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‘On-machine’ Course Length: Course length is the most important parameter that determines the

dimensions of the knitted fabric. Course length can be obtained from a knitted fabric by measuring the
uncrimped length of an unraveled course, i.e. row of loops around the circumference of a circular
knitted fabric. However as course is formed by one revolution of the needle cylinder during dynamic
circular knitting process, measurement of course length on running yarn or ‘on-machine’ course length
by a portable hand-held instrument is generally preferred by a knitter instead of time-consuming and
destructive off-machine measurement.

Specific/Mass Stress:

Stress is the ratio between the force and the area of the cross-sectional of the specimen. But in case of
textile material, only for circular materials, it can be measured. Cross section of yarns and fabrics, due to
unknown packing characteristics, is very difficult to measure exactly. Also the cross-section of yarns,
fibres or fabrics are irregular. Therefore, in case of textile material the linear density is used instead of
the cross-sectional area and the term ‘specific / mass stress’ is used.

Specific Stress= Force/Linear Density (Initial)

Specific stress also allows the strength of yarns of different linear densities to be compared. The
preferred units are N/tex or cN/tex.

https://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102029/39