You are on page 1of 23

CONTRA EL BUROCRATISMO

Ernesto Che Guevara

Ministerio del Poder Popular del Despacho de la Presidencia.


Ediciones de la Presidencia de la República. Palacio de Miraflores
Caracas - Venezuela
www.presidencia.gob.ve

Hugo Chávez Frías


Presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela

Luis Reyes Reyes


Ministro del Poder Popular
del Despacho de la Presidencia

Kissy Rodríguez Ortega


Directora General
de Gestión Comunicacional

Darío Di Zacomo Capriles


Director de Archivos y Publicaciones

Gladys Ortega Dávila


Jefa de la División
de Publicaciones

Portada y maquetación: Julio Añón


Correción de Textos: Xiomara Rojas
1"/0. "2+(1 &=* #1" "* "/"* & "( ,.+
!1 0+ !" 1* )+2&)&"*0+ $1"..&((".+ -1" &*&
&= ( (1 % .) ! +*0. ( 0&. *; 4 (
.&/0 (&5= "* ( 0+) !"( ,+!". +/ ,.&)".+/
, /+/ +)+ /0 !+ "2+(1 &+* .&+ /; +)+
0+! ( ,.&)&0&2 :,+ !" *1"/0. $"/0&=* "*
"( $+ &".*+ "/0 * #1".0")"*0" 0"<&!+/ !"
(+/ "(")"*0+/ #1*! )"*0 ("/ !" ( 09 0&
$1"..&((". +)+ #+.) !" !)&*&/0. &=* "/
0 0 (

( $1"..&((".&/)+ .","0; ( "3,".&"* & !"


( (1 % .) ! !" ( / /&".. / 4 (+/ ),+/ !"
1 "* ( / !&/0&*0 / +.$ *&5 &+*"/ !)&*&/
0. 0&2 / 4 !" ) / / 4 /" 0. !1 ; "* -1" /+(
)"*0" ( / $. *!"/ +*/&$* / ."2+(1 &+* .& /
". * /"$1&! / 4 )1 % / 2" "/ &*0".,."0 ! /

5
"* !&/0&*0 / ) *". / ,+. (+/ +.$ *&/)+/ !"
( !)&*&/0. &=* 4 !" ( /+ &"! ! "* $"*". (
#+.) !" ."/+(2". (+/ ,.+ (") / +* ."0+/
"/0 /1'"0 ( (& ." . &0.&+ !" ! 1*+ !"
(+/ !&.&$"*0"/

+. + 1, . 0+!+ "( +),("'+ , . 0+ !" (


/+ &"! ! (+/ ),+/ !" &=* !" ( /6$1"..&
(( / !)&*&/0. 0&2 /7 %+ * "*0." /;
,.+!1 &:*!+/" +*0&*1+/ .+ "/ =.!"*"/ 4
+*0. =.!"*"/ !&/0&*0 / &*0".,."0 &+*"/ !"
( / ("4"/ -1" (("$ * "* ($1*+/ /+/ (
.:,(& +*0. ( / )&/) / ,+. , .0" !" +.$
*&/)+/ -1" "/0 (" ; * /1/ ,.+,&+/ !& 0 !+/
"* #+.) !" !" ."0+/ % &"*!+ /+ +)&/+
!"( , . 0+ "*0. ( !" !&." &=* "/,1:/ !"
1* <+ !" !+(+.+/ / "3,".&"* & / (("$ )+/
( +* (1/&=* !" -1" ". &),."/ &*!& (" )+
!&#& . 0+0 ()"*0" *1"/0.+ "/0&(+ !" 0. '+ 4
2+(2". +.$ *&5 . "( , . 0+ "/0 0 ( !" 1*
)+!+ . &+* ( 10&(&5 *!+ ( / 0: *& / !" (
,( *&#& &=* +*+ &! / "* (+/ %".) *+/
, ;/"/ /+ & (&/0 /

6
+)+ +*0. )"!&! /" "),"5 .+* +.
$ *&5 . (+/ #1".0"/ , . 0+/ 1.+ .90& +/ -1"
. 0".&5 * "/0 ,.&)". :,+ !" +*/0.1
&=* !" *1"/0.+ /0 !+ /+ & (&/0 ,".+ "( *
! 5+ #1" !") /& !+ $. *!" 4 0+! 1* /".&"
!" +.$ *&/)+/ "*0." (+/ -1" /" &* (14" "( &
*&/0".&+ !" *!1/0.& / &*& & .+* 1* ,+(;0& !"
"*0. (&5 &=* +,". 0&2 #."* *!+ "3 $". !
)"*0" ( &*& & 0&2 !" (+/ !)&*&/0. !+."/
/0" +* ",0+ "*0. (&5 !+. /" "3,(& ,+. (
"/ /"5 !" 1 !.+/ )"!&+/ 4 "( "/,;.&01 *9.
-1& + *0".&+. (+ -1" + (&$ 1* "(+
"*+.)" "* ( / "3&$"* & / !" 1),(&)&"*0+
!" ( / !&." 0&2 / . ("( )"*0" ( # (0 !" ,
. 0+/ !" +*0.+( !" 1 !+/ % ; !&#; &( ( +
.." 0 (+ (&5 &=* 0&"),+ !" ( / # (( /
!)&*&/0. 0&2 / (+ -1" ), . "( 1/+ !" (
6(& ."0 7 " "/0 ) *". (+/ 1 !.+/ )9/
+*/ &"*0"/ 4 (+/ )9/ 0;)&!+/ #."* * /1/
&),1(/+/ , . 0"),". .(+/ ( ) . % !"(
("*0+ "*$. * '" !" ( !)&*&/0. &=* )&"*
0. / +0.+/ )," * 0+! 2; ,+. /1/ ."/,"
0+/ /&* /"*0&./" + (&$ !+/ 0 . 10+.&! !

7
($1* + (&$ *!+ *1"2 / )"!&! / !" +*
0.+( -1" , . (&5 . * /1 0&2&! ! /; +)&"*5
, !" ". *1"/0. "2+(1 &=* "( ) ( (( ) !+
1.+ . 0&/)+

( 1.+ . 0&/)+ "2&!"*0")"*0" *+ * "


+* ( /+ &"! ! /+ & (&/0 *& "/ 1* +),+
*"*0" + (&$ !+ !" "(( 1.+ . & "/0 0 (
"3&/0; "* ( :,+ !" (+/ ."$;)"*"/ 1.$1"
/"/ +* /1 +.0"'+ !" ,." "*! / 4 !" (
4&/)+ 4 -1" ( /+) . !"( ,."/1,1"/0+
)"!. 1* $. * *>)".+ !" ,.+2" % !+/
-1" +*/0&01; * ( 6 +.0"7!"( ,+(;0& + !" 01.*+
* 1* /+ &"! ! ,&0 (&/0 !+*!" 0+!+ "(
, . 0+ !"( /0 !+ "/09 ,1"/0+ ( /".2& &+ !"
( 1.$1"/; /1 &),+.0 * & +)+ =.$ *+ !&
.&$"*0" "/ )14 ,"-1"< 4 (+ #1*! )"*0 ( ."
/1(0 % ".(+ (+ /1#& &"*0")"*0" ,".)" ("
+)+ , . ,".)&0&. "( 0.9*/&0+ !" (+/ ,.+2"
% !+/ 4 (+ /1#& &"*0")"*0" %".):0& + +)+
, . ,."/ . "* /1/ ) (( / ( ,1" (+

8
!+ "( ,"/+ !" (+/ 6," !+/ +.&$&* ("/7
4 "*0"/ "* (+/ *0&$1+/ , . 0+/ !)&*&/0.
0&2+/ 4 ( / /&01 &+*"/ ." ! / +* ,+/0".&+.&
! ! ( 0.&1*#+ !" ( "2+(1 &=* "( ) ( !"(
1.+ . 0&/)+ +)"*5= !"/ ..+(( ./" +*
#1".5 & #1:. )+/ 1/ . /1/ . ; "/ "* "(
)+)"*0+ 01 ( $."$ .; )+/ 1/ / 2&"
' / *1"2 / )+0&2 &+*"/ "* +*0. *!+ 0."/ .
5+*"/ #1*! )"*0 ("/

* !" "(( / "/ ( # (0 !" )+0+. &*0".*+


+* "/0+ -1".")+/ !" &. ( # (0 !" &*0".:/
!"( &*!&2&!1+ ,+. ."*!&. /1 /".2& &+ ( /0 !+
4 ,+. /1,". . 1* /&01 &=* ! ! " / "*
1* # (0 !" +* &"* & ."2+(1 &+* .& + "*
0+!+ /+ "* "( +*#+.)&/)+ #."*0" (+ -1"
*! ) (

" ,1"!" "/0 (" ". 1* ."( &=* !&." 0


4 + 2& "*0." ( # (0 !" )+0+. &*0".*+ 4 (
# (0 !" &*0".:/ ,+. ."/+(2". (+/ ,.+ (") / *
"/0" /+ 4 /" -1" "/0 # (( !"( )+0+.
&!"+(=$& + /" ,.+!15 ,+. 1* ."* &

9
/+(10 !" +*2& &=* + ,+. &".0 !+/&/ !"
!"/"/,". &=* #."*0" ,.+ (") / .","0&!+/
-1" *+ /" ,1"!"* ."/+(2". "( &*!&2&!1+ +
$.1,+ !" &*!&2&!1+/ /" ."#1$& * "* "( 1.+
. 0&/)+ (("* * , ,"("/ / (2 * /1 ."/,+*/
&(&! ! 4 "/0 (" "* ( !"#"*/ "/ .&0 , .
/"$1&. 2"$"0 *!+ + , . !"#"*!"./" !" (
&.."/,+*/ &(&! ! !" +0.+/

0. 1/ "/ ( # (0 !" +.$ *&5 &=* (


,."0"*!". !"/0.1&. "( $1"..&((".&/)+ /&* 0"*".
( /1#& &"*0" "3,".&"* & !)&*&/0. 0&2 /"
,.+!1 "* !&/(+-1"/ 1"((+/ !" +0"(( / -1"
#."* * &**" "/ .& )"*0" "( #(1'+ !" ( / &*#+.
) &+*"/ !" ( / /"/ 4 !" ( / &*/0.1 &+*"/ 1
=.!"*"/ ") * ! / !" (+/ , . 0+/ "*0. ("/
2" "/ :/0 / + -1"(( / 0+) * .1) +/ "3
0. 2& !+/ 4 +0. / /" 0. !1 "* "* &*!& &+*"/
) ( 2".0&! / !&/, . 0 ! / -1" +*0.& 14"*
)9/ ( !&/0+./&=*

# (0 !" +.$ *&5 &=* 0&"*" +)+ .


0".;/0& #1*! )"*0 ( ( # (( "* (+/ ):0+!+/

10
, . "* . . 1* /&01 &=* ! ! '"),(+/ ,+
!")+/ 2". "* (+/ &*&/0".&+/ 1 *!+ /"
-1&"." ."/+(2". ,.+ (") / +0.+/ *&2"("/ -1"
"( !" 1 !+ + 1 *!+ :/0+/ /" 0. 0 * ,+. 2; /
# (/ / 4 /" ,&".!"* "* "( ( ".&*0+ !" (+/ ,
,"("/ ( 1.+ . 0&/)+ "/ ( !"* !"( 0&,+ !"
#1* &+* .&+ -1" -1&"." ."/+(2". !" 1 (-1&".
) *". /1/ ,.+ (") / %+ *!+ 1* 4 +0.
2"5 +*0. "( +.!"* "/0 (" &!+ /&* ! . +* (
/+(1 &=* / #." 1"*0" + /".2 . =)+ ( >*&
/ (&! "* +*0. ! ,+. 1* 1"* *>)".+ !"
#1* &+* .&+/ "/ "( /+(& &0 . )9/ ,"./+* ( , .
." (&5 . 1* 0 ." 14 #9 &( /+(1 &=* /=(+
"3&$" 1* ,+ + !" (=$& ." *!+ *1"2 / 1
/ / , . "( , ,"("+ &**" "/ .&+

+ !" ")+/ *1* +(2&! . , . % ". 1*


/ * 10+ .;0& -1" ( !&." &=* " +*=)&
!" ( "2+(1 &=* "/ ( ."/,+*/ (" !" ( )
4+.; !" (+/ ) ("/ 1.+ .90& +/ (+/ , . 0+/
"/0 0 ("/ *+ /" !"/ ..+(( .+* )"!& *0" 1*
,( * >*& + 4 +* /1/ ."( &+*"/ &"* "/01!&
! / !"' *!+ ),(&+ ) .$"* ( "/," 1(

11
&=* /+ ." (+/ ):0+!+/ !)&*&/0. 0&2+/ (
, . 0+ "*0. ( !" ( " +*+); ( 1*0 "*
0. ( !" ( *&#& &=* *+ 1),(&= /1 0 ." !"
+*!1 &=* 4 *+ ( ,+!; 1),(&. ,1"/ *+
0"*; ( 10+.&! ! /1#& &"*0" /+ ." (+/ +.$
*&/)+/ "/0 &* , &0 ! , . ! . =.!"*"/
,." &/ / "* /" 1* /&/0") >*& + 4 +* "(
!" 1 !+ +*0.+( 4 (" # (0 &),."/ &*!& ("
13&(&+ !" 1* ,( * ,"./," 0&2+ "*0. (&5
&=* "3 "/&2 /&* 1* +.$ *&5 &=* ,".#" 0
#."*= ( &=* "/,+*09*" /&* "( /1/0&010+ !"
( +.!"* +.." 0 4 0&"),+ * >)1(+ !"
!" &/&+*"/ )"*+."/ (&)&0= ( 2&/&=* !" (+/
$. *!"/ ,.+ (") / 4 ( /+(1 &=* !" 0+!+/
"((+/ /" "/0 * = /&* +.!"* *& +* &".0+ / !"
&/&+*"/ !" >(0&) %+. ( ..". 4 /&* *9
(&/&/ #1".+* ( . 0".;/0& !" *1"/0.+ 0. '+

0". ". 1/ )14 &),+.0 *0" "/ (


# (0 !" +*+ &)&"*0+/ 0: *& +/ /1#& &"*0"
)"*0" !"/ ..+(( !+/ +)+ , . ,+!". 0+) .
!" &/&+*"/ '1/0 / 4 "* ,+ + 0&"),+ ( *+
,+!". % ".(+ !" "* ."1*&./" )1 % / "3,"

12
.&"* & / !" ,"-1"<+ 2 (+. 4 0. 0 . !" "30. ".
!" ((; 1* +* (1/&=* / !&/ 1/&+*"/ /1"("*
2+(2"./" &*0".)&* ("/ /&* -1" *&*$1*+ !"
(+/ "3,+/&0+."/ 0"*$ ( 10+.&! ! /1#& &"*0"
+)+ , . &),+*". /1 .&0".&+ "/,1:/ !"
1* !+/ 1* / 1 *0 / ."1*&+*"/ "( ,.+ (")
/&$1" 2&$"*0" % /0 -1" /" ."/1"(2 ,+. /; /+(+
+ % 4 -1" 0+) . 1* ."/+(1 &=* 1 (-1&".
,+. ) ( -1" /"

# (0 /& 0+0 ( !" +*+ &)&"*0+/ /1


,(&! +)+ !&'&)+/ *0"/ ,+. 1* ( .$ /".&"
!" ."1*&+*"/ +*#&$1. "( ."1*&+*&/)+ -1"
/" 0. !1 " #1*! )"*0 ()"*0" "* # (0 !"
,"./," 0&2 , . ."/+(2". (+/ ,.+ (") / *
"/0+/ /+/ "( 1.+ . 0&/)+ "/ !" &. "( #."*+
!" (+/ , ,"("/ 4 !" ( / &*!" &/&+*"/ ( !"/ ..+
((+ !" ( /+ &"! ! "/ "( !"/0&*+ !" (+/ +.$ *&/
)+/ #" 0 !+/

/0 / 0."/ 1/ / #1*! )"*0 ("/ &*#(14"*


1* 1* + "* !&/0&*0 / +*'1$ &+*"/ "*
)"*+. + ) 4+. ,.+,+. &=* "* 0+! ( 2&!

13
&*/0&01 &+* ( !"( , ;/ 4 % (("$ !+ "( )+
)"*0+ !" .+),". +* /1/ ) (&$* / &*#(1"*
& / 4 -1" 0+) . )"!&! / +* ."0 / , .
$&(&5 . (+/ , . 0+/ "/0 0 ("/ !" 0 ( ) *".
-1" /" "/0 ("5 1* .;$&!+ +*0.+( "*0. (
-1" ,".)&0 0"*". "* ( / ) *+/ !" ( !&."
&=* ( / ( 2"/ !" ( " +*+); 4 (& "." ( )9
3&)+ ( &*& & 0&2 !"/ ..+(( *!+ /+ ." /"/
(=$& / ( / ."( &+*"/ !" ( / #1".5 / ,.+!1 0&
2 /

& +*+ ")+/ ( / 1/ / 4 (+/ "#" 0+/ !"(


1.+ . 0&/)+ ,+!")+/ * (&5 . "3 0 )"*0"
( / ,+/& &(&! !"/ !" +.."$&. "( ) ( " 0+! /
( / 1/ / #1*! )"*0 ("/ ,+!")+/ +*/&!"
. . ( +.$ *&5 &=* +)+ *1"/0.+ ,.+ (")
"*0. ( 4 "* . .( +* 0+!+ "( .&$+. *" "/ .&+
. "((+ !" ")+/ )+!&#& . *1"/0.+ "/0&(+ !"
0. '+ '". .-1&5 . (+/ ,.+ (") / !'1!&
*!+ ! +.$ *&/)+ 4 ! *&2"( !" !" &
/&=* /1 0 ." "/0 (" ". ( / ."( &+*"/
+* ."0 / "*0." ! 1*+ !" "((+/ 4 (+/ !")9/
!"/!" "( "*0.+ !" !" &/&=* " +*=)& % /0

14
( >(0&) 1*&! ! !)&*&/0. 0&2 4 ( / ."( &+
*"/ "*0." /1/ !&/0&*0+/ +),+*"*0"/ %+.&5+*
0 ()"*0" % /0 #+.) . "( +*'1*0+ !" ( /
."( &+*"/ !" ( " +*+); / "/ ( 0 ." )9/
/"-1& (" *1"/0. / #1".5 / 01 ()"*0" 4
*+/ ,".)&0&.9 +)+ 2"*0 ' !& &+* ( "*
)&* . % & +0.+/ #."*0"/ 1* $. * *0&! !
!" "),(" !+/ &**" "/ .&+/ -1" *+ 0. ' *
." (&5 * #1* &+*"/ );*&) / + !1,(& * ( / !"
+0.+/ /&* ."/1(0 !+ ($1*+

&)1(09*" )"*0" !" ")+/ !"/ ..+(( .


+* "),"<+ 1* 0. '+ ,+(;0& + , . (&-1&! .
( / # (0 / !" )+0&2 &+*"/ &*0".* / "/ !" &. (
# (0 !" ( .&! ! ,+(;0& -1" /" 0. !1 " "*
1* # (0 !" "'" 10&2&! ! +/ )&*+/ /+* (
"!1 &=* +*0&*1 ! )"!& *0" ( "3,(&
&=* +* ."0 !" ( / 0 ." / )"!& *0" (
&* 1( &=* !"( &*0".:/ (+/ "),(" !+/ !)&
*&/0. 0&2+/ ,+. /1 0. '+ +* ."0+ )"!& *0"
"( "'"),(+ !" (+/ 0. ' !+."/ !" 2 *$1 .!&
,+. 1* , .0" 4 ( / )"!&! / !.9/0& / !" "(&
)&* . ( , .9/&0+ 4 /" "( -1" "/ +*!" "* /1

15
0&01! 1* "*")&/0 ! ,.+#1*! % & (
/+ &"! ! /+ & (&/0 + ( -1" "/09 &..")"!& ("
)"*0" ."<&!+ +* "( 0. '+

+. >(0&)+ !" ")+/ +.."$&. (


&*#".&+.&! ! -1" /&$*&#& ( # (0 !" +*+ &
)&"*0+/

")+/ &*& & !+ ( $&$ *0"/ 0 ." !"


0. */#+.) . ( /+ &"! ! !" 1* ,1*0 (
+0. "* )"!&+ !" ( $."/&=* &),".& (&/0 !"
1* (+-1"+ ! 2"5 )9/ #1".0" !" 1* )
&+ +),("0+ "* *1"/0. 0" *+(+$; !" $1
! / "/ /" "/ !" ) 0".& / ,.&) / 4 .0; 1(+/
(&)"*0& &+/ 4 !" 1* #1$ "* ) / !" (+/
,+ +/ 0: *& +/ (&#& !+/ -1" 0"*")+/ *
"/ / +*!& &+*"/ !" ")+/ ,( *0" .*+/ 1*
0. '+ )14 /".&+ 4 )14 ,"./"2". *0" +* ( /
) / / , . /1,(&. (+/ 2 ;+/ -1" !"' * (+/ 0. &
!+."/ 4 ( / *" "/&! !"/ !" #1".5 !" 0. '+
(&#& ! -1" /" ,.+!1 "* ,+. "( .&0)+ 2"(+5
&),1"/0+ *1"/0.+ !"/ ..+((+ " ((; -1" (
, &0 &=* + 1," 1* (1$ . ,."#"."*0" "*
0+!+/ (+/ ,( *"/ !"( + &".*+ "2+(1 &+*

16
.&+
, &0 &=* !" (+/ 0. ' !+."/ 0&2+/
/" &*& & "* (+/ "*0.+/ !" 0. '+ ( ,.&)".
*&2"( "!1 &+* ( ( "(&)&* &=* !" ($1*+/
."/0+/ !" * (# "0&/)+ -1" -1"! * "* (+/
(1$ ."/ )9/ , .0 !+/ (+/ 1./+/ !" /"$1&
)&"*0+ !"/,1:/ (+/ !" /1,". &=* + .".
, . -1"((+/ -1" % 4 * ( *5 !+ 0". ".
$. !+ (+/ 1./+/ !" ;*&)+ : *& + , . (+/
+ .".+/ !" )9/ (0+ *&2"( (+/ !" "30"*/&=*
, . /". /1 &*$"*&".+/ (+/ + .".+/ (&#&
!+/ (+/ 1./+/ 1*&2"./&0 .&+/ , . 0+!+ 0&,+
!" ,.+#"/&+* ( 4 0 ) &:* (+/ !)&*&/0. 0&2+/
&*0"* &=* !"( + &".*+ "2+(1 &+* .&+ "/
+*2".0&. *1"/0.+ , ;/ "* 1* $. * "/ 1"(
!+*!" "( "/01!&+ 4 "( :3&0+ !" (+/ "/01!&+/
/" * 1*+ !" (+/ # 0+."/ #1*! )"*0 ("/ , .
"( )"'+. )&"*0+ !" ( +*!& &=* !"( &*!&2&
!1+ 0 *0+ " +*=)& )"*0" +)+ "* /1 1 &
&=* )+. ( !"*0.+ !" ( /+ &"! ! !"
1".!+ +* /1/ (&! !"/

& *+/+0.+/ (+$. )+/ !"/"*0. < . '+ (


) . < !" (+/ , ,"("/ ( / &*0.&* ! ."( &+

17
*"/ "*0." (+/ +.$ *&/)+/ 4 "*0." /" &+*"/ !"
+.$ *&/)+/ ( !1,(& &=* !" #1* &+*"/ 4 (+/
#." 1"*0"/6 %"/7"* -1" "* *1"/0. / &*/
0&01 &+*"/ "* +*0. )+/ ( / . ; "/ !"( ,.+
(") 4 "( +. )+/ *+.) / !" +.$ *&5 &=*
,.&)".+ "(")"*0 ("/ )9/ +),("0 / (1"$+
! )+/ ( 0 (( #.+*0 ( (+/ !&/,(& "*0"/ (+/
+*#1/+/ 4 (+/ 2 $+/ .""!1 )+/ 4 "!1
)+/ "/0 ) / ( &* +.,+. )+/ ( "2+(1
&=* 4 "(&)&* )+/ (+ !"/" % (" 4 ( )&/)+
0&"),+ +*0&*1 )+/ /&* !"/) 4 . 1 ("/
-1&". -1" /" * (+/ &* +*2"*&"*0"/ +*#.+*
0 !+/ 1* $. * 0 ." !" "!1 &=* 0+!+/
(+/ *&2"("/ "/0 .")+/ "* +*!& &+*"/ !" (&-1&
! . "* ,+ + 0&"),+ "( 1.+ . 0&/)+

"3,".&"* & !" ( >(0&) )+2&(&5 &=* "/


( -1" *+/ % )+0&2 !+ 0"*". !&/ 1/&+*"/
"* "( &*&/0".&+ !" *!1/0.& / , . * (&5 . "(
#"*=)"*+ !" -1" "* )"!&+ !" "(( 1 *!+
0+!+ "( , ;/ ,+*; "* 0"*/&=* /1/ #1".5 / , .
."/&/0&. "( ") 0" "*")&$+ ( ,.+!1 &=* &*
!1/0.& ( *+ ; "( 1/"*0&/)+ !"/ , ." ; (+/

18
,.+ (") / /" ."/+(2; * +* 1* &*/+/," % !
2"(+ &! ! * (&5 *!+ "/0+ (("$ )+/ ( +*
(1/&=* !" -1" +*2".$&".+* 2 .&+/ # 0+."/
-1" !"/0.14".+* ( / 1/ / #1*! )"*0 ("/
!"( 1.+ . 0&/)+ % ; 1* $. * &),1(/+ ,
0.&=0& + 4 * &+* ( !" ."/&/0&. ( &),".& (&/)+
-1" . = ( &*)"*/ ) 4+.; !"( ,1" (+
!" 1 4 ! 0. ' !+. /1 *&2"( /" +*
2&.0&= "* 1* /+(! !+ !" ( " +*+); !&/
,1"/0+ ."/+(2". 1 (-1&". ,.+ (")

( )+0+. &!"+(=$& + /" (+$. !" "/0 )


*". ,+. "( "/0;)1(+ !" ( $."/&=* "30. *'".
/ *+.) / +.$ *&5 0&2 / /" ."!1 ; * /"<
( . "/0.& 0 )"*0" (+ -1" *+ /" ,+!; % ". 4 "(
,.+ (") #1*! )"*0 ( -1" !" &". ."/+(
2"./" ) *0"*". ( ,.+!1 &=* ,+. /+ ."
0+! / ( / +/ / ) *0"*". !"0".)&* ! / ,.+
!1 &+*"/ +* ) 4+. :*# /&/ >* 4 !"/(&$ .
( / "),."/ / #9 .& / 4 +.$ *&/)+/ !" 0+!+
"( ."/0+ !" ( / #1* &+*"/ (" 0+.& / ,".+ *"
"/ .& / "* 1* ,.+ "/+ /+ & ( *+.) (

19
."/,+*/ &(&! ! "/," & ( -1" 0"*; !
&*!&2&!1+ (+ + (&$ 0+) . !" &/&+*"/ .9
,&! / "/09 )+/ #."*0" 1* /&01 &=* !"
")".$"* & * &+* ( 4 % ; -1" 0+) .( /
#1". * ".0 ! / + "-1&2+ ! / % ; -1" 0+
) .( / 4 .9,&!+ /; /" %&5+ "* )1 %+/ /+/
+ %")+/ "#" 01 !+ "( ( * " !" ( )+2&(&
5 &=* 0+! 2; 4 "2&!"*0")"*0" "/" ( * "
"* 0:.)&*+/ #&* * &".+/ *+ ,1"!" /". ,+/&0&2+
,".+ /; (+ #1" "* 0:.)&*+/ !" )+2&(&5 &=*
&!"+(=$& "* ( ,.+#1*!&5 &=* !" ( +*
&"* & !" ( / ) / / 8 19( "/ ( "*/"< *5
1" !" ")+/ % ". .*" "* *1"/0.+/ 0.
' !+."/ + .".+/ ),"/&*+/ + "),(" !+/
-1" "( ,"(&$.+ !" ( $."/&=* &),".& (&/0
/&$1" ,"*!&"*0" /+ ." *1"/0. / "5 / -1"
*+ % 4 0 ( /&01 &=* !" , 5 4 -1" *1"/0.+
!" ". "/ /"$1&. #+.0 (" &"*!+ ( "2+(1 &=*
!; !; ,+.-1" !")9/ :/ "/ *1"/0.
$ . *0; )93&) !" -1" *+ % 4 &*2 /&=*

1 *0+ )9/ (" 1"/0" ( &),".& (&/)+


0+) . "/0 &/( 1 *0+ )9/ #1".0"/ /" * /1/

20
!"#"*/ / 4 1 *0+ )9/ (0 /" ( +* &"* &
!" /1/ %&'+/ )9/ (+ ,"*/ .9* ,".+ ( )&/)+
0&"),+ "( !"/ ..+((+ " +*=)& + !"( , ;/ *+/
". /&01 &+*"/ !" )9/ !"/ %+$+ !"
) 4+. &"*"/0 . 1" "( $. * "'"),(+ )+2&(&
5 !+. !" ( $."/&=* &),".& (&/0 /" +*2&".0
"* ,".) *"*0" "/ ( 0 ." &!"+(=$&

" ")+/ * (&5 . ( / ."/,+*/ &(&! !"/


!" ! #1* &+* .&+ "/0 (" ". (+ )9/ .;$&!
)"*0" ,+/& (" !"*0.+ !" 1/ / !" (+/ -1"
*+ !" " / (&./" '+ ,"* !" /"2".;/&) / / *
&+*"/ 4 /+ ." "/0 /" ! . ( / )9/ ),(& /
# 1(0 !"/ ,+/& ("/ ( )&/)+ 0&"),+ "/01!& .
0+!+ (+ -1" "/ #1*! )"*0 ( 4 (+ -1" "/ "
/+.&+ "* "( 0. '+ !" ( / !&/0&*0 / 1*&! !"/ !"
(+/ +.$ *&/)+/ "/0 0 ("/ 4 (&)&0 . (+ "/+.&+
, . ,+*". :*# /&/ /+ ." (+ #1*! )"*0 ( ,".
)&0&"*!+ /; )9/ .9,&! &=*

"3&$&. *1"/0.+/ #1* &+* .&+/ "/0 (" ".


(;)&0"/ !" 0&"),+ , . 1),(&. ( / &*/0.1 &+
*"/ ") * ! / !" (+/ +.$ *&/)+/ "*0. ("/

21
+*0.+( . +.." 0 )"*0" 4 + (&$ . 0+) . !"
&/&+*"/ "* 0&"),+ ,.1!"* & (

& *+/+0.+/ (+$. )+/ % ". 0+!+ "/" 0.


'+ "( 1.+ . 0&/)+ !"/ , ." ".9 " %" %+
*+ "/ 1* 0 ." !" 1* +.$ *&/)+ *& /&-1&".
!" 0+!+/ (+/ +.$ *&/)+/ " +*=)& +/ !"( , ;/
"/ ( 0 ." !" ( * &=* "*0". "/ !" &. !" (+/
+.$ *&/)+/ !&.&$"*0"/ #1*! )"*0 ()"*0"
!"( .0&!+ *&!+ !" ( "2+(1 &=* 4 !" ( /
$.1, &+*"/ !" ) / / +!+/ !" ")+/ 0.
' . , . 1),(&. "/0 +*/&$* ,.")& *0"
!"( )+)"*0+ 1".. ( 1.+ . 0&/)+ $&(&5
&=* !"( , . 0+ "/0 0 ( .+!1 &=* /&* 0. /
4 ."/,+*/ &(&! ! ,+. ( ,.+!1 &=*

22
23