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Prabha Singh

Bartels

WRT 205

3/22/2019

​ pringer, New
Boddington, Paula. ​Towards a Code of Ethics for Artificial Intelligence Research. S

York, 2017.

An evaluation of how to proceed with the development of artificial intelligence while

being mindful of ethics in a legal, political and social way. Boddington outlines the

surprising prevalence of AI already and branches out into the social and political

implications if features such as complex decision-making, automation, extremely fine

precision, etc are created. Her main point calls for a mandatory ethical conversation

regarding the progression of AI. A valuable point Boddington makes is how accidents

with any type of AI would receive excessive exposure and relentless legal pursuit

regardless if it reduces mortality statistics from human based tasks like driving. In

essence, the point that the general public not fully understanding the scope of potential or

how AI would be embedded within society is why Boddington calls for an ethical

approach to AI progression as a society. In order to smoothly introduce an elevated form

of AI, focus must be dedicated to sorting out human replacement, control over

human-surpassing machines, and educating the masses on the ethical questions to

consider.
Crosman, Penny. "How Artificial Intelligence is Reshaping Jobs in Banking."​ American Banker​,

vol. 183, no. 88, 2018.

An analysis on how AI from simple automation to in-depth monitoring software would

drastically affect a particular job industry: banking. Crosman goes through the details of

how AI would transform a job industry where simple jobs such as data entry would be

entirely replaced by AI. However, the job market for banking wouldn’t necessarily be

negatively impacted but rather there would be a demand for operating AI and monitoring

it. Certain jobs remain secure when they require basic empathy and human emotion

which is still very far in terms of the development with AI. The general point that

Crosman makes is that introducing AI to a job industry does not necessarily take away

jobs but rather encourages a transition of skill sets with projected job growth. Introducing

AI to a job field seems practical on paper but the passions and willingness of the general

public to shift job responsibilities seems to present a whole new challenge to the

implementation of AI.

Jones, LD, et al. "Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and the Evolution of Healthcare A

BRIGHT FUTURE OR CAUSE FOR CONCERN?"​ Bone & Joint Research,​ vol. 7, no. 3, 2018,

pp. 223-225.

An overview of the capability of the basis of newage AI functionality: machine learning.

Artificial Neural Networks are algorithms that allows AI to learn from large data sets and

information rather than being precoded and programmed. Jones states some of the

numerous outcomes of ANNs for AI being face recognition, object detection, etc but
delves deeper into the role it plays in the medical field. With machine learning, AI has

image ing and pattern recognition features that allow it to recognize and analyze a

multitude of diagnoses of diseases and form an accurate medical model of warning signs

for the disease. The controversial aspect about machine learning that Jones introduces is

how not only does automation and machine learning threaten jobs for simpler jobs but

professionals also feel intimidated by the scope of this technology and what it means to

their usefulness. Jones concludes with the moral obligation of health care that almost

pertains to any field where a machine, no matter how accurate the algorithm, will always

have unknown levels of uncertainty.

Silva, Rohan, Joseph McAuley, and Owen Phillips. ​Panorama. could a Robot do My Job?

British Broadcasting Corporation, London, England, 2015.

Short documentary on the already implemented AI technology within certain job

industries in Britain with analysis on what the experience has been like so far and what

jobs are expected to be affected in the future. Two differing opinions are being presented

by the interviewers on who exactly with a national economy would be affected by AI.

Angus Cutler supports the idea that “jobs paying less than 30,000 pounds would be more

likely affected than jobs paying 100,000 pounds or more” with the job cut trends with

clerks, secretaries, etc already observed in Britain. Baroness Morgan presents a

counterargument where white collar jobs face more of a threat from increasingly

developed decision making capabilities of AI and rapid advancement of machine


learning. The possibility of the rise of super wealthy companies only requiring highly

skilled workers due to AI doing most unskilled automation jobs pose as the major threat

that AI could have on the job market. In the wrong hands, AI would only aid in making

the rich more wealthy while negatively affected those at the bottom of the chain. Francis

O’Grady states that government intervention is needed in order to protect and ensure a

proper transition to having workers adjust to automation. Ultimately, AI has two

projected outcomes where millions could lose their jobs to massive corporations utilizing

AI or it would lead to a job increase with relatively the same level skill sets to operate AI.

United States. Executive Office of the President. ​Artificial Intelligence, Automation, and the

Economy. ​Executive Office of the President, Washington, D.C, 2016.

A report that provides an insightful analysis directly from the Executive Office of the

President of what the implementation of artificial intelligence to the job industry and

society would mean in terms of the economic precautions of automation and the

aggressive policy changes to combat it. The authors first pinpoint the lower class to be

the biggest potential victims of automation and outlines the basics of mandatory policy

and institutional changes to prevent the surge in the unemployment rate that artificial

intelligence could create. Concepts such as an unemployment insurance system are being

disputed as a means of providing a sort of “social security net” for workers that inevitably

will be replaced by automation. The authors also parallel historical industrial revolutions

to this predicament however emphasize the complexity of artificial intelligence and how

it is not a single technology but a system that would be distributed unevenly throughout
the job market. Conclusively, the report calls for mandatory government intervention

with artificial technology however continual development ensues in favor of economic

and technological benefits.


Reflection

The research process with the annotated bibliography began with first dissecting my

research questions into keywords and writing down my objectives for my sources. I compiled my

research questions into some key ideas that led me to specifically look for information on the AI

economy, AI automation, machine learning, and ethics regarding AI. From there I began to

check out different sources, mainly skimming, and saving those that I thought would potentially

be useful for research. With this topic being very technical, many articles involved complex

mathematics and explanations of algorithms so a lot of time was dedicated to sifting through the

articles and creating a genuine understanding as a researcher of how artificial neural networks

worked and how certain algorithms work to understand the scope of AI. Upon finalizing my

sources, I digitally highlighted the key ideas and crucial points from each passage with exception

to the video where I wrote notes aside while watching it. I read each source in depth at this stage

instead of just skimming with exceptions to the books. Compiling all the information was the

most difficult part of the process as I had to consider what was too specific or what was valuable

enough to demonstrate a point for my paragraph descriptions. I also made notes within my

sources that specifically aligned with my research questions so I would be able to make a

connection at the end of each summary to my research to show the source’s relevance. After

writing most of the descriptions and proofreading for each source, there were areas where I

mentioned a concept too vaguely which required me to add in explanations that would allow it to

fit the description of a summary rather than a preview as appropriate for an annotated

bibliography rather than an abstract.