal ackofpr operpl anni ngandsci ent ificappr oachi nl abouract ivit
iesbei ngunder taken
by the empl oy er s and gov ernmenti nt he count r
y 5.Ther ei sal ack ofpr oper
i
mpl ement ationofl abourwel far eact s.6.Wor ker sar eal sor esponsi blef orsuchsl ow
progress.Theydonothav eposi ti
veat titudet owar dst hei rempl oy ers.7.Di scussi nbr i
ef
thev ariousagenci esf orl abourwel farewor ki nI ndi a.Agenci esf orl abourwel farewor k
i
nI ndia–Thef ollowi ngagenci eswor kf ort hel abourwel f
ar ei nI ndi a:-a.Di rect or ate
Gener alofmi nessaf et y–Thedi rect orgener alofmi nessaf et yenf or cest hemi nesact ,
1952.Hei nspect sel ect ricali nst all
at ionandmachi ner ypr ov i
dedi nt hemi nesi nor dert o
preventspr eadoff ireanddangerofi nundat ion.Heal soi nv est i
gat esacci dent sand
conduct si ndust ri
alhy gienesur veys.Hei sent rust edwi t ht hepowerofpr osecut ioni n
caseofv iolationofst at ut orypr ov i
sions.b.Nat i
onal saf etycounci l –Thenat ional saf ety
counci lwassetupon4t hMar ch,1966i nBombayatt hei nitiat iveoft heUni onMi nist r
y
ofLabourandRehabi litat i
on,gov t,ofI ndi aasanaut onomousnat i
onalbodywi tht he
objectiveofgener atingdev el
opi ngandamov ementofsaf etyawar enessatt henat i
onal
l
ev el
.Theaf fairsoft hecounci lar emanagedbyaboar dofGov ernmentwhi chhas5
member sbesi dest hechai rmanwhoi snomi nat edbyt heGov t.ofI ndi a.TheDi rect or
Gener alwhoi sal sot hesecr etar yoft heboar dofgov ernor si st hechi efexecut iveoft he
counci lFol l
owi ngar et hemai nact ivitiesoft hiscounci l:1.I tl endsf i
lmst oitscor por ate
member sf orbei ngscr eenedt ot hei rempl oy eesf orcr eat ingsaf et yawar eness.2.I t
organizes conf er ence,semi nar s and sy mposi a on di ff erent t opi cs r elated t o
occupat ionalsaf et yandheal t hbot hatt henat ionalandi nt ernat ionall ev el.3.I tpr ov i
des
i
nformat ioncum t echni caladv i
cet oi tsmember sonspeci f icpr oblemsofsaf etyand
healthr ef erredbyt hem 4.I tmai ntainsl iaisonwi thi nternat ional agencyl ikeI .
L. O, W. H.O,
theBr itishsaf etycounci letc,Copyr ightr eser v edwi t hDr .S.Edwi nChr istopher5.I t
organizes nat i
onalsaf et y compet i
t i
on ( essay ,post erand sl ogan)ev eryy eart o
encour agecr eativ et hi nki ngatgr ossr ootl ev el .6.I tbr i
ngsoutaquar ter l
yj our nal

Indust rialsaf etychr oni cle’andamont hl ynewsl ett
er ,‘ I
ndust rialsaf etynews’i tal so
bri
ngsoutev eryy earot hert y
peofpubl icitymat erial topr opagat esaf et yconsci ousness.
7.Itconduct sbot hneedbasedandspeci al i
zedt rai
ni ngpr ogr ammesf oral lt ypesof
i
ndust ries.8.I tunder takessaf etyaudi t s, sur vey sandst udi esoft hei ndust r
ialpl ant son
specificr equestf rom i tsmember .c.Cent rall abouri nst itut e–Thei nst i
tut ewasetupi n
Bombayi n1966t of aci litatet hepr operi mpl ement ationoft hef act oriesact ,1948,t o
provideacent reofi nf or mat i
onf ori nspect or s, empl oyer s, wor ker sandot herconcer ned
witht hewel lbei ngofi ndust r
iall abourandt ost i
mul at ei nt eresti nt heappl icat ionof
pri
ncipl esofi ndust r
ialsaf ety,heal thandwel far e.Regi onall abouri nst ituteshav ebeen
setupi nCal cut ta,Madr asandKanpuri nor dert ogi v et hecont roll abouri nst itute
adequat ef ieldsuppor t.
SOCI
ALSECURI
TY

1.Whatdoy ouunder st andbysoci alsecur ity?Whatar ei tschar act erist i


cs?Di scusst he
element scov er edundersoci alsecur ity
?ORDef inesoci alsecur i
ty .Discussi tsessent ial
element s.Soci alSecur i
t y– Peopl ewi thl i
mi tedmeansofl i
vingcanhar dlypr ov i
de
effect ive secur it
y agai nst t he cont ingenci es l ike si ckness,mat ernity ,i nv al i
dity,
empl oymenti njur ies,unempl oy ment ,ol dage,deat handot heremer gencyexpenses.
Thisi sbasi cal lyduet ot hef actt hatt heydodon’ thav et hecapaci tyort hef or esi ghtt o
carry outapl anofsav ingori nsur ance.Thesecont i
ngenci esi mpai redt heabi lit
yoft he
wor ker st osuppor tt hemsel vesandt hei rdependent s.Br oadl yspeaki ng,t hei deaof
soci alsecur ityi st hat“ thest at eshal lmakei tsel fresponsi bl ef orensur ingami ni mum
standar dofmat er ialwel faret oal litsci tizensonabasi swi deenought ocov eral lthe
cont ingenci esofl i
fe”f rom t hewombt ot omb.I tenv isagest hatt hememberofa
communi tyshal lbepr ot ectedbyt hecol lect iveact i
onsagai nstsoci alr isks,causi ng
unduehar dshi pt oi ndi v idual swhosepr iv ater esour cescansel dom beadequat etomeet
them.I tcov er st hr oughandappr eci atesor gani sat i
ons, certai nr iskt owhi chaper soni s
exposed.The under lying phi l
osophybehi nd soci alsecur ityi st hus,t o pr ot ectan
i
ndi vidualwhocont ri
but esori sl ikel ytocont ribut et osoci alwel fare.Thehazar dst hat
necessi tatepr ot ect ionofi ndiv i
dual byt hesoci et yareessent ial l
yeconomi c, butatt imes
theymayev enbesoci al.Theser iskst owhi chani ndiv i
duali nsoci et yi sexposedar e
causedbyphy si cal (si ckness, inv alidity,ol dage, mat ernityCopyr ightr eser v edwi thDr .S.
Edwi nChr istopheracci dentanddeat h)andeconomi c( t
echnol ogi cal changeandbur den
oflar gef ami lies)f act or s.Bot hphy sicalandeconomi cr isksdepr iveani ndi v idualofhi s
earni ngpower .I ti st hesoci alsecur i
tyt hati sdesi gnedt oel i
mi natef i
v egi ant sofof
Bev er di
gev iz. ,want ,di sease,i gnor ance,squal orandi dl eness.“ Itisanat tackonf i
ve
giant s,v iz,want,di seases,i gnor ance,squal orandi deal ness”-Lor dBev iri
dge“Soci al
secur ityasacont rov er sialanddy nami csubj ectwi t
hv ar i
ousf acet s–phi losophi cal,
theor etical ,humani tar ian, financi al ,admi ni strat ive,soci al,economi c, pol i
tical ,st atistical,
actuar i
al,medi cal andl egal .
”-Weder&Cohen“Thesecur it
yt hatsoci et yf ur nishest oi t
s
membert hroughappr opr i
at eor gani sationagai nstcer tainr iskt owhi chi tsmemberar e
exposed.Ther isksar eessent iall
ycont ingenci esagai nstwhi cht hei ndi vidualwi thsmal l
meansandmeagerr esour cescannotef fect i
v elypr ov i
debyhi sownabi lityorf or esight
alone,orev eni ncombi nationwi thhi sf ellowst heser isksbei ngsi ckness,mat ernity,
i
nv alidity,ol dageanddeat h”-I .L. O “Soci alsecur i
tyasapr ogr ammeofpr ot ection
prov idedbyt hesoci et yagai nstt hecont i
ngenci esofmoder nl i
fei nsuchassi ckness,
unempl oy ment ,ol d age dependency ,acci dentand i nv alidism agai nstwhi ch t he
i
ndi vidualcannotbeexpect edt opr otecthi msel fandhi sf ami lybyhi sownabi li
tyor
foresi ght”-Fr iendl ander , Wal terA“Soci alsecur ityistheendev ouroft hecommuni ty,as
whol et oaf for di tsel ft ot heatmostext entpossi blet oanyi ndi vidualdur ingper iodsof
phy sicaldi str ess i nev i
t able on i llness ori njury and f r
om t he economi c di stress
consequenton r educt ion orl oss ear ni ngs due t oi l
lness di sabl ementmat ernity,
unempl oy ment ,ol dageordeat hoft hewor kingmember ”-I bi d“Soci alsecur ityast he
measur et osecur eani ncomet ot akepl aceofear ningswhent heyar ei nter rupt edby
unempl oy mentsi cknessoracci dent s,t opr ov i
def orr eti
rementt hroughol dage,t o
prov ideagai nstl ossofsuppor tbydeat hofanot herper sonsandt omeetexcept i
onal
expendi tureconnect edwi thbi rth,deat handmar riage.Thepur poseofsoci alsecur i
tyis
topr ov i
dei ncomeupt oami ni mum andal somedi calt reat mentt obr i
ngt hei nt errupt i
on
orear ningst oanendassoonaspossi ble.”I nshor t,soci alsecur it
yi st hepr ot ect i
onof
thewor keragai nstsi ckness,di seasesandi njury ,ar i
singoutofhi sempl oy ment ,the
protect ionofchi l
dr en,y oungper sonsandwomenpr ov i
sionsf orol dage& i njury.
Feat ur esCopyr ightr eser vedwi t
hDr .S.Edwi nChr i
st opher1.Thebenef itorser vicesar e
prov idedi nt hreemaj orwages:Soci alinsur ance, soci alassi stanceandpubl icser vi
ces.
2.Theyar eest abl i
shedbyl aws.3.Theypr ov idesomef or m ofcashpay mentt o
i
ndi vidualt or epl ace atl easta par toft he l osti ncome t hatoccur sdue t o such
cont ingenci esasunempl oy ment ,wor ki njur yi nv alidism,mat ernity,si cknessanddeat h
Element scov eredundersoci al secur i
ty–Thesei ncl ude1.Pay mentoff uner al expenses
2.Medi calcar ei n al lt i
mesofi l
lness.3.Pensi on i n old ageaf terr et i
rement .4.
Allowancedur ingt heper iodofunempl oy mentet c.5.Mat er nityf aci li
tiesandcash
all
owancesbef or eandaf tert hebi r
thofchi l
di ncaseoff emal e6.Pensi ondur i
ng
i
nv alidit y.Ai msofSoci alSecur ity1.Pr ev ent i
on2.Rest orat ion3.Compensat ion1.
Prev ent ion – i s desi gned t o av oidl oss ofpr oduct i
v e capaci ty due t o si ckness,
unempl oy mentori nv al i
dityandt or endert heav ai l
abl er esour ceswhi char eusedupby
avoidabl ediseasesandi dlenessandt husi ncr easest hemat er ialintellect ualandmor al
e
wel lbei ngofcommuni ty.2.Rest or ation– Rest or at i
oni mpl iescur eoft hesi ckand
i
nv alidr e–empl oy mentandr ehabi l
itation,andi si nsomeway s,anext ensi onoft he
earlierconcept soft hef unct ionsofsoci alsecur ity.3.Compensat ion–Compensat i
on
goest oi ncomesecur i
tyandi sbasedupont hei deat hatdur ingspel lofr isks,t he
i
ndi vidualandhi sf ami l
yshoul dnotbesubj ect edt oadoubl ecal ami t yinv olvingbot h
dest itutionandl ossofheal t
h,l i
mb,l ifeorwor k.Cov erageofsoci alsecur itymeasur es
Soci alsecur itymeasur e cov er sa wi de r ange ofact ivit
ies.“ Whi lei n mostoft he
count ri
es,al lgov ernment alpr ogr ammespl annedt omai ntaini ncomear ecal l
edsoci al
secur i
typr ogr ammes.Ther ear et womai ncur rent si nt hemov ementt owar dssoci al
secur i
ty ,v iz.,a.Soci alassi st ance b.Soci ali nsur ance These t wo di fferi nt heir
revol utionar ypr ocessandappr oach: theyhav ebedesi gnedt oser vet hesomeends, and
bot har ecompl ement aryandsuppl ement ar yt oeachot her.TheyCopyr ightr eser ved
withDr .S.Edwi nChr istopherar et wosi desoft hesamecoi nandf or m ani nt egr alpar t
ofsoci alsecur itysy st em ofacount ry.2.Wr itebr iefnot eont hef ollowi ngs:a.Soci al
i
nsur ance b.Soci alassi stance orpubl ic assi stance a.Soci ali nsur ance -Soci al
i
nsur ancei st hemet hodt ohel pi ndi viduali nt imesofcont ingenci est hr oughgr oup
effort s.Soci ali nsur ancei sacooper at i
v edev icewhi chai msatgr ant i
ngadequat e
benef it
st ot hewor ker scompul sor ybasi s,i nt i
mesofunempl oy ment ,si cknessand
otheremer genci es,wi t
hav i
ew t oensur eami nimum st andar dofl iving,outofaf und
creat edbyt hecont r
ibutionsofwor ker s,empl oyer sandt hest ate,Wi ll
iam Bener i
dge
descr ibed soci ali nsurance as t he gi v i
ng i nr et urnf orcont ribut i
on,benef i
tup t o
subsi stencel ev el,asofr i
ghtandwi thoutmeanst est .Soci ali nsur ancei sacol l
ect iveor
co–oper ativemet hodofpr ot ect i
ngi ndi v idualagai nstt hechi efr iskofl i
fe.I ti sbased
ont hepr emi set hatal t
houghacci dent sofl i
fear ei ncal cul abl ei nr egar dt oi ndi vi
dual s,
theymaybef oreseenandmeasur edwi thaf airdegr eeofexact itudei nr elationt o
groupsofi ndi vi
dual swher et heyoccurwi thr emar kabl er egul ar ity.Thi spossi bilityof
foret elling ev ent swi t
hr egar dt o gr oupsenabl et her i
skst o whi ch i ndiv idual sar e
exposedt obespr eadov erlar genumberofper sons.Thet er mi s, howev er, rest ri
ct edi n
i
tsappl icat iont oschemedesi gnedt opr ot ectwor kingcl assesagai nstv ariousi ndust rial
hazar ds.I ti sbasedoncompul sor ymut ualai dandmaybet racedbackt of ami ly
rel
at ionshi pundert hei nst i
tutionofj oi ntf ami ly.Ithasbeent hegr owt hofi ndi v i
dual ism
and i nf luence moder n civ i
lizat i
on,i nt roduct ion off act or y sy stem and t r
anspor t
revol ut i
ont hatl edt owar dsdi sint egr ationofj ointf ami l
ysy st em andt her ebygi v i
ngbi r
th
probl em ofeconomi csecur ityt obeser vedbyt hecommuni ty.Soci ali nsur ance,i ni ts
presentf orm ,i st hus,near ert ot hemut ualbenef itsoci et iesofwor ker swhi chwer e
formed wi tht hepur poseofhel ping oneanot heri smi sf ortunes.Soci ali nsur ance
schemeneedbebasedonawi deknowl edgeofsoci alpat hol ogyandast udyofcauses
andef fectofcommoni ndust rialr i
sks,f ort hei nci dentandsev er ityofr i
sksv aryf rom
count ryt ocount ry ,dependi ngonal argenumberoff act or sl ikeage,i ncome,hav ing
empl oy mentandl abourcondi ti
onsi ngener al.But ,i tdoesnotmeant hatt her ei s
actuar ialr elat i
onshi pbet weencont ribut ionandbenef itconf er redont hei nsur edunder
soci ali nsur ancescheme.Bei ngqui tedi st i
nctf rom t hecommer ciali nsur ancewher e
benef itsar epai daccor dingt ot heamountofcont ribut ion,t hati spr emi um basedon
actualst udies,soci alinsur ancei nv olv espay mentofcer tai nbenef itst ot heper sons
i
nsur ed wi th outanyconsi der ation ofhi s cont r i
but i
ons t ot he f und setup .No
mat hemat icalr elat i
onshi pbet weenbenef itandcont ribut ioni smai ntai nedundersoci al
i
nsur ancewhi chdoesnotenv i
sageanydi st inct i
onbet weengoodr iskandbadr isk.b.
Soci alAssi stance/ Publ icassi stance–Soci alornat i
onalassi st ancemaybedef i
nedas
a dev i
ce t o pr ov i
de benef i
ts condi t
ionalupon pr ov i
ded needs att i
me ofcal m ,
i
rrespect iveofpr ev iouscont ribution, butadj ust edi neachcase, andpai doutofnat ional
Copy r ightr eser ved wi th Dr .S.Edwi n Chr i
stopherexchequer ”.I tr epresent st he
“unilat er alobl i
gat ionoft hecommuni tyt owar dsi tsdependentgr oups” .Whi lebenef i
ts
undersoci ali nsur ancear egr ant edasamat t
erofr ightandwi thoutanymeanst est,
soci alassi stancei smadeav ailablet ot hosewhof ulfil
lcer t ainpr escr ibedcondi tions.I t
i
spr ov isi onofcer tai nreli
efbyt hest at eorl ocalbodi est ot hosewhoar ei nneedofi tto
meetcer taincont ingenci esunder‘ speci alcases’ .Thet er m publ i
corsoci alser v ices
i
ncl udebenef itsi ncashaswel last hepr ov isionofact ualser vicest ocer taingr oupsof
peopl ewhoar eassumedt oneedt hi s.Nopr eviouscont ribut i
oni sr equi redher easwel l
.
Itmaybenot edher et hatpr ovi
sionofmedi calcar eandchi ldrenal lowancesar et he
not abl ei nstancesofsoci alser vi
ces.I ti samat terofaspectofpubl icpol icyandt he
extentofi tspr ev alencei sameasur eoft hepr ogressmadebyacount r
yt owar dst he
i
dealofawel farest ate.Publ i
cser v icesofassi stancear eusual l
yf inanceddi r
ect lyby
thegov ernmentf rom i tsgener alrev enuei nt hef orm ofcashpay ment sorser v i
cest o
ever yi ndiv i
dualoft hecommuni tyf alli
ngwi thadef inedcat egor y .Theexampl esof
soci alassi st anceofpubl icser vi
cespr ogr ammesar emedi calandheal thser vicesof
gov er nment ,ol dagepensi on,unempl oy mental l
owanceset c.3.Whatsoci alsecur it
y
component sar ebei ngpr escr ibedbyI nter nat i
onall abouror gani sat ion?ORWr i
teabr i
ef
not eonI LO&soci al secur ity.ILO&soci al secur ity–I n1944, ILOst at edt hatpov er tyany
wher econst i
tutesadangert opr osper ityev erywher e.OnDecember10,1948,t he
Gener alAssembal y oft he Uni t
ed Nat i
ons adopt ed and pr oclai med t he uni versal
decl erat i
onofHumanRi ght sascommonst andar dsofachi ev ementf oral lnat i
ons,t he
decl arat i
onsay st hat :“ Ev eryonehast her ightt oast andar dofl i
v ing,adequat ef or
heal thandwel lbei ngofhi msel fandofhi sf ami l
yi ncludi ngf ood, clot hing, housi ngand
medi calcar eandt her i
ghtt osecur ityi nt heev entofunempl oy mentsi ckness, disabi l
ity,
widowhood, oldageorot herl ackofl ivelihoodi nci rcumst ancesbey ondcont rol.Inor der
toi mpl ementt hese,t heI LO tookt hef ollowingst eps1.I tcol l
ect edandspr eadt he
i
nf ormat i
onaboutsoci alsecur i
tyschemesi nv ariouscount ri
es.2.I tpr ovidest echni cal
assi stanceandgui dancesot hatsoci alsecur i
tyschemesmaybepr oper lyf ormul at ed
bymeansofcooper at i
onwi thot heror gani sat i
ons.3.I tt riedt ocr eat ei nt ernat ional
standar dsbywayofr ecommendat i
onsr egar dingt hedef initionofsoci alsecur it
y .In
1952,I LOconv ent iononsoci alsecur i
tymi nimum st andar ddi v i
dedsoci alsecur i
tyi nto
ninecomponent s:a.Si cknessbenef i
tCopyr ightr eser v edwi thDr .S.Edwi nChr istopher
b.Mat er nitybenef itc.Sur vivors’benef itd.Fami l
ybenef ite.Medi calcar ebenef itf .
Unempl oy mentbenef i
tg.Empl oymenti njur ybenef i
th.Ol dagebenef i
ti .Indi vi
dual ism
benef ita.Si cknessbenef it– Thi sshoul dcov ert owor kduet oamor bi dcondi tion
resul ti
ng i n al ossofear nings.Thi scal lsf orper i
odi cal spay ment sbased on t he
conv ent ionspeci fication.Thewor kerneed notbepai df ort hef irstt hr eeday sof
suspensi onofear ningsandt hepay mentofbenef itmaybel i
mi tedt o26weeksi ny ear .
b.Mat ernit
y benef its – The benef i
tshoul d cov erpr egnancy ,conf inementand
consequencer esul t
ingi nt hesuspensi onofear ning,Pr ov i
si onshoul dbemadet o
prov idemedi calcar ei ncl udingpr e– nat alconf i
nement s,postnat alcar eandal so
hospi talization,i fnecessar y,periodi calpay mentl imit edt o12weeksshoul dbemade
dur i
ngt heper iodofsuspensi onofear nings.c.Sur v i
v or’sbenef i
t–Thi sshoul dcov er
per i
odi calpay ment smadet oaf ami l
yf ol l
owi ngt hedeat hofi tsbr eadwi nnerand
shoul dcont inuedur i
ngt heent i
reper iodofcont ingency .d.Fami lybenef it–Thi sshoul d
cov err esponsi bil
ityf ort he mai nt enance ofchi l
dr en,dur ing t he ent i
re per iod of
cont ingency .Per i
odi calpay ment ,pr ov i
sions off ood housi ng,cl othi ng hol i
day s or
domest ichel pi nr espectofchi l
drenshoul dbepr ovidedt oaneedyf ami ly.e.Medi cal
care– Thi sshoul d cov erpr egnancy ,conf inementand i t
sconsequencesand any
diseaseswhi chmayl eadt oamor bidcondition.Theneedf orpr enatalcar e,i
naddi t
ion
tohospi t
ali
zation, wasemphasi zed.Amor bidcondi t
ionmayr equi regener alpractiti
oner
care,speci ali
stcar e,pr ov isi
onsofessent ialphar maceut i
cal sandhospi tali
zat i
on.f .
Unempl oymentbenef it– Thi sshoul dcov ert hel ossofear ningsdur ingawor ker’
s
unempl oyed per iod when he i s capable and av ail
ablef orwor k outbutr emai ns
unempl oyedbecauseofl ackofsui t
ableempl oy ment.Thisbenef itmaybel i
mitedt o13
weekpay menti nay ear ,
excl udingt hefi
rstsev enday sofwai tingper iod.g.Empl oy ment
i
njur ybenefit0Thi sshoul dcov ert hefoll
owi ngcont i
ngenciesr esul ti
ngfrom acci dentor
diseasesdur ingorf rom empl oymenti )mor bidcondi ti
oni i)t otalorpar ti
all ossof
earningcapaci tywhi chmaybecomeper manenti i
i
)i nabi
li
tyt owor kiv )deat hoft he
breadwi nneri nt hef amily,asar esultofwhi cht hef amilyi sdepr ivedoff i
nanci al
suppor t.Medi calcar eandper i
odicalpay mentcor respondingt oani ndi vi
dualneed
shoul dbeav ai l
abl eCopyr i
ghtr eservedwi thDr .S.Edwi nChrist opherh.Ol dagebenef it
– The benef itpr ovides f orpay mentt he quant um dependi ng upon an i ndividual’
s
wor kingcapaci t ydur ingt heper i
odbef orer etirement–ofacer t
ainamountbey onda
prescr i
bedageandcont inuest i
lldeath.i.Indi viduali
sm benef it–Thi sbenef itint he
form ofper i
odi calpay ment s,shoul dcov ert heneedsofwor ker swhosuf ferfrom any
disabili
tyar i
singoutofsi cknessoracci dentandwhoar eunabl etoengagei nany
gainfulact i
vit
y .Thi sbenef i
tshoul dcontinuet i
llinvali
dism changesi ntool dage,when
oldagebenef itwoul dbecomepay able.

UNI
T-4THEFACTORI
ESACT,
1948OBJECTANDSCOPEOFTHEACT

Themai nobj ectoft heFact or i


esAct ,1948i st oensur eadequat esaf etymeasur esand
topromot et heheal thandwel fareoft hewor kersempl oyedi nf actor i
es.TheActal so
makespr ovisi
onsr egar ding empl oy mentofwomen and y oung per sons( i
ncluding
chil
drenandadol escent s),annuall eav ewi t
hwageset c.TheActext endst owhol eof
Indi
ai ncl
udi ng Jammu & Kashmi rand cov ers al lmanuf acturing pr ocesses and
establi
shment sfalli
ngwi thint hedef init
ionof‘ factory’asdef inedunderSect i
on2( m)of
theAct .Unl essot her wisepr ovided i ti sal so appl i
cablet of actor i
esbel onging to
Central
/State Gov ernment s.( Section 116)I MPORTANT DEFI NITIONS Adul t“ Adult

means a per son who has compl eted hi s eighteenthy earofage.[ Sect i
on 2( a)
]
Adolescent“ Adolescent ”meansaper sonwhohascompl et
edhi sfifteenthy earofage
buthasnotcompl etedhi sei ght eent hy ear.[Section2( b)]CalendarYear“ CalendarYear ”
meanst heper i
odoft wel vemont hsbegi nningwi t
ht hef i
rstdayof Januar yi nanyy ear
.
[Secti
on2( bb)]Chi l
d“ Child”meansaper sonwhohasnotcompl etedhi sf ift
eenthy ear
ofage.[Section2( c)]Compet entPer son“ Compet entPer son”i nrelationt oanypr ov i
sion
ofthisAct,meansaper sonorani nst it
utionr ecognisedassuchbyt heChi efInspector
forthepur posesofcar ry i
ngoutt ests,exami nationsandi nspect ionsr equiredt obe
donei naf actoryundert hepr ov i
sionsoft hi
sActhav i
ngr egardt o( i)thequal i
fi
cations
and exper ience ofthe person and faci
li
ti
es avai
labl
e athis disposal
;or( i
i)the
quali
fi
cationsandexper i
enceoft hepersonsempl oy
edinsuchinstitut
ionandfaci
li
ti
es
avail
abl
et her ei
n.Withr egardt othe conductofsuch t ests,exami nat
ions and
i
nspectionsandmor ethanoneper sonorinsti
tut
ioncanberecognisedasacompet ent
personinr elati
ontoafactory
.[Sect
ion2(ca)
]

“Hazar dousPr ocess”meansanypr ocessoract ivityi nr el ationt oani ndust ryspeci fied
i
nt heFi rstSchedul ewher e,unl essspeci alcar eist aken,r awmat erialsusedt her einor
thei nt ermedi ateorf inishedpr oduct s,byepr oduct s,wast esoref fl
uent st her eofwoul d( i
)
causemat er i
ali mpai rmentt ot heheal thoft heper sonsengagedi norconnect ed
ther ewi th,or( ii)r esulti nt hepol l
ut i
onoft hegener alenv i
ronment ;Pr ov idedt hatt he
Stat eGov ernmentmay ,by not i
fi
cat i
oni nt heOf ficialGazet teamendt heFi rstSchedul e
bywayofaddi ti
on,omi ssi onorv ar iat
ionofanyi ndust ryspeci f
iedi nt hesai dSchedul e.
[Sect ion2( cb) ]“ YoungPer son”meansaper sonwhoi sei therachi l
doranadol escent .
[Sect ion 2( d)]“ Fact ory”i ncludes anypr emi ses i ncl udi ng t he pr ecinct st her eof( i)
wher eont enormor ewor kersar ewor ki
ng, orwer ewor ki ngonanydayoft hepr ecedi ng
twel vemont hs,andi nanypar tofwhi chamanuf act ur i
ngpr ocessi sbei ngcar riedon
witht heai dofpowerori sor dinar i
lysocar ri
edon;or( ii
)wher eont went yormor e
wor ker sar ewor king,orwer ewor kingonadayof thepr ecedi ngt wel vemont hs,andi n
anypar tofwhi chamanuf acturingpr ocessi sbei ngcar ri
edonwi t
houtt heai dofpower ,
ori sor dinarilysocar ri
edon.Butdoesnoti ncludeami nesubj ectt ot heoper ati
onoft he
Mi nesAct ,1952oramobi l
euni tbel ongingt ot hear medf orcesoft heUni onorar ailway
runni ngshed,orahot el ,r estaur antoreat i
ngpl ace.[ Sect ion2( m) ]Expl anat ionI :For
comput i
ngt henumberofwor ker sf ort hepur posesoft hi scl ause,al lthewor ker si n
differentgr oupsandr el ay si nadayshal lbet akeni ntoaccount .Expl anat ionI I:Fort he
pur posesoft hiscl auset hemer ef actt hatanEl ect roni cDat aPr ocessi ngUni tora
Comput erUni ti si nstalledi nanypr emi sesorpar tt her eof ,shal lnotbeconst ruedt o
makei taf act or yi fnomanuf act uringpr ocessi sbei ngcar r
iedoni nsuchpr emi sesor
par tther eof .(i)Essent ialel ement sofaf act ory:(1)Ther emustbeapr emi ses.( 2)Ther e
mustbeamanuf acturingpr ocesswhi chi sbei ngcar riedonori ssoor di nar il
ycar riedon
i
nanypar tofsuchapr emi ses.( 3)Ther emustbet enormor ewor ker swhoar e/ wer e
wor king i n such a pr emi ses on anydayoft he l ast12 mont hs wher et he sai d
manuf act uri
ngpr ocessi scar ri
edonwi tht heai dofpower .Butwher ethemanuf act uring
processi scar riedonwi thoutt heai dofpower ,ther equi rednumberofwor ker swor king
shoul dbet went yormor e.Thef ollowingar enotcov eredbyt hedef initionoff act or y:(i)
Rai l
wayr unni ngsheds,( ii)mi nes,( ii
i
)mobi leuni t sofar medf orces,( i
v )hot els,eat ing
places orr est aur ants.( ii)Meani ng ofwor ds “ premi ses and pr eci nct s”The wor d
“premi ses”i sagener i
ct erm meani ngopenl andorl andwi thbui ldingorbui ldingal one.
Thet er m‘ preci nct s’isusual lyunder stoodasaspaceencl osedbywal ls.Expr essi on

pr emi ses’i ncl udi ng pr eci nct sdoesnotnecessar il
ymean t hatt hepr emi sesmust
alway shav epr eci ncts.Itmer elyshowst hatt her emaybesomepr emi seswi thpr eci nct s
andsomepr emi seswi thoutpr eci nct s.Thewor d‘ incl udi ngi snotat erm’r est rict i
ngt he
meani ngoft hewor d‘ premi ses’ ,buti sat er m whi chenl ar gesi tsscope.Al lthel engt hof
rai
lwayl inewoul dbephasewi sef act ories( LABI C1999SC407) .Companyengagedi n
construct ionofr ai lwayl i
nei sf act or y.( LABI C1999SC407) .TheSupr emeCour tin
Ardeshi rH.Bhi wandi wal av .St ateofBombay ,AI R 1962S. C.29,obser v edt hatt he
l
egislat ure had no i nt ention t o di scrimi nate bet ween wor ker s engaged i n a
manuf act ur i
ngpr ocessi nabui l
di ngandt hoseengagedi nsuchapr ocessonanopen
l
andandhel dthatt hesal twor ks,i nwhi cht hewor kdonei sofconv er sionofseawat er
i
ntocr y stalsofsal t,comewi thint hemeani ngoft hewor d‘ premi ses’ .(iii
)Manuf act uring
processi sbei ngcar ri
edonoror di nar il
ysocar riedonThewor dor dinar il
y cameupf or
i
nterpr etationi nt hecaseof Empl oy er sAssoci at ionofNor ther nI ndi av .Secr et aryf or
LabourU. P.Gov t.Thequest ionwaswhet herasugarf act or yceasest obeaf actory
whennomanuf act ur i
ngpr ocessi scar r
iedondur i
ngt heof f-season.I twasobser v ed
thatthewor d‘ ordi naril
y ’usedi nt hedef initionoff act or ycannotbei nt erpr etedi nt he
sensei nwhi chi ti susedi ncommonpar lance.I tmustbei nt erpr etedwi thr ef er encet o
the intent ion and pur poses oft he Act .Ther ef or e,seasonalf actor ies orf act ories
carryi
ngoni ntermi tt
entmanuf act uringpr ocess,donotceaset obef act or i
eswi t hint he
meani ngoft heAct .( i
v)Tenort went ywor ker sThet hirdessent ialcont entof‘ fact ory’is
thattenormor ewor kersar eempl oy edi nt hepr emi sesusi ngpowerandt went yormor e
worker sar eempl oy edi nt hepr emi sesnotusi ngpower .Wher esev enwor ker swer e
empl oy edi napr emi seswher ethepr ocessofconv er ti
ngpaddyi nt or icebymechani cal
powerwascar ri
ed onand i nt hesamepr emi ses,t hr eeper sonswer et empor aril
y
empl oy edf orr epai rsofpar toft hemachi nerywhi chhadgoneoutofor derbutt he
manuf act ur i
ngwasgoi ng on,i twashel dt hatsi ncet her et empor ar yper sonswer e
worker s, consequent lyt
her ewer et enwor ker swor kingi nt he‘ premi ses’ andt hepr emi ses
i
saf act ory( AI R 1959,AI I.794) .Accor dingt oexpl anat i
ont oSect ion2( m) ,al lt he
worker si ndi f
f erentr elay sinadayshal lbet akeni ntoaccountwhi l
ecomput ingt he
numberofwor ker s.Bombay HighCour thel dt hatt hef actt hatmanuf act ur i
ngact ivit
yi s
carri
edoni nonepar tof thepr emi sesandt her estoft hewor ki scar r i
edoni nt heot her
partoft hepr emi sescannott aket hecaseoutoft hedef i
nitionoft hewor d‘ factor y’
whichsay st hatmanuf act uri
ngpr ocesscanbecar riedoni nanypar t.Thecut ti
ngoft he
woodsorconv ert i
ngt hewoodi nt opl anksi sessent i
al l
yapar toft hemanuf act uring
acti
v i
ty( Bhar atiUdy ogv .Regi onalDi rectorESICor pn. ,1982Lab.I .C.1644) .Awor kshop
ofPol y t
echni cI nst i
tution r egist er ed undert he Fact or i
es Acti mpar t
ing t echni cal
educat ion and hav i
ng powergener ating machi nes,was car rying on a t rade i na
systemat icandor gani sedmanner Hel d,itwi llcomeundert hedef initionoff act or yas
defi
nedunderSect i
on2( m)r eadwi thSect ion2( k)( 1981Lab.I .
C.NOC117) ..I tmeans
anypr ocessf or( i
)maki ng,al ter i
ng,r epai ri
ng,or nament i
ng,f inishing,packi ng,oi li
ng,
washi ng,cl eani ng,br eaki ngup,demol i
shi ng,orot her wi se,t reat i
ngoradopt ingany
arti
cleorsubst ancewi t
hav i
ew t oi tsuse,sal e,t r
anspor t
,del iveryordi sposal ;or( i
i
)
pumpi ngoi l,wat erorsewageoranyot hersubst ance;or( i
ii)gener ating,t ransf ormi ng,
transmi tti
ng power ;or( iv)composi ng t y pesf orpr int i
ng,pr int i
ng by l etter -press,
l
ithogr aphy ,phot ogr av ur eorot her simi larpr ocess,orbook- bi nding;or( v )const ruct i
ng,
reconst ructing,r epai ring,r efitting,f i
ni shingorbr eaki ngupshi psorv essel s;or( vi)
preser v i
ngorst or i
nganyar ti
cl ei ncol dst orage.[ Sect ion2( k)]Thedef i
ni t
ioni squi te
i
mpor tantandi thasbeent hesubj ectofj udi cialint erpr etationi nlar genumberofcases:
(i
)Whati s manuf act uring pr ocess The def ini ti
on ofmanuf act ur i
ng pr ocess i s
exhaust ive.Undert hepr esentdef initi
onev ent r
anspor ting, washi ng, cleani ng, oilingand
packi ng whi ch do noti nv olve anyt ransf or mat ion as such whi ch i s necessar yt o
const itut emanuf act ur i
ng pr ocessi ni tsgener i
csense,ar enonet hel esst r
eat ed as
manuf act uringpr ocess.Thedef initioni sar ti
ficiallypr oj
ect edbey ondt hescopeof
natur almeani ngofwhatt hewor dsmi ghtconv eyt huscov eri
ngv er yv i
der angeof
activities.Madr asHi ghCour ti nt hecaseofI nr e.Seshadr inat haSar ma,1966( 2)LLJ
235, hel dt hatt oconst itut eamanuf act uret her eshoul dnotbeessent iallysomeki ndof
transf ormat i
onofsubst anceandt hear t
icleneednotbecomecommer cial l
yasanot her
anddi fferentar ticlef rom t hatatwhi chi tbegi nsit sexi st encesol ongast her ehasbeen
ani ndi sput abl et ransf or mat ionof subst ancebyt heuseofmachi ner yandt ransf or med
subst ancei scommer ci allymar ket able.Di visionBenchofA. P.Hi ghCour thel dt hatt o
deter mi newher ecer tainpr emi sesi sf actor y,iti snecessar ythati tshoul dcar ryon
manuf act uring pr ocessand i tdoesnotr equiret hatt hepr ocessshoul d end i na
subst ancebei ngmanuf act ured( Al kaliMet al s(P)Lt d.v .ESICor pn. ,1976Lab. I.C. 186) .
Inanot hercasei twasobser vedt hatmanuf act uringpr ocessmer el yr ef erst opar t
icular
businesscar riedonanddoesnotnecessar il
yr ef ert ot hepr oduct ionofsomear ticle.
Thewor ksofl aundr yandcar petbeat i
ngwer ehel dt oinv olvemanuf act ur ingpr ocess.A
processempl oy edf orpur poseofpumpi ngwat eri smanuf act ur i
ngpr ocess.Eachof the
wor dsi n t he def i
ni t
ion has got i ndependent meani ng whi ch i tsel f const itutes
manuf act uring pr ocess.Fol lowi ng pr ocesseshav e been hel dt o be manuf act uring
processes:( 1) Sun- cur ed t obacco l eav essubj ect ed t o pr ocesses of moi st ening,
stri
ppi ng,br eaki ngup,adapt ion,packi ng,wi thav iew t ot ranspor tt ocompany smai n
factor yf ort hei rusei nmanuf actur ingci gar ette( V. P.Gopal aRaov .Publ icPr osecut or,
AIR1970S. C.66) .(2)Theoper ationofpeel i
ng, washi nget c.,ofpr awnsf orput tingt hem
i
ncol dst oragei sapr ocesswi thav iew t ot hesal eoruseordi sposaloft hepr awns
(R.E.DSouzav .Kr ishnanNai r,1968F. J. R.469) .(3)St itchi ngol dgunnybagsandmaki ng
them f itforuse.( 4)I npaperf act ory,bankasgr asspackedi ntobundl esmanual l
yand
despat chedt ot hef act or y.(5)Wor kofgar blingofpepperorcur inggi nger .(6)Pr ocess
carriedouti nsal twor ksi nconv er ti
ngseawat eri ntosal t
.( 7)Conv er sionofl atexi nto
sheetr ubber .( 8)Apr ocessempl oy edf ort hepur poseofpumpi ngwat er .( 9)Thewor k
doneon t hebangl esofcut ting gr oov esi nt hem whi ch l aterwoul d bef il
led wi th
colour ing,iscl ear lyast agei nor nament ationoft hebangl ewi thv iewt oi tssubsequent
usef orsal e.( 10)Pr epar ationofsoapi nsoapwor ks.( 11)Themaki ngofbi dies.( 12)
Ther awf il
m usedi nt heprepar at i
onofmov iesisanar ti
cleorasubst anceandwhenby
thepr ocessoft racing oradapt i
ng,af tert hesound ar eabsor bed and t hephot os
i
mpr int ed,itisr ender edf itt obescr eenedi naci nemat heat re,thensuchachange
woul d come wi thint he meani ng oft he t erm treati
ng oradapt ing anyar t
icl
e or
subst ancewi thav iewt oi
tsuse.( 13)Composi ngisanecessar ypar tofpr i
ntingprocess
andhencei ti
samanuf acturingpr ocess.I tcannotbesai dt hatt hedef ini
ti
onshouldbe
conf inedt ot hepr ocessby whichi mpr essioni screatedont hepaperandt onoot her
processpr ecedi ngorsucceedi ngt hemar ki ngoft hei mpressi onont hepapert obe
printed.Ev erything t hati s necessar ybef ore oraf tercompl ete pr ocess,woul d be
i
ncl udedwi thint hedef ini
ti
onoft hewor d‘ manuf acturi
ngpr ocess’ .Thedef init
iontakes
i
nal lact swhi chbr ingi nnotonl ysomechangei nthear t
icl
eor subst ancebutal sot he
actdonef ort hepr otecti
onandmai nt
enanceof suchart
icl
eby packi ng,oili
ng,washi ng,
cleani ng,et c.( P.Nat rajanv .E. S. I
.Cor porat i
on( 1973)26FLR 19) .(14)Pr eparation
offoodandbev er agesandi tssalet omember sofacl ub(CCIv .
ESI C,1992LABI C2029
Bom. ).( 15)Recei ving pr oduct si n bul k,i n packing and packi ng as percl ients
requi rement s(LLJI1998Mad.406) .

(16)Const ructionofr ail


way-useofr awmat er i
alslikesl eeper s,bol ts, l
ooser ail
set c.to
adapt ationoft heirusef orul t
imat elyf orl ayingdownr ai
lwayl i
ne( LABI C1999SC407;
LalMohmd.v .Indi anRai lwayConst r
uct i
onCo.Lt d.).( i
i)Whati snotamanuf act ur i
ng
processNodef i
niteorpr eciset estcanbepr escr ibedf ordet er mi ningt hequest i
on
whet herapar t
icularpr ocessi samanuf actur i
ngpr ocess.Eachcasemustbej udgedon
i
tsownf actsr egar dbei nghadt ot henat ureoft hepr ocessempl oyed,t heev ent ual
resultachi ev edandt hepr ev ail
ingbusi nessandcommer cialnot ionsoft hepeopl e.I n
decidingwhet herapar ticularbusi nessi samanuf act uri
ngpr ocessornot ,regar dmust
behadt otheci rcumst ancesofeachpar ti
cul arcase.Toconst ituteamanuf act ur i
ng
process,t heremustbesomet ransf ormat ioni .e.ar ti
clemustbecomecommer cially
knownassomet hingdifferentf rom whi chi tacqui r
edi tsexist ence.Fol lowi ngpr ocesses
arenotmanuf act uringpr ocesses:( 1)Exhi bitionoff i
lmspr ocess.( 2)I ndust ri
alschool
orInst i
tutei mpar t
ingt raini
ng,pr oduci ngcl oth,notwi thav iewt oi tssal e.( 3)Recei v i
ng
ofnewsf rom v ari
oussour cesonar eeli nat eleprint erofanewspaperof fi
ce,i snota
manuf acturingpr ocessi nasmuchasnewsi snott hear t
icleorsubst ancet owhi ch
Section2( k)(i
)hasr ef
erred.( 4)Anypr el iminar ypacki ngofr awmat er i
alf ordel i
v eringi t
tothef actory( AI R1969Mad.155) .(5)Fi nishedgoodsandpacki ngt her eof :F.Har ev .
StateAI R1955, 2710.Supr emeCour thashel dthatt hepr ocessunder t
akeni nzonaland
subst ationsandel ectri
citygener atingst ations, transf ormi ngandt ransmi ttingel ectricity
gener atedatt hepowerst at
iondoesnotf allwi thi nt hedef initionofmanuf act ur i
ng
processandcoul dnotbesai dt obef act ories… ( Wor kmenofDel hiEl ect r
icSuppl y
Under takingv .ManagementofD. E.S.U. ,AIR1973S. C.365) .“Wor ker ”meansaper son
empl oy eddi rect l
yorbyort hroughanyagency( i
ncl udingacont r act or)wi thorwi t
hout
knowl edge oft he pr incipalempl oyer ,whet herf orr emuner at i
on ornot ,in any
manufacturingpr ocess,orinanyot herkindorwor kincidentalto,orconnect edwith,t
he
manufacturingpr ocessort hesubj ectoft hemanuf act
ur i
ngpr ocessbutdoesnot
i
ncludeanymemberoft hearmedf orcesoft heUni on.[Section2( 1)]Thedef ini
ti
on
contai
nsf ol
lowingi ngredient
s:(i)Thereshoul dbean‘ empl oyedperson’ (
a)Meani ngof
thewor d“ empl oyed”:Theconceptof“ employment”i nvolvesthreei ngredient
s,viz.
employer,empl oyee,andcont ractofempl oy
ment .The‘ employer’isonewhoempl oys,
i
.e.
,onewhoWor kerengagest heserv i
cesofot herpersons.The‘ empl oyee’isonewho
worksforanot herforhi r
e.

The empl oyment i st he cont ract of ser vice bet ween empl oy er and empl oy ee
wher eundert heempl oy eeagr eest oser v et heempl oy ersubj ectt ohi scont roland
super vision.Thepr imaf aciet estf ordet ermi nat ionoft her elat ionshi pbet weent he
empl oy erandempl oy eei st heexi stenceoft her ightoft heempl oy ert osuper v i
seand
cont r
olt hewor kdonebyt heempl oy eenotonl yi nt hemat terofdi rect i
ngwhatwor kt he
empl oy eei st odobutal sot hemanneri nwhi chheshal ldohi swor k( Chi ntamanRaov .
StateofM. P.AI R1958S. C.388) .Ther efore,‘ super visionandcont rol’ist henat ur al
outcomewhenaper soni sempl oy edbyanot herper son.Mor eov er ,the‘ empl oy ment ’
referredt oi nt hesect ioni si nconnect i
onwi thamanuf act uri
ngpr ocesst hati scar ried
oni nt hef actorywhi chpr ocessnor mal l
ycal lsf oral argemeasur eofcoor dination
betweenv ar i
oussect ionsi nsideaf act oryandbet weenv ar iousindi v i
dual sev enwi t
hina
section.Theper sonswi llhav et obegui dedbyt hosepl acedi nsuper visor ycapaci t
y .A
certainamountofcont r
olist husnecessar i
lypr esenti nsuchacase.I nShankarBal aji
Waj ev .St ateofMahar ashtra, AIR1963Bom.236, thequest i
onar osewhet herbi diroller
i
sawor kerornot .Themanagementsi mpl ysay st hatt hel abour eri st opr oducebi dies
rol
ledi nacer tai
nf orm.Howt hel abour ercar riedoutt hewor kishi sownconcer nandi s
notcont rolledbyt hemanagement ,whi chi sconcer nedonl ywi thget t i
ngbi diesr oll
edi n
apar ticularst ylewi t
hcer taincont ents.TheSupr emeCour thel dt hatt hebi dirol lerisnot
awor ker .Thewhol econcept ionofser vicedoesnotf i
ti nwel lwi t
haser vantwhohas
ful
ll i
ber tyt oat tendt ohi swor kaccor dingt ohi spl easur eandnotaccor di ngt ot he
ordersofhi smast er .Wher et heempl oy erdi dr etaindi recti
onandcont r
olov ert he
wor kersbot hi nmanneroft henat ureoft hewor kas‘ alsoi tsdet ai l
st heywi l
lbehel das
wor kers.Adayl abour er,wher et herewasnoev idencet oshowt hathewasf reet owor k
forsuchper i
odashel i
kes,f reet ocomeandgowhenev erhechoseandf reet oabsent
himsel fathi sownsweetwi l
l,washel dt obeawor ker .Si mi l
ar l
y ,womenandgi rls
empl oy edi npeel ing,washi nget c.,ofconsi gnmentofpr awnsbr oughtont hepr emi ses
atanyt imeoft heday orni ght,wi thoutany speci fiedhour sofwor kandwi thoutany
cont r
olov ert heirat tendanceort henat ure,mannerorquant um oft heirwor kandwho
afterf i
nishi ngt hewor kgot oot herpr emi sesi nt hel ocal i
tywher esi mi l
arconsi gnment
ofpr awnsar er ecei ved,ar enotWor ker s( Stat eofKer alav .
R.E. DSouza) .(b)Whet her
rel
at i
onshi pofmast erandser vantnecessar y:Theexpr ession“ empl oy ed”doesnot
necessar il
yi nvolv et her elationshi pofmast erandser v ant .Ther ear econcei vabl ecases
i
nwhi chwher enosuchr el ationshi pexi st sandy etsuchper sonswoul dbewor ker s.The
expr essi onaper sonempl oyed,accor di ngt oJust iceVy as,meansaper sonwhoi s
act uallyengagedoroccupi edi namanuf act uringpr ocess,aper sonwhosewor ki s
act uallyut i
li
sedi nt hatpr ocess.Thedef initionofwor keri scl ear lyenact edi nt er msofa
per sonwhoi sempl oy edi nandnoti nt ermsofper sonwhoi sempl oyedby .I tis
i
mmat erialhow orbywhom hei sempl oyedsol ongashei sact ual lyempl oy edi na
manuf act uri
ng pr ocess. ( c) Pi ece- rat ewor ker s—Whet herwor ker s:Piece- r atewor kers
canbewor kerswi t
hi nthedef initionof‘ wor keri ntheAct ,butt heymustber egul arwor kers
andnotwor kerswhocomeandwor kaccor dingt ot hei rsweetwi ll( ShankarBal aj iWaj e
v.St at eofMahar asht ra,AI R1967S. C.517) .Inanot hercasewor kmenhadt owor kat
bidif act or ywhent heyl iked.Thepay mentwasmadeonpi ecer ateaccor di ngt ot he
amountofwor kdone.Wi thi nt hef act or y ,theywer ef reet owor k.Butt hecont r oloft he
manneri nwhi chbi di eswer er eady ,byt hemet hodofr eject i
ngt hosewhi chdi dnot
comeupt ot hepr operst andar ds.I nsuchacasei twasexer cisedwhi chwasi mpor tant
(BirdhiChand Shar ma v .Fi rstCi vilJudge,Nagpur ,AI R 1961 SC 644) .Ther ef ore,
what ev ermet hodmaybeadopt edf ort hepay mentofwages, thei mpor tantt hingt osee
i
swhet hert hewor ker swor kundersuper vi
sionandcont roloft heempl oy er.I tmakesno
differencewhet hert hewor kerempl oy edi nt hemanuf act uringpr ocessi spai dt imer ate
wagesorpi ecer atewages.( d)Thepar t
ner sofaconcer n,ev ent hought heywor kon
premi sesi nthef act orycannotbeconsi der edt obewor ker swi t
hinSect ion2( 1) :( 1958
(2)LLJ252SC) .( e)Ani ndependentcont ractor :Hei saper sonwhoi schar gedwi th
wor kandhast opr oduceapar t
icul arr esul tbutt hemanneri nwhi cht her esul ti st o
achi ev edi sleftt ohi m andast her ei snocont rolorsuper vi
sionast ot hemanneri n
whi chhehast oachi evet hewor k,hei snotawor ker .( ii
)Empl oy mentshoul dbedi rect
ort hroughsomeagencyThewor dsdi rect l
yorbyort hr oughanyagencyi nt hedef inition
i
ndi cat et hatt heempl oy menti sbyt hemanagementorbyort hr oughsomeki ndof
empl oy mentagency .I nei thercaset her ei sacont ractofempl oy mentbet weent he
managementandt heper sonempl oy ed.Ther eshoul dbeapr ivityofcont ractbet ween
them andt hemanagement .Onl ysuchper soncanbecl assifiedaswor kerwhowor ks
eitherdi rectlyori ndi rect l
yort hroughsomeagencyempl oyedf ordoi nghi swor ksof
any manuf acturingpr ocessorcl eani ng, etc.,wi thwhi cht hef act oryi sconcer ned.I tdoes
notcont empl at et hecaseofaper sonwhocomesandt hatt oowi thouthi si nt er v ent ion
eitherdi r
ect l
y,ori ndi r
ect ly ,and doessomewor kont hepr emi sesoff act or y .( ii
i)
Empl oy mentshoul dbei nanymanuf act uringpr ocesset c.Thedef i
nitionof“ wor ker ”is
fairlywi de.I tt akeswi thini tssweepnotonl yper sonsempl oy edi nmanuf act ur i
ng
process butal so i n cl eani ng anypar toft he machi ner yand pr emi ses used f or
manuf act uri
ngpr ocess.I tgoesf arbey ondt hedi rectconnect ionwi tht hemanuf act ur i
ng
processbyext endi ngi tt oot herki ndsofwor kwhi chmayei therbei nci dent alt oor
connect edwi thnotonl yt hemanuf act ur ingpr ocessi tselfbutal sot hesubj ectoft he
manuf act uri
ngpr ocess( Wor ksManager ,Cent ralRly .Wor kshopJhansiv .Vi shwanat h
andot her s),t heconceptofmanuf act uringpr ocesshasal readybeendi scussed.The
meani ngoft heexpr essi onempl oy edi ncl eani nganypar tofmachi ner y,et c.”and
empl oy edi nwor ki ncident alt o.pr ocess, aredi scussedbel ow:( a)Empl oy edi ncl eani ng
anypar tofmachi ner yet c.:Ifaper soni sempl oyedi ncl eani nganypar toft hemachi ner y
premi seswhi chi susedf ormanuf actur i
ngpr ocess,hewi l
lbehel daswor ker .( b)
Empl oy ed i n wor ki ncident alt o pr ocess:Thi scl ausei sv eryi mpor tantbecausei t
enlar gest hescopeoft het er m, manuf actur i
ngpr ocess.Fol l
owi ngi llust rativecaseswi l
l
clarifyt hemeani ngoft hi scl ause:( 1)I nShi ndev .BombayTel ephones,1968( 11)LLJ
74, itwashel dt hatwhet hert hewor kmanst andsout si det hef actor ypr emi sesori nside
i
t,ifhi sdut iesar econnect edwi tht hebusi nessoft hef actor yorconnect edwi tht he
factor y,hei sr eallyempl oy edi nt hef actor yandi nconnect i
onwi tht hef act or y.( 2)I n
Wor ksManager ,Cent r
alRl y.Wor kshopJhansiv .Vi shwanat handot her s,i twashel d
thatt hedef initi
onofwor kerdoesnotexcl udet hoseempl oy eeswhoar eent rust ed
solel y wi th cl ericaldut ies,i fthey other wi se f al lwi thint he def inition of ‘
wor ker.
Timekeeper sempl oy edt omai ntainat tendanceoft hest aff,jobcar dspar ticular l
yoft he
variousj obsunderoper ation,andt imesheet soft hest af fengagedi npr oduct i
onof
spar epar ts,r epair s,et c.;andheadt ime- keeperwhosuper viset hewor koft het ime-
keeper s,per for m wor kwhi chi si nci dent alt oorconnect edwi tht hemanuf act ur i
ng
processcar riedoni nt hef act oryandwoul dt heref or e,f allwi thint hedef initionoft he
wor keri nt heAct .( 3)Muni mi naf act oryi sawor ker .( 4)Wor kmeni ncant eenat tached
toaf act oryar eempl oy ees.( 5)Aper sonempl oyedbyagasmanuf act ur i
ngwor ksasa
cool ief orexcav at i
nganddi ggingt renchesout sidet hef act oryf orl ay ingpi pesf or
transpor tinggast oconsumer s,cannotbehel dt obeawor ker( AI R1961Bomb.184) .(6)
Per sonempl oy edt osuppl ymat erialt oamasonengagedi nconst ruct ionoff ur nacewi l
l
bedeemedt obeempl oy edbyt hef actor yt oawor ki nci dent alt oorconnect edwi th
manuf act uri
ngpr ocess.( 7)I nasoap- wor ks, acar pent erpr epar ingt hepacki ngcasesi s
awor kerbecausehemi ghtl egitimat elybeconsi der edt obeengagedi naki ndofwor k
i
nci dent alt o orconnect ed wi tht he subj ectoft he manuf act ur i
ng pr ocess,v iz.
,
packagi ngofsoapf orbei ngsentoutf orsal e.( 8)Int hecaseofRoht asI ndust r i
esLt d.v.
Raml akhanSi nghandot her s,A. I.R.1971SC849,aper sonwasempl oyedi napaper
factor y.Hewasengagedi nsuper v i
si ngandchecki ngqual i
tyandwei ghmentofwast e
paper sandr agswhi char et hebasi cr awmat er i
al fort hemanuf actur eofpaper .Heused
todealwi thr ecei pt sandmai ntainr ecor dsofst ockandpasst hebi lloft hesuppl ierof
wast epaperandr ags.Heusedt owor ki nt hepr ecinct soft hef act or yandi ncaseof
necessi tieshadt owor ki nsidet hef act ory.TheSupr emeCour thel dt hathewaswor king
i
nt hef act ory premi sesori tspr ecinct si nconnect ionwi t
ht hewor koft hesubj ectoft he
manuf act uri
ng pr ocess,namel yt he r aw mat er i
al .( iv)Empl oy mentmay be f or
remuner at i
onornotAper sonwhor eceiv eswagesasr emuner ationf orhi sser vices,a
personwhor ecei v esr emuner ati
ononpi ece-wor kbasi s, aper sonmaybewor kingasan
appr ent ice,andaper sonwhoi sahonor ar ywor ker ,al lcomewi thint hedef i
ni ti
onofa
wor ker .Ther eforet obeawor ker,i ti si mmat er ialwhet heraper soni sempl oy edf or
wagesorf ornowages.( v)Anymemberoft hear medf or cesoft heUni oni sexcl uded
from t hedef i
ni t
ionofwor ker( v i
)Whet heral lempl oy eesar ewor ker s?Si ncet hewor d
empl oy eehasnotbeendef inedi nt heActi tf ollowst hatal lthewor ker swi thint heambi t
oft hedef i
nitionundert heActwoul dbeempl oy ees,whi l
eal lempl oy eeswoul dnotbe
wor ker s(Har bansl al v
.St ateofKar nat aka, ( 1976) 1Kar nt .
J. 111) .
Al l per sonsempl oy edi n
orinconnect ionwi thaf act or ywhet herornotempl oy edaswor ker sar eent i
tledt ot he
benef itsoft heAct( Uni onofI ndi av .G. M.Koki l
,1984SCC ( L&S)631) .Oncei ti s
establ ishedpr imaf aciet hatpr emi sesi nquest ioni saf act or ywi thi nt hemeani ngoft he
Act ,t
hepr ovisionsofSect ion103ast ot hepr esumpt i
onofempl oy mentar ei mmedi at ely
attract edandonust opr ov et hecont rar yshi ftst ot heaccused( Pr aful bhaiPat adi av .
TheSt ate,1976( 12)E. L.R.329) .Occupi erSect ion2( n)oft heActdef i
nest het er m
“occupi er”asaper sonwhohasul ti
mat econt rolov ert heaf fairsoft hef actor y:Pr ov ided
that( i
)i nt hecaseofaf i
r m orot herassoci at i
onofi ndi v i
dual s, anyoneoft hei ndi vidual
partner sormember st her eofshal lbedeemedt obet heoccupi er;( ii
)i nt hecaseofa
company ,anyoneoft hedi r
ect ors,shal lbedeemedt obet heoccupi er ;(i
ii)int hecase
ofaf actor yownedorcont rolledby theCent ralGov ernmentorany Stat eGov ernment ,or
anyl ocal author ity,theper sonorper sonsappoi nt edt omanaget heaf fairsoft hef act or y
byt heCent ral Gov ernment ,theSt at eGov ernmentort hel ocal aut hor ity,ast hecasemay
be, shal lbedeemedt obet heoccupi er.Pr ov i
dedf ur thert hati nt hecaseofashi pwhi ch
i
sbei ngr epai red, oronwhi chmai nt enancewor ki sbei ngcar r
iedout ,i
nadr ydockwhi ch
i
sav ailablef orhi re( 1)t heowneroft hedockshal lbedeemedt obet heoccupi erf ort he
purposesofanymat t
erpr ov idedf orbyorunder( a)Sect ions6,7,7A,7B,11or12;( b)
Sect i
on17i nsof arasi trelat est ot hepr ovidi ngt hemai ntenanceofsuf fi
cientand
suitabl elight i
ngi norar oundt hedock; ( c)Sect i
ons18, 19, 42, 46, 47or49i nr el ationt o
thewor kersempl oy edonsuchr epai rormai nt enance;( 2)Theowneroft heshi porhi s
agentormast erorot herof fi
cer -in-char geoft heshi poranyper sonwhocont ract swi th
such owner ,agentormast erorot herof fi
cer -in-char ge t o car ryoutt her epai ror
mai ntenancewor kshal lbedeemedt obeoccupi erf ort hepur posesofanymat ter
prov i
dedf orbyorunderSect i
ons13,14,16or17( sav easot her wi sepr ov idedi nt his
prov i
so)orChapt erI V( exceptSect ion27)orSect ions43,44,or45,Chapt erVI ,VI I,VI I
I
orIXorSect ions108, 109or110, i
nr elat i
ont o( a)t hewor ker sempl oy eddi rect l
ybyhi m,
orby ort hr oughanyagency ,and( b)t hemachi ner y,pl antorpr emi sesi nusef ort he
purposeofcar ryi
ngoutsuchr epai rormai ntenancewor kbysuchowner ,agent ,mast er
orot herof fi
cer -
in-char georper son.Sect i
on101pr ov idesexempt ionsf rom l i
abi li
tyof
occupi erormanager .I tper mi tsanoccupi erormanagerofaf act or ywhoi schar ged
wi t
hanof fencepuni shabl eundert heActt obr ingi nt ot heCour tanyot herper sonwhom
hechar gesact ualof f
enderandal sopr ovest ot hesat isfact ionoft heCour tthat :( a)he
hasusedduedi ligencet oenf or cet heexecut ionoft hisAct ;and( b)t hatt heof fencei n
quest ionwascommi tt edwi thouthi sknowl edge,consentorconni vance,byt hesai d
otherper son.Theot herper sonshal lbeconv i
ct edoft heof fenceandshal lbel iablet o
thel ikepuni shmentasi fhewer et heoccupi erormanageroft hef act ory .Insuchacase
occupi erormanageroft hef act oryi sdi schar gedf rom l iabi li
ty .TheSect ioni san
except iont opr i
nci plesofst rictl iabi l
i
ty ,butbenef itoft hi swoul dbeav ai lableonl ywhen
ther equi rement soft hissect ionar ef ullycompl iedwi thandt hecour ti sf ullysat isfied
aboutt hepr oofoff act scont empl atedi n( a)and( b)abov e.TheSt at eGov ernment s
assumet hemai nr esponsi bilityf oradmi nistrat i
onoft heActandi tsv ar iouspr ov i
sions
byut ili
singt hepower sv est edi nt hem.Sect ion3empower st heSt at eGov ernmentt o
maker ulesf orr eferencest ot i
meofdaywher eI ndianSt andar dTi me, bei ng5- 1/ 2hour s
aheadofGr eenwi chMean- Ti mei snotor di
nar ilyobser ved.Theser ulesmayspeci fyt he
area, definet hel ocalmeant imeor dinar il
yobser v edt herei n,andper mi tsucht i
met obe
obser vedi nal loranyoft hef act oriessi tuat edi nt hear ea.TheSt at eGov ernment
assumespowerunderSect ion4oft heActt odecl aredi ffer entdepar tment st obe
separ atef act oriesort woormor ef actor i
est obesi nglef act or yf ort hepur posesoft his
Act .Thi spowerwi llbeut ili
sedbyt heSt at eGov ernmentei theroni tsownoronan
appl icat i
onmadet oi tbyt heoccupi er .Butnoor dercoul dbemadeoni tsownmot ion
unlessoccupi erishear di nt hisr egar d.I ncaseofpubl icemer gency ,Sect ion5f urther
empower st heSt at eGov er nmentt oexemptbynot i
ficat i
onanyf act or yorcl assor
descr i
pt i
onoff act or i
esf rom al loranyoft hepr ovisionsoft hisActexceptSect i
on67
forsuchper iodandsubj ectt osuchcondi ti
onsasi tmayt hi nkf it,howev ernosuch
not i
f i
cat ionshal lbemadeexceedi ngaper iodoft hreemont hsatat ime.Expl anat iont o
Sect ion5def inespubl i
cemer gencyasasi tuat ionwher ebyt hesecur ityofI ndi aorof
anypar toft het er r
itor yt her eofi st hreat enedwhet herbywarorext er nalaggr essi onor
i
nt ernaldi stur bance.TheSt at eGov er nment scar r
youtt headmi ni strat ionoft heAct
through:( i
)I nspect i
ngSt af f( ii
)Cer ti
f yi
ngSur geons( iii
)Wel far eOf ficer s( iv )Saf ety
Off i
cer s.( i) The I nspect ing St aff Appoi ntment :Sect ion 8 empower st he St ate
Gov ernmentt oappoi ntI nspect or s,Addi ti
onalI nspect or sandChi efI nspect ors,such
per sons who possess pr escr ibed qual ifi
cat ions.Sect ion 8( 2)empower st he St ate
Gov ernmentt o appoi ntany per son t o be a Chi efI nspect or.To assi sthi m,t he
gov er nmentmayappoi ntAddi tional ,Joi ntorDeput yChi efI nspect or sandsuchot her
officer sasi tt hi
nksf it[ Sect i
on8( 2A) ].Ev eryDi strictMagi st r
at eshal lbeanI nspect orf or
hisdi st r
ict .The St ate Gov er nmentmayappoi ntcer tain publ icof ficer s,t o be t he
Addi t
ionalI nspect orsf or cer tain ar eas assi gned t ot hem [ Sect ion 8( 5)].The
appoi ntmentof Inspect ors,Addi t
ional Inspect or sandChi ef I
nspect orcanbemadeonl y
byi ssui nganot i
ficat i
oni nt heOf f
icialGazet te.Wheni nanyar ea,t her ear emor e
i
nspect orst hanone,t heSt ateGov ernmentmaybynot if
icat ioni nt heOf fici
alGazet te,
decl ar et hepower swhi chsuchI nspect or sshal lrespect i
v elyexer ci seandt heI nspect or
towhom t hepr escr ibednot icesar et obesent .Inspect orappoi nt edundert heActi san
Inspect orf oral lpur posesoft hisAct .Assi gnmentofl ocalar eat oani nspect ori swi thin
thedi scr et i
onoft heSt ateGov er nment .AChi efI nspect ori sappoi nt edf ort hewhol e
Stat e.Heshal li naddi tiont ot hepower sconf erredonaChi efI nspect orundert hisAct ,
exer ciset hepower sofanI nspect ort hr oughoutt heSt ate.Ther ef or e,ifaChi efI nspect or
fil
es a compl ai nt,t he cour tcan l egallyt ake congni zance ofan of fence.Ev en
assi gnmentofar easunderSect ion8( 6)doesnotmi li
tatei nanywayagai nstt hev iew
thatt heChi efI nspect orcanf ileacompl aintenabl ingt hecour ttot akecongni zance.The
Addi tional,Joi ntorDeput yChi efI nspect or soranyot herof f
icersoappoi nt edshal li n
addi tiont ot hepower sofaChi efI nspect or,exer ciset hepower sofanI nspect or
throughoutt heSt ate.Power sofI nspect orsSect ion9descr ibest hepower soft he
Inspect orssubj ectt oanyr ulesmadei nt hi sbehal ffort hepur poseoft heAct .An
Inspect ormayexer ciseanyoft hef ollowi ngpower swi thint hel ocall imi t
sf orwhi chhe
i
sappoi nted:1.Hecanent eranypl acewhi chi susedorwhi ch,hehasr easonst o
believ e,i susedasaf act or y.2.Hecanmakeexami nat ionoft hepr emi ses,pl ant ,
machi ner y,ar ticleorsubst ance.I nqui r
ei ntoanyacci dentordanger ousoccur rence
whet herr esul tingi nbodi l
yi njur y,di sabi l
ityornot ,andt akeont hespotorot her wi se
statement sofanyper sonwhi chhemayconsi dernecessar yf orsuchi nqui ry .3.Requi re
thepr oduct ionofanypr escr ibedr egi steroranyot herdocumentr elatingt ot hef act or y
.
Seize, ortakecopi esofanyr egi ster ,recor dofot herdocumentoranypor tiont her eof .4.
Take measur ementand phot ogr aphs and make such r ecor dings as he consi der s
necessar yfort hepur poseofanyexami nat i
on.5.I ncaseofanyar ti
cleorsubst ance
foundi nanypr emi ses,bei nganar ti
cl eorsubst ancewhi chappear st ohi m ashav i
ng
causedori sl i
kel yt ocausedangert ot heheal thorsaf etyoft hewor ker s, directi tt obe
dismant l
edorsubj ecti tt oanypr ocessort est( butnotsoast odamageordest royi t
unlesst hesamei si ntheci rcumst ancesnecessar y,forcar ry i
ngoutt hepur posesoft his
Act )andt akepossessi onofanysuchar ti
cleorsubst anceorapar tther eof ,anddet ai
ni t
forso l ong asi snecessar yf orsuch exami nat ion.Pr oduct ion ofdocument sThe
Fact or i
esActr equi r
est hemai nt enanceofcer tainr egist er sandr ecor ds.I nspect or s
hav ebeenempower edt oaskf ort hepr oduct i
onofanysuchdocument smai nt ained
underl aw,andt henoncompl ianceoft hishasbeenmadeanof f
ence.Sect ion10
prov idesf ort heappoi ntmentoft heCer tifyi
ngSur geonsbyt heSt ateGov er nmentf or
thepur poseoft hisActt oper form suchdut i
esasgi venbel owwi thinsuchl ocall imi tsor
forsuchf actor yorcl assordescr i
pt i
onoff act or i
esasmaybeassi gnedt oCer tifyi
ng
Sur geon:( a)t heexami nat ionandcer tifi
cat i
onofy oungper sonsundert hisAct ;(b)t he
exami nat i
on ofper sons engaged i nf actor ies i n such danger ous occupat ions or
processesasmaybepr escr ibed; (c)t heexer cisingofsuchmedi calsuper v i
si onasmay
bepr escr i
bedf oranyf act oryorcl assordescr ipti
onoff actor ies.( ii)Cer tifyingSur geons
(ii
i)Wel fareOf ficerSect i
on49oft heActi mposesst atutoryobl igat ionupont heoccupi er
oft hef actoryoft heappoi ntmentofWel far eOf f
icer /swher ei n500ormor ewor ker sar e
ordinar ilyempl oy ed.Dut ies,qual ificationsandcondi ti
onsofser vicemaybepr escr ibed
by t he St ate Gov ernment .( i
v)Saf et y Of ficerSect ion 40- B empower st he St at e
Gov er nmentf ordi rect i
ng aoccupi eroff act oryt o empl oysuchnumberofSaf ety
Officer sasspeci f
iedbyi twher emor et han1, 000wor ker sar eempl oy edorwher e
manuf act uringpr ocessi nv olvesr iskofbodi lyi njur y ,poi soni ngordi seaseoranyot her
hazar dt o heal t h oft he per sons empl oy ed t her ein.The dut i
es,qual if
ications and
wor ki ng condi tions may be pr escr ibed by t he St ate Gov ernment .APPROVAL,
LICENSI NG AND REGI STRATI ON OF FACTORI ES Sect ion 6 empower st he St at e
Gov ernmentt omaker uleswi thr egar dt ol i
censi ngandr egi st rati
onoff actoriesunder
theActonf ollowi ngmat ters:( i)submi ssionofpl ansofanycl assordescr iptionof
fact ories t ot he Chi efI nspect orort he St ate Gov ernment ;( ii
)obt aining pr ev i
ous
per mi ssionoft heSt ateGov ernmentort heChi efI nspect or,fort hesiteonwhi chf act ory
i
st obesi tuat edandf orconst ructionorext ensi onofanyf act or yorcl assordescr ipti
on
off act ories.Howev er,r epl acementoraddi tion ofanypl antormachi nerywi thin
prescr i
bedl imi t
s, shal lnotamountt oext ensi onoft hef act ory,i fitdoesnotr educet he
mi nimum saf ewor kingspaceoradv ersel yaf fectt heenv ironment alcondi t
ionswhi chi s
i
njur ioust oheal th;( iii
)consi der i
ngappl i
cat i
onsf orper mi ssionf ort hesubmi ssi onof
plansand speci ficat ions;( iv)nat ureofpl ansand speci ficat ionsand t heaut hor it
y
cert i
f yi
ng t hem;( v )r egist ration and l i
censi ng off actor i
es;( vi
)f ees pay abl ef or
regist rationandl icensi ngandf ort her enewalofl icences;( vi
i)l icencenott obegr ant ed
orr enewed unl ess not i
ce speci fied underSect ion 7 has been gi ven.NOTI CE BY
OCCUPI ERSect ion7i mposesanobl igat i
onont heoccupi erofaf act oryt osenda
wr i
ttennot ice,cont ai ningpr escr ibedpar t
icular s,t ot heChi efI nspect oratl east15day s
bef or eanoccupi erbegi nst ooccupyoruseapr emi sesasaf act oryandatl east30day s
bef or et hedat eofr esumpt i
onofwor ki ncaseofseasonalf actor ies,i .e.f act ories
wor ki ngf orl esst han180day sinay ear .Cont ent sofnot iceAnot i
cemustcont ain
followi ngpar ti
cul ar s:( 1)Thenameandsi tuat ionoft hef act ory.( 2)Thenameand
addr essoft heoccupi er.(3)Thenameandaddr essoft heowneroft hepr emi sesor
buildi ng( incl udi ngt hepr eci nct s,et c.,ther eofr efer redt oi nSect i
on93) .( 4)Theaddr ess
atwhi chcommuni cat ionr elat i
ngt ot hef act oryshoul dbesent .( 5)Thenat ureof
manuf act uringpr ocesst obecar riedoni nt hef act or ydur i
ngnext12mont hs.( 6)The
totalr atedhor sepoweri nst alledort obei nst al l
edi nt hef act or ywhi chshal lnoti nclude
ther atedhor sepowerofanysepar atest andbypl ant .(7)Thenameoft heManagerof
thef actor yf ort hepur poseoft hisAct .( 8)t henumberofwor ker sli
kel yt obeempl oy ed
i
nt hef act or y .( 9)Suchot herpar ticular sasmaybepr escr i
bed.Not i
cewher enew
manageri sappoi ntedWhenev eranewmanageri sappoi nted, t heoccupi ershal l sendt o
theI nspect orawr ittennot iceandt ot heChi efI nspect oracopyt her eof ,wi thinsev en
day sf r
om t hedat eonwhi chsuchper sont akesov erchar ge.Whent her ei snomanager
– occupi erdeemed as managerDur ing a per iod f orwhi ch no per son has been
desi gnat edasManagerofaf actor yordur i
ngwhi cht heper sondesi gnat eddoesnot
managet hef act or yanyper sonf oundact i
ngasmanager ,wi llbet hemanagerf ort he
pur posesoft heAct .Wher enosuchper soni sf oundt heoccupi ershoul dbedeemedt o
bet hemanageroft hef act or y
.16EP- IL&GLGENERALDUTI ESOFTHEOCCUPI ER
Sect i
on7Ai si nsertedbyt heFact or ies( Amendment )Act ,1987,asunder :( 1)Ev ery
occupi ershal lensur e,sof arasi sr easonabl ypr act i
cable, t
heheal th, safet yandwel fare
ofal lwor ker swhi let heyar eatwor ki nt hef actory.( 2)Wi thoutpr ej udicet ot he
gener alit
yoft hepr ov i
si onsofSub- sect i
on( 1)t hemat terst owhi chsuchdut yext ends
shalli ncl ude:( a)Thepr ov isi onandmai nt enanceofpl antandsy st emsofwor ki nt he
factor yt hatar esaf eandwi thoutr iskst oheal t
h;( b)thear rangementi nt hef act oryf or
ensur ingsaf et yandabsenceofr i
skst oheal thinconnect i
onwi t
ht heuse,handl i
ng,
storageandt ranspor tofar ti
cl esandsubst ances; (c)thepr ov i
sionsofsuchi nfor mat ion,
i
nst ruct ion, trainingandsuper visionasar enecessar ytoensur et heheal thandsaf etyof
allwor ker satwor k;( d)t hemai nt enanceofal lplacesofwor ki nt hef act oryi na
condi tiont hati ssaf eandwi t
houtr iskst oheal thandpr ov i
sionsandmai ntenanceof
suchmeansofaccesst o,andegr essf r
om,suchpl acesasar esaf eandwi t
houtsuch
ri
sks;( e)t hepr ov i
sion,mai nt enanceormoni toringofsuchwor kingenv ironmenti nt he
factor yf ort hewor ker st hati ssaf e,wi thoutr i
skst oheal thandadequat easr egar ds
facil
itiesandar rangement sf ort hei rwel f areatwor k.(3)Excepti nsuchcasesasmay
bepr escr ibed, everyoccupi ershal lpr epar e, andasof tenasmaybeappr opr iat er ev i
se, a
writtenst at ementofhi sgener alpol i
cywi thr espectt ot heheal thandsaf et yoft he
wor ker satwor kandor gani sat i
onandar r
angement sf ort het i
mebei ngi nf or cef or
carryingoutt hatpol i
cy ,andt obr ingt hest atementandanyr ev i
siont hereoft ot henot ice
ofal lt hewor ker sinsuchmannerasmaybepr escr i
bed.Testy ourknowl edgeGENERAL
DUTI ESOFMANUFACTURERSETC.Sect ion7Bpr ovidest hatev er yper sonwhodesi gns,
manuf act ur es,i mpor tsorsuppl iesanyar ti
cle( includingpl antandmachi ner y)orusei n
anyf act or y,shal lobser vet hef ollowi ng:( a)ensur e,thatt hear ti
cl ei ssodesi gnedand
const r uct edast obesaf eandwi thoutr i
skst ot heheal thoft hewor kerswhenpr oper l
y
used;( b)car ryoutsucht est sandexami nat ionasmaybeconsi der ednecessar yf ort he
effect ivei mpl ement ationoft hepr ov isionsofcl ause( a);(c)t akesuchst epsasmaybe
necessar yt oensur et hatadequat ei nfor mat i
onwi llbeav ailable:( i
)i nconnect ionwi th
theuseoft hear t
iclei nanyf act ory; (ii
)aboutt heusef orwhi chi tisdesi gnedandt ested;
and( ii
i)aboutanycondi tionnecessar yt oensur et hatthear ticle,whenputt osuchuse,
willbesaf e, andwi t
houtr iskst ot heheal thoft hewor kers.TheSect i
onf ur therpr ov i
des
thatwher eanar t
iclei sdesi gnedormanuf acturedout si
deI ndi a,itshal lbeobl igat oryon
thepar toft hei mpor tert osee:( a)t hatt hear ti
cle( i
ncl udi ngpl antandmachi nery )
conf or mst ot hesamest andar dsi fsuchar ticleismanuf act uredi nI ndi a,or( b)i ft he
standar dsadopt edi nt hecount ryout sidef ort hemanuf act ureofsuchar ticlei sabov e
thest andar dsadopt edi nI ndi a,t hatt hear ticl
econf ormst osuchst andar ds.Fort he
abov epur pose,t heconcer nedper sonmaycar ryoutorar rangef ort hecar ry i
ngoutof
necessar yr esear chwi thav iewt ot hedi scov eryandsof arasi sr easonabl ypr act icabl e,
theel i
mi nat ionormi nimi sat ionofanyr iskt ot heheal thorsaf et yofwor ker st owhi ch
designorar ticle( includi ngpl antandmachi nery)maygi ver i
se.Thesect i
onf urther
prov i
dest hati fr esear ch, test ing, et c.hasal readybeenexer cisedorcar riedout , thenno
suchr esear chi sr equi r
edagai n.Theabov edut iesr elat eonl yt ot hingsdonei nt he
cour seoft hebusi nesscar riedoutbyhi m,andt omat terswi t
hi nhi scont rol .Howev er,
theper sonmaygetr el i
eff r
om t heexer ciseofabov edut iesi fheget sanunder t
aki ngi n
writi
ngbyt heuserof suchar ticlet otakenecessar yst epst hatt hear ticl ewi llbesaf eand
withoutr i
skt ot heheal thof thewor kers.MEASURESTOBETAKENBYFACTORI ESFOR
HEALTH,SAFETYAND WELFAREOFWORKERSSuchmeasur esar epr ov idedunder
Chapt ersI II
,IVandVoft heActwhi char easf ollows:Chapt erI IIoft heActdeal swi th
thef ol l
owi ngaspect s.( i
)Cl eanl inessSect ion11ensur est hecl eanl inessi nt hef act or y.
Itmustbeseent hataf act oryi skeptcl eanandi ti sf r eef rom ef fl
uv i
aar isi ngf rom any
drain, pr i
vyorot hernui sance.TheActhasl aiddownf ollowi ngpr ovisionsi nt hi sr espect:
(1)Al lt heaccumul ateddi rtandr efuseonf loor s, st aircasesandpassagesi nt hef act or y
shallber emov edA.HEALTH dai l
ybysweepi ngorbyanyot heref fect i
v emet hod.
Suitabl ear r
angement sshoul dal sobemadef ort hedi sposalofsuchdi rtorr efuse.( 2)
Oncei nev eryweek, thef loorshoul dbet hor oughl ycl eanedbywashi ngwi thdi sinf ect ant
orbysomeot heref f
ect ivemet hod[ Section11( 1) (b) ].( 3)Ef fect ivemet hodofdr ai nage
shallbemadeandmai ntainedf orr emov ingwat er ,tot heext entpossi bl e,whi chmay
coll
ectont hef loorduet osomemanuf actur ingpr ocess.( 4)Toensur et hati nt er ior
wallsandr oofs,et c.ar ekeptcl ean,i tisl ai ddownt hat :( i
)whi tewashorcol ourwash
shoul dbecar ri
edatl eastoncei nev eryper i
odof14mont hs; (
ii
)wher esur facehasbeen
paint edorv ar
ni shed, repai rorr ev arnishshoul dbecar r i
edoutoncei nev eryf ivey ear s, if
washabl et henoncei nev er yper i
odofsi xmont hs;( ii
i)wher et heyar epai nt edor
varnishedorwher et heyhav esmoot himper vioussur face,i tshoul dbecl eanedoncei n
everyper iod of14 mont hsbysuchmet hod asmaybepr escr ibed.( 5)Al ldoor s,
windowsandot herf ramewor kwhi char eofwoodenormet alli
cshal lbekeptpai nt edor
varnishedatl eastoncei nev er yper i
odoff i
v ey ear s.( 6)Thedat esonwhi chsuch
processesar ecar riedoutshal lbeent er edi nt hepr escr i
bedr egi ster .I ft heSt at e
Gov er nmentf indst hatapar ticul arf actorycannotcompl ywi tht heabov er equi rement s
due t o i ts nat ure of manuf act uring pr ocess,i t may exempt t he f act or yfromt he
compl ianceof thesepr ov i
sionsandsuggestsomeal ternat i
vemet hodf orkeepi ngt he
factor ycl ean.[ Sect ion11( 2)]( ii
)Di sposalofwast eandef fl
uent sEv er yoccupi erofa
factor yshal lmakeef fectivear rangement sf ort het r eat mentofwast esandef fluent s
duet ot hemanuf act uringpr ocesscar riedoni nt hef actorysoast or endert hem
i
nnocuousandf ort hei rdi sposal .Suchar rangement sshoul dbei naccor dancewi tht he
rul
es,i fany ,l
aiddownbyt heSt ateGov er nment .I ft heSt at eGov er nmenthasnotl aid
downany rulesi nt hisrespect ,ar rangement smadebyt heoccupi ershoul dbeappr ov ed
byt hepr escribed aut hor it
yi fr equired byt heSt at eGov ernment .( Sect ion 12)( i
ii)
Vent ilation and t emper at ure Sect i
on 13 pr ov i
des t hatev eryf act oryshoul d make
suitabl eandef fect ivepr ov i
si onsf orsecur ingandmai ntaining( 1)adequat ev ent ilation
byt heci rculati
onoff reshai r;and( 2)suchat emper at ureaswi llsecur et ot hewor ker s
reasonabl econdi t
ionsofcomf or tandpr ev enti njur yt oheal th.Whati sr easonabl e
temper atur edependsupont heci rcumst ancesofeachcase.TheSt at eGov ernmenthas
beenempower edt ol aydownt hest andar dofadequat ev ent il
at i
onandr easonabl e
temper atur ef oranyf act or yorcl assordescr iptionoff act oriesorpar tst her eof .Itmay
dir
ectt hatpr opermeasur ingi nst rument satsuchpl acesandi nsuchposi t i
onasmaybe
specifiedshal lbepr ov idedandpr escr i
bedr ecor dsshal lbemai nt ained.Measur est o
reduceexcessi v elyhi ght emper atur e:Topr ev entexcessi veheat i
ngofanywor kr oom
foll
owi ngmeasur esshal lbeadopt ed:( i)Wal lsandr oof sshal lbeofsuchmat er i
alsand
sodesi gnedt hatr easonabl et emper atur edoesnotexceedbutkeptasl owaspossi ble.
(i
i)Wher et henat ureofwor kcar riedoni nt hef act or ygener atesexcessi velyhi gh
temper atur e,f ollowi ngmeasur esshoul dbeadopt edt opr ot ectt hewor ker s:( a)by
separ atingsuchpr ocessf rom t hewor kroom;or( b)i nsul atingt hehotpar ts;or( c)
adopt inganyot heref fect ivemet hodwhi chwi llpr otectt hewor ker s.TheChi efI nspect or
i
sempower edt odi r ectanyf act or yt oadoptsuchmet hodswhi chwi llr educet he
excessi v elyhi ght emper atur e.I nt hi sr egar d,hecanspeci f yt hemeasur eswhi chi nhi s
opinion shoul d be adopt ed.( Sect ion 13)( i
v )Dustand f ume Ther e ar e cer t
ain
manuf act ur i
ngpr ocessesl ikechemi cal ,text i
leorj ut e, et c.,whi chgener at esl otofdust ,
fumeorot heri mpur ities.I ti si njur i
oust ot heheal thofwor ker sempl oy edi nsuch
manuf act ur i
ngpr ocess.Fol lowi ngmeasur esshoul dbeadopt edi nt hisr espect :(1)
Effectivemeasur esshoul dbet akent opr eventt hei nhal at ionandaccumul ationofdust ,
fumeset c. ,int hewor k-r ooms.( 2)Wher evernecessar y ,anexhaustappl iancesshoul d
bef i
tted, asf araspossi bl e,tot hepoi ntofor i
gi nofdustf umesorot herimpur ities.Such
pointshal lal sobeencl osedasf araspossi ble.( 3)I nst ati
oner yi nternalcombust ion
engineandexhaustshoul dbeconnect edi ntot heopenai r.(4)I ncasesofot heri nternal
combust ionengi ne, ef fect ivemeasur esshoul dbet akent opr ev entt heaccumul ationof
fumest her efr om.( Sect ion14)I tmaybepoi nt edt hatt heev idenceofact uali njuryt o
healthi snotnecessar y .Ift hedustorf umebyr easonofmanuf act ur i
ngpr ocessi sgi ven
offinsuchquant ityt hati ti si njur iousorof fensi vet ot heheal thoft hewor ker sempl oy ed
therein,t heof fencei scommi ttedundert hisSect i
on.Last lyt heof fencecommi ttedi sa
continui ngof fence.I fi ti sanof fenceonapar ti
cul ardat ei sdoesnotceaset obean
offence on t he nextdayand so on unt ilt he def i
ci encyi sr ectifi
ed.( v)Ar ti
ficial
humi dificat ionHumi ditymeanst hepr esenceofmoi st urei nt heai r.Incer tai ni ndust ri
es
l
ikecot ton,t ext il
e,ci gar et te,et c.,hi gherdegr eeofhumi dityi srequi redf orcar ry i
ngout
themanuf act ur i
ngpr ocess.Fort hi spur pose, humi di tyoft heai ri sar tif
icial l
yi ncr eased.
Thisi ncr easeordecr easei nhumi dityadv er selyaf fect st heheal thofwor ker s.Sect ion
15(1)empower st heSt ateGov er nmentt omaker ul es( i)pr escr i
bingt hest andar dsof
humi dificat ion,( ii)r egul at ing met hodst o be adopt ed f orar tifi
ciallyi ncr easi ng t he
humi dityoft heai r,(iii)di rect i
ngpr escr ibedt est sf ordet ermi ni ngt hehumi di tyoft heai r
tobecor rect lycar ri
edout ,andr ecor ded, and( i
v )pr escr i
bi ngmet hodst obeadopt edf or
secur i
ngadequat ev ent ilat i
onandcool i
ngoft heai rint hewor k- room.Sect ion15( 2)l ay s
downt hatwat erusedf orar tificialhumi difi
cat ionshoul dbeei therpur i
fi
edbef or euseor
obtai nedf rom apubl icsuppl yorot hersour ceofdr inki ngwat er .Wher et hewat eri snot
purif i
edasst at edabov e.Sect ion15( 3)empower stheI nspect ort oor der ,inwr iting,t he
manageroft hef act oryt ocar ryoutspeci fi
edmeasur es,bef oreaspeci fieddat e,f or
purif i
cat i
onoft hewat er .( v
i)Ov ercrowdi ngOv er crowdi ngi nt hewor k-room notonl y
affectt hewor ker sint hei ref ficientdi schar geofdut iesbutt hei rheal thal so.Sect ion16
hasbeenenact edwi thav iewt opr ovidesuf ficientai rspacet ot hewor ker s.( 1)Sect ion
16( 1)pr ohibi tst heov er cr owdi ngi nt hewor k- roomst ot heext enti ti si njur ioust ot he
heal thoft hewor ker s.( 2)Apar tf rom t hisgener alpr ohi bitionSect i
on16( 2)l ay sdown
mini mum wor kingspacef oreachwor keras14. 2cubi cmet resofspaceperwor keri n
ever ywor kr oom.Forcal cul at i
ngt hewor kar ea,t hespacemor et han4. 2met resabov e
thel ev eloft hef l
oor ,will notbet akeni nt oconsi der at i
on.Post ingofnot ice: Sect ion16( 3)
empower st heChi efI nspect orwhomaydi recti nwr itingt hedi spl ayofanot icei nt he
wor k-r oom, speci fyingt hemaxi mum numberofwor ker swhi chcanbeempl oy edi nt hat
room.Accor ding t o Sect ion 108,not ice shoul d be i n Engl i
sh and i nal anguage
under stoodbyt hemaj orityoft hewor ker s.Itshoul dbedi spl ay edatsomeconspi cuous
andconv eni entpl aceatornear ,t heent er ance.I tshoul dbemai ntai nedi ncl eanand
l
egi blecondi tions.Exempt ions:Thechi efI nspect ormaybyor deri nwr iting, exemptany
wor k-r oom f rom t hepr ov isionsoft hissect ion,subj ectt osuchcondi tionsashemay
thi
nkf ittoi mpose,i fhei ssat isfiedt hatnoncompl ianceofsuchpr ov isionwi llhav eno
adv erseef fectont heheal thoft hewor ker sempl oy edi nsuchwor k-room.( v i
i)Li ght ing
Sect ion17oft heFact or i
esActmakesf ollowi ngpr ov i
sionsi nt hisr espect :( 1)ev er y
fact orymustpr ov ideandmai ntai nsuf fi
ci entandsui t
abl el i
ght ing,nat ur al,ar tifi
ci alor
both, inev erypar toft hef actor ywher ewor ker sar ewor kingorpassi ng; (2)al lthegl azed
windowsandskyl i
ghtsshoul dbekeptcl eanonbot hsi des;( 3)ef f ect ivepr ov isions
shoul dbemadef ort hepr ev ent ionofgl aref rom asour ceofl i
ghtorbyr ef lect ionf rom a
smoot horpol i
shedsur face;( 4)f ormat i
onof shadowst osuchanext entcausi ngey e-
strainort her iskofacci dentt oany wor ker ,shoul dbepr ev ent ed;and( 5)t hest at e
gov ernmenti sempower edt ol aydownst andar dofsuf fi
cientandsui tabl el ight ingf or
fact oriesf oranycl assordescr ipt i
onoff act or i
esorf oranymanuf act ur ingpr ocess.( v ii
i)
Drinki ngwat erSect i
on18makesf ollowi ngpr ov isionswi thr egar dt odr inkingwat er .(1)
ever yf actor yshoul dmakeef fect iv
ear rangement sf orsuf ficientsuppl yofdr inki ng
wat erf oral lwor ker si nt hef act or y;( 2)wat ershoul dbewhol esome,i .
e. ,f reef rom
i
mpur iti
es; (3)wat ershoul dbesuppl iedatsui tabl epoi nt sconv enientf oral lwor ker s; (4)
nosuchpoi nt sshoul dbesi tuat edwi thinsi xmet resofanywashi ngpl ace, ur inal s,lat rine,
spittoon,opendr aincar ry i
ngsul lageoref fl
uentoranyot hersour ceofcont ami nat ion,
unlessot her wi seappr ov edi nwr itingbyt heChi efI nspect or; (5)al lsuchpoi nt sshoul dbe
l
egi blemar kedDr inkingWat eri nal anguageunder stoodby maj orityoft hewor ker s; (6)i n
casewher emor et han250wor ker sar eor di nar il
yempl oy ed,ef fect ivear rangement s
shoul d be made f orcool i
ng dr inking wat erdur ing hotweat her .I n such cases,
arrangement sshoul dal sobemadef ort hedi st ribut ionofwat ert ot hewor ker s;and( 7)
theSt at eGov er nmenti sempower edt omaker ulesf ort hecompl i
anceofabov est ated
prov isions and f ort he exami nat ion,bypr escr ibed aut hor i
ties,oft he suppl yand
distr i
but i
onofdr inki ngwat eri nf act ories.( i
x)Lat rinesandur inalsEv er yf act oryshal l
makesui tabl ear rangementf ort hepr ov isionofl at rinesandur i
nalsf ort hewor ker s.
These poi nt s asst at edbel ow, are subj ect t ot hepr ov isionsof Sect ion19andt he
rulesl aiddownby theSt ate Gov er
nmenti nt his behal f.( 1)ev eryf act ory shal lmake
prov isionf orsuf ficientnumberofl at r
inesandur inal sofpr escr i
bedst andar d.These
shoul dbeconv eni ent l
ysi tuat edandaccessi blet oal lwor ker sdur i
ngwor kinghour s;(2)
separ at ear rangementshal lbemadef ormal eandf emal ewor ker s;(3)al lt hesepl aces
shal lhav esui tabl epr ov isionsf orl ightingandv ent i
lat i
on;( 4)nol atrineorur inalshal l
communi cat ewi thanywor k-room unl essi nbet weent hem t her ei spr ov i
si onofopen
spaceorv ent il
at edpassage;( 5)al llatrinesandur i
nal sshal lbekepti nacl eanand
sani tar ycondi tionsatal ltimes;( 6)asweepershal lbeempl oy edwhoseexcl usiv ej ob
wi l
lbet okeepcl eanal ll atrinesandur inals;( 7)wher emor et han250wor kersar e
ordi nar il
yempl oy edi naf act ory ,f ollowi ngaddi ti
onalmeasur esshal lbet akenunder
Sect ion19( 2):( i)al ll atrinesandur i
nal saccomodat i
onshal lbeofpr escr ibedsani t
ar y
type.( ii
)al lint ernalwal l
supt oni net ycent imet res, andt hef loor sandt hesani tar yblocks
shal lbel aidi n gl azed t i
lesorot herwi sef ur nished t o pr ov idea smoot h pol ished
i
mper v i
oussur face;( i
ii)thef loor s,wal l
s,sani tarypan,et c. ,ofl at r
inesandur i
nal sshal l
bewashedandcl eanedwi thsui tabl edet ergent sand/ ordi sinf ectant s,atl eastoncei n
ev erysev enday s.( 8)t heSt at eGov ernmenti sempower edt omaker ul esi nr espectof
followi ng:( i)pr escr ibingt henumberofl at ri
nesandur i
nal st obepr ov idedt opr opor tion
tot henumberofmal eandf emal ewor ker sor di nar il
yempl oy edi nt hef actor y.(ii)any
addi tionalmat ter si nr espectofsani tationi nf act or i
es;( ii
i)r esponsi bili
t yoft hewor ker s
i
nt hesemat ters.( x)Spi ttoonsEv er yf act or yshoul dhav esuf ficientnumberofspi ttoons
situat edatconv eni entpl aces.Theseshoul dbemai nt ainedi nacl eanandhy gieni c
condi tion.( Sect ion20)Chapt erI V oft heActcont ainspr ov i
si onsr elat i
ngt osaf ety.
Thesear edi scussedbel ow:( i)Fenci ngofmachi ner yFenci ngofmachi neryi nuseori n
mot ioni sobl i
gat oryunderSect i
on21.Thi sSect ionr equi rest hatf ol lowi ngt ypesof
machi ner yort hei rpar ts,whi l
ei n use ori n mot ion,shal lbe secur el
yf enced by
saf eguar dsofsubst ant i
alconst ruct ionandshal lbeconst ant l
ymai nt ainedandkepti n
posi tion,whi let hepar t
sofmachi ner yt heyar ef enci ngar ei nmot ionori nuse.Such
typesofmachi ner yort hei rpar tsar e:( 1)ev er ymov i
ngpar t
sofapr ime- mov erand
fl
y wheelconnect edt oapr ime- mov er.Iti simmat er i
alwhet hert hepr ime- mov erorf ly-
wheeli si nt heengi nehouseornot ;B.SAFETY( 2)head- raceandt ail-r
aceofwat er
wheelandwat ert urbi ne; (3)anypar tofst ock- barwhi chpr oject sbey ondt heheadst ock
ofal at he;( 4)ev er ypar tofanel ectricgener at or,amot ororr ot aryconv erteror
transmi ssionmachi ner yunl esst heyar eint hesaf eposi tion; (5)ev erydanger ouspar tof
anyot hermachi ner yunl esst heyar ei nsaf eposi t i
on.

(
ii
)Saf
etymeasur
esi
ncaseofwor
konornearmachi
ner
yinmot
ionSect
ion22l
ays
downt hepr ocedur ef orcar ry ingoutexami nationofanypar twhi lei tisi nmot ionorasa
resultofsuchexami nat iont ocar ryoutt heoper at i
onsment ionedundercl ause( i)or( i
i)
oft hepr ov i
sot oSect i
on21( 1) .Suchexami nat i
onoroper ationshal lbecar ri
edoutonl y
byspeci allyt rainedadul tmal ewor kerwear i
ngt ightf itti
ngcl ot hing( whi chshal lbe
suppl i
edbyt heoccupi er )whosenamehasbeenr ecor dedi nt her egi sterpr escr i
bedi n
thisbehal fandwhohasbeenf ur nishedwi thacer tificateofappoi nt mentandwhi lehei s
soengaged.Nowomanory oungper sonshal lbeal lowedt ocl ean,l ubr icat eoradj ust
anypar tofapr i
me- mov eroranyt ransmi ssionmachi ner ywhi let hepr ime- mov eror
transmi ssi onmachi neryi si nmot i
onort ocl ean,l ubr i
cat eoradj ustanypar tofany
machi nei ft hecl eani ng, lubr i
cat i
onandadj ust mentt her eofwoul dexposet hewomanor
they oungper sont or i
skofi njur yf r
om anymov ingpar teitheroft hatmachi neorofany
adjacentmachi nery[ Sect ion22( 2)].( ii
i)Empl oymentofy oungper sonsondanger ous
machi nesSect ion23pr ov idest hatnoy oungper sonshal lber equi r
edoral lowedt owor k
atanymachi net owhi cht hi ssect i
onappl i
esunl esshehasbeenf ul l
yi nst ruct edast o
danger sar isingi nconnect ionwi tht hemachi neandt hepr ecaut i
onst obeobser v edand
(a)hasr ecei vedsuf fi
cientt r aini ngi nwor katt hemachi ne,or( b)i sunderadequat e
super visionbyaper sonwhohasat hor oughknowl edgeandexper ienceoft hemachi ne.
(i
v )St ri
kinggearanddev icesf orcut t
ingof fpowerSect i
on24pr ov i
dest hati nev er y
factorysui tablest r
ikinggear sorot heref ficientmechani cal appl i
ancesshal lbepr ov i
ded
andmai ntainedandusedt omov edr ivingbel tstoandf rom f astandl oosepul l
yeswhi ch
form par toft het ransmi ssi onmachi ner yandsuchgearorappl iancesshal lbeso
const ruct ed,pl acedandmai nt ainedast opr eventt hebel tf rom cr eepi ngbackont he
fastpul l
ey .Fur ther,dr i
v ingbel tswhennoti nuseshal lnotbeal l
owedt or estorr i
de
uponshaf ti
ngi nmot i
on.Sui t abl edev icesf orcut ti
ngof fpoweri nemer genci esf rom
runningmachi ner yshal lbepr ov idedandmai ntainedi nev erywor kroom i nev er yf actor y.
Itisal sopr ov i
dedt hatwhenadev icewhi chcani nadv ert entlyshi ftf rom ‘ off’t o‘ on
posi t
ioni naf act ory ’
,cut of fpowerar r
angement sshal lbepr ov idedf orl ocki ngt he
dev i
cesonsaf eposi ti
ont opr ev entacci dent alst artoft het ransmi ssionmachi ner yor
othermachi nest o whi cht hedev icei sf i
tted.( v)Sel f-act i
ng machi nesSect i
on25
prov i
desf urthersaf eguar df orwor ker sf rom bei ngi njur edbysel f-actingmachi nes.I t
prov i
dest hatno t raversepar tof sel f-acting machi nei n anyf act or yand no mat erial
carriedt her eonshal l
, i
ft hespaceov erwhi chi trunsi saspaceov erwhi chanyper soni s
l
iablet opasswhet heri nt hecour seofhi sempl oy mentorot herwi se,beal l
owedt or un
oni tsout war dori nwar dt r av er sewi thinadi stanceoff or tyf ivecent i
met resf rom any
fi
xedst ruct ur ewhi chi snotpar toft hemachi nes.Howev er,Chi efI nspect ormayper mi t
thecont inueduseofamachi nei nst al l
edbef oret hecommencementoft hisAct ,whi ch
doesnotcompl ywi tht her equi rementoft hissect ion,onsuchcondi ti
onsf orensur ing
safet y
, ashemayt hinkf itt oi mpose.( vi)Casi ngofnewmachi nerySect ion26pr ov ides
furthersaf eguar dsf orcasi ngofnew machi neryofdanger ousnat ur e.I nal lmachi ner y
drivenbypowerandi nst al ledi nanyf act ory( a)ev erysetscr ew,bol torkeyonany
revol ving shaf t,spi ndl e,wheelorpi ni on shal lbe so sunk,encased orot her wi se
effect iv el
yguar dedast opr ev entdanger ;(b)al lspur , wor m andot hert oot hedorf ri
ct i
on
gear ingwhi chdoesnotr equi ref requentadj ustmentwhi l
ei nmot i
on, shal lbecompl etel y
encasedunl essi tissosi t uat edast obesosaf easi twoul dbei fitwer ecompl etel y
encased.Thesect ionpl acesst atutor yobl igat iononal lper sonswhosel lorl etonhi reor
asagentofsel lerorhi ret ocompl ywi t
ht hesect ionandi ndef aul tshal lbel iablet o
puni shmentwi thi mpr isonmentf orat erm whi chmayext endt o3mont hsorwi thf i
ne
whi chmayext endt oRs.500orwi thbot h.( vii
)Pr ohi bi
tionofempl oy mentofwoman
andchi ldrennearcot tonopener sAccor dingt oSect ion27,nochi ldorwomanshal lbe
empl oy edi nanypar toff act or yf orpr essi ngcot toni nwhi chacot tonopeneri satwor k.
Howev er,i
fthef eed- endofacot tonopeneri si nar oom separ at edf rom t hedel iver yend
byapar ti
ti
onext endi ngt ot her oofort osuchhei ghtast hei nspect ormayi nany
part i
cul arcasespeci fyi nwr iting,womenandchi ldrenmaybeempl oy edont hesi deof
part i
tionwher et hef eed- endi ssi tuated.( vii
i)Hoi stsandl iftsSect i
on28pr ovidest hati n
ever yf actory:(i)ev er yhoi standl i
ftshal lbeofgoodmechani calconst ruct i
on,sound
mat erialand adequat e st rengt h.I tshal lbe pr oper ly mai nt ained and t hor oughl y
exami nedbyacompet entper sonatl eastoncei nev eryper iodofsi xmont hsanda
regist ershal l bekeptcont aini ngt hepr escr ibedpar ticul arsofev er ysuchexami nat i
on, (ii
)
ever yhoi stwayandl i
ftwayshal lbesuf ficient l
ypr ot ectedbyanencl osur ef ittedwi th
gatesandt hehoi storl iftandev erysuchencl osur eshal lbesoconst ruct edast o
prev entanyper sonort hi ngf rom bei ngt rappedbet weenanypar toft hehoi storl i
ftand
anyf ixedst ruct ur eormov ingpar t,(iii
)t hemaxi mum saf ewor ki ngl oadshal lbemar ked
onev eryhoi storl if
tandnol oadgr eat er ,thansuchl oadshal lbemar kedonev eryhoi st
orlif tandnol oadgr eat ert hansuchl oadshal lbecar riedt her eon, (iv)t hecageofev er y
hoistandl if
tshal lbef ittedwi thagat eoneachsi def rom whi chaccessi saf for dedt oa
l
andi ng( v)suchgat esoft hehoi standl iftshal lbef it
t edwi thi nter lockingorot her
efficientdev icet osecur et hatt hegat ecannotbeopenedexceptwhent hecagei satt he
l
andi ngandt hatt hecagecannotbemov edunl esst hegat ei scl osed.( ix)Li fti
ng
machi nes,chai ns,r opesandl ifti
ngt ackl esI nt ermsofSect ion29,i nanyf act or yt he
foll
owi ngpr ov i
sionsshal lbecompl iedwi thr espectofev eryl i
f ti
ngmachi ne( ot hert han
ahoi standl ift
)andev er ychai n,r opeandl if
t i
ngt ackl ef ort hepur poseofr aisi ngor
l
ower i
ngper sons,goodsormat er i
als:( a)al lpar t
si ncl udi ngt hewor kinggear ,whet her
fi
xed ormov abl e,shal lbe( i
)ofgood const ruct ion,sound mat eri
aland adequat e
strengt handf r
eef r
om def ect s;( ii
)pr oper lymai ntai ned;( i
ii)thor oughl yexami nedbya
compet entper sonatl eastoncei nev er yper iodof12mont hsorat suchi nt erv alsas
Chief Inspect ormayspeci fyi n wr it
ing and a r egi stershal lbe keptcont aini ng t he
prescr ibedpar ticular sofev er ysuchexami nat i
on;( b)nol i
ftingmachi neornochai n,
ropeorl i
fti
ngt ackl e,shal l,exceptf ort hepur poseoft est ,bel oadedbey ondt hesaf e
wor ki ngl oadwhi chshal lbepl ainlymar kedt her eont oget herwi thani dent ifi
cat ionmar k
anddul yent eredi nt hepr escr ibedr egi sterandwher ei tisnotpr act icable,at abl e
showingthesaf ewor ki
ngloadsofev eryki
ndandsizeofl if
ti
ngmachi neorchai n,r
ope
orli
ft
ingt ackleinuseshallbedi splayedinprominentposi t
ionsont hatpr emises;(c)
whil
eanyper sonisemployedorwor kingonorneart hewheelt rackofat rav
elli
ngcrane
i
nanypl acewher ehewoul dbeliabletobest r
uckbyt hecrane,effect
ivemeasur esshall
betakentoensur ethatthecranedoesnotappr oachwi t
hin6met resofthatplace.

(x)Saf et ymeasur esi ncaseofuseofr evol v


ingmachi ner ySect i
on30oft heAct
prescr ibesf orper manent lyaf fixingorpl aci nganot i
cei nev eryf act oryi nwhi chpr ocess
of gr indi ng i s car r
ied on.Such not ice shal li ndi cat e maxi mum saf e wor king
peripher alspeedofev er ygr indst oneorabr asivewheel , thespeedoft heshaf torspi ndle
uponsuchshaf torspi ndlenecessar yt osecur esuchsaf ewor kingper i
pher al-speed.
Speedi ndi cat edi nt henot i
ceshal lnotbeexceededandef f
ect ivemeasur esi nt his
regard shal lbet aken.( xi )Pr essur epl antSect ion31 pr ov idesf ort aking ef fect i
ve
measur est oensur et hatsaf ewor kingpr essur eofanypl antandmachi ner y,usedi n
manuf act ur i
ngpr ocessoper atedatpr essur eabov eat mospher icpr essur e,doesnot
exceedt hel imi ts.TheSt ateGov er nmentmaymaker ul est or egul at esuchpr essur esor
wor kingandmayal soexemptanypar tofanypl antormachi neryf rom t hecompl i
ance
ofthissect i
on.( xii)Fl oor , stai rsandmeansofaccessSect ion32pr ov idest hati nev ery
factory( a)al lf l
oor s,st eps,st airs passages and gangway s shal lbe ofsound
const ruct ionandpr oper lymai nt ainedandshal lbekeptf reef rom obst ruct ionand
subst ancesl ikelyt ocauseper sonst osl ipandwher ei ti snecessar yt oensur esaf ety,
steps,st air spassagesandgangway sshal lbepr ov idedwi thsubst ant ialhandr ails,(b)
thereshal l,besof arasi sr easonabl ypr acticabl e,bepr ov ided,andmai nt ainedsaf e
meansofaccessofev er ypl aceatwhi chanyper soni satanyt imer equi r
edt owor k; (
c)
whenanyper sonhast owor katahei ghtf rom wher ehei slikel ytof all,pr ovisionshal lbe
made, sof arasi sreasonabl y, pr act i
cabl e, byf encingorot her wi se,toensur et hesaf etyof
theper sonsowor ki ng.( xiii)Pi ts, sumps, openi ngsi nf loor set c.Sect ion33r equi rest hat
i
nev er yf act oryev er yf i
xedv essel ,sump,t ank,pi toropeni ngi nthegr oundori naf loor
which, byr easonofi tsdept h, si tuat i
on, const r
uct ion, orcont ent sisormaybesour ceof
dangershal lbeei t hersecur elycov eredorsecur elyf ence.TheSt ateGov er nmentmay
exemptanyf act oryf rom t hecompl ianceoft hepr ov i
si onsoft hi sSect ionsubj ectt o
suchcondi ti
onsasi tmaypr escr ibe.( xiv)Excessi vewei ghtsSect ion34pr ov idest hatno
personshal lbeempl oy edi nanyf act or ytol ift
,car ryormakeanyl oadsoheav yast obe
l
ikelyt o causehi m i njury .TheSt at eGov ernmentmaymaker ulespr escr i
bi ng t he
maxi mum wei ght swhi chmaybel i
fted,car ri
edormov edbyadul tmen,adul twomen,
adolescent sand chi l
dr en empl oy ed i nf actor i
esori n anycl assordescr iption of
factoriesori ncar ry i
ngonanyspeci fi
edpr ocess.( xv)Pr ot ectionofey esSect ion35
requirest heSt ateGov ernmentt omaker ul
esandr equi r
ef orpr ov idingt heef fect i
ve
screensorsui tablegoggl esf ort hepr otect i
onofper sonsempl oy edonori ni mmedi ate
vici
nityofanysuchmanuf act ur i
ngpr ocesscar r
iedoni nanyf act orywhi chi nv olv es( i
)
ri
skofi njur yt ot heey esf rom par t
iclesorf r
agment st hrownof fi nt hecour seoft he
process or ;(i
i)r i
sk t ot he ey es byr eason ofexposur et o excessi vel i
ght .( xv i
)
Precaut ionsagai nstdanger ousf umes,gaseset c.Sect ion36 pr ovides( 1)t hatno
per sonshal lber equi r edoral lowedt oent eranychamber ,t ank,v at ,pi t,pipe,f lueor
otherconf inedspacei nanyf act oryi nwhi chanygas, fume, v apourordusti sl i
kel yt obe
presentt osuchanext entast oi nv olver i
skt oper sonsbei ngov er comet hereby ,unl ess
i
ti spr ov idedwi thamanhol eofadequat esi zeorot heref fect i
v emeansofegr ess.( 2)
Noper sonshal lber equi redoral l
owedt oent eranyconf inedspaceasi sr efer redt oi n
sub- sect ion( 1),unt ilal lpract i
cabl emeasur eshav ebeent akent or emov eanygas, fume,
vapourordust ,whi chmaybepr esentsoast obr i
ngi tsl ev elwi thint heper mi ssi ble
l
imi tsandt opr ev entanyi ngr essofsuchgas, f
ume, v apourandunl ess:( a)acer ti
ficat e
i
nwr i
tinghasbeengi venbyacompet entper son, basedonat estcar r
iedoutbyhi msel f
thatt hespacei sr easonabl yf reef rom danger ousgas, fume, v apourordust ; or( b)such
per soni swear i
ngsui tabl ebr eat hingappar atusandabel tsecur el yat tachedt oar ope,
thef r
eeendofwhi chi shel dbyaper sonout sidet heconf inedspace.( xv i
i)Pr ecaut ions
regar dingt heuseofpor tableel ect riclightSect ion36Aoft heActpr ov idest hati nany
fact ory( 1)nopor tabl eel ectricl i
ghtoranyot herel ectr i
cappl ianceofv ol tageexceedi ng
24v oltsshal lbeper mi ttedf orusei nsideanychamber ,tank,v at ,pit,pi pe,f l
ueorot her
conf inedspaceunl essadequat esaf etydev i
cesar epr ov i
ded; and( 2)i fanyi nf lammabl e
gas, f
umeordusti sl ikel ytobepr esenti nsuchchamber ,tank, v at ,pit,pipe, flueorot her
conf inedspaceunl essadequat esaf etydev i
cesar epr ov i
ded, nol amporl ightot hert han
thatoff lamepr oofconst ruct i
onshal lbeper mi t
tedt obeusedt her ein.( xv i
ii
)Expl osi ve
ori nflammabl edustgas,et c.Sub- sect i
on( 1)of sect ion37oft heActpr ov i
dest hati n
ever yf act or ywher eanymanuf act uringpr ocesspr oducesdust ,gas,f umeorv apourof
suchchar acterandt osuchext entt obel ikelyt oexpl odeoni gni ti
on,al lpr act icabl e
measur esshal lbet akent opr ev entanysuchexpl osionby( a)ef fect iv
eencl osur eof the
plantormachi ner yusedi nt hepr ocess( b)r emov alorpr ev ent ionof theaccumul at i
on
ofsuchdust ,gasf umeorv apour ,and( c)excl usionoref f
ect iv eencl osur eofal lpossi ble
sour cesofi gnition.( xix)Pr ecaut i
onsi ncaseoff ireSect ion38pr ovidest hati nev ery
fact oryal lpr acti
cabl emeasur esshal lbet akent oout breakoff ireandi tsspr ead,bot h
i
nt ernal lyandext ernal lyandt opr ov i
deandmai ntain( a)saf emeansofescapef oral l
per sons i nt he ev entoff i
r e,and ( b)t he necessar yequi pmentand f aci liti
es f or
extingui shi ngf i
re.Ef fect ivemeasur esshal lbet akent oensur et hati nev eryf act oryal l
thewor ker sar ef ami liarwi tht hemeansofescapei ncaseoff ir
eandhav ebeen
adequat elyt r
ainedi nt heout linet obef ollowedi nsuchcase.( xx)Powert or equi re
speci ficat ionofdef ect ivepar t
sort estt ost abi l
itySect ion39st atest hatwhent he
i
nspect orf eelsthatt hecondi tionsi nt hef act oryar edanger oust ohumanl ifeorsaf ety
hemayser veont heoccupi erormanagerorbot hnot icei nwr it
ingr equi r
inghi m bef or e
thespeci fieddat et of urnishsuchdr awi ngs, speci ficationsandot herpar ti
cular sasmay
benecessar yt odet er mi newhet hersuchbui l
ding,machi ner yorpl antcanbeusedwi th
saf etyort ocar ryoutsucht esti nsuchamannerasmaybespeci fi
edi nt heor derandt o
i
nf or m t hei nspect oroft her esul tst her eof .( xxi)Saf etyofbui ldingsormachi ner y
Sect ion40pr ovidest hatt hei nspect or si ncaseofdanger ouscondi tionsofbui l
di ngor
anypar tofway s,machi ner yorpl antr equi rest hemanageroroccupi erorbot ht ot ake
suchmeasur eswhi chi nhi sopi nionshoul dbeadopt edandr equi ret hem t obecar ri
ed
outbef oreaspeci fi
eddat e.Incaset hedangert ohumanl ifei si mmedi at eandi mmi nent
from suchusageofbui l
di ng, way sofmachi neryhemayor derpr ohi bitingt heuseoft he
sameunl essi ti sr epair edoral tered.( xxi i
)Mai ntenanceofbui ldingsSect ion40- A
prov idest hati fitappear st ot hei nspect ort hatanybui ldingorpar tofi ti si nsuchast at e
ofdi sr epairwhi chmayl eadt ocondi tionsdet ri
ment alt ot heheal thandwel far eof
wor ker shemayser veont hemanageroroccupi erorbot h, anor deri nwr i
tingspeci fy i
ng
themeasur est obecar riedoutbef or easpeci f i
eddat e.( xxi ii)Saf etyof f i
cer sSect i
on40-
Bpr ov idest hati nev eryf act ory( i)wher e1, 000ormor ewor ker sar eor di nar il
yempl oy ed
or( ii
)wher et hemanuf act uringpr ocessoroper ati
oni nv olv esr iskofbodi l
yi njur y,
poisoni ngordi seaseoranyot herhazar dt oheal thoft heper sonsempl oy edt her ein, t he
occupi ershal lempl oysuchnumberofsaf etyof fi
cer sasmaybespeci fi
edi nt he
not i
f i
cat ionwi t
hsuchdut iesandqual i
ficat ionsandcondi tionsofser v i
ceasmaybe
prescr ibedbySt at eGov er nment .(xxiv )Powert omaker ulest osuppl ementt hi sChapt er
Thisi sv est edi nt heSt ateGov er nmentunderSect i
on41f orsuchdev i
cesandmeasur es
tosecur et hesaf etyoft hewor ker sempl oy edi nt hef act ory .Fol l
owi ngpr ov isionsunder
Chapt er( v)oft heAct ,relat et ot hemeasur est obet akenf ort hewel far eofwor ker s.( i)
Washi ngf aci lit
iesSect i
on42pr ov idest hatev er yfactor yshoul dpr ov ideandmai nt ain
adequat eandsui tablewashi ngf aci l
iti
esf ori t
swor kers.Fort heuseofmal eandf emal e,
suchf aci l
iti
esshoul dbesepar ateandadequat elyscr eened.Suchf aci li
tiesshoul dbe
conv eni entlyaccessi blef oral lwor ker sandbekepti nast at eofcl eanl iness.TheSt at e
Gov ernmenti s empower ed t o make r ul es pr escr i
bing st andar ds ofadequat e and
suitabl ewashi ngf acil
iti
es.( i
i)Faci liti
esf orst oringanddr y i
ngcl othi ngSect i
on43
empower st heSt at eGov ernmenti nr espectofanyf act or yorcl assordescr i
ptionof
fact oriest omaker ulesr equi ri
ngt hepr ovisi on, therei
nof( i
)sui tablepl acesf orkeepi ng
clothi ngnotwor ndur i
ngwor kinghour s,and( ii
)f ordry i
ngofwetcl othi ng.( i
ii)Faci lities
forsi ttingTher ear ecer tainoper ationswhi chcanbeper f ormedbyt hewor ker sonl yina
standi ngposi ti
on.Thi snotonl yaf fect st heheal thofawor kerbuthi sef ficiencyal so.
Accor di ngt oSect ion44( 1) ,ev er yf act oryshal lpr ovi
deandmai ntainsui tablef acilities
forsi tting,f ort hosewhowor ki nst andi ngposi tionsot hatt heymaymakeuseoft hem
asanwhenanyoppor tuni tycomesi nt hecour seoft hei rwor k.I f,int heopi nionoft he
Chi efI nspect or,anywor kcanbeef ficient lyper f
ormedi nasi tt
ingposi t
ion,hemay
direct ,i nwr iti
ng,t heoccupi erof thef act or y,topr ovidebef or easpeci fieddat esuch
seat ingar r
angement sasmaybepr act icabl e,f oral lwor ker ssoengaged.TheSt at e
Gov ernment , maybyanot ifi
cat i
oni nt heOf f i
cialGazet te, decl aret hatabov epr ov i
si ons
shal lnotappl yt oanyspeci fiedf act or yoranymanuf act ur i
ngpr ocess.( iv)Fi rstai d
appl iancesAsperSect i
on45,t hef ollowi ngar rangement sshoul dbemadei nev ery
factoryi nr espectoff i
rst-
aidf aci
lit
ies.( 1)Pr ov i
sionofatl eastonef ir
st -
aidboxorcup-
boar d,subjecttof oll
owingcondi t
ions,f orev ery 150wor kersor dinari
lyempl oyedatany
onet imei nthef actory
.(2)Itshoul dbeequi ppedwi t
hpr escribedcont entsandnot hing
elseshoul dbest oredini t
.C.WELFARE( 3)Itshoul dbepr oper l
ymai ntainedandr eadil
y
accessi bledur i
ngal lworkinghour s.( 4)Ar esponsi bleper sonwhohol dsacer tif
icatein
fi
rst-aidt reatment,recognisedbyt heSt ateGov ernmentshoul dbemadet hei n-charge
ofsuchf i
rst-
aidboxorcup- board.Suchaper sonshoul dber eadil
yav ai
labledur ing
wor kinghour soft hefactory.Wher et her ear edi ff
erentshi ft
si nt hefact ory
,asepar ate
personmaybeappoi ntedf oreachshi f
tspr ovidedhei sar esponsi bleper sonand
trai
nedi nf i
rst-
aidtreatment.( 5)Wher emor et han500wor kersar eor dinari
lyempl oyed
i
naf act ory,anambul ancer oom shoul dbepr ovidedandmai ntai
nedbyev erysuch
factory .Suchr oom shoul dbeofpr escr i
bedsi zecont ai
ningpr escr i
bedequi pment sand
i
si nchar geofsuchmedi calandnur singst affasmaybepr escribed.

(v)Cant eens( 1)TheSt ateGov ernmentmaymaker ulesr equi ri


ngt hati nanyspeci fied
factor ywher einmor et han250wor kersar eor dinarilyempl oy ed,acant eenshal lbe
prov idedandmai ntai nedbyt heoccupi erf ort heuseofwor kers.( 2)Suchr ulesmay
rel
at et oanyoft hef ollowi ngmat ter:( i
)t hedat ebywhi chcant eenshal lbepr ov i
ded; (i
i)
the st andar ds i nr espect of const ruction,accommodat i
on,f urni
tur e and ot her
equi pmentoft hecant een; (i
i
i)thef oodst uf f
st obeser vedandt hepr i
cest obechar ged;
(i
v)t hei temsofexpendi tur eint her unni ngoft hecant eenwhi char enott obet akeni nto
accounti nf i
xingt hecostoff oodst uf fsandwhi chshal lbebor nebyt heempl oy er;( v)
theconst i
tutionofaManagi ngCommi tteef ort hecant eenandt her epresent at i
onoft he
wor ker si nt he managementoft he cant een;and ( vi)t he del egat i
on,t ot he chi ef
i
nspect or ,subj ectt osuchcondi tionsasmaybepr escr i
bed, oft hepowert omaker ules
under cl ause ( ii
i).( Sect i
on 46) Empl oy ees wor king i n cant eens i n i ndust rial
establ ishment sr un byManagi ng Commi ttee ar e notempl oy ees oft he Managi ng
Commi ttee,butar eempl oy eesofoccupi er(KanpurSur akshaKar machar iUnionv .Uni on
ofI ndi a,AI R1988SC) .Wher et hest atut ecast sanobl igationt oownacant eeni nt he
factor y,andt heest abl i
shmentr unsacant eent hr oughacont ractorwhobr ingst he
wor ker sf ort hecant eenwoul dbepar tandpar celoft heest ablishmentandt hecant een
wor ker swoul dbedeemedt ober egul arempl oyeesoft heest abl i
shmentent itl
edt o
arrear sofsal aryandot hermonet arybenef i
ts( Tami lMani laThozi lalarSangam v .
Chai rmanTNEB,1994CLA34Mad.63. )(v i
)Shel t
er s,restr oomsandl unchr oomsThe
prov isionof somesor tof shelteri samust ,wher et hewor kerscant aket hei rmeal s
broughtbyt hem dur ingr esti nterv al.Thef ollowi ngpr ov i
sionsunderSect ion47oft he
Acthav ebeenmadei nt hisr espect :( 1)I nev eryf act orywher emor et han150wor ker s
areor dinar il
yempl oyed, t
heoccupi ershoul dmakeadequat eandsui t
ablear r
angement s
forshel ter sorr estr oomsandl unch- room wi thpr ovisionofdr inkingwat erwher et he
wor ker scant aker estoforeatmeal sbr oughtbyt hem.Howev eranycant eenwhi chi s
mai nt ainedi naccor dancewi thpr ov i
si onsofSect ion45shal lber egar dedaspar toft he
requi rement soft hissub- sect ion.Wher eal unchr oom exi st snowor kershal leatany
foodi nt hewor kr oom.( 2)Suchpl acesshoul dbeequi ppedwi t
ht hef aci l
ityofdr inking
wat er .( 3)Suchpl acesshoul dbesuf ficient lyl i
ght ed,v ent ilatedandkepti ncooland
cleancondi tions.( 4)Theconst ruct i
onandaccommodat ion, furni tur eandequi pmentof
suchpl aceshoul dconf ormt ot hest andar ds, i
fany ,laiddownbyt heSt ateGov er nment .
Byanot ificationi nt heOf ficialGazet te,t heSt ateGov ernmentmayexemptanyf actor y
from t hecompl ianceoft hesepr ovisions.Fur ther ,wher eanycant eeni smai nt ained
underSect ion45,t henpr ov isionofsuchshel terr oom,et c.,i snotnecessar y .( vii
)
Cr echesFol l
owi ngpr ov isionshav ebeenmadei nr espectofcr echesi nt hef act or ies:( 1)
Inev er yf actor ywher ei nmor et han30womenwor ker sar eor di nar i
lyempl oy ed,t he
facilityofsui tabler oom orr oomsshoul dbepr ov i
dedandmai ntai nedf ort heuseof
chi l
dr enundert heageofsi xy earsofsuchwomen.( 2)Ther eshoul dbeadequat e
accommodat ioni nsuchr ooms.( 3)Thesepl acesshoul dbesuf f i
ci ent l
yl ight edand
vent ilatedandkepti ncl eanandsani tarycondi tions.( 4)Woment r ainedi nt hecaseof
chi l
dr enandi nfant sshoul dbemadei nchar geofsuchr ooms.TheSt at eGov er nmenti s
empower edt omaker ulesi nr espectoff ollowi ngmat ters:( 1)Locat i
onandst andar dsi n
respectofconst ruct i
on, accommodat ion, fur nitur eandot herequi pmentofsuchpl aces.
(2)Pr ov isionsoff acilitiesf orwashi ngandchangi ngcl ot hingofchi l
dr enoranyot her
addi tionalf aci l
ityf ort hei rcar e.( 3)Pr ov i
si onsoff ree-mi lkorr ef reshmentorbot hf or
chi l
dr en.( 4)Faci l
iti
esf ort hemot her sofsuchchi l
dr ent of eedt hem atsui tabl ei nt er vals
i
nt hef act ory .( Sect ion( viii
)Wel fareof ficer sAccor ding t o Sect i
on49( 1) ,i nev ery
fact or ywher ein 500 ormor ewor kersar eor di nar i
lyempl oy ed,t heoccupi ershoul d
empl oysuchnumberofwel far eof ficer sasmaybepr escr i
bed.TheSt ateGov ernmenti s
empower edt opr escr ibet hedut i
es,qual ificat ionsandcondi tionsofser v iceofsuch
wel far eof fi
cer s.Thepr ovisionsofSect ion49al soappl yt oseasonal f act oriesl i
kesugar
fact or i
es et c.The St ate Gov er nmenti s empower ed t ol aydown r ules as t ot he
condi tions ofser v i
ce ofwel fare of fi
cer s.The condi ti
ons of ser v i
ce may i ncl ude
mat tersinr espectofpay gr ades,per iodofpr obat ionandconf irmat i
on,di smi ssalor
termi nat ionorr etirementet c.I nt hecaseofAssoci at edCementCos.Lt d.v .Shar ma,
A.I.R.1965S. C.1595,t heSupr emeCour thel dt hatRul e6ofPunj abWel f
ar eOf f
icer s
Recr ui tmentandCondi tionsofSer v i
ceRul es,1952,r equi ringt heconcur renceoft he
LabourCommi ssi onerbef or et hemanagementcandi smi ssort er mi nat et heser vicesof
Wel far eOf f
iceri snotul trav i
res.( i
x)Power st omaker ulest osuppl ementt hischapt er
TheSt ateGov ernmenti sempower edt omaker ulesexempt i
ngf act oryorcl assor
descr iptionoff act oriesf rom t hecompl ianceofpr ov isi onsoft hischapt er ,pr ov ided
alternat i
vear rangement sf orwor ker swel far ehav ebeenmadet ot hesat isfact ionof the
aut hor iti
es.Suchr ulesmay requi ret hatwor ker srepr esent at i
v esshal lbeassoci at edwi th
themanagementoft hewel farear rangement soft hewor ker s.( Sect ion50)Sect ion41A.
Const itutionofSi teAppr aisalCommi ttees:( 1)TheSt at eGov ernmentmay ,f orpur pose
ofadv isingi tt oconsi derappl i
cat ionsf orgr antof per mi ssionf ort hei nitiallocat ionof a
factor yinv ol vingahazar douspr ocessorf ort heexpansi onofanysuchf act or y,appoi nt
asi teappr aisalcommi t teeconsi stingof( a)t heChi efI nspect oroft heSt atewhoshal l
bei tsChai rman;( b)ar epr esent at iveof theCent ral Boar df ort hepr event i
onandcont r ol
ofwat erpol lutionappoi nt edbyt heCent ralGov er nmentunderSect ion3oft heWat er
(Prev ent ionandCont rolofPol l
ut ion)Act ,1974( 6of1974) ;( c)ar epr esent at i
v eoft he
Cent ralBoar df ort hePr ev ent ionandCont rolofAi rPol l
ut i
onr ef erredt oi nSect ion3of
theAi r(Pr event ionandCont rolofPol lution)Act ,1981( 14of1981) ;(d)ar epr esent ative
oft hest at eboar dappoi nt edunderSect i
on4oft heWat er( Pr event ionandCont rolof
Pollut i
on)Act ,1974 ( 6 or1974) ;( e)a r epr esent ative oft he st at e boar df ort he
prev ent i
onandcont rolofai rpol lut i
onr ef er redt oi nSect ion5oft heAi r( Pr event ionand
Cont rolofPol l
ut i
on)Act ,1981( 14of1981) ;( f
)ar epr esent at i
veoft heDepar tmentof
Env i
r onmenti nt heSt at e;( g)ar epr esent at iveoft heMet eor ologi calDepar tmentoft he
Gov er nmentofI ndi a;( h)an ex per ti nt he f ield ofoccupat ionalheal th;and ( i)a
represent at i
veoft heTownPl anni ngDepar tmentoft heSt at eGov er nment .andnot
mor et hanf i
v eot hermember swhomaybeco- opt edbyt heSt at eGov er nmentwhoshal l
be( i)asci ent i
sthav ingspeci ali
sedknowl edgeoft hehazar douspr ocesswhi chwi llbe
i
nv olv ed i nt he f act or y,( ii)a r epr esent at i
v e oft he l ocalaut hor ity wi thin whose
j
urisdi ctiont hef act or yi st obeest abl i
shed,and( iii
)notmor et hanot herper sonas
deemedf i
tbyt heSt at eGov ernment .( 2)TheSi t
eAppr aisal Commi tteeshal lexami nean
appl i
cat ionf ort heest abl ishmentofaf act or yi nv olv i
nghazar douspr ocessandmakei t s
recommendat i
ont ot heSt at eGov er nmentwi thinaper i
odofni netyday soft her ecei pt
ofsuchappl icationi nt hepr escr i
bedf or m.( 3)Wher eanypr ocessr el atest oaf act or y
ownedorcont r
ol ledbyt heCent ral Gov ernmentort oacor porat ionorcompany ownedor
cont rolled by t
heCent ralGov ernment ,t he St at eGov ernment shal lcoopt i nt he Si te
Appr ai salCommi t t
eear epr esent at i
v enomi nat ed byt heCent ralGov ernmentasa
memberoft heCommi ttee.( 4)TheSi teAppr aisalcommi tteeshal lhav epowert ocal lfor
any i
nf ormat ion f romt he per son maki ng an SPECI AL PROVI SIONS RELATI NG TO
HAZARDOUSPROCESSESappl icat ionf ort heest abl i
shmentorexpansi onofaf act or y
i
nv olv i
ngahazar douspr ocess.( 5)Wher et heSt at eGov er nmenthasgr ant edappr ov al to
anappl icat ionf ort heest abl ishmentorexpansi onofaf act or yinv ol vingahazar dous
process.I tshal lnotbenecessar yf oranappl icantt oobt ai naf ur t
herappr ov alf rom t he
Cent ral Boar dort heSt ateBoar dest abl ishedundert heWat er( Pr event ionandCont rol of
Pollut i
on)Act ,1974( 6of1974) ,andt heAi r( Pr ev ent ionandCont rolofPol lution)Act ,
1981( 14or1981) .Sect i
on41B.Compul sor ydi scl osur eofi nf ormat i
onbyt heoccupi er:
(1)Theoccupi erofev er yf act or yi nv olv ingahazar douspr ocessshal ldi scl osei nt he
mannerpr escr ibedal li nfor mat ionr egar dingdanger s,incl udingheal t
hhazar dsandt he
measur est oov er comesuchhazar dsar i
si ngf rom t heexposur et oorhandl ingoft he
mat er ials. orsubst ances i nt he manuf act ure,t ranspor t at i
on,st orage and ot her
processes,t ot hewor ker sempl oy ed i nt hef act or y,t heChi efI nspect or ,t hel ocal
author i
tywi thinwhosej ur i
sdi cti
ont hef act or yi ssi tuat edandt hegener alpubl ici nt he
vicini t
y .( 2)The occupi ershal l
,att he t ime ofr egi ster i
ng t he f act or yi nv ol v i
ng a
hazar douspr ocess,l aydownadet ailedpol icywi thr espectt ot heheal thandsaf etyof
thewor ker sempl oy edt her einandi nt imat esuchpol i
cy tot heChi efI nspect orandt he
l
ocal aut hor ity and, t her eaf ter, at such i nt ervals as may be pr escr i
bed,
i
nf or mt heChi ef I
nspect orandt hel ocalaut hor ityofanychangemadei nt hesai dpol icy.
(3)Thei nf or mat i
onf urnishedunderSub- sect i
on( 1)shal li ncludeaccur at ei nf or mat ion
ast ot hequant i
ty ,speci fi
cat ionsandot herchar act er i
st i
csofwast esandt hemannerof
thei rdi sposal .(4)Ev er yoccupi ershal l
, wi t
ht heappr ovaloft heChi efInspect or ,dr awup
anon- si t
eemer gencypl ananddet aileddi sast ercont r olmeasur esf orhi sf act or yand
makeknownt ot hewor ker sempl oy edt her einandt ot hegener alpubl icl i
v i
ngi nt he
vicini t
yoft hef act or yt hesaf etymeasur esr equi r
edt obet akeni nt heev entofan
acci dentt aki ngpl ace.( 5)Ev eryoccupi erofaf act or yshal l
, (a)i fsuchf act or yengagedi n
ahazar douspr ocessont hecommencementoft heFact or ies( Amendment )Act ,1987,
wi thinaper iodoft hi rtyday sofsuchcommencement ;and( b)i fsuchf act orypr oposes
toengagei nahazar douspr ocessatanyt imeaf t
ersuchcommencement ,wi thina
per iodoft hirtyday sbef or et hecommencementofsuchpr ocess,i nfor mt heChi ef
Inspect oroft henat ur eanddet ailsoft hepr ocessi nsuchf or m andi nsuchmanneras
maybepr escr ibed.( 6)Wher eanyoccupi erofaf actor ycont rav enest hepr ov isionsof
Sub- sect ion ( 5) ,t he l icence i ssued under Sect ion 6 t o such f act or y shal l
,
not wi thst andi nganypenal tytowhi cht heoccupi erorf act or yshal lbesubj ect edt ounder
thepr ov i
si onsoft het hi
sAct ,bel i
abl ef orcancel l
ation.( 7)Theoccupi erofaf actor y
i
nv ol vingahazar douspr ocessshal l,wi tht hepr ev iousappr ov aloft heChi efI nspect or,
l
aydownmeasur esf ort hehandl ing,usage,t ranspor tat ionandst orageofhazar dous
subst ancesi nsi det hef act orypr emi sesandt hedi sposalofsuchsubst ancesout side
thef act orypr emi sesandpubl ici
set hem i nt hemannerpr escr ibedamongt hewor ker s
andt hegener alpubl icl ivingi nt hev i
ci nity.Sect ion41C.Speci f i
cr esponsi bi l
ityoft he
occupi eri
nr elat i
ont ohazar douspr ocesses:Ev er yoccupi erofaf actoryi nv olv ingany
hazar douspr ocessshal l( a)mai nt ainaccur at eandup- to-dat eheal threcor dsor ,ast he
casemaybe,medi calr ecor ds,oft hewor ker si nt hef act or ywhoar eexposedt oany
chemi calt oxi c oranyot herhar mf ulsubst ances whi ch ar e manuf act ur ed,st ored
handl edort ranspor t edandsuchr ecor dsshal lbeaccessi blet ot hewor ker ssubj ectt o
suchcondi tionsasmaybepr escr ibed;( b)appoi ntper sonswhopossessqual i
ficat ions
andexper iencei nhandl i
nghazar doussubst ancesandcompet entt osuper visesuch
handl ing wi thint hef actor yand t o pr ov i
deatt hewor king pl aceal lt henecessar y
faci l
itiesf orpr ot ect i
ngt hewor kersi nt hemannerpr escr i
bed;Pr ov idedt hatwher eany
quest ionar isesast ot hequal ifi
cat ionsandexper i
enceofaper sonsoappoi nt ed,t he
deci sionoft heChi efI nspect orshal lbef i
nal ;( c)pr ov idef ormedi calexami nat ionof
ev erywor ker( a)bef or esuchwor keri sassi gnedt oaj obi nv olv ingt hehandl ingof ,a
wor kingwi th, ahazar doussubst ance, and( b)whi lecont i
nui ngi nsuchj ob, andaf terhe
hasceasedt owor ki nsuchj obati nt erv alsnotexceedi ngt wel vemont hs,i nsuch
mannerasmaybepr escr ibed.Sect ion41D.PowerofCent ralGov er nmentt oappoi nt
Inqui ryCommi ttee:( 1)TheCent r alGov ernmentmay ,inev entoft heoccur renceofan
extraor di
nar ysi tuat i
oni nv olv i
ngaf actor yengagedi nahazar douspr ocess,appoi ntan
Inqui ryCommi tteet oi nqui rei ntot hest andar dsofheal thandsaf et yobser vedi nt he
fact orywi thav i
ewt of i
ndi ngoutt hecausesofanyf ai
lur eornegl ecti nt headopt i
onof
anymeasur es orst andar ds pr escr i
bed f ort he heal th and saf et yoft he wor ker s
empl oy edi nt hef act or yort hegener alpubl i
caf f
ect ed,orl ikel yt obeaf fect ed,duet o
suchf ail
ur eornegl ectandf ort hepr ev entionandr ecur renceofsuchext raor dinar y
sit
uat ionsi nf utur ei nsuchf act or yorel sewher e.( 2)TheCommi tteeappoi nt edunder
sub- sect ion( 1)shal lconsi stofaChai rmanandt woot hermember sandt het er msof
refer enceoft heCommi t
teeandt het enur eofof ficeofi tsmember sshal lbesuchas
maybedet ermi nedbyt heCent r alGov ernmentaccor dingt ot her equi rement soft he
sit
uat ion.( 3)Ther ecommendat ionsoft heCommi t
teeshal lbeadv isor yi nnat ur e.
Sect ion41E.Emer gencyst andar ds:( 1)Wher et heCent ralGov ernmenti ssat isf i
edt hat
nost andar dsofsaf etyhav ebeenpr escr ibedi nr espectofahazar douspr ocessorcl ass
ofhazar douspr ocessesorwher et hest andar dssopr escr ibedar ei n- adequat e,i tmay
directt heDi rect or-Gener alofFact oryAdv iceSer v i
ceand LabourI nst itut esorany
i
nst itut i
onspeci alisedi nmat t
err elatingt ost andar dsofsaf etyi nhazar douspr ocesses,
tol aydownemer gencyst andar dsf orenf orcementofsui tabl est andar dsi nr espectof
suchhazar douspr ocesses.( 2)Theemer gencyst andar dsl aiddownundersub- section
(1)shal l,until theyar ei ncor por atedi nther ulesmadeundert hisAct ,beenf or ceabl eand
hav et hesameef fectasi ft heyhadbeeni ncor porat edi nt her ulesmadeundert hisAct .
Per mi ssiblel i
mi tsofexposur eofchemi calandt oxi csubst ances:( 1)Themax i
mum
per mi ssiblet hreshol dl imi ts ofexposur e ofchemi caland t oxi c subst ances i n
manuf actur i
ngpr ocesses( whet herhazar dousorot her wi se)i nanyf act oryshal lbeof
thev aluei ndi cat edi nt heSecondSchedul e(mayr ef ert ot hebar eAct )
.( 2)TheCent ral
Gov ernmentmay ,atanyt ime,f ort hepur poseofgi vingef f
ectt oanysci ent ificpr oof
obt ainedf rom speci al isedi nst itut i
onsorexper tint hef i
el d, bynot ificat i
oni nt heOf f
icial
Gazet te,make sui tabl e changes i nt he sai d Schedul e.( Sect i
on 41F) Wor ker s
par ticipationi nsaf et ymanagement :(1)Theoccupi ershal l
,i nev er yf act or ywher ea
hazar douspr ocesst akespl ace,orwher ehazar doussubst ancesar eusedorhandl ed,
setupasaf etyCommi t
teeconsi stingofequalnumberofr epr esent ativ esofwor ker s
andmanagementt opr omot ecooper ationbet weent hewor ker sandt hemanagementi n
mai nt ainingpr opersaf etyandheal thatwor kandt or ev iew per iodi callyt hemeasur es
takeni nt hatbehal fPr ov i
dedt hatt heSt at eGov ernmentmay , byor deri nwr itingandf or
reasonst ober ecor ded,exemptt heoccupi erofanyf act or yorcl assoff act or iesf rom
settingupsuchCommi ttee.( 2)Thecomposi tionoft hesaf etyCommi ttee, thet enureof
officeofi tsmember sandt hei rr ight sanddut iesshal lbesuchasmaybepr escr i
bed.
(Sect i
on41G)Ri ghtofwor ker st owar nabouti mmi nentdanger :(1)Wher et hewor ker s
empl oy ed i n any f act or y engaged i n a hazar dous pr ocess hav e r easonabl e
appr ehensi ont hatt herei sal i
kehoodofi mmi nentdangert ot hei rliv esorheal thduet o
anyacci dent ,theymaybr ingt hesamet ot henot i
ceoft heoccupi er ,agent ,mangeror
anyot herper sonwhoi si nchar geoft hef actor yort hepr ocessconcer neddi r ectl
yor
throught heirr epr esent ativ esi nt heSaf et yCommi tteeandsi mul t aneousl ybr ingt he
samet ot henot iceoft heI nspect or.( 2)I tshal lbet hedut yof suchoccupi er ,agent ,
managerort heper soni nchar geoft hef act oryorpr ocesst ot akei mmedi at er emedi al
actioni fhei ssat i
sf iedaboutt heexi stenceofsuchi mmi nentdangerandsendar epor t
forthwi th oft heact i
on t aken t ot henear estI nspect or .( 3)I ft heoccupi er,agent ,
managerort heper soni nchar ger eferredt oi nsub- sect ion( 2)i snotsat isfi
edaboutt he
existence of any i mmi nent danger as appr ehended by t he wor kers,he shal l
,
nev ertheless,r ef ert hemat terf orthwi t
ht ot henear esti nspect orwhosedeci sionont he
quest ion of the exi stence of such i mmi nentdangershal lbe f inal.( Sect ion 41H)
WORKI NG HOURSOFADULTSChapt erVIcont ainspr ovisionf orr egul atingwor king
hour sf ortheadul twor ker sandt hesamear eexpl ainedbel ow:Anadul twor kershal lbe
all
owed t o wor konl yf orf ortyei ghthour si n anyweek.( Sect ion 51)Sect i
on 52
prov i
dest hatt her eshal lbehol idayf ort hewhol edayi nev er yweekandsuchweekl y
holidayshal lbeont hef irstdayoft heweek.Howev er ,suchhol idaymaybesubst i
tuted
foranyoneoft het hreeday si mmedi at elybef oreoraf tert hef i
r stdayoft heweek
prov i
dedt hemangeroft hef act oryhas:( i
)del i
v eredanot i
ceatt heof ficeoft he
Inspect or;and( i
i)di splayedanot icei nt hef actor yt ot hisef f ect .Theef fectofal lthisi s
thatsubj ectt oabov esai dcondi ti
ons( i)and( ii
)t her eshal lbeahol idaydur ingt enday s.
Inot herwor dsnoadul twor kershal lwor kf ormor et hant enday sconsecut iv elywi thout
ahol idayf ort hewhol eday .Itisnotpossi blef oranempl oy ert ochanget heweekl yof f
solelyont hegr oundt hatt her ewasnomat erialav ai l
abl ef orwor kt obepr ov idedona
particulardat e,av oidingr equi rement st obef ulfil
ledunderSect i
on25( m)ofI ndust rial
Disput esActr egar dingl ayof f( LABI C1998Bom.1790) .Suchnot icesofsubst it
ution
maybecancel ledbyanappr opr i
at enot icebutnotl at ert hant hedayof( i)Weekl yhour s
(ii
)Weekl yhol iday sweekl yhol idayort hesubst i
tut edhol i
daywhi chev eri sear l
ier
.( ii
i)
Compensat or yhol iday sWhenawor kerisdepr i
v edofanyoft heweekl yhol i
dayasr esul t
ofpassi ngofanor derormaki ngofar ul eexempt ingaf act oryorwor kerf rom t he
prov i
sionsofSect ion52, hei sent i
tledt ocompensat oryhol i
day sofequal numberoft he
holiday ssol ost .Thesehol iday sshoul dbeal l
owedei theri nt hesamemont hi nwhi ch
thehol i
day sbecamedueorwi thinnextt womont hsi mmedi atelyf ol lowi ngt hatmont h.
(Sect i
on53) .

(
iv)Dai
l
yhour
s

Accordi
ngtoSection54,anadultworker
,whethermaleorf emaleshal
lnotberequired
orall
owedt oworkinafactoryformorethan9hoursi nanyday .Sect
ion54shouldbe
readwithSect
ion59.Inotherwords,
thedail
yhoursofwor kshouldbesoadjustedthat
thetotalweeklyhour
sdoesnotexceed48.Thel iabil
i
tyof t
heempl oyerunderthis
Sectioncannotbeabsol vedont hegr oundt hatt hewor kersar ewi lli
ngt owor kf orlonger
hourswi thoutanyext rapay ment .Thedai l
ymaxi mum hour sofwor kspeci fied in
Section54canbeexceededpr ovided( i)itistof aci l
it
atet hechangeofshi ft
;and( ii)the
previousappr ovaloft heChi efI nspect orhasbeenobt ained.Noadul twor kershal lwor k
continuousl yf ormor et han5hour sunl essar esti nterv
alofatl easthal fanhouri sgi ven
tohi m.[ Sect ion55( 1) ]TheSt at eGov ernmentorsubj ecttot hecont roloft heSt ate
Gover nmentt heChi efI nspect ormay ,bywr itt
enor derfort her easonsspeci fiedt her ein,
exemptanyf actory,f rom t hecompl i
anceofabov epr ovi
sionst ot heext entthatt het otal
numberofhour swor kedwi thoutr esti ntervaldoesnotexceedsi x.[ Section55( 2)]
Section56pr ovi
dest hatt hedai l
ywor kinghour sshoul dbeadj ustedinsuchamanner ,
thatinclusiv eofr esti nt ervalunderSect i
on55,t heyar enotspr eadov ermor et han10-
1/2hour sonanyday .Thus, weseet hisSect ionr estri
ctst hepr acticeoff orcingt hest ay
ofwor kersi nt hef act or yforundul ylongper i
odswi thoutcont r aveningt hepr ov i
si onof
Section54r elati
ngt odai lyhour sofwor k.Pr ovisot oSect i
on56pr ovidest hatt hel i
mi t
maybeext endedupt o12hour sbyt heChi efInspect orf orreasonst obespeci fiedi n
writ
ing.Wher eawor keri naf actorywor ksi nni ghtshi fts,i
.e.,shi f
text endingbey ond
mid-night:( i)t heweekl yorcompensat oryhol idayshal lbeaper i
odof24consecut i
ve
hoursbegi ningwhenhi sshi ftends;( ii
)t hef oll
owi ngdayshal lbedeemedt ot heper i
od
of24hour sbegi nningwhenshi ftends,andt hehour shehaswor kedaf termi d-night
shallbecount edint hepr eviousday .(Sect i
on57)Accor di
ngt oSect ion58( 1), wher et he
worki nanyf actoryi scar ri
edonbymeansofmul ti
pleshifts,theper i
odofshi ftsshoul d
bear rangedi nsuchamannert hatnotmor et hanoner elayofwor ker sisengagedi n
workoft hesameki ndatt hesamet i
me.( iv)

Incaseofanyf actor
yorcl assordescri
pti
onoff
actoriesoranydepartmentorsecti
on
ofaf actor
yoranycat egor
yordescripti
onofwor
kers,theSt at
eGovernmentorsubject
tothecontroloft
heSt ateGover
nment ,t
heChi
efI
nspect ormay ,
bywrit
tenorderandfor
specifi
edreasons,grantexemptionfrom t
hecomplianceoft heprovi
sionsofSecti
on
58(1)onsuchcondi t
ionasmaybedeemedexpedi ent.[
Section58(2)
]

Thef oll
owingpr ovisionshav ebeenmadei nrespectofov ert
imewages:Wher eawor ker
wor ksinaf actoryformor ethan9hour sinanydayormor ethan48hour sinanyweek,
heshal l,inr espectofov erti
mewor k,beent i
tl
edt owagesatt her ateoft wicehi s
ordinaryrateofwages.[ Sect i
on59(1)]Meaningofor dinaryrateofwagesAccor dingt o
Sect i
on59( 2)ordinaryrateofwagesmeans:( i
)basicwages; plus,(i
i
)al l
owanceswhi ch
i
ncludet hecashequi v
alentoft headv ant
ageaccruingt hr
ought heconcessi onal
sal eto
wor kersoff oodgrainsandot herar
ti
clesast hewor kerisforthetimebei ngenti
tledt o,
buti tdoesnoti ncludeabonusandwagesf oroverti
mewor k.Houser entall
owance,
thoughpay abl etoempl oyerswhower enotprovi
dedwi t
haccommodat i
on,cannotbe
takeni nto accountt o calculat
eov erti
mewagesofempl oyeespr ov i
ded withsuch
accommodat i
on( Gov i
ndBapuSal vev .VishwanathJanar dhanJoshi ,1995SCC( L&S)
308) .Anempl oy err equi ringt hewor kmant owor kf ormor et hant hemaxi mum number
ofhour sov ertimewor kpost ulatedbySect i
on64( 4) (iv)cannotmer elyont hisgr ound,
denyhi m ov ertimewagesf orsuchexcessi vehour s( HMTv .LabourCour t,1994ILLN
156) .Rat eofwagesf orpi ecer atewor kersWher et hewor ker sinaf act or yarepai don
piecer atebasi s,t het imer ateshal lbedeemedt obeequi valentt ot hedai lyav erageof
theirf ul l
-timeear ningsf ort heday sonwhi cht heyact uallywor kedont hesameor
i
dent icalj obdur i
ngt hemont hi mmedi atelypr ecedi ngt hecal endarmont hdur ingwhi ch
theov er timewor kwasdoneandsucht imer at esshal lbedeemedt obet heor di nar y
ratesofwagesoft hosewor ker s.Howev er,incaseofawor kerwhohasnotwor kedi n
thei mmedi at elypr ecedi ngcal endarmont hont hesameori dent i
calj ob,t het imer at e
shallbedeemedt obeequi v alentt ot hedai l
yav er ageoft heear ningsoft hewor kerf or
theday sonwhi chheact ual lywor kedi nt heweeki nwhi cht heov ertimewor kwasdone.
[Section59( 3) ]Accor dingt oSect ion60,noadul twor kershal lber equi redoral lowedt o
wor ki nanyf act oryonanydayi fhehasal r
eadybeenwor kingi nanyot herf act or yon
thatday .Howev er,incer tainexcept ionalci rcumst ancesasmaybepr escr ibed,t he
doubl eempl oy mentmaybeper mi tted.( x)Rest ri
ct ionondoubl eempl oy mentAsper
Sect i
on61( 1),anot iceofper iodofwor k,showi ngcl earl
yf orev er ydayt heper iods
duringwhi chadul twor ker smayber equi redt owor k,shal lbedi spl ayedandcor r ectly
mai ntai nedi nev eryf act or y.Thedi spl ayofnot i
ceshoul dbei naccor dancewi tht he
prov i
si onsofSect ion108( 2) .(2)Theper iodsshowni nt henot iceshal lnotcont rav ene
thepr ov i
si onsoft heFact or iesActr egar ding:( a)Weekl yhour s,Sect i
on51.( b)Weekl y
holiday s, Sect ion52.( c)Compensat or yhol i
day s, Sect ion53.( d)Dai lyHour s,Sect i
on54.
(e)Int er valsofr est ,Sect ion55.( f)Spr eadov erofwor kinghour s,Sect ion56and( g)
Prohi bitionofov erlappi ngshi fts,Sect i
on58.( 3)Theper i
odsofwor kshal lbef ixed
befor ehandi nanyoft hef ollowi ngway s:(i)wher eal lt headul twor ker swor kdur i
ngt he
sameper iods,t hemanageroft hef act oryshal lf ixt hoseper iodsf orsuchwor ker s
gener al l
y ;[ Sect i
on61( 3) ]( ii)wher eal lt headul twor kersar enotwor kingdur ingt he
sameper i
od,t hemanageroft hef act oryshal lcl assi fyt hem i ntogr oupsaccor di ngt o
thenat ur eoft hei rwor ki ndi cat ingt henumberofwor kersineachgr oup;[ Sect ion61( 4)]
(ii
i
)t hemanagershal lf ixper i
odsofwor kforeachsuchgr ouppr ov i
dedt heyar enot
wor kingonshi f tbasi s;[ Sect ion61( 5)]( iv)wher eanygr oupi swor kingonasy stem
ofshifts,per iodsshal lbef i
xed,byt hemanager ,dur i
ngwhi cheachr elayoft hegr oup
maywor kpr ov idedsuchr elay sar enotsubj ectt opr edet ermi nedper iodi calchangesof
shift;[ Sect ion 61( 6)]( v)wher et her elaysar esubj ectt o pr edet er mi ned per iodi cal
changesofshi fts,t hemanagershal ldr aw up aschemeof shi fts,wher eundert he
periodsdur ingwhi chanyr elayoft hegr oupmayber equi redt owor kandt her elaywhi ch
willbewor kingatanyt imeoft hedayshal lbeknownf oranyday .[Sect i
on61( 7) ](4)The
form ofsuchnot i
ceandt hemanneri nwhi chi tshal lbemai nt ained,maybepr escr ibed
byt heSt at eGov ernment .[ Sect i
on61( 8) ](5)Anypr oposedchangei nt hesy stem of
wor ki nt hef act or y,whi chnecessi tatesachangei nt henot ice,shal lbenot ifiedt ot he
Inspectori ndupl i
cat ebef oret hechangei smade.Nosuchchangeshal l bemadeexcept
witht hepr ev i
oussanct i
onoft heI nspect orandt hatt oount iloneweekhasel apsed
since the l astchange,[ Sect ion 61( 10) ].Thi spr ov i
sion i nt endst o pr ev entsudden
variati
onsorcasualal ter ationsi nt heper iodsofwor k.( xi)Not iceofper iodofwor kfor
adul t
sThemanagerofev eryf act or yshal lmai nt ainar egist erofadul twor ker st obe
availablet ot heI nspect oratal lt imesdur i
ngwor ki nghour scont ai ningt hef ollowi ng
particulars:( i)thenameofwor ker ;(ii)t henat ur eofhi swor k;( i
ii)t hegr oup,i fany ,in
whichhei si ncluded;( iv)wher ehi sgr oupwor ksonshi fts,t her elayt owhi chhei s
all
ot t
ed;and ( v )ot herpar ti
cul ar s as may be pr escr ibed.Wher e any f actor yi s
mai ntainingamust err ol lorar egi st erwhi chcont ai nst heabov ement ionedpar ti
cul ar s,
theI nspect ormay ,byor deri nwr iting,di rectt hatsuchmust err ol lorr egi stershal lbe
mai ntained i n pl ace of and be t reat ed ast he r egist er of adul t wor ker sin
thatfactor y(Sect ion62) .Fur ther ,anadul twor kershal lnotber equi redoral lowedt owor k
i
nt hef act or yunl esshi spar ticul arshav ebeenent er edi nt hi sr egi ster .[Sect ion62( IA) ]
Inspection oft he r egi sterSect ion 62( 1)empower st he I nspect ort o demand t he
product ionofr egi sterofadul twor ker satal ltimesdur i
ngwor ki nghour sorwhenany
wor ki sbei ngcar riedoni nt hef act ory .Iti st hedut yoft hemanagert opr oducet he
registerwhendemandedatt het imeofi nspect ion.I fthemanagerdoesnothappent o
beont hepr emi sesatt het imeofi nspect i
onheshoul dmakear rangementt hatt he
registeri smadeav ailabl et ot hei nspect or.Theev i
denti nt entionoft hel egi slatur ei s
thatt her egistershoul dbeatt hepl acewher et hewor ki sgoi ngon.Thus,wher ea
manageri sabsentatt het imeofi nspect i
onoft hef act orybyt hei nspect orandt he
assistantmanager , whoi spr esentatt hatt i
mef ailst opr oducer egi sterondemand, the
managerhascommi ttedbr eachofSect ion62.Ef fectofent ryi nt her egi sterI ft hename
ofanyper soni sent er edi nt her egi sterofadul twor ker s, itisaconcl usiv eev i
dencet hat
theper soni sempl oy edi nt hef act or y.Inot herwor ds,t her ei sapr esumpt i
ont hatt he
personwhosenameappear si nt heat tendancer egi st er ,isempl oy edi nt hef act or y.
Liabili
tyt omai nt ainr egi sterThel iabi l
ityt omai nt ainr egi sterofadul twor ker shasbeen
i
mposedont hemanageroft hef act or y.Theoccupi ercannotbehel dl i
abl ef orf ailur eof
themanagert omai ntai nt her egi ster .Buti fsomebodyel sehasbeenmader esponsi ble
formai ntainingsuchr egi ster ,managercanpl eadunderSect ion101t hatt heof f ence
wascommi t
ted byanot herper son i ncl uding t heoccupi er .( xiii)Hour sofwor kt o
correspondwi t
hnot iceunderSect ion61andr egi sterunderSect ion62Noadul twor ker
shallber equi redoral lowedt owor ki nanyf act or yot her wi set hani naccor dancewi th
thenot iceofper iodofwor kf oradul tsdi splay edi nt hef act oryandt heent ri
esmade
befor ehadagai nsthi snamei nt her egi sterofadul twor ker soft hef act ory .(Sect i
on63)
Presenceofwor kerdur i
ngr estper iodWher eawor keri smer elypr esentdur ingt her est
periodasnot if
iedori sf oundwor kingdur i
ngt hatper iod,t her ei snocont rav ent ionof
Sect i
on63andhencenotpuni shabl e.( 1)TheSt at eGov ernmenti sempower edunder
Sect i
on64, tomaker ulesdef iningcer tainper sonshol dingsuper visor yormanager ialor
conf ident i
alposi tionsandgr ant ingexempt ionst ot hem f rom t hepr ov i
si onsoft his
chapt erexceptSect ion66( 1) (
b)andpr ov i
sot oSect ion66( 1)pr ov i
dedt hatsuchper son
shal lbeent i
tledf orext r awagesi nr espectofov er timeunderSect ion59i fhi sor dinar y
rateofwagesi snotmor et hanRs.750permont h.( xiv)Powert omakeexempt ingr ules
ADDI TIONALPROVI SI ONSREGULATI NGEMPLOYMENTOFWOMENI NAFACTORYWe
hav edi scussedt hepr ov isionsr elat i
ngt owor kinghour sofadul twor ker s,bot hmal eand
femal e.Howev er ,cer tai naddi ti
onalr estri
ct ionshav ebeenf oundnecessar yont he
wor ki nghour soff emal ewor ker s.Sect ion66makesf ollowi ngpr ov isi onsi nt hisr espect .
(1)Noexempt i
onmaybegr ant edt of emal ewor ker ,from t hepr ovisi onsofSect i
on54
relatingt odai lyhour sofwor k.( 2)Womenwor ker sshal lnotbeempl oy edexcept
bet weent hehour sof6a. m.and7p. m.Howev er,t heSt ateGov er nmentmaybya
not ifi
cat ioni ntheOf fici al Gazet te, varyt hesel i
mi tst ot heext entt hatnowomanshal l be
empl oy edbet weent hehour sof10p. m.and5a. m.( 3)Ther eshal lbenochangeof
shiftsexceptaf t eraweekl yhol idayoranyot herhol iday .Exempt i
onsf rom t heabov e
rest ri
ct i
on The St ate Gov ernmenthas been empower ed t o make r ul es gr ant ing
exempt ionsf rom abov est atedr est r
ictioni nr espectofwomenwor ki ngi nf ish- curingor
fi
shcanni ng f act or ies.Thi shasbeendonewi thav iew t o pr ev entdamaget o or
det erior ationi nanyr aw mat er i
al .Howev er,bef or egr ant inganyexempt i
on,t heSt ate
Gov ernmentmayl aydownanycondi t
ionasi tt hinksnecessar y.Suchr ulesmadebyt he
Stat eGov er nmentshal lr emai ni nf orcef ornotmor et hant hreey ear satat ime.[ Sect ion
66( 3)]Mostoft heci v i
lisednat ionsr est ri
ctt heempl oy mentofchi ldr eni nt hef act or i
es.
TheRoy alCommi ssi ononLabourobser vedt hatt hi si sbasedont hepr inci plet hatt he
supr emer i
ghtoft heSt at et ot heguar dianshi pofchi l
dr encont rol st henat ur alr ight sof
thepar entwhent hewel fareofsoci et yoroft hechi l
dr ent hemsel v esconf li
ct swi th
par ent alr ight s.Wor ker sasy oungasf ivey ear sofagemaybef oundi nsomeoft hese
placeswor kingwi thoutadequat emeal , i
nterv alsorweekl yrestday satasl owas2annas
i
nt hecaseoft hoset ender esty ear s.Ther efore, tocur bt heseandot herev ilpr act i
cesof
empl oy ingchi l
dr en,f ol lowi ngl egi slativemeasur eshav ebeenadopt ed.Accor dingt o
Sect ion67,achi ldwhohasnotcompl etedhi sf our teent hy earofage,shal lnotbe
empl oy edi nanyf act ory .Accor dingt oSect ion68,chi ldrencompl et ingt hei rf our teent h
yearoranadol escent ,shal lnotber equi r
edt owor ki nanyf act or y ,unl essf ol l
owi ng
condi ti
onsar ef ul fil
led:( i
)t hemanageroft hef act or yhasobt ainedacer tificateof
fi
tnessgr ant edt osuchy oungper sonunderSect ion69;( ii)whi l
eatwor k,suchchi ldor
adol escentcar riesat okengi vingr efer encet osuchcer ti
f i
cat e.UnderSect ion69oft he
Act ,bef oreay oungper soni sempl oy edi nt hef act or y,aCer tif
y ingSur geonhast o
cer ti
fyt hatsuchper soni sf i
tf ort hatwor ki nt hef act or y.Togett hiscer tificate,an
appl icat iont oaCer t
if yingSur geonhast omadeei ther :(i)byt hey oungper sonhi msel f;
orEMPLOYMENTOFYOUNG PERSONSAND CHI LDREN ( i)Gener alpr ohi bi ti
onast o
empl oy mentofchi ldr en( ii)Empl oy mentofchi ldr enandAdol escent s—Condi tions( ii
i
)
Whati sacer tif
icat eof fitness( ii
)byhi spar entorguar dian; or( i
ii)byt hemanageroft he
fact ory .Ift heappl icationi smadebyaper sonot hert hant hemanager ,i tmustbe
accompani edbyadocument ,si gnedbyt hemanager ,thatsuchy oungper sonwi llbe
empl oy edi nt hef act or yifacer tifi
cat eoff i
tnessi sgr ant edi nhi sf av our .[Sect i
on69( 1) ]
(iv)Cer tifi
cat eoff i
tnesst owor kasachi ldTheCer tifyi
ngSur geonmaygr antorr enew
toanysuchy oungper son,acer tificat eoff i
t ness,i nt hepr escr i
bedf or mt owor kasa
child,i f,af terexami nat ion,hei ssat isfiedt hat( i)suchy oungper sonhascompl etedhi s
14t hy ear; (i
i)hasat tainedt hepr escr ibedphy sical st andar ds; and( i
ii)i sf itf orsuchwor k.
[Sect ion69( 2)(a) ](v)Cer tificateoff i
tnesst owor kasanadul tI ftheCer tifyingSur geon,
afterexami nat ioni ssat isfiedt hatsuchay oungper sonhascompl et edhi s15t hy ear
andi sf itforaf ul lday swor ki nt hef act ory,hemaygr antorr enewacer tifi
cat eoff i
tness,
i
nt hepr escr i
bedf or m,t osuchy oungper son,t owor kasanadul t.[ Sect ion69( 2) (
b) ]
Prov isot oSect ion69( 2)pr ovidest hatbef oregr ant ingorr enewi ngacer tificat eoff itness,
theCer t
ifyingSur geonmusthav eper sonalknowl edgeoft hepl aceoft hewor kand
manuf act uringpr ocesswher einsuchy oungper sonwi llbeempl oy ed.I fhehasno
per sonalknowl edge,he mustexami ne such pl ace per sonal l
y .Ot herf eat ures of
cert i
ficat eoff i
tness( i)Val idity:Thecer t
ifi
cat ei sv al i
df oraper i
odof12mont hsf rom
thedat eofi ssue[ Sect i
on69( 3) (a)].( ii
)Condi ti
onsofI ssue:I tmaybei ssuedsubj ectt o
condi tionsinr espectt o( i
)t henat ur eofwor ki nwhi chay oungper sonmaybeempl oy ed,
or( ii
)t her e-exami nat i
onofsuchy oungper sonbef or et heexpi r
yof12mont hs.[ Sect ion
69( 3)( b)].Such y oung per son shal lnotber equi red oral lowed t o wor kexcepti n
accor dancewi tht hesecondi tions.[ Sect i
on69( 6)]( i
ii)Rev ocat ionoft hecer ti
f i
cat e:The
cert i
ficat ecanber ev okedbyt hecer ti
fyingsur geon,atanyt imei f ,inhi sopi nion,t he
wor keri snol ongerf itt owor kassuchi nt hef act ory.[ Sect ion69( 4)]( i
v )Cer ti
f ying
Sur geont ost at er easonsf orr ef usalorr ev ocat ion:Wher eaCer t
ify i
ngSur geonr ef uses
togr antorr enew acer tificateorr ev okesacer tifi
cat eheshal lst atehi sr easonsi n
wr i
tingi frequest edbyanyper son, fordoi ngso.[ Sect ion69( 5) ](v)Feef or thecer tifi
cat e:
Anyf eepay abl ef oracer tificateshal lbepai dbyt heoccupi erandi tcannotber ecov er ed
from t hey oungper son, hi spar ent s, orguar dian.[ Sect i
on69( 7)]( i
v )Ef fectofcer ti
ficat e
off itnessgr ant edt oadol escent s( 1)Theef f
ectofgr ant i
ngacer tificat eoff itnesst oan
adol escentandwhowhi leatwor ki naf actor ycar riesat okengi v ingr ef erencet osuch
cert i
ficat ei st hathei sdeemedt obeanadul tf ort hepur poseofChapt erVIr elatingt o
wor ki nghour s,andChapt erVI IIr elat i
ngt oannuall eav ewi thwages.[ Sect ion70( 1) ](2)
Nof emal eadol escentoramal eadol escentwhohasnotat tainedt heageofsev ent een
year sbutwhohasbeengr antedacer ti
f i
cat eoff itnesst owor ki naf act or yasanadul t,
shal lber equi redoral l
owedt owor ki nanyf act oryexceptbet ween6a. m.and7p. m.
Prov idedt hatt heSt ateGov er nmentmaybynot ificationi nt heOf ficialGazet te,i n
respectofanyf act or yorgr ouporcl assordescr iptionoff actor ies:( i)v ar yt hel imi tsl aid
down i nt hi s sub- sect ion,so,howev er,t hatno such sect ion shal laut hor ise t he
empl oy mentofanyf emal eadol escentbet ween10p. m.and5a. m.( ii)gr antexempt ion
from t hepr ovisionsoft hi ssub- sect ioni ncaseofser iousemer gencywher enat i
onal
i
nterestisinvolved.(
Section70IA)( 3)Wher eanadol escenthasnotbeengr antedt his
certi
fi
cate,heshal lnot wit
hst
anding hisage,bedeemed t o bea chi ldforal lt he
purposesoft hisAct.[Secti
on70(2)]Ifacertif
icat
eoff itnessisgr antedtoanyper son,
noot herpersoncanusei torattemptt ousei t.Theper songr anti
ngt hecertifi
cat e,
cannotallowi t
suseorat t
empttobeusedbyanot herper son.Inot herwor ds,wher ea
personknowi nglyusesorat t
empt stouseaf al
secer t
ifi
cateandt hus,contravenes
abovepr ovi
sions,canbepuni shedwi thimprisonmentext endi
ngupt ot womont hsor
withf i
neupt o Rs.1000 orwi t
h bot h.(Secti
on 98)Sect ion 71,laysdown f urther
restr
ict
ionsont heempl oymentofchi l
dreninthefactories.Theser estri
cti
onsasst ated
belowrelatet
owor ki
nghour sf
orchildren.

(1)Achil
dshal
lnotbeempl
oyedorper
mit
tedt
owor
kformor
ethan4-
1/2hour
sinany
day.[
Secti
on71(
1)(
a)]

(2)Hei snotper mi
tt
ed t
o workduring ni
ght
,i.
e.,dur
ing a per
iod ofatl
east12
consecut
ivehour
s,i
ncl
udi
ngint
erv
als,
between10p.m.and6a.m.

(
3)Theper
iodofwor
kshal
lbel
i
mit
edt
otwoshi
ft
sonl
y.[
Sect
ion71(
2)]

(
4)Theseshi
ft
sshal
lnotov
erl
ap.

(
5)Shi
ft
sshoul
dnotspr
eadov
ermor
ethan5hour
seach.

(
6)Eachchi
l
dshal
lbeempl
oyedi
nonl
yoneoft
her
elay
s.

(7)Therel
aysshoul
dnotbechangedmorefrequent
lythanoncei
naperiodof30day
s,
other
wiseprev
iousper
missi
onoftheChi
efI
nspectorshoul
dbesoughti
nwr i
ti
ng.

(8)Theprov
isi
onrelat
ingt
oweeklyhol
idayunderSect
ion52,alsoapplyt
ochi l
dwor
ker
s.
ButSecti
on7(3)doesnotper
mitanyexemptioni
nrespectoftheseprovi
sions.

(9)Nochi l
dshallberequi
redorall
owedtowor kinanyfactor
yonanydayonwhichhe
hasalreadybeenworkinginanotherf
act
or y
.[Sect
ion71(4)
]Worki
nghour
sforchi
ldr
en
(v)Penalt
yforusingf
alsecert
if
icat
eoffi
tness

(
10)Nofemal
echi
ldshal
lber
equi
redoral
l
owedt
owor
kinanyf
act
oryexceptbet
ween
8a.
m.and7p.m.

TheActnotonl yprohibi
tsthedoubleempl oymentofachi ldbytheoccupierormanager,
butalsoprohibit
sunderSect ion99hi sparentorguardianorper sonhavi
ngcust odyof
orcontroloverhim orobtaini
nganydi r
ectbenefi
tfrom hiswages, fr
om all
owinghimt o
gof ordoubleemployment .Iftheycontr
avenethisprovisi
on,theycanbepuni shedwith
afineextendinguptoonet housandrupeesunlessthechi l
dworkswi t
houttheconsentor
connivanceofhisparentorguar di
anorsuchot herperson.Noticeofperi
odsofwor kfor
chi
ldren
(1)Anoti
ce,showingclearl
yf orev
erydayt heper
iodduri
ngwhichchil
drenmaybe
requi
redoral
lowedt owork,shal
lbedispl
ayedandcor
rect
lymai
ntai
nedasperSect
ion
108(2)i
neveryfact
orywhichemployschil
dren.

(
2)Theperi
odsofworkshallbefi
xedbef
orehandaccor
dingt
othemet
hodpr
escr
ibed
f
oradul
tworker
sunderSect
ion61.

(
3)Theperi
odsofwor ksofixedshallnotcontr
avenet
hepr
ovi
sionsofSect
ion71
r
elat
ingt
oworki
nghour
sforchil
dren.[
Sect
ion72(
2)]

(4)Thepr
ovi
si
onsofsub-
sect
ions(
8),(
9)and(
10)ofSect
ion61shal
lappl
ytosucha
noti
ce.

(Section72)Regi st erofchi l
dwor kersAccor dingt oSect ion73( 1),inev eryf actory ,in
whichchi l
drenar eempl oy ed,ar egisterofchi ldwor kersshoul dbemai nt ainedand
shouldbeav ai
lablef ori nspect i
onbyt heinspect oratal lti
mesdur ingwor kinghour sor
whenanywor ki sbei ngcar ri
edoni nt hef actor y.Hour sofwor ktocor respondwi th
noti
ceunderSect ion72andr egi sterunderSect ion73Accor dingt oSect ion74,t he
empl oy mentofanychi l
dshal lbei naccor dancewi t
ht henot iceofper iodsofwor kf or
chil
drent obedi splay edunderSect i
on72andt heent riesmadebef or ehandagai nsthi s
namei nther egisterofchi ldwor kersoft hef actor ymai ntainedunderSect i
on73.Power
torequi remedi calexami nationSect ion75empower st hei nspect ort oser veont he
managerofaf act ory, anot icer equiringmedi calexami nationofaper sonbyasur geon,
i
finhi sopinion,suchper soni say oungper sonandi swor kingwi thoutacer tifi
cateof
fi
tnessor ,suchper son,t houghi npossessi onofcer t
if
icateoff i
tness,i snol ongerf itt o
worki nt hecapaci tyst atedt her ein.Thei nspect ormayf urtherdi r
ectt hatsuchper son
shallnotbeempl oy edorper mittedt owor ki nanyf act oryunt i
lhehasbeenexami ned
andal sogr antedacer ti
ficateoff i
tnessorf reshcer ti
fi
cat eoff itnessorhasbeen
certi
fiedbyt heCer tif
yingSur geonnott obeay oungper son.Cer tainot herpr ov i
sionsof
l
awnotbar redThepr ov i
sionsr el ati
ngt otheempl oymentofy oungper sonsi nf actor ies
shallbei naddi t
iont o,andnoti nder ogationoft hepr ovisionsoft heEmpl oy mentof
Chil
dr enAct ,1938.( Sect ion77)

(1)Accordi
ngtoSecti
on78(
1),t
heprov
isi
onscontai
nedinthi
schapter
shallnotoperat
e
totheprejudi
ceofanyri
ghttowhichaworkermaybeent i
tl
edunderanyot herlawor
underthetermsofanyawar
d,agr
eementi
ncludi
ngsett
lementorcont
ractofservi
ce.

(2)Wheresuchawar d,agreementincl
udi
ngsettl
ementorcont
ractofservi
ceprovi
des
foralongerannuall
eavewi thwagesthanprovi
dedinthi
sChapter
,theworkershal
lbe
enti
tl
edtosuchlongerannualleavebuti
fthoseprov
isi
onsar
elessfavour
able,
thenthi
s
Chaptershal
lappl
y[provi
sot oSect
ion78(
1)].

(
3)Thepr
ovi
si
onsoft
hischapt
erdonotappl
ytowor
ker
sinanyf
act
oryofanyr
ail
way
admi nistrati
onbyt heGov ernment ,whoar egov er
nedbyl eav er ulesappr ovedbyt he
Cent r
alGov er nment.UnderSect i
on79,t hef oll
owingpr ov i
sionshav ebeenmadewi th
regardt oannuall eavewi t
hwages.( a)Accor dingtoSect ion79( 1) ,wher eawor kerhas
wor kedf orami nimum per i
odof240day sormor einaf actorydur inganycal endary ear,
i
.e.,they earbegi nningf r
om 1stJanuar y ,hei sent i
tledt ol eav ewi t
hwagesont he
foll
owi ngbasi s–(i)foradults–Onedayf orev ery20day sofwor kper formedbyt hem
duringt hepr evi
ouscal endary ear.(i
i)f orchi l
dren–Onedayf orev eryf if
teenday sof
wor kper f
ormedbyhi m dur ingthepr eviouscal endary ear.( b)I fawor kerdoesnot
commencehi sservi
cesf rom 1stJanuar y,hei sent i
tl
edt ot hesel eav esatt heabov e
ment ionedr atesprov i
dedhehaswor kedf or2/3rdoft het otalnumberofday sint he
remai ningpar toft hecal endary ear.( c)Thesel eav esar eexcl usi v eofal lholi
day s
whet heroccur ri
ngdur i
ngoratei t
herendoft heper iodofl eav e.( d)I ncal culat
ingleav e,
fracti
onofl eaveofhal fadayormor eshal lbet reatedasonef ullday ’
sleaveand
fracti
onofl esst hanhalfadayshal lbei gnor ed.(e)Comput ati
onofqual ifyi
ngper i
odof
240day s:Fort hepurposeofcal culat
ingt hem i nmi nimum per iod,f ollowi ngper i
odsar e
alsoincl uded:

(
i) anyday
sofl
ay-
offasagr
eedorasper
missi
bleundert
heSt
andi
ngOr
der
s.

(
ii
) f
orf
emal
ewor
ker
s,per
iodofmat
erni
tyl
eav
enotexceedi
ng12weeks.

(
ii
i) l
eav
eear
nedi
nthey
earpr
iort
othati
nwhi
cht
hel
eav
eisenj
oyed.

Thought heabov ement i


onedday sincludedi ncal culatedt hequali
fyi
ngper iod,but
thewor kerwi llnotbeent i
tl
edt oear nl eavef ort heseday s.Appli
cat i
onoft he
ChapterAnnuall eavewi t
hwagesBasi sofl eav eA wor kerwhoi sdi schargedor
dismissedf rom servi
ceorqui tshisempl oymentori ssuper annuatedordi eswhilein
servi
cedur ingthecour seofcalendary ear,heorhi shei rornomi neeasthecasemay
be,shallbeent i
tl
edt owagesi nl i
euoft hequant um ofl eavet owhichhewasent it
led
i
mmedi ately bef ore hi s di scharge, di smi ssal, qui tti
ng of empl oyment,
superannuat i
onordeat h,cal
culatedatt heratesspeci fiedinsub-secti
on( 1)
,evenif
hehadnotwor kedf ort heentireperiodspeci fi
edi nsub- section(1)or( 2)maki ng
him el
igibletoavailofsuchl eaveandsuchpay mentshal l
bemade:

(
i) wheretheworkeri
sdi
schar
gedordi
smissedorqui
tsempl
oyment,
bef
orethe
expi
ryofsecondworki
ngdayfr
om thedateofsuchdi
schar
ge,di
smi
ssalor
quit
ti
ng;

(
ii
) wheretheworkerissuper
annuatedordieswhil
einserv i
ce,befor
etheexpi r
y
oftwomont hsfrom t
hedateofsuchsuperannuati
onordeat h.[
Explanation
toSect
ion79(1)]I
fanyworkerdoesnotavai
lanyearnedl eaveenti
tl
edt ohim
duri
ngthecalendaryear
,itcanbecarr
iedforwardtot henextcalendary ear
subj
ecttothemaxi mum of30day sforanadultwor kerand40day sf ora
chi
l
dwor
ker
.

Buti fawor kerappli


esf orleavewi t
hwagesandi snotgr antedsuchl eavein
accordance with any appr
ov ed scheme underSecti
ons 79( 8)and (9),ori n
contravent
ionofSecti
on79(10) ,
hecancarr
yf or
war
dt heleav
er efused,
withoutany
l
imit.[Sect
ion79(5)
]

(
i) I
faworkerwantstoavai
lleav
ewit
hwagesearnedbyhim duri
ngtheyear
,he
mustappl
yinwrit
ing,t
othemanagerofthefact
oryatleast15daysbef
ore
t
hedateonwhichhewishestogoonl
eave.[
Secti
on79(6)]

(
ii
) Incaseaworkeri
sempl oy
edinapubl icuti
l
ityser
viceasdef
inedi
nSect
ion
2(n)oft
heI
ndustri
alDisputesAct,
1947, t
heappli
cationf
orl
eavewi
thwages
shall
bemadeatleast30day sinadvance.

(
ii
i) Theannualleavewi
thwagescannotbeav
ail
edf
ormor
ethant
hreet
imes
dur
inganyyear.

(
iv) Theappl
i
cati
ontoavai
lannuall
eav
ewi
thwagesf
ori
l
lnesspur
posescanbe
madeatanyt
ime.[
Sect
ion79(7)
]

(
v) Anapplicati
onf orl
eavewhi chdoesnotcont ravenetheprovisionsofSection
79(6)shallnotber ef
usedunl esst her efusalisinaccor dancewi t
ht he
schemef ort hetimebei nginoper ationundersub- secti
ons( 8)and( 9)of
Secti
on79.[ Secti
on79(10) ]Toensur econtinuityofwork,thegr antofleave
canber egulat
ed.Fort hispur pose,t heoccupi erorthemanagershoul d
prepar
easchemei nwri
ting,regulat
ingt hegrantofleavetot hewor ker
sand
l
odgeitwi t
ht heChiefI
nspect or
.

TheSchemeshoul
dbepr
epar
edi
nagr
eementwi
tht
hef
oll
owi
ngbodi
esorper
sons:

(
a)

(
i) WorksCommi
tt
eef
ormedunderSect
ion3oft
heI
ndust
ri
alDi
sput
esAct
,
1947,
or

(
ii
) Suchot
herCommi
tt
eef
ormedunderanyot
herAct
,or

(
ii
i) I
ntheabsenceofanyoft heabov
eCommi tt
ee,t
herepresent
ati
vesoft
he
wor
ker
schosenint
heprescri
bedmanner[
Sect
ion79(
8)]
.

(
b)Theschemeshal lbevali
df or12mont hsfr
om thedateonwhi chitcomesinto
f
orce.I
tcanber enewed,wi t
horwi thoutmodifi
cati
on,foraf ur
therper
iodof12
months[Sect
ion79(
9)].Accumulati
onorcar r
yforwardofleavesHow toapplyfor
l
eavewithwagesSchemeofl eaveAnot iceofrenewalshal
lbesentt otheChief
I
nspect
or.

(
c)TheSchemeshal
lbedi
spl
ayedatsomeconspi
cuousandconv
eni
entpl
acesi
n
t
hefact
ory
.

[Section79( 9) ]Accor dingt oSect i


on80( 1) ,fort hel eav eal lowedt oawor kerunder
Sect i
on78or79, heshal lbeent it
ledt owagesatar ateequalt ot hedai lyav er ageof
hist otalf ullt imeear ningsf ortheday sonwhi chheact ual lywor keddur ingt he
mont himmedi at elypr ecedi nghi sleav e.Suchf ulltimeear ningwi llal soi ncl udet he
dear nessal lowanceandcashequi val entoft headv ant ageaccr ui ngt hr ought he
concessi onalsal etot hewor ker soff oodgr ainsandot herar t icles.Butwi llex clude
anyov ertimewagesandbonus.Wagesdur ingl eav eper iodPr ov idedt hati nt hecase
ofawor kerwhohasnotwor kedonanydaydur i
ngt hecal endarmont hi mmedi atel y
precedi nghi sl eav e,heshal lbepai datar ateequalt ot hedai lyav erageofhi stot al
fulltimeear ningsf ort heday sonwhi chheact uall
ywor keddur ingt hel astcal endar
mont hpr ecedi nghi sl eav e,i nwhi chheact ual l
ywor ked,excl usi veofanyov er time
andbonusbuti nclusi veofdear nessal lowanceandt hecashequi v
al entoft he
adv antageaccr ui ngt hr ought heconcessi onal salet ot hewor ker soff oodgr ainsand
otherar ti
cl es.The cash equi val
entoft he adv ant age accr uing t hr ough t he
concessi onalsal et ot he wor kers off ood gr ains and ot herar ticles shal lbe
comput edasof tenasmaybepr escribed,ont hebasi soft hemaxi mum quant i
tyof
foodgr ai nsandot herar ti
cl esadmi ssibl et oast andar df ami ly .[ Sect ion80( 2) ]
“Standar df ami ly”meansaf ami l
yconsi stingofawor ker ,hi s/ herspouseandt wo
childrenbel ow t heageof14y earsr equi ri
ngi nal lt hreeadul tconsumpt ionuni ts.
[Expl.It oSect ion80( 2) ]“Adul tconsumpt ionuni t”meanst heconsumpt ionuni tofa
mal eabov et heageof14y ear s,andt heconsumpt ionuni tofaf emal eabov et he
ageof14y ear s, andt hatofachi ldbel owt heageof14y ears, shal lbecal cul at edat
ther atesof0. 8and0. 6r espect ivelyofoneadul tconsumpt ionuni t
.[ Expl .I It o
Sect i
on80( 2) ]Pay menti nadv ancei ncer taincasesSect ion81pr ov idest hatwher e
anadul twor kerhasbeenal l
owedl eav ef ornotl esst han4day sandachi l
dwor ker
fornotl esst han5day s,wagesduef ort hel eav eper iodshoul dbepai di nadv ance,
i
.e.,bef orehi sl eav ebegi ns.Modeofr ecov eryofunpai dwagesAnyunpai dwages
duet ot hewor ker sundert hisChapt er ,canber ecov er edasdel ay edwagesunder
the pr ov i
si ons oft he Pay mentofWages Act ,1936.( Sect ion 82)( 1) Gener al
penal ti
esf orof f ences:I ft her eisanycont r
av ent i
onofanyoft hepr ov i
sionsoft hi s
Actoranyr ul esoror dermadet hereunder ,theoccupi erandmanagershal leachbe
guiltyofanof fenceandpuni shabl ewi thi mpr i
sonmentf orat er m whi chmayext end
tot woy ear sorwi thf i
newhi chmayext endt oRs.onel akhorwi thbot handi ft he
cont ravent ioni scont i
nuedaf terconv icti
on,wi t
haf ur therf i
neofRs.onet housand
foreach,dayt illcont rav entioncont inues.Thepr ov isionsofSect ion92f ur ther
prov i
despenal tyf orcont r
av ent i
onofanyoft hepr ov isionsofChapt erIVoranyr ule
madet her eunderorunderSect ion87whi chhasr esultedi nanacci dentcausi ng
deathorser iousbodi lyinj ury ,thefineshal lnotbel esst hanRs.25, 000i nt hecase
ofan acci dentcausi ng deat h and Rs.5, 000 i n case ofser i
ous bodi lyi njury.
Explanat ion t ot his Sect ion def i
nes ser i
ous bodi l
yi nj
ur y
,whi ch i nv olves t he
permanentl ossoft heuseoforper manenti njuryt oanyl i
mborsi ghtorhear i
ngor
thefract ureofanyboneexcl udingthef r
act ure( notbei ngf ractur eofmor et hanone)
boneorj oi
ntofanyphal angesoft hehandorf oot .Sect ion94st ipul atesf or
enhancedpenal tyf oranyper sonwhohasal r
eadybeenconv i
ct edunderSect ion92
oftheAct ,andi sagai ngui l
t yofanof f
encei nvolvingcont raventionoft hesame
provisions.Puni shmentf orsubsequentconv i
ct i
onincl udesi mpr isonmentf orat erm
whichmayext endt othreey ear sorwi t
hf inewhi chmaynotbel esst hanRs.10, 000
butwhi chmayext endt oRs.t wol akhsorwi thbot h.Pr ovidedt hatt heCour tmay , f
or
anyadequat eandspeci alr easonst otobement ionedi nt hej udgmenti mposesa
fi
neofl esst hanRs.10, 000.Pr ovidedfurther ,thatwher econt rav enti
onofanyoft he
provisionsofChapt erIVoranyr ulemadet hereunderorunderSect ion87has
resultedi nanacci dentcausi ngdeat horser iousbodi lyinjury,t hefineshal lnotbe
l
esst hanRs.35, 000i ncaseofdeat handRs.10, 000i nt hecaseofanacci dent
causingser iousbodi l
yinj ury .Nocogni zanceshal lbet akenofanyconv ictionmade
mor et hant woy ear sbefor et hecommi ssionoft heof fencef orwhi cht heper soni s
subsequent lyconv icted.

(2)Liabil
iti
esofownerofpr emi sesi ncer tai
ncir
cumst ances:Sect i
on93provi
dest hat
wher einanypr emisessepar at
ebui ldingar ebei
ngl easedoutbyt heownertodi
f f
erent
occupiersf oruseassepar at
ef actories,theowneroft hepr emi sesshallber
esponsible
forthepr ovisi
onandmai ntenanceofcommonf acil
iti
esandser vicessuchasapproach
roads,dr ainage,wat er-
supply,lighti
ngandsani t
ation.[Sect i
on93( 1)
]Wherei nany
premises,i ndependentf loorsorf l
at sar eleasedt o dif
fer entoccupiersforuseas
separatef actor
ies,theownershal lbel i
ableasifhewer ethemanageroroccupi erofa
factoryforanycont raventi
onoft hepr ov
isionsofthi
sActi nr espectof

(
i) l
atr
ines,ur
inal
s,washi
ng f
aci
l
iti
esand common suppl
yofwat
erf
ort
his
pur
pose;

(
ii
) (
ii
)fenci
ngofmachineryandplantbel
ongi
ngt
otheownerandnotent
rust
ed
t
othecustodyoruseofanoccupi
er;

(
ii
i) (i
i
i)safemeansofaccesst
of l
oorsorf
lat
sandmai
ntenanceandcl
eanl
i
ness
ofstai
rcaseandcommonpassages;

(
iv) (
iv)pr
ecaut
ionsi
ncaseoff
ir
e;

(
v) (
v)mai
ntenanceofhoi
stsandl
i
fts;
and
(
vi) (vi)mai nt enanceofanyot hercommonf aci l
iti
espr ov idedi nt hepr emi ses.
[Sect ion93( 3)]Butt hel iabilityoft heowner[ underSect ion93( 3)ar i
sesonl y
wher einanypr emi ses,i ndependentr oomswi t
hcommonl atrine,ur i
nal sand
washi ng f aci li
ties ar el eased t o di fferentoccupi ersf oruse as separ at e
fact ories so t hatt he ownershoul d al so compl ywi tht he pr ovisions of
mai nt ainingsuchf aci lit
ies.( Sect ion93( 5)]Fort hepur posesofsub- sect i
ons
(5)and( 7)comput ingt het ot al numberofwor ker sempl oy ed, t
hewhol eoft he
pr emi sesshal lbedeemedt obesi ngl ef act or y.[ Sect ion93( 3)]Theowneri s
l
iabl ef orcont ravent ionofChapt erI I
IexceptSect ions14and15;Chapt erI V
exceptSect ions22, 23, 27, 34, 35and36wher einanypr emi ses, portionsofa
room orashedl easedoutt odi fferentoccupi ersf oruseassepar atefact ories:
Pr ov i
dedt hati nr espectoft hepr ov i
sionsofSect i
ons21,24and32,t he
owner sl i
abi lityshal l beonl yi nsof arassuchpr ov isionsr el at et ot hingsunder
hiscont rolandt heoccupi ershal lber esponsi blef orcompl y ingwi tht he
pr ovisionsofChapt erI Vi nr espectofpl antandmachi ner ybel ongingt oor
suppl i
edbyhi m andf orcont rav ent i
onofSect ion42.TheChi efI nspect orhas
beenempower edt oi ssueor der st ot heowner si nr espectoft hecar ryingout
oft hepr ov isionsasment ionedabov ebutsubj ectt ot hecont roloft heSt at e
Gov ernment .( 3)Penal tyf orobst ruct i
ng I nspect or:Sect i
on 95 l ay s down
penal t
yofi mpr isonmentf orsi xmont hsorf ineofRs.10, 000orwi thbot hf or
wi lf
ul l
yobst ructingani nspect ori nt heexer ciseofanypowerconf erredon
him byorundert hisActorf ai l
st opr oduceanyr egi ster sorot herdocument s
tohi m ondemandorconceal ingorpr ev ent i
nganywor kerf rom appear ing
bef ore orbei ng exami ned by an I nspect or .( 4)Penal tyf orwr ongf ully
discl osing ofr esults ofanal y sis underSect ion 91:Sect i
on 96 pr ov ides
i
mpr i
sonmentext endi ngupt oat erm ofsi xmont hsandf ineupt oRs.10, 000
orbot hf ort hewr ongf uldi sclosur eofr esul t sofanal ystsoft heanal ysisdone
underSect ion91oft heAct .( 4A)Penal t yf orcont ravent ionofSect ions41B,
41Cand41H:Sect i
on96Apr ov idespuni shmentof7y ear si mpr i
sonmentor
finewhi chmayext endt o Rs.t wo l akhsf ort henon- compl iancewi thor
cont rav ent i
onofanyoft hepr ov i
sionsofSect ion41B,41C,or41Horr ules
made t her e underby any per son.I n case t he f ailure orcont r
av ention
cont inues,wi thaddi tionalf i
newhi chmayext endt of ivet housandr upeesf or
ev erydaydur ingwhi chsuchf ail
ur eorcont rav entioncont i
nuesaf tert he
conv i
ct i
on f ort he f i
rstsuch f ailure orcont rav ent ion.I f such f ailure,
cont rav ent i
on cont inues bey ond a per iod ofone y earaf tert he dat e of
conv i
ct i
on,t heof fendershal lbepuni shabl ewi thi mpr i
sonmentf orat er m
whi ch mayext end t ot en y ear s.( 5)Of f ences bywor ker s and penal t i
es
ther efor:( i
)Sect ion97l ay sdownt hati fanywor kercont rav enest hepr ovision
oft hisActoranyr ulesoror der smadet her eunderi mposi nganydut yor
l
iabilit
yonwor kershewi l
lbepuni shablewithfinewhi chmayext endt oRs.
500/ -(ii
)Sect ion98i mposespenal tyforusingfalsecer t
if
icateoff i
tness.
Suchpuni shmenti nvolvesimpr isonmentf orsuchat er
m whi chmaynot
extendt ot womont hsorwi thfinewhi chmayext endt oRs.1,000/ -orwi t
h
both.( 6)Penal tyforper mi t
ti
ngdoubl eemploy mentofchi l
dbypar entsor
guar di
ansi sst ipul
at edunderSect i
on99.Suchanacti spunishablewi t
hf i
ne
extendingupt oRs.1, 000unl essi tappearst otheCour tthatt hechi ldso
wor kedwi thoutconsentandconni vanceofsuchpar ent
s,guardianorper son
(7)Onusofpr ov i
dingl i
mi t
sofwhati spracti
cableetc.:Onusofpr ov i
ngi son
theper sonwhoi sal l
egedt ohav efail
edt ocompl ywi thsuchdut yetc.to
prov ethathehast akenal lmeasur esori twasnotr easonablepr acti
cable.
(Sect i
on104A) .