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Abstract

In recent years there has been a very rapid development of wireless communication networks.
This development has led to an interest of more and more important to wireless networks
without any special infrastructure. In parallel, advances in miniaturization of electronic
components has given rise to a particular type of equipment dedicated to remote monitoring.
Thus the market networks and wireless applications has grown considerably and research in
the field of sensors is undergoing a major revolution, opening up significant opportunities for
impact in many application areas (military, health, environment, food safety, manufacturing,
telecommunications, robotics, ...).

A wireless sensor network typically consists of a large number of wireless devices capable of
performing environmental measures. Typical examples include temperature, light, noise,
humidity, etc. . These sensor measurements are transmitted through a radio transmission to a
central node called Base Station which is the gateway to a dedicated user application that
makes decisions based on these sensor readings . Often, sensors require deployment in hostile
environments, or nodes and the communication links are continuously exposed to high
stresses. This objective is further complicated because of the lack of fixed communication
infrastructure in addition to physical limitations imposed by the size of miniaturized sensors.
Energy is an essential element in the design of a network of wireless sensor nodes that are
usually powered by batteries. The objective of this work is to propose and study methodology
hierarchical self-organization (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy Modified LEACH-
m ) based on protocol:

 The use of the base station as a node aggregation of the data, then it has a higher
computing power and boundless energy.
 The idea of Z-SEP protocol for direct communication of nodes that are close to the
base station compared to cluster-heads of clusters formed by round (round).
And in the absence of group leaders, the sensor node will communicate directly with
the base station.