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Department of Defense (DoD)

Fiscal Year 2018 (FY18)


Annual Report on Sexual Assault
in the Military
Agenda

• Topline Results
• Sexual Assault Prevalence and Reporting Rates
• 2018 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of the Active Duty
• Retaliation
• Sexual Assault Case Accountability
• Actions for FY19

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Topline Results

• About 1 in 3 Service members who indicated an experience of sexual assault chose to


report it to a DoD authority, roughly the same rate as in 2016 and more than quadruple the
reporting rate from ten years ago.
• The Department has made progress in reducing sexual assault rates among men and has
been sustaining this progress.
• Sexual assault of female Service members and associated perceptions of retaliatory
behavior are persistent challenges across all Military Services -- the results from this year’s
report highlight critical challenges the Department must, and will, address.
• Military commanders had sufficient evidence to take disciplinary action on two-thirds of
Service members accused of a sexual assault.
• We will not be deterred from our mission to eliminate sexual assault from the military.
– The approaches we employed to achieve progress over the past several years must
now evolve.
– As leaders, we must ensure that climates promote dignity and respect. To that end,
we must implement tools that allow first-line supervisors to swiftly address threats to
civility and cohesion in their units.

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DoD: Sexual Assault Prevalence and
Reporting Rates
40000

Women: 6.8% Survey-Estimated Number of


35000 Men: 1.8% Service Members who Experienced
Women: 6.1% Unwanted Sexual Contact in the
~34,200 Men: 1.2% Past Year
~26,000
30000
Number of Service Members

↑ Statistically Significant Increase from


FY16
Women: 4.4% Women: 4.9% Women: 6.2%↑
25000 Men: 0.9% Men: 0.9% Men: 0.7% Survey-Estimated Number of
~19,300 ~20,300 ~20,500 Service Members who Experienced
Sexual Assault in the Past Year
20000 Women: 4.3%
Men: 0.6% % Estimated Percentage of Service
~14,900 Member Victims Accounted for in
15000 Reports to DoD

Number of Reports of Sexual


(~7%) (~13%) (~11%) (~23%) (~32%) (~30%) Assault by Service Members for
10000
Incidents that Occurred During
6053 Military Service
4794 5277
4113 4744 4736 Service members who reported sexual assault
5000 2828 6,053 that occurred during military Service
2289 2223 2340 2454 2532 2639
1275 1774 Service members who reported a sexual
+ 623 assault that occurred prior to military Service
Civilians and foreign nationals who alleged
0 + 947 sexual assault against a Service member
CY04 CY05 CY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 Reports of sexual assault received by DoD in
7,623
Year FY18

About 1 in 3 Service members reported their sexual assault to a DoD authority - roughly the same as in FY16
• Reporting rate for women decreased slightly between FY16 and FY18, from 43% to 37%
• Reporting rate for men stayed the same between FY16 and FY18, at 17%

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2018 WGRA Survey Results:
Sexual Assault Prevalence Rates
Past Year Prevalence of Sexual Assault Type of Sexual Assault
100%
DoD Women 14.0% Attempted Penetrative
12.0% Non-Penetrative
80%
DoD Men 10.0%
Penetrative

60% 8.0% 6.2% ↑


0.1% ↔
DoD Men
6.0% 4.3%
0.1% 2.0% Attempted Penetrative
3.0% ↑
40% 4.0%
2.1% Non-Penetrative
2.0% 1.5% Penetrative
2.2% 3.1% ↑
20% 0.0%
6.8% 4.4% 6.1% 4.9% 4.3% 6.2% ↑ 2016 2018 1.0% 0.6% 0.7% ↔
<0.1% ↔
<0.1%
0% DoD Women 0.5% 0.4% ↔
0.4%
1.8% 0.9% 1.2% 0.9% 0.6% 0.7% ↔ 0.2% 0.3% ↔
0.0%
2006 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2016 2018

Sexual Assault Prevalence Rates for Women by Service Sexual Assault Prevalence Rates for Men by Service
20%
10%
18%

16%
8%
14%

12% 11.9% 10.7% ↑ 6%


10.1%
10%
8.9% 7.9%
6.6% 7.0% 7.5% ↑
8% 7.1% 7.2% 7.1% 4%
6.5%
6.8% 5.1% 6.2% ↑ 2.7%
6% 6.0% 4.9%
5.8% ↑ 2.3% 2.3%
6.1%
4% 3.7% 4.4% 4.4% 4.7% 4.4% 4.3% 2% 1.8% 1.5% 1.0% ↔
4.3% ↑ 1.2% 1.1% 1.2% 1.1% 1.1% 0.9% 0.8% ↔
2% 1.4% 0.7%
3.1% 2.9% 2.8% 0.9% 0.7% ↔
2.3% 0.7% 1.0% 0.8% 0.9% 0.9% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% ↔
0% 0% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% ↑
0.3% 0.3%
2006 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2006 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018
DoD Army Navy Marine Corps Air Force DoD Army Navy Marine Corps Air Force

2018 Trend Comparisons: ↑ Higher than 2016 ↓ Lower than 2016 ↔ No Change

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Risk Patterns: Active Duty Women Age and Rank

Reference: Average Odds of Experiencing Odds of Experiencing


At highest risk: Sexual Assault for Women: 1 in 17 Sexual Assault

8.6%
• Younger women 14% 39%
17-20 year olds 11.9% ↑ 1 in 8
17% (↑ 2%)
17-20 21-24 year olds 6.4%
(↓ 1%) 9.4% ↑ 1 in 11
21-24
Total 25-30 year olds 4.2%
Population 25-30 16% 5.0% 1 in 20
25%
Proportions 31-35 1.7%
31-35 year olds 3.5% ↑ 1 in 29
36+ 28%
(↓ 1%) 36+ years old 1.3% 1 in 56
1.8%
N= 209,879
0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%
2016 2018
• Junior enlisted women 6.6%
E1-E4 9.1% ↑ 1 in 11
1% 12% 6%
E1-E4 E5-E9 2.5% 1 in 25
4.0% ↑
E5-E9
Total W1-W5 2.1% 1 in 32
Population W1-W5 3.1%
Proportions 36% 45%
O1-O3 2.8%
(↓ 1%) O1-O3 4.6% ↑
1 in 22
O4-O6 (↑ 1%)

O4-O6 0.8% 1 in 100


1.0%
N= 209,879
0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%
(↑ %): Increase in population proportion compared to 2016 2018 Trend Comparisons:
(↓ %): Decrease in population proportion compared to 2016 ↑ Higher than 2016 ↓ Lower than 2016 ↔ No Change

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DoD Women: Relationship Between the Victim and
Alleged Offender
Alleged offenders are At the time of the event, what paygrade was/were the military member(s)
who did this to you?
most often…
O7+
O6
Men 96%
O5
O4

Offender Rank
O3
One person 64% O2
O1
E9
E8
Military member 89%
E7
E6
E5
Friend/
62% E4
Acquaintance
E3
0.0% 50.0% 100.0%
E2
E1
E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6
Of the most serious sexual
assault situations involved Victim Rank
62% alcohol use by the victim Number of
and/or alleged offender, as Offender and A greater number of incidents are occurring between
reported by the victim Victim Rank Less E3-E4 ranks, as compared to other ranks. More
Pairings

Note: Rank comparison for DoD women only


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Assessment and Impact of Climate on Sexual
Assault: Leading Factors for DoD Members
% of All Members Who Reference: Odds of Experiencing
Experienced Unhealthy Average Odds of Experiencing Sexual Assault Sexual Assault When
Climate* Women: 1 in 17 Men: 1 in 143 Climate is Unhealthy*

Women Men Higher Levels of: Women Men


24% ↑ 6% ↑ 1 in 5 1 in 12
Sexual
Harassment**
16% ↑ 2% ↑ Gender 1 in 7 1 in 13
Discrimination**
Workplace 1 in 8 1 in 30
8% 5% Sexual Assault
Hostility

Lower Levels of:

16% 9%
Responsibility and 1 in 9 1 in 42
Intervention
Respect and
25% 13% 1 in 11 1 in 55
Cohesion
* Unhealthy climate for scales defined as follows: Workplace Hostility: mean score 3 or higher; Respect and Cohesion/Responsibility and Intervention: mean
score less than 3.
** Sexual harassment and gender discrimination are defined as experiences of the behaviors which met criteria for inclusion in the past year rate.
Note: Variables depicted in order of importance. Models controlled for Service, paygrade, and deployment.
2018 Trend Comparisons: ↑ Higher than 2016

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Perceived Retaliation Related to Reporting
Sexual Assault

WGRA Survey Data FY18 Retaliation Reporting Data

According to survey data, • Retaliation allegations continue to be


of women who experienced sexual assault in the reported to DoD authorities and monthly
past year and made a report to a DoD authority… Case Management Groups led by senior
mission commanders.
100%
‒ Two-thirds of the 133 retaliation reports
80% went to DoD and Service Inspectors
General for investigation for reprisal
allegations.
60%
43% • Of the 55 cases with completed
40% 32% investigations in FY18, 13 had allegations
26%
21% were founded and evidence supported
20%
action:
0% ‒ 3 were preferred to court-martial
Perceived negative experiences Perceived negative experiences
associated with reporting sexual associated with reporting sexual ‒ 4 received non-judicial punishments
assault assault, consistent with efforts to
deter their reporting and/or ‒ 4 received administrative discharges/
participation in the justice system
(i.e., retaliatory behaviors) adverse administrative actions
FY16 FY18 ‒ 2 received counseling

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Satisfaction With Responses/Services
Received: Total DoD
Percent of Members Who Experienced Sexual Assault in the Past Year and Reported

Thinking about this unwanted event, overall how satisfied are/were you with
responses/services you received from the following individuals/service providers?
100%

Immediate
supervisor UVA/VA SARC
80% Senior
enlisted
Resource Use

Unit Mental health


advisor SVC/VLC
commander/ provider
60% director Medical
Military law provider
enforcement
40% Chaplain

Civilian law
enforcement
DoD Safe
20% Helpline

0%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

Resource Satisfaction
Those who used resource who were
satisfied or very satisfied.

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Trust in the Military System

If you are sexually assaulted, you can... % who indicated agree/strongly agree
100% 78% 79% ↑
74% 76% 71%
80%
Trust the military system 60%
65% 65% 62% 63%
to protect your privacy 40% 54%
20%
0%
2010 2012 2014 2016 2018
100% 80% 83% 79% 84% 84%
80%
Trust the military system 60% 73% 75%
63% 69% 69%
to ensure your safety 40%
following the incident 20%
0%
2010 2012 2014 2016 2018

100% 80% 82% 76% 82% 82%


Trust the military system 80%
to treat you with dignity 60% 73% 73%
60% 66% 66%
and respect 40%
20%
0%
2010 2012 2014 2016 2018
DoD Women DoD Men

2018 Trend Comparisons: ↑ Higher than 2016 ↓ Lower than 2016


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Sexual Assault Case Accountability
4,002 Case Dispositions Reported in FY18 1,845 Case Dispositions: Evidence Supported Command Action
- 1,148 Cases Outside DoD Jurisdiction - 634 Case Dispositions: Evidence Supported Nonsexual Assault Charge

2,854 Cases Under DoD Jurisdiction 1,211 Case Dispositions: Evidence Supported Sexual Assault Charge

Military Subjects with Misconduct Substantiated, Disciplinary Action in Case Dispositions for Sexual Assault
Command Action Precluded, and Command Action Offenses, FY07 to FY18
Percentage of Case Dispositions Considered for Possible

Percentage of Case Dispositions With Action for a Sexual


Declined 100%
100%

80% 73%
76% 80%
72% 65% 71%
65% 66% 68%
60% 64% 62% (1,845) 64% 64%
62%

Assault Offense
60% 57% 59%
60% 54%
55%
52%
Action

33%
40% 35% 33%
36% (935) 42%
32% 38%
30% 30% 40% 36% 36%
24% 25% 32%
22% 34%
26%
20% 14% 25% 24% 23%
30% 30% 21% 21% 20%
3% 18% 18%
5% 5% 20% 23% 23%
3% 3% 2% 3% 2% 2% (74) 20% 20% 22%
0% 14% 15% 15% 14%
FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18
FY18 12%
N=1971 N=1925 N=1518 N=1714 N=2149 N=2625 N=2783 N=2892 N=3567 N=2854
N=2854
Fiscal Year 0%
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Cases with Misconduct Substantiated (command action for sexual assault and all other N=600 N=832 N=983 N=1025 N=791 N=880 N=1187 N=1550 N=1437 N=1331 N=1446 N=1211
offenses for which there was evidence) Fiscal Year
Cases With Command Action Precluded (e.g., evidence problems)
Court-Martial Charges Preferred (Initiated)
Cases With Command Action Declined (e.g., unfounded by command/legal review of Nonjudicial Punishments (Article 15 UCMJ)
evidence) Administrative Actions and Discharges

Commanders had sufficient evidence to take action 55 percent of accountability actions where evidence
in 65 percent of Service member cases, up slightly existed for a sexual assault charge involved a
from 62 percent in FY17. preferral to court-martial.

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Actions for FY19
• Sexual assault rates remained steady for men in the active duty force with significant increases only
seen for active duty women. Within the female active force, increases were concentrated among
service women ages 17 to 24 as well as junior enlisted women, who are already at the highest risk for
sexual assault.
– The Department will:
• Issue the “Prevention Plan of Action”—a coordinated and comprehensive approach to optimize the
DoD prevention system, with targeted efforts towards this young cadre of military members. In
addition, this product emphasizes the Department’s need for robust research, evaluation, and
analytics to assess the effectiveness of Department and Military Service prevention efforts as they
are implemented.
• Ensure new leaders and first-line supervisors have the preparation and the tools necessary to
promote civility and cohesion in their units, as well as model appropriate behavior.
• Conduct focus groups, with a target selection of 17 to 24 year old members, to identify actions and
initiatives that may more effectively shift behavior among this group.
• Most perpetrators were in the E3 to E5 rank, and alleged perpetrators were often the same grade, or
slightly higher, than the victim.
– The Department will:
• Launch the CATCH A Serial Offender Program, allowing Service members making Restricted
Reports to confidentially provide information about the offender and incident.
• Develop and evaluate means to enhance recruitment of service members whose character is
compatible with military core values.
• Climates that do not promote dignity and respect continue to be strongly associated with an increased
risk for sexual assault. We must do more to ensure all Service members take ownership of their climate.
– The Department will:
• Provide leaders with improved assessment tools to help them identify climate challenges and take
appropriate action.

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Contact Information

RADM Ann Burkhardt, Director


Dr. Nate Galbreath, Deputy Director

571-372-2636

DoD SAPRO
4800 Mark Center Drive, Suite 07G21
Alexandria, VA 22311

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