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countries, cultures, customs, film, global conflicts, international relations,
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all contain highly informative introductory essays of the topic and detailed
chronologies that, in some cases, cover vast historical time periods but still
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Brief A–Z entries describe the main people, events, politics, social issues,
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12_019_Van_Boer.indb i 3/13/12 2:27 PM


HISTORICAL DICTIONARIES OF LITERATURE AND THE ARTS

Jon Woronoff, Series Editor


Science Fiction Literature, by Brian Stableford, 2004.
Hong Kong Cinema, by Lisa Odham Stokes, 2007.
American Radio Soap Operas, by Jim Cox, 2005.
Japanese Traditional Theatre, by Samuel L. Leiter, 2006.
Fantasy Literature, by Brian Stableford, 2005.
Australian and New Zealand Cinema, by Albert Moran and Errol Vieth,
2006.
African-American Television, by Kathleen Fearn-Banks, 2006.
Lesbian Literature, by Meredith Miller, 2006.
Scandinavian Literature and Theater, by Jan Sjåvik, 2006.
British Radio, by Seán Street, 2006.
German Theater, by William Grange, 2006.
African American Cinema, by S. Torriano Berry and Venise Berry, 2006.
Sacred Music, by Joseph P. Swain, 2006.
Russian Theater, by Laurence Senelick, 2007.
French Cinema, by Dayna Oscherwitz and MaryEllen Higgins, 2007.
Postmodernist Literature and Theater, by Fran Mason, 2007.
Irish Cinema, by Roderick Flynn and Pat Brereton, 2007.
Australian Radio and Television, by Albert Moran and Chris Keating, 2007.
Polish Cinema, by Marek Haltof, 2007.
Old Time Radio, by Robert C. Reinehr and Jon D. Swartz, 2008.
Renaissance Art, by Lilian H. Zirpolo, 2008.
Broadway Musical, by William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird, 2008.
American Theater: Modernism, by James Fisher and Felicia Hardison
Londré, 2008.
German Cinema, by Robert C. Reimer and Carol J. Reimer, 2008.
Horror Cinema, by Peter Hutchings, 2008.
Westerns in Cinema, by Paul Varner, 2008.
Chinese Theater, by Tan Ye, 2008.
Italian Cinema, by Gino Moliterno, 2008.
Architecture, by Allison Lee Palmer, 2008.
Russian and Soviet Cinema, by Peter Rollberg, 2008.
African American Theater, by Anthony D. Hill, 2009.
Postwar German Literature, by William Grange, 2009.
Modern Japanese Literature and Theater, by J. Scott Miller, 2009.
Animation and Cartoons, by Nichola Dobson, 2009.
Modern Chinese Literature, by Li-hua Ying, 2010.
Middle Eastern Cinema, by Terri Ginsberg and Chris Lippard, 2010.
Spanish Cinema, by Alberto Mira, 2010.

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Film Noir, by Andrew Spicer, 2010.
French Theater, by Edward Forman, 2010.
Choral Music, by Melvin P. Unger, 2010.
Westerns in Literature, by Paul Varner, 2010.
Baroque Art and Architecture, by Lilian H. Zirpolo, 2010.
Surrealism, by Keith Aspley, 2010.
Science Fiction Cinema, by M. Keith Booker, 2010.
Latin American Literature and Theater, by Richard A. Young and Odile
Cisneros, 2011.
Children’s Literature, by Emer O’Sullivan, 2010.
German Literature to 1945, by William Grange, 2011.
Neoclassical Art and Architecture, by Allison Lee Palmer, 2011.
American Cinema, by M. Keith Booker, 2011.
American Theater: Contemporary, by James Fisher, 2011.
English Music: ca. 1400–1958, by Charles Edward McGuire and Steven E.
Plank, 2011.
Rococo Art, by Jennifer D. Milam, 2011.
Romantic Art and Architecture, by Allison Lee Palmer, 2011.
Japanese Cinema, by Jasper Sharp, 2011.
Modern and Contemporary Classical Music, by Nicole V. Gagné, 2012.
Russian Music, by Daniel Jaffé, 2012.
Music of the Classical Period, by Bertil van Boer, 2012.
Holocaust Cinema, by Robert C. Reimer and Carol J. Reimer, 2012.
Asian American Literature and Theater, by Wenjing Xu, 2012.

12_019_Van_Boer.indb iii 3/13/12 2:27 PM


12_019_Van_Boer.indb iv 3/13/12 2:27 PM
Historical Dictionary
of Music of the
Classical Period

Bertil van Boer

The Scarecrow Press, Inc.


Lanham • Toronto • Plymouth, UK
2012

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Published by Scarecrow Press, Inc.
A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.
4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706
www.rowman.com

10 Thornbury, Plymouth PL6 7PP, United Kingdom

Copyright © 2012 by Bertil van Boer

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any
electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems,
without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote
passages in a review.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Van Boer, Bertil H.


Historical dictionary of music of the classical period / Bertil van Boer.
p. cm. — (Historical dictionaries of literature and the arts)
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 978-0-8108-7183-0 (cloth : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-8108-7386-5 (ebook)
1. Music—18th century—Dictionaries. I. Title.
ML100.V37 2012
780.9'033—dc23 2011045775
™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of
American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper
for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992.

Printed in the United States of America

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Contents

Editor’s Foreword Jon Woronoff ix


Preface xi
Acronyms and Abbreviations xv
Chronology xix
Introduction 1
THE DICTIONARY 19
Bibliography 617
About the Author 639

vii

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12_019_Van_Boer.indb viii 3/13/12 2:27 PM
Editor’s Foreword

“Classical music” has two definitions, one narrower and referring to a glori-
ous period in musical history running from about 1730 to 1800, give or take
a decade or so on each end, and the other encompassing the entire span of
serious or “art” music (one can therefore speak of contemporary classical mu-
sic). Obviously, this book deals with the former, which explains its somewhat
cumbersome title. It focuses on some of the most glorious music composed
by some of the greatest composers during this time period—still among the
most frequently played music today.
After the necessary preliminaries, readers are immersed not only in the
handful of composers we know best, such as Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven,
but others we know less well like Gluck and C. P. E. Bach and dozens more
whose music we have likely never heard. One dimension of this major mu-
sical transition is therefore its sheer size and dynamism. Others include the
introduction of new forms and styles, new instruments and larger ensembles,
and countless innovations in every area, as composers and musicians learned
from one another and then made their own contributions. In fact, so much was
going on that this book can only hint at it all, although it does an excellent job
of covering the most significant aspects.
A substantial chronology covers the major events, thereby providing a feel
for the period. The introduction takes on some impossible tasks, such as when
exactly the “Classical period” was and what made it distinctive, and resolves
them amazingly well. The bulk of the material appears in the dictionary sec-
tion, with entries predominantly on people: not only composers but also sing-
ers and instrumentalists, patrons, and music publishers. There are also entries
on important technical terms, major centers of music-making, typical and
sometimes now-obsolete instruments, and various emerging musical forms,
including the novel symphony and triumphant opera with their many varia-
tions. These entries are on the whole short and to the point, since there is a lot
of ground to cover and other sources abound. This explains the importance of
the bibliography, since many readers will want to learn more; here they will
find access to many forms of information on related subjects.
This Historical Dictionary of Music of the Classical Period was written by
Bertil van Boer, whose career embraces music in many forms. He has taught

ix

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x • EDITOR’S FOREWORD

music, and more particularly musicology theory, at Western Washington


University and other schools. He has conducted music for Opera Kansas, and
he has written extensively on music, most particularly 18th-century music,
for the Recent Researches in Music of the Classical Period series, the New
Grove Dictionary of Music, and the New Grove Dictionary of Opera, as well
as articles in Eighteenth-Century Music and other journals. In addition, he
has produced a volume of the Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Complete Works.
But obviously he has never taken on anything quite as comprehensive as this
book, which covers the length and breadth of the period, examining it from
many different angles and providing a cross-section of all the most important
information. To the author this sometimes looked like an impossible mission,
but anyone reading this book will have to admit that he has achieved the well-
nigh impossible. In short, anyone who loves classical music will appreciate
this excellent guide.

Jon Woronoff
Series Editor

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Preface

Any attempt to write a Historical Dictionary of Music in the Classical Pe-


riod should be regarded primarily as a madman’s folly, given that the period
itself is ill-defined (or rather there exist a multitude of possible dates, not to
mention the ongoing debate over what constitutes the “long” 18th century
and the “short” 18th century) and that music was being performed and writ-
ten literally all over the entire world. Quite simply, as Charles Burney noted
in his various travel diaries—and they only covered the European core, not
its periphery—virtually every city had a functioning if not always vibrant
musical establishment that consisted of ensembles of significant size and ac-
tivity, within which individual musicians functioned not only as performers,
but often as composers as well. When one adds a burgeoning international
market for published music, as well as increased interest in touring soloists,
not to mention the music-making in far-flung places, then the scope of such
a project in defining these places, people, styles, trends, and genres becomes
enormous, if not a task of Sisyphus. Nonetheless, it is precisely due to this
plethora of materials, not to mention that much is still unexplored in realms
such as monastic music-making, minor cities and courts, or remote places on
the periphery, that this is a task that is worthwhile, particularly considering
that new discoveries and new recordings of the vast amount of music written
during this period appear regularly.
As I shall note in the introduction that follows, a time span has of neces-
sity had to be determined, mainly based upon subjective criteria that I alone
have chosen. The definition of the Classical period for the purposes of this
dictionary runs from just before 1730 to 1800 or so, which is by no means
either provable or entirely accurate. Rather, it is admittedly a choice based
upon several specific and arbitrary reasons, which are explainable. I do re-
alize, however, that it may be only one of a number of equally persuasive
chronological spans and that the era is truly ill-defined and the terminal dates
entirely arbitrary. For this, I ask the reader’s indulgence, for setting such
merely serves to outline the date parameters, which made the task at hand
somewhat doable.
Of necessity, the bulk of the entries are biographical, consisting mainly
of composers and performers, but including some influential patrons and

xi

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xii • PREFACE

others, such as prominent librettists. The criteria for inclusion into this work
are twofold: first, they must have been active during the 1730–1800 period;
and second, their music must conform to either a developmental or conven-
tional stage of some style we can call “Classical.” For those who are not
composers, there must be a significant musical connection. For example, both
Catherine II of Russia and Gustav III of Sweden are included, but Hapsburgs
Maria Theresia and Joseph II of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Na-
tion are not. The reason is that both of the former also wrote librettos and per-
sonally oversaw their musical establishments, and while the latter certainly
had one of the most brilliant groups of musicians available to them in Vienna,
they functioned mainly as knowledgeable patrons, though both of course did
have some musical training, as befitted most nobility of the period. This set of
criteria omits major Baroque composers, and on the upper end, most people
born in 1780 or later. There are, of course, exceptions. Cross-references are
not meant to be completely exhaustive, and when they are used, they gener-
ally refer to the teachers or pupils of the composers in question; I have pur-
posefully omitted cross-references in the matter of genre or style, again, save
for a very few exceptions.
In listing compositions, a few of the most important works are mentioned if
one or more gained a wider reputation during their times (or ours), but in gen-
eral the procedure has been to limit these to an overview according to genres
(and not always in a particular order). In terms of each person’s musical style,
there is generally only a cursory indication; most composers or places were
influenced by others, but in many cases stylistic changes occurred as a result
of the various conditions and preferences of those for whom the music was
intended. Thus, a work written clearly in an Italian style for a cathedral in,
say, New Spain, is in its essence a variation of a foreign style, created for
local requirements, and based upon the familiarity of the composer and its
reception by the audience, which makes it sometimes quite different from any
normalized model or predecessor. For more popular figures, such as Joseph
Haydn or Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, the entries may seem particularly
sparse, but given that there is a monumental amount of iconic literature and
scholarship available, this has been a deliberate decision in order to maintain
the quick reference nature of this volume.
Other entries include the most visible public concerts, orchestras (such as
Mannheim), “schools” defined as groups of composers who flourished un-
der specific patronage, societies, and individual terms relating to genre and
style. Many of the last are cursory by design, given that nomenclature was
often slippery and definitions sometimes contradictory. Certain occupations
are also mentioned if they pertain particularly to this period, but in general
generic terms, such as “conductor” or “choreographer,” have been avoided.

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PREFACE • xiii

Finally, there are the occasional peculiarities, such as odd instruments or


other such trivia that have found their way in, as well as composers and
genres found in 18th-century non-European music. It is true that one tends
to regard the Classical period as focused entirely on the music of Europe or
European colonies, and that other areas of the world are quite different in
terms of their musical development or style. Much of this has heretofore been
relegated to ethnographical studies, and yet the notion of the non-Western
other in music played a tremendous role in the perception of 18th-century
artists as European powers began their worldwide colonialist activities. One
needs only mention the fad for “Turkish” opera or the occasional inclusion of
“Asian” melodies (for instance, Abbé Georg Joseph Vogler’s Chinese Rondo
Cheu-Teu) as exotica in music. Here, I have occasionally included references
to the actual musics and composers of other areas in the world, namely, Tur-
key, Greece, and India, as these were the areas where Western influence was
beginning to be felt. More could probably be done, but this is at least a start
in a more global outlook for the period.
It must be reiterated that this work is primarily meant as a quick reference
guide. The entries are not intended to replace larger explorations or similar
entries in places like Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart or The New
Grove Dictionary of Music (nor the numerous and sometimes tantalizingly
lacunar entries in earlier lexica such as Fétis or Eitner). Such a task would
be cyclopean in scope, and this tome is far too short to compete with such
exhaustive works, many of which are now online as databases. There are,
to be sure, gaps in both of the major dictionaries, some of which have been
plugged here (the composer Benedict Kraus comes to mind), but this is not a
correction or “updated” version. In order to ascertain the numbers and types
of works of different composers, for example, sources such as RISM have
proven invaluable. I have, however, purposely avoided modern references
to Internet sources such as Wikipedia, though I do confess to have looked at
this enough to know how it is organized and can contribute in certain rare in-
stances. This is intentional, though I fully acknowledge that much useful (and
sometimes more detailed) information can occasionally be found therein (as
well as elsewhere online through judicious use of search engines). Whether
we find all or even many of these online sources accurate or useful will be
a matter of preference or increasing accuracy of those who compile and an-
notate them. As the old proverb of the Soviet Union went, “trust but verify.”
Finally, on the matter of orthography, I acknowledge that there will be
numerous inconsistencies, though I have attempted to retain English spell-
ings for many places that are familiar to readers. For instance, it is always
Vienna, and not the German “Wien,” or the Italian Padua, and not “Padova.”
The same goes for Cologne instead of the German “Köln,” but in one case,

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xiv • PREFACE

there is some information that a new spelling is preferred for Haydn’s remote
Hungarian castle workplace. I have retained “Esterháza” for “Esterház,” the
spelling by which it was known up through the 20th century. In an era of
inconsistent orthography, it is often better known by its modern standardized
equivalent.
This work could not have been completed without the help of several
friends and colleagues from the Society for Eighteenth-Century Music, who
pointed me in a number of directions that were useful. These include Doug-
las Lee, John Rice, Sterling Murray, Drew Davies, Beverly Wilcox, Paul
Corneilson, Estelle Joubert, Pater Lukas Helg of Kloster Einsiedeln, and
numerous others. I would also like to recognize Jon Woronoff of Scarecrow
Press, who was patient and understanding as the work grew in the telling. I
appreciate his advice and comments on drafts and in the huge editing process.
I can only hope that this work might inspire others to explore the wide world
of Classical period music, the surface of which has only been scratched.

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

GENERAL

CHG Carl Heinrich Graun


JGG Johann Gottlieb Graun
Op Opus (referring to published works)
WoO Without Opus numbers (referring to manuscript works)

CATALOGUING AND REFERENCING (BOLD IN BIBLIOGRAPHY)

Abbreviation Full name Composer name


A Altner František Xaver Dušek
A Angermüller Antonio Salieri
B Benton Jean-Frédéric Edelmann
B Brainerd Giuseppe Tartini
Badley Badley Leopold Hofmann
Ben Benton Ignaz Pleyel
BeRI Bengtsson Johan Helmich Roman
BR Wolfarth Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach
Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
Brown Brown Karl von Ordonez
BruWV Krone Gaetano Brunetti
Bryan Bryan Jan Křtitel Vanhal
C Callen Franz Ignaz Beck
Craw Craw Jan Ladislav Dussek
D Dounias Giuseppe Tartini
DF Fog Christian Ernst Friedrich Weyse
E Emmerig Joseph Riepel
E Enßlin Ferdinando Paër
EvaM Evans/Dearling Joseph Mysliveček
F Falck Wilhelm Friedemann Bach
F Fanna Joseph Mysliveček
FE S Freeman Franz Schneider
FWV Rheinländer Josef Fiala
G Gérard Luigi Boccherini

xv

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xvi • ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Abbreviation Full name Composer name


GraunWV Hewel Carl Heinrich Graun
Johann Gottlieb Graun
GWV Grosspietsch Johann Christoph Graupner
H Helm Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach
Hill Hill Florian Gassmann
Hob Hoboken Joseph Haydn
HRV Holm Johan Helmich Roman
HV Hermann Joseph Eybler
IB Inzaghi/Bianchi Alessandro Rolla
JC Jenkins/Churgin Giovanni Battista Sammartini
K Kaul Antonio Rosetti
K Kirkpatrick Domenico Scarlatti
K Klafsky Michael Haydn
K (KV) Köchel Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
K Komma Jan Zach
K Krebs Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf
Kn Knapp Carl Friedrich Abel
L Labrador Gaetano Brunetti
L Lee Franz [František] Benda
L Lee Christoph Nichelmann
L Longo Domenico Scarlatti
LMV Eisen Leopold Mozart
M Mennicke Johann Adolph Hasse
M Montanari Bartolomeo Campagnoli
M Munter Franz Iganz von Beecke
Mattos Mattos José Maurício Nunes Garcia
MH Sherman/Donely Michael Haydn
Murray Murray Antonio Rosetti
MWV Häfner Johann Melchior Molter
Olzer Olzer Bartolomeo Franzosini
Op/WoO Tyson Muzio Clementi
Op/WoO Kinsky/Halm Ludwig van Beethoven
Op/WoO Zimmerschied Johann Nepomuk Hummel
P Perger Michael Haydn
P Peters Georg Anton Kreusser
PadK Padrta Franz Krommer
Poštolka Poštolka Leopold Koželuh
QV Augsbach Johann Joachim Quantz
R Reutter Franz Xaver Richter
R Rice Adalbert Gyrowetz
R Hoffmann/Robinson Giovanni Paisiello
SmWV Duda Franz Xaver Süßmayer
Som Somfai Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
T Terry Johann Christian Bach

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS • xvii

Abbreviation Full name Composer name


TTK Gubkina Anton Ferdinand Tietz
TWV Menke/Ruhnke Georg Philipp Telemann
VB Van Boer Joseph Martin Kraus
VN Van Rompaey Pierre van Maldere
W Weinmann Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
W (CW) Warburton Johann Christian Bach
White White Giovanni Battista Viotti
WK Knapp Carl Friedrich Abel
Wq Wotquenne Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach
Christoph Willibald von Gluck
WV Schölz-Micaelitsch Christoph Wagenseil
Z Aquilina Benigno Zerafa
Z Zakin Václav Pichl

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12_019_Van_Boer.indb xviii 3/13/12 2:27 PM
Chronology

1728 The first ballad opera, The Beggar’s Opera, premiers in London.
Benedetto Marcello publishes his cantata Cassandra in Venice as an exem-
plar of drama in music.
1730 The Riddarhuskonserter are founded in Stockholm by Johan Helmich
Roman.
1733 War of the Polish succession begins.
1734 Fire destroys the musical archives at the Capilla Real in Madrid.
1735 Charles of Bourbon drives out the Austrians from Naples and estab-
lishes close musical ties to Spain, which sends students to the various conser-
vatories. First ballad opera performed in Charleston, South Carolina.
1736 Giovanni Pergolesi dies suddenly near Naples.
1737 The Teatro San Carlo opens in Naples.
1738 The Hamburg opera closes after bankruptcy.
1739 Reinhard Keiser dies in Hamburg.
1740 Frederick II becomes king of Prussia and brings musical establish-
ment to Berlin to form the Berlin School. Maria Theresia becomes head of
the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in Vienna, but her accession
is disputed. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Johann and Carl Graun, and Johann
Philipp Kirnberger move to Berlin.
1741 Christoph Willibald von Gluck’s first opera Artaserse premiered in
Milan; John Immyns founds the Madrigal Society in London; Antonio Viv-
aldi and Johann Joseph Fux die in Vienna.
1742 George Frederick Handel’s Messiah premieres in Dublin. A Ger-
man version of the ballad opera The Devil to Pay is performed in Berlin and
Hamburg by the Schönemann troupe. Ranleigh Gardens summer concerts are
begun in London. Italian opera is inaugurated in Berlin with Carl Graun’s
Caesare e Cleopatra. An opera house opens in Mannheim.

xix

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xx • CHRONOLOGY

1743 Handel’s oratorio Samson premiers in London.


1745 Elector Carl Theodor forms his court orchestra in Mannheim. Jean-
Philippe Rameau’s Platée premieres at Versailles.
1746 Christoph Willibald von Gluck visits London and competes with Handel.
1747 Handel’s Judas Maccabeus premieres in London. Johann Sebastian
Bach composes A Musical Offering for Frederick the Great in Berlin.
1748 War of the Austrian Succession ends with the Treaty of Aix-la-Cha-
pelle. Samuel Richardson’s Clarissa is published. The Holywell Rooms open
in Oxford as a musical concert venue.
1749 Rameau’s Zoroastre premieres in Paris.
1750 Johann Sebastian Bach dies in Leipzig.
1751 The French Encyclopédie begun by Denis Diderot and Jean d’Alembert.
Francesco Geminiani publishes his The Art of Playing the Violin.
1752 Johann Joachim Quantz publishes his Versuch einer Anweisung die
Flöte traversière zu spielen in Berlin. Christian Felix Weisse writes the first
German Singspiel Der Teufel ist los, which is performed in Leipzig and inau-
gurates the Comic War. The Querelle des Bouffons begins with a production
of Giovanni Pergolesi’s La serva padrona in Paris. Johann Pepusch dies in
London. A troupe of comedians writing ballad opera appears in Williams-
burg, Virginia.
1753 Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach publishes the first volume of his Versuch
über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen in Berlin. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
publishes his Lettre sur la musique française.
1754 Beginning of the French and Indian War in North America. Johann
Stamitz creates a sensation at the Concerts spirituels in Paris, giving interna-
tional fame to the Mannheim style. Niccolo Jommelli becomes Kapellmeister
in Stuttgart.
1755 Massive earthquake in Lisbon, destroying much music. Der Tod Jesu
by Carl Heinrich Graun is composed in Berlin. William Boyce is appointed
as Master of the King’s Musick in London. Francesco Araja’s opera Cephal
et Prokris is sung in Russian in St. Petersburg and Egidio Duni’s Ninette à la
cour produced in Paris. Francesco Durante dies in Naples.
1756 The Seven Years’ War begins. Leopold Mozart publishes his Versuch
einer gründlichen Violinschule. Charles Simon Favart imports exotic cos-
tumes for his pasticcio Soliman II for Paris.

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CHRONOLOGY • xxi

1757 Domenico Scarlatti dies in Madrid and Johann Stamitz dies in


Mannheim. Earliest public concert given is in Philadelphia by John Palma.
1758 C. P. E. Bach publishes the Geistliche Oden und Lieder.
1759 Jesuits are expelled from Portugal and their composers begin to move
to Brazil. Joseph Haydn enters the service of Count Morzin. George Freder-
ick Handel dies in London.
1760 George III becomes king of England. The earliest collection of
American-composed psalmody, Urania, is published in Philadelphia. Niccolò
Piccinni’s La buona figlioula is premiered in Rome. Breitkopf in Leipzig
publishes the first music catalogue. Georges Noverre becomes ballet master
in Stuttgart.
1761 Joseph Haydn becomes vice Kapellmeister at Eisenstadt. Opera buffa
begins to be performed in London with works by Baldassare Galuppi and
Niccolò Piccinni. The Nobleman and Gentleman’s Catch Club begins in
London. Gluck’s Don Juan premieres in Vienna.
1762 Catherine II becomes empress of Russia and begins to import Italian
composers for her opera. Gluck’s Orfeo ed Euridice premieres in Vienna.
Johann Christian Bach moves to London as Thomas Arne’s Love in a Village
premieres there.
1763 The first Treaty of Paris ends the Seven Years’ War. Florian
Gassmann succeeds Gluck in Vienna as court composer. Public concerts are
founded in Leipzig.
1764 Rameau dies in Paris.
1765 The first Bach-Abel concerts are performed in London. André Phili-
dor premieres his Tom Jones.
1766 Joseph Haydn becomes Kapellmeister, with the court moving sum-
mers to Esterház in Hungary.
1767 Georg Philipp Telemann dies in Hamburg. Christoph Willibald von
Gluck’s Alceste premieres in Vienna.
1768 Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Dictionnaire de musique is published in
Paris. The opera house at Esterház opens.
1769 The first zarzuelas featuring folk elements are composed by Antonio
de Hita in Madrid. Luigi Boccherini becomes court cellist in Madrid. C. P. E.
Bach becomes city composer in Hamburg.

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xxii • CHRONOLOGY

1770 The Liebhaberkonzerte are begun in Berlin and the Concert des
Amateurs is established in Paris. Padre Sojo establishes the Chacao School in
Caracas, Venezuela, New Spain. Giuseppe Tartini dies in Padua.
1771 Johann Kirnberger publishes his Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in Ber-
lin. The Royal Academy of Music is founded in Stockholm. Charles Burney
publishes his The Present State of Music in France and Italy. Johann Adolph
Hasse’s last opera seria Ruggiero premieres in Milan.
1772 Gustav III becomes king of Sweden and begins planning the Royal
Opera. The Tonkünstlersozietät is founded in Vienna.
1773 Christoph Wieland and Anton Schweitzer compose a German serious
opera, Alceste, for Weimar. The Royal Opera in Stockholm is inaugurated
with Francesco Uttini’s Thetis och Pelée. Charles Burney publishes his The
Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands, and United Provinces.
Joseph Haydn’s L’infedeltà delusa premieres at Esterház.
1774 Johann Friedrich Reichardt becomes Kapellmeister in Berlin. Goethe
publishes Die Leiden des jungen Werthers. Antonio Salieri becomes court
composer in Vienna. Gluck arrives in Paris to produce Iphigénie en Aulide.
Niccolo Jommelli dies in Naples.
1775 American War for Independence begins. Georg Benda writes mono-
drama Ariadne auf Naxos for Gotha. Hanover Square Rooms concert series
begins in London.
1776 Charles Burney publishes the first volume of his General History of
Music. The Ancient Concerts sponsored by the Academy of Ancient Music
begin in London. John Hawkins publishes his History of Music.
1777 The Accademia de’Cavalieri begins concerts in Naples. Günther von
Schwarzburg by Ignaz Holzbauer premieres in Mannheim.
1778 Elector Carl Theodor moves his court to Munich as elector of Bavaria,
taking with him most of his orchestra. The Teatro a la Scala opens in Milan.
Joseph II founds the German National Singspiel in Vienna. Abbé Georg Jo-
seph Vogler publishes his Betrachtungen einer Mannheimer Tonschule.
1779 Opera house at Esterház burns. The Gluck-Piccinni feud erupts with
performances of the former’s Iphigénie en Tauride and the latter’s Roland.
1780 Mozart writes Idomeneo for Munich.
1781 Mozart arrives in Vienna; opera house at Esterház reopens. Joseph
Haydn publishes his Opus 33 string quartets. The Loge Olympique concerts
are inaugurated in Paris. Johann Adam Hiller becomes the first conductor of
the new Gewandshaus orchestra in Leipzig.

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CHRONOLOGY • xxiii

1782 Giovanni Paisiello’s Il barbiere di Siviglia premieres in St. Peters-


burg. Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail premieres in Vienna. The
first volume of Heinrich Koch’s Versuch einer Anleitung zu Composition is
published in Leipzig. Pietro Metastasio dies in Vienna and Johann Christian
Bach dies in London. The castrato Farinelli dies in Bologna.
1783 The second Treaty of Paris secures the independence of the new
United States, and Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson import French
music to the United States. The National opera house in Prague opens. Johann
Adolph Hasse dies in Dresden. Archbishop Colloredo of Salzburg promotes
hymnody in the Austrian empire.
1784 Handel Centennial Commemoration begins in London. André-Ernest-
Modest Grétry’s rescue opera Richard Coeur de Lion premieres in Paris.
Padre Martini dies in Bologna.
1785 The Caecilian Society of London is founded.
1786 Johann Peter Salomon creates a concert series in London; Mozart’s
Le nozze di Figaro and Vincent Martin y Soler’s Una cosa rara premiere in
Vienna. Joseph Haydn’s Paris symphonies are performed in Paris at the Loge
Olympique. Frederick the Great dies in Berlin and is succeeded by Friedrich
Wilhelm, who encourages cellists to come to the Prussian court.
1787 Mozart’s Don Giovanni premieres in Prague, and he becomes Gluck’s
successor in Vienna at a reduced salary. Giuseppe Sarti’s Russian Te Deum
performed in Moscow. Christoph Willibald von Gluck dies in Vienna. The
prohibition against theatre performances and music is lifted in Philadelphia.
1788 The Glee Club is founded in London. C. P. E. Bach dies in Hamburg.
The Felix Meritis concerts begin in Amsterdam.
1789 French Revolution begins with the storming of the Bastille. Daniel
Gottlob Türk publishes his Clavierschule. The Berlin opera opens to the
public.
1790 František Kocžwara composes The Battle for Prague. The Concerts
spirituels close in Paris. Joseph Quesnel begins producing operas in Mon-
treal, Québec, in Canada. Prince Nicholas Esterházy dies and Joseph Haydn
is pensioned.
1791 Joseph Haydn goes to London to perform at the Salomon concerts.
Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte premieres shortly before the composer’s death in
Vienna.
1792 Gustav III of Sweden is assassinated at a masked ball, and Gustavian
opera declines. Ludwig van Beethoven moves to Vienna as a student of Jo-
seph Haydn. The premiere of Domenico Cimarosa’s Il matrimonio segreto

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xxiv • CHRONOLOGY

takes place in Vienna. The Singakademie in Berlin is founded by Carl F.


Fasch. The Teatro La Fenice is reborn in Venice, while the Théâtre de la rue
St. Pierre is founded in New Orleans, Louisiana.
1794 Joseph Haydn visits London for the second time. The Chestnut Street
Theatre opens in Philadelphia with Samuel Arnold’s The Castle of Andalusia.
1795 The Conservatoire is founded in Paris. The opera society Nytt och
Nöje is founded in Stockholm.
1796 Joseph Haydn recalled as Kapellmeister to Eisenstadt and writes the
Missa in angustiis. William Shield’s opera The Poor Soldier is performed in
Botany Bay, Australia.
1797 All conservatories in Naples but two close due to revolution. Medée
by Luigi Cherubini premieres in Paris.
1798 French army invests Naples, and Cimarosa is imprisoned for revolu-
tionary activities. Haydn’s Die Schöpfung premieres in Vienna.
1799 Napoleon becomes dictator in France. Joseph Martin Kraus’s monu-
mental Æneas i Cartago is premiered in Stockholm, the last of the Gustavian
operas.
1800 Boieldieu’s opera Le Calife de Baghdad premieres in Paris.

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Introduction

If there is one period in music history that lies in the background of our mod-
ern concept of classical music and yet is difficult to grasp in its entirety, it
is the Classical period. The research is mammoth, and there is an awareness
that it may probably be the first “modern” period of today’s music, and still
there are aspects that seem to defy precise definition. The concepts that drove
the 19th century all appear during the very short time span of its existence,
the foundations for the technological marvels of later eras were laid, new
forms of government appeared as a fundamental sea change occurred from
the earlier hierarchy based upon feudal fealty to some sort of more egalitarian
system, and in the arts there was an emerging awareness of people, their emo-
tions and foibles, that drove substantial changes in how culture was practiced
and viewed. It was called variously the Age of Enlightenment, the Age of
Reason, the Age of Revolution, the Age of Empire, and a number of other
epithets that encompass some of these changes but fail to grasp the enormity
of what occurred during the period. Indeed, various trends, labeled Galant,
Empfindsamkeit, Sturm und Drang, Rococo, Gothic, Classicism, and so forth,
are all active terms that imply a rapid systemic change that perhaps would
be difficult to encompass in any sort of single term. Add to this a global per-
spective particularly during the last half of the century and one is confronted
by a historical colossus, something which in its Hydra-like aspects requires a
complex musical world to match.
There are two main questions that confront one when coming to terms
with music in the Classical period. The first is to determine what occurred
during this dramatic era in terms of musical style and trends; the second is to
see how the ebb and flow, perhaps even the diffusion, of music happened on
a global scale. There can be no doubt that this was perhaps one of the most
fruitful compositional periods in history, and in comparison with other times,
it would seem that there was a market for music of all sorts in virtually every
place, even some where living conditions were extremely nascent or primi-
tive. In order to begin to answer these questions, it is necessary to make some
definitions regarding the period itself.

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2 • INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS THE CLASSICAL PERIOD?

The Classical period is historically difficult to define. As Neal Zaslaw noted


in his essay on music and society in Man and Music: The Classical Era,
while certain events can be construed as forming “a natural watershed, in
political, social and cultural history alike,” the definition of the period is quite
subjective and fluid.1 There is, therefore, considerable debate about what
constitutes the chronology of the period, most of the definitions alternating
between the “long” 18th century that includes the entire hundred-year period
and sometimes beyond, and the “short” 18th century, wherein more specific
dates are determined to be significant markers. The first and perhaps most
obvious reason for this confusion is that one musical historical trend merges
imperceptibly into another, from the Baroque to the Classical and from the
Classical to the Romantic, and developments in the world of music seem
more consistently evolutionary than revolutionary. The use of the birth or
death dates of important composers is also occasionally used; for example,
the death of Johann Sebastian Bach in 1750 as the end of the Baroque, or the
death of Joseph Haydn in 1809 as the end of the Classical period. These too
are not as definitive as one might like.
It would seem that the new “Classical” style, however that is interpreted
(and it too is a slippery definition at best), may have emerged and slowly
become dominant during the 1730s or 1740s, but Baroque composers such
as Johann Sebastian Bach, Jan Dismas Zelenka, George Frederick Handel, or
Antonio Vivaldi were all active well into these decades and later. It is instruc-
tive to be reminded that when Handel died, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was
already 3 years old and would, within a year or so, begin composing music,
and when Georg Philipp Telemann passed away in 1767, Mozart was already
11 and shortly to write his first opera. The elder generation of composers
may or may not have chosen to delve completely into the new stylistic de-
velopments, but they were certainly cognizant of them; one is reminded of
Handel’s rather offhanded remark that Christoph Willibald von Gluck knew
no more about counterpoint than his cook, or Georg Philipp Telemann’s
successful attempt to reinvent himself as a “modern” composer even at an
advanced age.
On the upper end, the Classical period did not end either in 1791 or 1809
with the passing of what have been seen as the musical icons, Mozart or Jo-
seph Haydn, since composers continued to write in the same style for decades
afterward. There is a certain Caesarian or Trinitarian symmetry in dividing
Ludwig van Beethoven’s compositional years into three periods, but this too
remains problematic in defining some sort of upper boundary. By the time of
his death in 1827, Hector Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique lay but three years

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INTRODUCTION • 3

in the future, and how one describes the works of Franz Schubert, who died
only a year after Beethoven, or Carl Maria von Weber depends upon whether
their music is Classical or simply rooted in Classical tradition. One may sub-
scribe to one or the other view, but here too there is a certain sense of overlap
in composers such as Weber or perhaps even Giaocchino Rossini, where, like
the composers at the beginning of the period, they knew of a newly emerging
style but preferred to write in the old.
This leaves the other parameters, both social and cultural, as possible deter-
minants. While 1740, the year when Frederick the Great of Prussia and Maria
Theresia of the Holy Roman Empire became heads of their respective states,
does have some significance due to their involvement in musical develop-
ment, if the new style emerged from Italy, then the beginning must go at least
a decade earlier when composers such as Giovanni Pergolesi, Giovanni Sam-
martini, and Antonio Brioschi were already defining both Classical form and
genres. At the upper end, perhaps the treaties of Vienna and Ghent in 1814
were pivotal historical points, for not only does Europe undergo the first of
the many political reconfigurations of the century, it is also a time when the
Americas were finally freed, or in the throes of being free, from European
political suzerainty.
For music, the older court or church dominance was replaced by the munic-
ipal concert hall/opera house or the private salon as venues for which works
could be written. For composers, this marked a change to an arrangement that
was less secure than the old court system but offered more lucrative ways
of making a living. Add to this the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution,
particularly in the field of transportation, and accessibility to composers and
music becomes a significant factor in marking a sea change around this time.
Given these rather nebulous boundaries, a definitive chronology based upon
historical data must remain an elusive target, with arbitrary limits established
as required.
It used to be that the music of the Classical period, however chrono-
logically problematic, was inevitably defined by only a handful of major
figures, the so-called great masters whose importance seems to have been
determined already as the 19th century dawned. E. T. A. Hoffmann may not
have been the first but was certainly one of the most persuasive proponents
of a triumvirate consisting of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven, which in turn
led to the equating of the music of the entire period with a Viennese Classi-
cal style.2 Important other figures such as Christoph Willibald von Gluck or
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach were often ranked as secondary in importance,
acknowledging their contributions as “forerunners” of the triumvirate, and
the remaining relegated to the status of Kleinmeister, a word that seems by
its very nature to be rather derogatory.3

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4 • INTRODUCTION

In a number of modern general histories of the period, this view has re-
mained. For example, Philip Downs’s Classical Music for the Norton series
is subtitled The Era of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven with five of nine
chapters devoted to these composers. In Reinhard Pauly’s Music in the Clas-
sical Period, each chapter written on genres seems inevitably to devolve
into a discussion of their works, and they are the only ones singled out for
individual chapters all on their own. Charles Rosen’s The Classical Style and
Leonard Ratner’s analysis of form in his Classic Music focus heavily upon
these composers, while Giorgio Pestelli’s text is titled The Age of Mozart and
Beethoven, with poor Haydn even left out of top billing. Finally, the titles of
two out of the three monumental volumes on the period by Daniel Heartz
(Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School from 1995 and Mozart, Haydn, and
Early Beethoven from 2009) continue the trend, even though in both of these
studies a more objective and universal content can be discerned.
Needless to say, this overwhelming focus, whether titular or contentual,
has evoked a response, ranging from the antithetical Vergessen Sie Mozart!
Erfolgskomponisten der Mozart-Zeit (Forget Mozart! Successful Compos-
ers of the Mozart Era; never mind the irony of the title here) by Wolfgang
Antesberger to attempts to relocate the 18th century into either a generic or
social context, as can be seen in the aforementioned Man and Music edited
by Zaslaw or the various often exhaustive studies on the oratorio by Howard
Smither, the sonata by William S. Newman, or the soon-to-be published and
long-anticipated study of the 18th-century symphony in the series begun by
A. Peter Brown (and now concluded by editors Mary Sue Morrow and Bathia
Churgin with over 20 individual authors involved in the compendium).
Each of these studies, and others as well, have begun the task of leveling
the playing field of 18th-century music, showing that the plethora of styles
and trends, within which each of the triumvirate was of course an integral
participant, were all contributors to a greater whole, a kaleidoscopic world of
Classical period music that was global in form and substance.
This in turn requires a broader view of the music of the period than that
focused entirely upon three out of hundreds of composers active at the same
time. In other words, one simply cannot define the music of the Classical
period as being equated, dominated, or even focused upon any individual,
let alone a single city, no matter how prosperous a musical establishment it
had. If the great masters approach no longer is appropriate, the development
of musical style may be a more productive avenue to follow in defining the
period.
In terms of questions of style and genre, both the old and the new styles,
forms, and structures are often comingled and mutually influential. When one
views the overall stylistic developments of any given period, the issue of pro-

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INTRODUCTION • 5

gressive development becomes a crucial one; the one question that frequently
occurs is whether “forward-looking” music is a harbinger of things to come
or an anomaly, born out of a particular set of circumstances. The same goes
for whether a particular composition or style is to be deemed progressive (or
perhaps even revolutionary) or anachronistic. Add to this mix the issues of
performance practice—and by this is limited here to the development of per-
formance circumstances, venues, and participation—and the waters become
indeed murky. Is a composer writing in 1790 for an orchestra consisting of
strings only less advanced than one who begins to add trombones to a brass
section of a quartet of horns and pair of trumpets, for example? Is the re-
discovery of Bach promoted in Vienna in the 1780s by Baron Gottfried van
Swieten (and espoused with some nonchalance by Mozart, at least before he
perused Bach’s manuscripts while on a trip to Leipzig in 1789) a deliberate
anachronism in terms of performance practice, or is it a back-to-the-future
approach that might be deemed a true revival?
There can be no doubt that an almost infinite variety of possibilities for the
creation and performance of music existed during the Classical period. Virtu-
ally all of the modern traditional genres were either developed or perfected
during the era, and there was an ample creative spark that led to new sorts
of genres, styles, or variations thereof. It is often taken for granted that clar-
ity and symmetry were the hallmarks of the period; for instance, the careful
melodic and harmonic contrasts, as well as the expanded binary structure,
of what used to be termed sonata form (and now generally can be described
merely as the sonata principle). Formal clarity was certainly an important
aspect of the music of the period, but it was subject to considerable variety
and creativity. Reading through Heinrich Koch’s description of sonata form,
for example, reveals more of a how-to method than an artistic way of solving
issues of contrast, and his examples are both dry and pedantic. To be sure, he
does provide a description that seems to work in general terms, but this does
not explain the unwritten adherence to this principle by many composers of
the period, nor does it allow for the variance that composers employ when
using it.
Genres themselves are somewhat indefinite, although to be sure nomencla-
ture was not standardized. A sonata could be virtually anything, from what
we might consider a “standard” three-movement work for a single instrument
with keyboard accompaniment to a larger piece such as a piano trio or a single
solo instrument. A symphony may have been standardized for the most part
into either three or four movements, but there are symphonies that range from
a single movement with slow introduction (the so-called Sinfonia da chiesa
with examples from Joseph Martin Kraus to Niccolò Zingarelli) to perhaps
as many as nine movements, such as the characteristic symphonies by Jean

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6 • INTRODUCTION

Gehot. A concerto may exist as a standard three-movement format arranged


fast-slow-fast, but if embedded within or extracted from a larger work such
as a serenade, it is generally in two movements—examples by Mozart and
Michael Haydn come to mind—and there are others that may include more.
In short, the question of form and genre varies so considerably that all one can
deduce is that this period was a time of rapid stylistic and structural change,
during which standards emerged but which also accommodated a wide range
of experimentation.
In terms of it defining the period, however, it can be said that a stylistic
trend toward longer, more lyrical themes and thematic contrast found in
expanded binary forms began around 1730 or a bit before. The result was
an almost frenetic development throughout Europe that coalesced into a
number of genres based around predictable if not always rigid formal struc-
tures by about 1790–1800. Only after that time, most visibly in the works of
Beethoven, do further changes occur that become further standardized during
the 19th century, and thus from this standpoint a case can be made for the
span 1730–1800, with a few years on either side as that encompassing the
Classical period.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSIC IN THE CLASSICAL PERIOD

It seems clear that one must approach the music and those who wrote it from
several perspectives during the era. First, there are the economic factors that
become all the more important in how music develops, is composed, and is
disseminated. Second, there is a sea change in the lives and occupations of the
composers themselves, which involves the dissolution of the social structures
that provided for employment in earlier times. Third, there is the matter of
taste, for conservative traditions or for novelty that drives the musical de-
velopment and expansion. Finally, there is the growth of the medium itself,
here defined as the creation of new institutions wherein music is performed,
restriction of rules that confine or limit its growth, development of the en-
semble, and the principles that define how music is to be used and for what
purposes. These are intertwining aspects, but all are an integral part in how
one is to view the period.
The economic factors during the Classical period were crucial to the devel-
opment of music. Composers had a variety of outlets for their works, ranging
from the more traditional commissions and requirements of their employ-
ment to the ability to publish and even distribute their own music. As with
earlier eras, if a composer was employed by a court, there were inevitable
duties and responsibilities that came with the position. In terms of musical

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INTRODUCTION • 7

composition, it entailed writing works for special occasions (either for his
own patron or those associated or related), everyday events, or as required
for the maintenance of their musical establishments. A person like Joseph
Haydn, for example, as an employee of the Esterházy family, was obliged
to compose works to display the talents of his musicians (concertos, concert
arias), works to entertain his employer (symphonies, operas, divertimentos,
sonatas, etc.), works for the local churches (Masses, motets), special commis-
sions for his prince (baryton works), and anything else that was needed. He
also was able to independently accept special commissions as his fame grew
(the so-called Paris symphonies, the concertos/divertimentos for lire organiz-
zate, the Seven Last Words) but also arrange for publication of sets of works
(string quartets) by publishers or by subscription. Publishers even opted on
occasion to become exclusive printers of special sets, such as the sonatas and
Morgengesang by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, who handled the subscriptions
and sales himself.
As a result, publishers such as Artaria in Vienna, Breitkopf in Leipzig,
Hummel in Berlin and Amsterdam, Boyer in Paris, and many others, with or
without royal privilege, flourished as outlets for composers. Even the lack
of copyright, which saw numerous misattributions for the sake of a better
market, did not stop composers from pursuing this avenue with increasing
fervor. When added to the growth of the private salon society, with its niche
market for small chamber works performable by amateurs, opportunities for
economic advantages became legion. Nor were the more common manu-
scripts neglected. Copy shops such as Johann Traeg in Vienna and Breitkopf
both maintained substantial catalogues of works that could be copied off upon
demand at reasonable prices, and both professional and amateur composers
were not opposed to using this as a means of making some extra money.
When one adds distribution to this system, then a growing reputation meant a
growing market for one’s music, and no matter where one was bound, often
this was part of the necessary luggage, whether it was Santiago de Chile or
Bounty Bay, whether a distant cathedral or a penal colony.
With respect to the economic factors, it is interesting to note that compos-
ers and musicians were also less restricted in their choice of occupations and
employers than in prior periods. A musician could change employers, and
many did so frequently sometimes without undue difficulties. For example,
Franz Xaver Richter was allowed to apply for and obtain the post of Kapell-
meister in Strasbourg by his erstwhile employer, Elector Carl Theodor in
Mannheim. Johann Adolph Hasse occupied two posts simultaneously from
about 1734: Kapellmeister at the Saxon court in Dresden and maestro di
cappella at the Ospedale degli Incurabili in Venice. And in the case of Abbé
Vogler, his various positions in Paris, Stockholm, Munich, and Darmstadt

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8 • INTRODUCTION

were all part of his own desire to spread his fame, and for each of these, as
well as his self-made post in Mannheim at the Electoral court, he was able
to negotiate favorable terms without application or scrutiny, such as occurred
frequently in Spain and Portugal, where church maestros di capillas had to
undergo rigorous (and sometimes rigged) examinations for their posts.
Part of this freedom was a part of a new view by the rulers, particularly of
the subsections of the Holy Roman Empire, who were not only often closely
related but vied with each other for the reputations of their musical establish-
ments. The Bourbon kings of Spain were thus able to offer lucrative employ-
ment to Luigi Boccherini or Gaetano Brunetti, not to mention their monopoly
over performers such as Farinelli for over a decade. Gustav III of Sweden was
able to persuade not only Abbé Georg Joseph Vogler but also several other
Germans such as Johann Friedrich Grenser, Joseph Martin Kraus, and Christian
Haeffner to relocate to Stockholm, while his cousin, Catherine the Great of
Russia, convinced a veritable stream of famous Italian opera composers, such
as Giovanni Paisiello, Giuseppe Sarti, Vincent Martin y Soler, and Domenico
Cimarosa, to grace her court at St. Petersburg. The major appointments also
brought a large number of others, who, even if they did not achieve the top po-
sitions, nonetheless were able to find respectable employment with some of the
lesser nobility. Ernest Wanžura, for example, found a position at court, while
Count Schaffgotsch used Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf both as a musician and
as a state bureaucrat. Often these included posts as ordinary musicians, such
as Joseph Fiala at Salzburg and the court of Oettingen-Wallerstein. In the best
cases, the rulers gathered around them a group of musicians who were meant
to achieve significant musical developments; here one can note not only Gustav
and Catherine, both of whom had more nationalist agendas, but also Frederick
the Great, who patronized the so-called Berlin School made up of Carl Heinrich
and Johann Gottlieb Graun, C. P. E. Bach, Johann Kirnberger, and others, as
well as making his own musical contributions.
In addition, during the period, church music—particularly in the Catholic
countries—required increasingly complex musical establishments, and com-
posers could find occupations in the many churches and cathedrals through-
out Europe with or without being members of the clergy. Carlo Monzi or
Johann Simon Mayr would raise the standards in Bergamo, while Mozart and
Michael Haydn devoted much of their energy toward the expansion of sacred
music in Salzburg, to give two examples of nonclerical composers employed
at such institutions; at the same time, Jan Ryba wrote for his small parish in
Bohemia a myriad of works particularly suited to his situation. Municipalities
also provided employment opportunities. Sir Frederick Herschel, who was a
polymath, wrote works for the Bath concert series, as did his contemporaries
Carl Friedrich Abel and Johann Christian Bach in London.

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INTRODUCTION • 9

Finally, there were those who, despite the occasional formal appointment,
remained freelancers their entire lives. First and foremost were the Italian
composers of opera, who were able to obtain commissions, sometimes quite
lucrative, from theatres throughout Italy and elsewhere in Europe. Several of
the wandering companies, such as the Mingotti troupe, even hired their own
in-house composers; these included Christoph Willibald von Gluck and Fran-
cesco Antonio Uttini. Next were the soloists, who went to places such as Paris
or London both to achieve fame and to expand their careers. These included
traveling artists such as violist Carl Stamitz, harpist Jan Krumpholz, or pianist
Jan Dussek, but one could also find niche composers, such as Giuseppe Cam-
bini, who found that the sinfonia concertante was particularly suited to his
talents. In short, the 18th century offered composers far more opportunities
for employment in a variety of occupations than heretofore, and in so doing
created a fertile environment for musical composition.
The third factor is that of taste. Musical aesthetics was a significant ele-
ment in the growth of music during the Classical period. There can be no
doubt that certain occasions demanded a certain style of music. Louis Grénon
knew that he had to follow the traditions of his church in Sainte by composing
works that were a cappella and accompanied only by a continuo consisting
of the organ and a serpent. The Mercure de France is filled with debates on
musical taste, as are treatises such as Etwas von und über Musik, general
travelogues such as Charles Burney’s travels through Europe, or journals
such as the Magazin de Musik, all of which take a critical look at how music
is received (or ought to be received) by both professional and amateur alike.
The best anecdotal example of this often controversial subject may be that
surrounding Mozart’s Dissonant Quartet (KV 465). In Vienna, Joseph Haydn
heard this and exclaimed to Leopold Mozart that his son was the greatest
composer he knew, while when it was performed at the Este court in Modena,
the Duke d’Este was so outraged by the dissonant harmonies that he marched
down and tore the manuscript to shreds (or at least the first page of it).
In the 18th century, however, novelty seemed to be an asset for a com-
poser, who was continually on the lookout for a new mode of expression or
new method of making a personal statement. Novelty breeds at times a certain
fame or notoriety, and, for example, in the case of Giovanni Pergolesi, an
early death at age 26 and a reputation as a progressive composer engendered
an imitative Blitz so powerful that within a decade after his demise he was at-
tributed with hundreds more works than he actually wrote. Joseph Haydn was
considered so much a harbinger of taste and novelty that his works (princi-
pally the string quartets and symphonies) sparked numerous imitators, several
of which, such as Pater Roman Hoffstetter, even had their works accepted
as legitimate ones by the elder composer. Taste often drove composers; in

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10 • INTRODUCTION

England the popular taste was for the medley overture, and both there and
in the new United States, composers such as Samuel Arnold, James Hewitt,
and Alexander Reinagle wrote these quodlibets thereby creating a new genre.
The final factor in the development of the Classical period concerns the
medium itself. Throughout the period there was a conscious expansion of
both genres and the method of performance, which in turn created need and
opportunity for musical education or invention. Although the conservatory
system in Naples was crucial for the bulk of the century in turning out com-
posers and musicians, and indeed often served as a Mecca for students from
abroad, the method of teaching was still less than formal, often consisting
of texts such as Johann Joseph Fux’s Gradus ad Parnassum or individual
thorough-bass or instrumental tutorials. There was clearly a need for a more
structured education, which developed throughout the century. In Stockholm,
the Royal Academy of Music offered a thorough curriculum, as did the The-
atre Schools in Moscow and St. Petersburg, while in Paris in 1795 the first
modern musical university, the Conservatoire, was established.
The necessity for this sort of institutionalized music education was
prompted by the development of the musical ensemble itself. In the 1730s,
the general orchestra consisted of a central core of strings (mostly four-part),
at the foundation of which was a continuo group, usually defined locally to
include a variety of bass instruments. Johann Mattheson’s Neu-eröffnete Or-
chester of 1713 delineates the other instruments that were often added to pro-
vide color and texture, but which functioned as special groupings or consorts.
In Johann Sebastian Bach’s larger works, there is usually a woodwind group-
ing of flutes, oboes, oboes da caccia, and sometimes bassoons, as well as a
brass grouping of horns or trumpets and timpani. George Frederick Handel
uses a smaller orchestration, but varies his textures by dropping or adding
these groups, using textural contrast to achieve his orchestral effects. By
1740, this has changed considerably. The winds are now used more as har-
monic filler rather than completely colla parte, and the orchestra itself seems
to be expanding to exploit the ranges and depth of individual instruments or
instrument pairs. Johann Gottlob Harrer, for example, often requires extreme
trumpet ranges, adding a specialized color to his orchestration, while the
symphonies of Johan Helmich Roman or Johann Agrell employ woodwinds
with their own parts, now sustaining, now solo. In 1745, Elector Carl Theodor
made a further adjustment by forming the Mannheim orchestra, which took
the shape of a modern ensemble through pairs of woodwinds (each contrast-
ing but also providing sustained harmonic color when needed), pairs of horns
(to do likewise), the usual trumpet and drum corps, and an expanded body
of strings, now with the occasional disassociation of the violoncello from the
contrabass.

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INTRODUCTION • 11

Numbers of musicians also increased, so that the continuo began to become


superfluous. By 1770, average sizes of the orchestra ranged from smaller
court ensembles, such as the 28 “band of professors” at Esterháza under
Haydn, to large municipal groups such as the Concerts spirituels or Loge
Olympique in Paris. A decade later, even the Hovkapell in Stockholm could
boast a standard professional ensemble of about 45 to 60 players, with more
available if larger sound was needed. Add to this special instruments, such as
the exotic percussion in the Turkish music of André Grétry or the reinforce-
ment of the bass line in Paris by a trombone in the case of several sinfonia
concertantes by Giuseppe Cambini, and all of the elements of the modern
symphony orchestra have been put in place.
For composers, this provided an opportunity to experiment with various
effects and colors, but it also required a cautious analysis of how and when
instruments can and ought to be used. And when writing for a more generic
ensemble, choices of instrumentation were of necessity more careful, which
in turn drove a market for music geared toward specialized local circum-
stances. For local composers, this offered an opportunity to imitate better-
known figures but write music that was specifically tailored to their venues;
alternatively it allowed for arrangements to be made, often with the inclusion
of particular musical ideas. For instance, the opening ritornello of a Mozart
piano concerto, rewriting the original oboe parts for clarinets, was performed
at a public concert in New York in 1797, but now as part of a larger medley
by Hewitt.
The last of these factors is the development of the genre. As more and more
opportunities for musical composition arose, and as the various possibili-
ties for performance increased, the need for expanded and newly developed
genres became apparent. As a result, music expanded during the Classical
period as it never had before. For instance, the symphony began in Italy
around 1730 or so as an independent genre, using elements of the ritornello
concerto, the opera Sinfonia, and the suite to create a multipurpose instru-
mental work with contrasting moods and movements suitable for a variety of
occasions. The origins are not entirely clear cut, but it appears that this was
developed both in Naples and in Lombardy by composers such as Nicola Por-
pora, Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Antonio Brioschi, and others, spreading
rapidly throughout Europe as a new and very useful work. Johan Helmich
Roman came into contact with it during a visit to Italy in 1735 and introduced
it with various experimentations in terms of structure and form to Scandina-
via, and with his contacts with German Kapellmeisters such as Johan Agrell
in Nuremburg and Fortunato Chelleri in Kassel, he exchanged works that
further sparked development. By 1738 the new genre was introduced in a
spectacular fashion in Amsterdam through a centennial concert for the theatre

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12 • INTRODUCTION

there, and only about a year later both Johann Mattheson and Johann Adoph
Scheibe were able to describe it in their treatises as a popular all-purpose in-
strumental genre.4 Almost immediately it too spawned numerous variations,
from flexible number of movements to descriptive characteristic symphonies
(such as Dittersdorf’s 12 works based upon Ovid’s Metamorphosis), from
medley overtures to an amalgamation of the concerto and symphony known
as the sinfonia concertante. In terms of opera, a new style of comic opera
spread northward out of Naples beginning around the same time, eventually
becoming the international standard for opera throughout Europe.
Italian opera, both serious and comic, was spread to all portions of the globe
and was well regarded for the beauty of the language, the familiarity of the
types of music—long lyrical lines, good harmonic support, in serious works a
certain predictability that allowed for virtuoso display, colorful orchestration,
for example—and the familiarity of the plots. It flourished throughout the
period in centers such as Rome, Turin, Florence, Milan, Naples, and Venice,
with a veritable horde of local composers and occasionally librettists, such as
Carlo Goldoni, able to make a sometimes substantial living off of commis-
sions, but its real influence was felt elsewhere as composers traveled beyond
Italy. As noted above, a host of composers was invited to St. Petersburg to
write Italian opera for Catherine the Great, but Frederick the Great of Prus-
sia supported composers such as Carl Heinrich Graun, Frederick August of
Saxony Hasse, and Johann Gottlieb Naumann in their successful attempts to
set Italian librettos for their courts. Opera houses in London, Vienna, Warsaw,
Munich, and elsewhere also found Italian opera, more buffa as the century pro-
gressed, appealing to their audiences, which in turn sparked various attempts
at reform, such as when Count Giacomo Durazzo encouraged Gluck and his
librettist Raniero Calzabigi to revisit the seria to make it more dramatic.
Italian opera may have dominated the European scene, but this did not
stop local national opera from developing. When the Parisian audiences were
introduced to Pergolesi’s La serva padrona, an immediate controversy arose
regarding the moribund French tragédie lyrique and comic works. Efforts by
Charles Simon Favart to create an opéra comique successfully demonstrated
the efficacy of French comic opera, leading onward in the quest for exoticism
and novelty in works by François Gossec and André-Ernest-Modest Grétry.
In England, the popular ballad opera, originally more of a parody with the
1728 Beggar’s Opera, was developed to include both serious national ele-
ments (such as Thomas Arne’s Alfred) or complete farces (composed by Ste-
phen Storace and others). Indeed, one of these, the pasticcio The Devil to Pay
produced by Charles Coffey, also became an international success, sparking
the development of the German Singspiel through translated performances by
the troupe of Heinrich Koch in Leipzig in 1756.

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INTRODUCTION • 13

A decade later, Johann Adam Hiller was not only promoting a particular
German style of opera replete with folk elements and music, he also estab-
lished a school to train composers and singers how to do it. A similar style
also developed in Vienna, culminating in fairy-tale works by Dittersdorf,
Paul Wrantizky, and Mozart produced in venues such as Emanuel Schicka-
neder’s Theater auf der Wieden. By 1777, more serious German opera had
begun with Iganz Holzbauer’s Günther von Schwarzburg, and around the
same time Georg Benda had adapted to limited performance circumstances
at the court theatre in Gotha by developing the duodrama, where music sim-
ply accompanied a spoken play. Christian Cannabich and others added the
occasional ballet and chorus to this new genre, but this was a particularly
German invention. Another outgrowth of this was the didactic Singspiels
(sometimes called school dramas) that were performed in many of the smaller
towns—especially in Bavaria—and composed mainly by Benedictine monks
at the nearby monasteries.
Finally, national operas in local languages began to flourish, not as exam-
ples of provincialism, but as full-fledged genres in their own rights. In Rus-
sia, Catherine encouraged her local composers such as Yevstigney Fomin or
Vasily Paskevich to write folk operas using specialized instruments and folk
tunes, even writing the librettos herself. In Sweden, Gustav III inaugurated a
Swedish opera—though at the first performance of one he thoughtfully asked
members of his court if their ears hurt hearing the language sung—and by
1774 had begun mining Swedish history in a blatant attempt at Nordic propa-
ganda to support his regime; he too wrote or drafted many of the texts used in
works such as Naumann’s Gustav Wasa or Olof Åhlström’s Frigga. In Den-
mark, the government of Ove Guldberg sought to deflect attention away from
a flagging monarchy by promoting opera in Danish, beginning in 1779 with
Johann Ernst Joseph Hartmann’s Balders død. Its success created a plethora
of Danish works by Friedrich Ludwig Aemelius Kunzen, Johann Abraham
Peter Schulz, and others, one of which, Holger Danske by Kunzen, was to
later appear in the 19th century as Carl Maria von Weber’s Oberon. In Spain,
native operatic forms such as the zarzuela and tonadilla were composed by
local composers such as José de Nebra Blasco or Antonio de Hita. In short,
opera literally exploded onto the international musical scene, both as popular
works by Italian composers and local exemplars, making the Classical period
certainly the most fruitful creative period in music history for the genre.
The same could be said for virtually every other genre, such as the string
quartet, which developed out of the divertimento and became the primary
chamber genre for publishers and amateur performers throughout the world.
In short, the creation of music during this period was far more extensive and
widespread than perhaps at any time in history, so that the Classical period

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14 • INTRODUCTION

must be considered the font of modern music, a rich and vibrant era without
equal.

CLASSICAL PERIOD MUSIC AS A GLOBAL PHENOMENON

The international situation within which music flourished during this period
had a considerable influence not only on the dissemination of the works of a
composer but also on the influences and circumstances surrounding the need
for music. From a political standpoint, this was not a particularly calm period.
Various smaller European wars occupied central Europe from the very begin-
ning. In 1740 both France and Prussia declared that Maria Theresia was ineli-
gible according to Salic Law to succeed her late father, Charles VI, thereby
inaugurating a war that lasted until 1748. Austria was supported by Great
Britain and the Dutch Republic, and during the course of this various con-
flagrations flared up all over Europe, including the 1745 Jacobite uprising in
Scotland. Tensions returned in 1756, when Britain went to war with Bourbon
France and Spain, while the Prussian Hohenzollerns and Austrian Hapsburgs
again fought battles over Silesia and (with Sweden) over Pomerania. This
time, the conflict spilled over into the colonies in North America. In 1776, the
American colonies declared their independence, resulting in another de facto
global conflict, with the French backing the colonists and the various German
states backing Britain. By 1783 a treaty was signed and the new United States
of America became the first new nation in the American hemisphere. In 1787
Joseph II of Austria attacked the Ottoman Empire in conjunction with Cath-
erine the Great, a conflict that lasted over a decade, and the next year Gustav
III of Sweden fought with her over Baltic hegemony, eventually forcing a
stalemate. Finally, in 1789 the French Revolution began with the storming of
the Bastille and ended with the coming to power of Napoleon during the years
of the Directorate from 1795 onward.
These political events did not hinder the development of music, but rather
allowed for new avenues to emerge in the form of political works. During
the most difficult years of the French Revolution, for example, composers
such as François Gossec, Luigi Cherubini, and others were commissioned to
write music celebrating the regime and its new social order. Britain’s final
suppression of the Scottish rebellion not only elicited a number of patriotic
songs and anthems in England, it served to expand the sense of Scottishness
among native composers, such as Alexander Mac’Glashan, much of which
was exported as the clearances forced the immigration of thousands to the
New World. In 1798, the Portuguese court fled to Brazil along with their

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INTRODUCTION • 15

composers, who began writing the national hymns that were to become politi-
cal symbols into the next century.
Along with this were the newly emerging global empires that provided
the grist for the new societies in Europe. To be sure, the Age of Explora-
tion that began in the 15th century had long since been replaced by towns
and provinces based upon European models, and these had become centers
that were in many cases large, prosperous, and culturally independent, even
though they had close ties with their European capitals. In musical terms, this
offered markets for works that were heretofore unavailable. In Venezuela
in New Spain, for example, Padre Sojo gathered around him a group of lo-
cal musicians and immigrants to form the Chacao School; not only did the
school include instrument makers, but it also offered composers employment
as teachers and professionals. In Brazil, the Irmandades were confraternities
that were associated with but not part of religious orders in areas such as
Minas Gerais, and composers such as Jerônimo de Souza Lôbo were actively
writing music the equivalent in form and structure to anything in Europe.
Esteban de Salas in Santiago de Cuba had to make do with an ensemble of
only a few singers and strings, but he too was able to adapt and compose
numerous villancicos, or motets, for his church. In Halifax, Nova Scotia, the
British garrison included a musical group that was able to mount orchestral
concerts beginning around 1770, while both theatre and public concerts,
often with formal dances at the end of each performance, were given in the
American colonies both before and after the Revolution. Indeed, immigrants
such as Alexander Reinagle, James Hewitt, Benjamin Carr, Peter van Hagen,
and others all found professional employment in theatres, although they also
became music sellers as well. Even in the remote areas, such as the California
missions and towns established beginning in 1762 by Padre Junipero Serra,
one could find substantial musical forces; a 1792 document at the Mission
San Fernando describes an orchestra of some 28 performers, with a staffing
and instrumentation the equivalent of anything in smaller towns in Europe.
Mexican composers such as Ignacio de Jerusalem were able to provide music
for these far-flung settlements in New Spain, allowing yet more dissemina-
tion during the Classical period.
Wherever Europeans went or settled, they brought musicians and instru-
ments with them, and as cities and outposts grew, and new immigrants arrived,
the need for music, whether imported or indigenous, grew as well. Moreover,
as contact with non-European areas such as the Ottoman Empire, India, or the
Far East developed, non-Western cultures became a topic for discussion and
imitation by European artists and musicians. This in turn manifested itself
within particular pieces, either as exotica or as tentative attempts to introduce

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16 • INTRODUCTION

these types of music into the repertory. In 1756, for example, Charles Simon
Favart produced a Turkish opera titled Soliman II in Paris, but in order to
create a sensation, he imported costumes, instruments, and even props from
Constantinople. Even earlier, as the Ottoman troops were at the gates of
Vienna, they were aware of the powerful Janissary divisions of the Turkish
army, Christians who marched into battle accompanied by raucous trumpets,
fifes, and percussion. In a sense, modern percussion was largely introduced
into the orchestra as ancillary instruments attempting to provide exotic color,
and in turn this provided the foundation for stories set in harems or palaces
in the Near East in such works as Grétry’s La caravane du Caire, Mozart’s
Die Entführung aus dem Serail or Zaide, Kunzen’s Holger Danske, and many
others. In New Spain, native musical genres were absorbed into the composi-
tion of traditional works, so that, for example, recognizable Mayan melodies
appear in the works of Rafael Castellanos in Guatemala. Then there were the
various chamber works alleging to be drawn from non-European sources by
such composers as Abbé Vogler, such as a Chinese rondo and a Greenlandic
song, not to mention an entire program improvised on an instrument of his
own invention that depicted the invasion of the Tatars. The Classical period
can therefore be defined as the first real global period of music, where works
by composers could be disseminated on a large scale.

CONCLUSION

It is clear that such a vibrant and expansive period in music history is difficult
to define with only general terms, let alone through the efforts of only a few
great figures. The various descriptors of how to designate the period are all
valid, for it was a time when the position of music and those who composed
it was evolving rapidly. However one defines this indistinct period, or how-
ever one chooses to delineate the trends, genres, development, or social and
political changes that occurred, the Classical period is one of deep intellectual
ferment, of rapid growth and change, and of explosive creativity in the world
of music. It may have had its roots in the music of an earlier era and been
the harbinger of progressive music of that which followed, but it must be
seen as the necessary evolutionary era, without which modern music and all
of its variety could not exist. Given this importance, it is clear that music of
this period is seminal to the development of “classical” music in the broader
sense. It is at the core of the modern repertory, being fundamental to under-
standing the development of music over the past two centuries. Moreover, in
opera houses, festivals, and concert halls all over the world, music from this
period may indeed be performed more than any other form, making it one of

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INTRODUCTION • 17

the most accessible and popular periods. To be sure, it has been superseded
by more “modern” and “progressive” forms of music, but it has not simply
been relegated to “old” music of the past like that composed during the Re-
naissance or perhaps even the Baroque period. It has remained a living and
vibrant part of the repertory, indeed offering a kaleidoscope of genres and
works that never cease to enchant and amaze.

NOTES

1. Neal Zaslaw, ed. Man and Music: The Classical Era: From the 1740s to the End
of the 18th Century (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1989), 1. The quotation
occurs within a larger context, where he defines the musical period as being between
about 1740 and the death of Haydn in 1809, give or take a year. Zaslaw, however,
argues convincingly for the fluidity and subjectivity of such boundaries.
2. The most interesting use of these three as the First Viennese School was by
Arnold Schoenberg in the designation of his trio of acolytes as the Second Viennese
School.
3. See Zaslaw, Man and Music, 3. He notes specifically that accordingly “vast
geographical and social musical landscapes may be, and usually are, passed over
virtually in silence.”
4. See Johann Mattheson, Der vollkommene Capellmeister (Hamburg, 1739;
English edition trans. Ernest Harriss, Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1981),
234; and Johann Adoph Scheibe, Der critische Musicus (Hamburg, 1738–40; revised
Leipzig, 1745), 595–602. It was completely defined by Johann A. P. Schulz in his
article “Symphonie” in Johann Georg Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste
(Leipzig, 1771–74), 2:1121–23. All three distinguish between overtures to operas and
the symphony as a useful instrumental genre, with Scheibe boasting that he himself
had written over 300 of them; this assertion cannot of course be verified.

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12_019_Van_Boer.indb 18 3/13/12 2:27 PM
A
ABADIA, JOSÉ ANTONIO (ca. 1730, ZARAGOZA, SPAIN, TO 1791,
BURGOS, SPAIN). Spanish composer. Little is known of his training or
early career, save that around 1770 he was maestro di capilla at the Collegio
Mendinaceli in Burgos, where he spent the remainder of his life. His music is
all but unknown, but he composed a large number of sacred works, including
seven Lamentations.

ABEL, CARL FRIEDRICH (22 DECEMBER 1723, CÖTHEN, SAX-


ONY, TO 20 JUNE 1787, LONDON). German composer, impresario, and
virtuoso viola da gamba player. The son of the gambist at the court of Anhalt-
Cöthen and brother of Leopold August Abel, he received his early training
from his father. Upon the recommendation of Johann Sebastian Bach, he
obtained his first post in the Saxon Kapelle in 1748, but a decade later he
immigrated to England to become the chamber composer for Queen Char-
lotte. On 29 February 1764 he performed his first joint concert with Johann
Christian Bach at the Carlisle House on Soho Square. Its success began a
collaborative series of 10 to 15 annual subscriptions concerts there and later
at Hannover Square known as the Bach-Abel Concerts. Although competi-
tion began to weaken their appeal beginning with a series of concerts at the
Pantheon in 1774, it was the death of his partner, Bach, in 1782 that caused
these popular events to cease. At this time, Abel toured Paris and Germany,
briefly staying in Potsdam at the court of Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm
of Prussia, ultimately returning to London in 1785. He remained active as a
performer on an instrument long out of fashion up until his death.
Abel had a reputation as a generous and likeable person, who offered aid
in establishing younger musicians. He also had a penchant for living well.
As a soloist, he was particularly praised for his sensitive and lyrical playing,
particularly in the slow movements. Charles Burney noted that “the most
pleasing, yet learned modulations, the richest harmony and the model elegant
and polished melody were all expressed with feeling, taste, and science.” He
is also known to have played the keyboard and French horn. His 233 works
were almost entirely concentrated on instrumental genres; only a couple of
arias and a song exist of his vocal compositions. These include 44 sonatas

19

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20 • ABEL, LEOPOLD AUGUST

for viola da gamba and keyboard, 42 symphonies, 39 trio sonatas (two vio-
lins, two flutes, and violin/cello with keyboard), 28 miscellaneous pieces for
viola da gamba, 24 violin sonatas, 12 piano trios, 12 string quartets, 10 flute
quartets, seven flute sonatas, six keyboard concertos, three sinfonia concer-
tantes (including one for two clarinets), two flute concertos, two cello con-
certos, and a number of miscellaneous keyboard works. His music has been
cataloged according to WK (or Kn) numbers. See also LINLEY, WILLIAM.

ABEL, LEOPOLD AUGUST (24 MARCH 1718, CÖTHEN, SAXONY,


TO 25 AUGUST 1794, LUDWIGSLUST, MECKLENBERG-LOWER
POMERANIA, GERMANY). German violinist and composer. Unlike
his younger brother, Carl Friedrich Abel, he was sent to study violin with
Franz Benda. In 1744 he obtained a post as violinist in Braunschweig, and
in 1758 he was appointed as court Kapellmeister at the court of Schwarzburg-
Sondershausen. A brief service with the Margrave of Schwendt in 1766 was
followed by a lengthy service at the court of the Duke of Schwerin in Ludwigs-
lust. Although reputed to be a fine violinist, he never achieved prominence
on his instrument. The number of works he wrote is unknown, though several
sonatas and studies for the violin, as well as at least one symphony, survive.
His two sons Wilhelm Anton Christian Carl Abel and August Christian An-
dreas Abel became violinists, serving in the court orchestras of Munich.

ABELLA GRIJALVA, JOSÉ BERNARDO (ca. 1740, OAXACA, MEX-


ICO, TO ca. 1803, OAXACA). Mexican composer and organist. Born into
an indigenous family, Abella Grijalva was trained locally at the Oaxaca ca-
thedral, and in 1776 he was appointed as organist there. In 1781 he moved
to Durango, where he spent five years as organist before returning to Oaxaca
in 1786. One of the more interesting composers in New Spain, his music,
mainly villancicos and motets, reflects a mixture of native styles, the galant,
and strict counterpoint.

ABENDMUSIK. In English, “Evening Music,” generally referring to a


concert given at the Marienkirche in the German city of Lübeck consisting
of a variety of works. In the 18th century, however, it had coalesced into an
oratorio-like genre and spread throughout northern Germany. Significant
works were composed by Johann Paul Kunzen.

ABER, JOHANN [GIOVANNI] (ca. 1740, PROBABLY GERMANY,


TO ca. 1790, MILAN). German flautist and composer. Nothing is known of
his early life or training. He first appears in 1765 as a member of the orchestra
of Giovanni Battista Sammartini in Milan. In 1790 he was named principal

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ACCADEMIA FILARMONICA • 21

flute of the orchestra at La Scala and was known as a teacher at the Colegio
Longone. In 1783 he was named as a professor of music at the Pio Instituto
in Milan, after which he disappears from history. His music, little known
even among flautists, includes four concertos (three for flute and one for flute
and violin), three trios for three flutes, three other trios, a symphony, four
quartets (including one with psaltery), three quintets, and a number of duos
and sonatas.

ABOS, GIROLAMO (16 NOVEMBER 1715, VALLETTA, MALTA,


TO OCTOBER 1760, NAPLES, ITALY). Maltese-Neapolitan composer.
Born into a musical family, he was sent to Naples at the age of 14 to study
at the Conservatorio dei Poveri di Gesù under Gaetano Greco and Francesco
Durante. In 1742 he became deputy to maestro di cappella Ignazio Prota at
the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio a Porta Capuana, finally achieving the post
of second maestro di cappella at the Conservatoria della Pietà dei Turchini.
He composed at least 16 operas (mostly seria), many of which were per-
formed internationally. In addition he composed at least one symphony
(1735) and numerous sacred works, among which the Stabat mater (1758)
is the best known. See also BORGHI, LUIGI; BORRONI, ANTONIO; IN-
SANGUINE, GIACOMO ANTONIO FRANCESCO PAOLO MICHELE;
LANG, JOHANN GEORG; ZERAFA, BENIGNO.

ABRAMS, HARRIET (ca. 1758, LONDON, TO 8 MARCH 1821, TOR-


QUAY, DEVONSHIRE, ENGLAND). English soprano and composer.
Born into a Jewish family, possibly in or near London, she studied music
under Thomas Arne before debuting as a soprano in 1775 at the Drury Lane
Theatre. By 1780 she was acclaimed as one of the most brilliant singers in
London, performing frequently in public concerts, as well as having a leading
role in the Handel Centenary celebrations of 1784. Although she performed
less frequently after 1795, she did occasionally give benefit concerts with
her sisters, Theodesia (d. 1849) and Eliza (d. 1831). Her own compositions,
consisting of a set of Italian and English canzonetts, as well as a set of bal-
lads and Scottish songs, achieved considerable popularity during her lifetime.

ACCADEMIA FILARMONICA. An honorary society of composers and


musicians established in Bologna, Italy, in 1666. The patron saint of the orga-
nization was St. Anthony of Padua, and the motto was “Unitate melos.” The
academy was mainly concerned with the development of sacred music, and it
was responsible for the control of all of the music in the Bolognese churches.
Membership in the organization provided authority for a position as maestro
di cappella throughout Italy and was obtained only upon recommendation and

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22 • ACCORIMBONI, AGOSTINO

the successful delivery of a test piece. During the 18th century, the main leader
was Padre Giovanni Battista Martini, but membership included Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart, Carlo Broschi/Farinelli, Christoph Willibald von Gluck,
Niccolò Jommelli, Maxim Berezovsky, Josef Mysliveček, and many others.
It was dissolved in 1798 with the advent of the Cisalpine Republic and its pur-
poses redirected toward the establishment of pedagogical institutions.

ACCORIMBONI, AGOSTINO (28 AUGUST 1739, ROME, TO 13 AU-


GUST 1839, ROME). Italian composer. Little is known of his youth, save
that he was trained by Rinaldo da Capua. He made his debut as an opera
composer in 1768. By 1785 he was accorded considerable success with per-
formances of his works throughout Italy. He chose, however, to remain in
Rome his entire life. His style reflects the opera buffa of his time. His music,
little studied, includes 13 operas, an oratorio, a large number of small sacred
works, two concert arias, and a symphony.

ACERBI, GIUSEPPE (3 MAY 1773, CASTELLO GOFFREDO, ITALY,


TO 25 AUGUST 1846, CASTELLO GOFFREDO). Italian musician and
scholar. He studied music in Pavia under Saverio Betinelli, before embarking
on a tour of Scandinavia, where he came into contact with musicians and art-
ists, including Erik Tulindberg. His most important work is his two-volume
book Travels through Sweden, Finland and Lapland to the North Cape in the
Years 1798 and 1799, published in London in 1802. In it he describes musical
experiences in provincial northern towns, as well as defining Finnish native
folk music, such as rune melodies and joiks. He also left behind a quartet for
clarinet and strings where Finnish folk melodies are used, as well as a clarinet
concerto, two other clarinet quartets, three vocal terzetts, a clarinet quintet,
and two duets for flutes.

ACTE DE BALLET. A French genre consisting of a series of dances and


tableaux performed as a single act or entrée. An example of this is Jean-
Philippe Rameau’s Anacreon.

ACUÑA ESCARCHE, JUAN (1749, JÁTIVA, NEAR VALENCIA,


SPAIN, TO 1837, CATALAM, TAFALLA, SPAIN). Spanish composer.
He studied music at Játiva and Valencia before being named organist at the
Altura Church in Castellón in 1768. Shortly thereafter he assumed the posi-
tion of maestro di capilla at the Colegio Real in Roncesvalles in Navarra.
By 1777 he obtained the same post at the cathedral in Pamplona, retiring in
1823 as a hermit in Catalonia. His music is characterized by the frequent use
of Gregorian chant and the stile antico. He wrote a large number of sacred
works, but they have never been examined extensively.

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ADLUNG, JAKOB • 23

ADAM, JOHANN (ca. 1705, PROBABLY NEAR DRESDEN, TO 13


NOVEMBER 1779, DRESDEN). German composer and violist. Nothing
is known of his early life or training, save that in 1733 he was listed as a
jagdpfeiffer, probably a hunting horn player at the Saxon court in Dresden.
In 1736 he transferred to the court Kapelle, where he served as violist for
the remainder of his life. In 1763 he acted as director of the French Theatre,
writing insertion ballets for various productions. His music remains mostly
unknown, save for numerous smaller comic operas and a few ballets. Sev-
eral symphonies and a flute concerto, however, do survive, and many of the
works in the Breitkopf catalog under his last name may be attributed to him.

ADDISON, JOHN (ca. 1765, LONDON, TO 30 JANUARY 1844, LON-


DON). English composer and contrabass player. His early career was spent
in London, where he became known as a performer, often accompanying his
wife in venues such as Vauxhall Gardens. They toured Great Britain, first to
Liverpool then Dublin, and while in London he was a member of the private
orchestra of the Earl of Westmeath. In 1797 he attempted to become a cotton
merchant but later returned to music as a conductor at Drury Lane and the
Lyceum theatres. His music has been little studied but consists of 10 stage
works, an oratorio, and numerous songs, catches, and glees.

ADLGASSER, ANTON CAJETAN (1 OCTOBER 1729, NIEDER-


ACHEN, NEAR INZALL, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 23 DECEM-
BER 1777, SALZBURG, AUSTRIA). German composer and organist. A
student of Johann Ernst Eberlin, he attended Salzburg University beginning
in 1744. In 1750 he was appointed by Prince-Archbishop Sigismund III von
Schrattenbach as cathedral organist. In 1764 he was allowed to tour Italy for
a year, where he met Padre Giovanni Battista Martini. A close friend of
the Mozart family, he died suddenly from a stroke while performing his du-
ties. He was a highly respected composer of sacred and university dramas/
oratorios, with some 27 of them being composed during his lifetime. He also
wrote seven Masses, three Requiems, an opera, eight litanies, 26 motets/
offertories, a cantata, 20 Marian antiphons, nine hymns in Latin, 44 Ger-
man hymns, several sacred songs, 10 symphonies, four concertos, several
keyboard sonatas, and 103 versetti for organ.

ADLUNG, JAKOB (14 JANUARY 1699, BINDERSLEBEN, NEAR ER-


FURT, GERMANY, TO 5 JULY 1762, ERFURT, GERMANY). German
organist and pedagogue. Adlung attended the Erfurt Gymnasium in 1713,
and later in 1723 the University of Jena. In 1727 he was recalled to Erfurt
as organist of the Predigerkirche, which position he retained his entire life.
He also functioned as professor of language at the Gymnasium. His students

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24 • ADOLPHATI, ANDREA

include Georg Peter Weimar and Johann Christian Kittel. As a polymath,


he compiled a treatise titled Musica mechanica organoedi, which was pub-
lished in a second edition in 1768. This treatise contains not only a plethora
of information on organ and organ-building practices of the mid-18th century
but also includes various instruction methods on how to perform Lutheran
chorales. His own music includes two trio sonatas and a chorale prelude, but
these reflect more Baroque practice than Classical.

ADOLPHATI, ANDREA (ca. 1721, VENICE, TO 28 OCTOBER 1760,


PADUA). Italian composer. Following studies with Baldassare Galuppi in
Venice, he made his debut as a composer of opera seria in 1741 in Verona
with Artaserse. At the time he was maestro di cappella at Santa Maria del
Salute, but in 1746 he held a similar position at the court in Modena and two
years later at Basilica della Santissima Annunziata del Vastato in Genoa. In
May of 1760 he was appointed at the Padua cathedral, but died only a short
time later. His musical style, which has been little studied, resembles the style
of his teacher, Galuppi. His compositions include 13 operas (all seria), five
Psalm settings, six sacred cantatas, six secular cantatas, two symphonies,
and six trio sonatas.

AGNESI, MARIA TERESA (17 OCTOBER 1720, MILAN, TO 19 JAN-


UARY 1795, MILAN). Italian composer and keyboardist. Little is known
about her early training, although her cantata Il restauro d’Arcadia was pro-
duced at the Teatro Ducale in Milan in 1747, followed in 1751 by her opera
Sofonisba. Further stage works were produced, expanding her reputation as a
composer throughout Lombardy. In June 1752 she married Pietro Pinottini,
and her fortunes declined thereafter. At her death, she was in pecuniary dif-
ficulties. Her instrumental music demonstrates an affinity with the prevailing
early Classical Empfindsamkeit, while her stage works are all in the man-
ner of opera seria. Her works include at least six operas or serenatas, four
concertos for keyboard, two fantasias, and two piano sonatas, in addition to
a few miscellaneous works.

AGRELL, JOHAN JOACHIM (1 FEBRUARY 1701, LÖTH,


ÖSTERGÖTLAND, SWEDEN, TO 19 JANUARY 1765, NUREM-
BERG, GERMANY). Swedish German composer. Born in a small village
in central Sweden as the son of a local pastor, he attended secondary school
in Linköping before matriculating at Uppsala University in law while per-
forming in the local collegium musicum. In 1723 he was invited to move to
Kassel to the court of Prince Maximillian. While little is known of his career
there, he may have studied under Fortunato Chelleri, in addition to touring

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AGRICOLA, JOHANN FRIEDRICH • 25

France and England as a virtuoso violinist and keyboardist. In 1746 he was


appointed Kapellmeister for the city of Nuremberg, where he remained the
rest of his life. Despite his transfer to Germany, he maintained close ties to
his homeland, often sending scores of works to his friend Johan Helmich
Roman. He began publishing sets of six symphonies in 1746 with his Op. 1,
and thereafter was widely known for his instrumental music, particularly his
violin sonatas. In addition, he wrote a large amount of sacred music for the
Frauenkirche, of which only a set of eight motets survive. His 22 symphonies
all demonstrate a solid knowledge of Italian three-movement format and
often include both contrasting themes and a style that marks the emergence
of the early symphony. In addition, he composed concertos for harpsichord,
which are closer to the symphonies in form and structure than the prevailing
style of Antonio Vivaldi. Agrell is one of the pivotal figures in both the de-
velopment of the galant style and early Classical genres such as the concerto
and symphony. See also HUPFELD, BERNHARD.

AGRICOLA, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (4 JANUARY 1720, DOBRITZ


[DOBRITSCHEN] BEI ALTENBURG, SAXONY, TO 2 DECEMBER
1774, BERLIN). German theorist, organist, and composer. His earliest edu-
cation was in Dobritz under Johann Paul Martini, a local organist. In 1738 he
matriculated at Leipzig University studying German literature (under Johann
Christoph Gottsched) and law, but only a year later he began studies under
Johann Sebastian Bach, whose favorite pupil he became. In 1741 he moved
to Berlin (a sojourn in Dresden cannot be substantiated), where he took
composition lessons from Johann Joachim Quantz. In 1750 a performance
of a comic opera, Il filosofo convinto per amore, in Potsdam brought him a
post as court composer for Frederick II of Prussia. After the death of Carl
Heinrich Graun in 1759, he was appointed as musical director of the Berlin
opera. There he remained the rest of his life.
Agricola was a part of the Berlin School of composers and a good friend
of colleagues Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (with whom he wrote the obituary
of Bach’s father and Agricola’s teacher), Graun, and Quantz. His relation-
ship with his patron was not entirely smooth, given that he married an Italian
singer against Frederick’s wishes. But Charles Burney was charmed by a
visit and called him “the best organist in Germany.” His music shows the
split between his training and his vocation, ranging in secular cantatas and
organ works in the style of Johann Sebastian Bach to oratorios and operas
in the Italianate style of Graun. A polymath, he wrote at least four treatises,
including the 1757 Anleitung zur Singekunst, in which he paraphrased and
elaborated upon a 1723 work by Pier Francesco Tosi titled Opinioni de Can-
tori antiche e moderni. He often published articles under the pseudonym of

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26 • AGTHE, CARL CHRISTIAN

Flavius Anicio Olibrio. His music includes 12 operas, three oratorios, eight
Psalms and motets, almost 100 Lieder, and a host of smaller keyboard and
chamber works. His most innovative composition is the incidental music to
Voltaire’s tragedy Semiramis, which he set in 1767. See also RELLSTAB,
JOHANN CARL FRIEDRICH.

AGTHE, CARL CHRISTIAN (11 JUNE 1762, HETTSTEDT, SAXONY,


GERMANY, TO 27 NOVEMBER 1797, BALLENSTADT, SAXONY).
German composer. Son of a cantor, Johann Michael Agthe, he was educated
by his father and other relatives, eventually being admitted as a stadtpfeifer.
By 1776 he had become associated with the Hündelberg troupe, which per-
formed in Reval (now Tallinen, Estonia), where he achieved a reputation
for composing Singspiels. In 1782, however, he joined the court of Prince
Friedrich Albrecht of Anhalt-Bernburg in Ballenstadt, where he served as
Kapellmeister the remainder of his life. His works are similar in form and
structure to the music of Johann Adam Hiller, who Agthe admired. These
include seven Singspiels, two volumes of Lieder, a musical drama and a
large cantata, 11 symphonies, two concertos (flute and violin/keyboard), 14
dances, and three keyboard sonatas. See also AGTHE, CARL FRIEDRICH.

AGTHE, CARL FRIEDRICH (26 JANUARY 1724, HETTSEDT, SAX-


ONY, GERMANY, TO 1 SEPTEMBER 1787, PÖIDE, SAARIMAA,
ESTONIA). German-Estonian composer and organist. Little is known of
his early education, although it must have been similar to his nephew Carl
Christian Agthe. By 1760 he had obtained the post of organist at the Olev-
iste Church in Reval (now Tallinen, Estonia), a post he held for a quarter of a
century. For a year he also functioned as organist at the Pühavaimu Church.
His music has remained all but forgotten; only seven large-scale orchestral
odes in the style of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, as well as several smaller
works for organ, seem to have survived.

AHLEFELDT, MARIA THERESIA, COUNTESS OF AHLEFELDT-


LANGELAND AND PRINCESS OF THURN UND TAXIS (15 JANU-
ARY 1755, REGENSBURG, TO 20 DECEMBER 1810, PRAGUE).
German-Danish noblewoman and composer. After a thorough education in
the arts at the Thurn und Taxis court in Regensburg, she became embroiled
in an affair with Prince Philip of Hohenlohe at the time she was engaged to
Prince Joseph of Fürstenberg, after which she abruptly married Ferdinand,
Count of Ahlefeldt-Langeland and fled to Denmark in 1780 to avoid her
family’s displeasure. There she began to compose music for the Royal The-
atre, including the ballets Veddemålet and Telemak på Calypsos ø while her

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ALBERTI, DOMENICO • 27

husband was its director. In 1798 she moved to Dresden and subsequently
in 1800 to Prague. Her surviving music includes two symphonies, an Italian
aria, an opera buffa (La folie), and numerous songs.

ÅHLSTRÖM, OLOF (14 AUGUST 1756, ÅLETORP, VÄRDINGE,


SWEDEN, TO 11 AUGUST 1835, STOCKHOLM). Swedish composer,
pianist, and publisher. Following early training by a local church organist,
he moved to Stockholm in 1772, where he studied under Ferdinand Zell-
bell Jr. Although he was employed through governmental sinecures, he also
functioned as an organist at the St. Clara Church in 1777 and in 1786 at the
St. Jacob Church as well. In 1787, the year of the successful performance of
his opera Frigga, he was granted a royal privilege to publish music. Apart
from individual compositions by various composers, he also published two
journals, the Musikaliskt tidsfördrif and Skaldestycken satte i musik. During
the early part of the 19th century, he also collected folk dances, which he
published in 1814. His music is characterized by a good sense of melody
and simplicity, with orchestrations that range from perfunctory to colorful
with generous use of woodwinds. Åhlström can be reckoned as the foremost
composer of songs during the period. His works include four operas, two can-
tatas, over 200 Lieder (most in Swedish), a concerto for the fortepiano, seven
violin sonatas, six piano sonatas/sonatinas, and a book of hymns published in
1832. See also BELLMAN, CARL MICHAEL.

ALBERO [ALVERO] Y AÑANOS, SEBASTIÁN RAMÓN DE (10


JUNE 1722, RONCAL, NAVARRA, SPAIN, TO 30 MARCH 1756, MA-
DRID). Spanish organist and composer. Born in a small provincial town in
Navarra, Albero was educated in Pamplona, probably under Miguel Valls. He
served as organist of the cathedral there under Miguel Valls and his successor
Andrés de Escáregui from 1734 to 1739, when he moved to Madrid. By 1748
he had obtained the post as first organist at the Capilla Real. His surviving
music is exclusively meant for the keyboard and includes 30 sonatas that are
modeled upon those of Domenico Scarlatti, as well as a number of ricercars,
fugues, and sonatas in an older style for organ. His music contains elements
of Spanish folk traditions, including fandangos, but unlike Scarlatti is less
virtuoso and has a certain sentimental content.

ALBERTI, DOMENICO (ca. 1710, VENICE, TO 14 OCTOBER 1740,


ROME). Italian diplomat, keyboardist, and composer. Nothing is known
about Alberti’s birth or family, save that he studied music under Antonio
Lotti while a youth in Venice. It was there that his reputation as a progressive
harpsichord player was formed, although he also had several operas staged

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28 • ALBERTI BASS

at Venetian theatres. By 1736 he was appointed briefly as ambassador to the


court of Spain, where he sang before the castrato Farinelli, who regarded
his talent highly though Alberti was an amateur singer. The following year he
published his VIII Sonate per Cembalo as his Op. 1 in Paris, about the same
time as he accepted a post with Count Molinari in Rome. Although he wrote
vocal music (operas and songs), he is best remembered for his 36 keyboard
sonatas, of which only 14 survive. These are largely in binary form in a simi-
lar early galant style to that of Domenico Scarlatti, but his extensive use of
an arpeggiated bass made them one of the landmarks of musical composition
of the period. See also ALBERTI BASS.

ALBERTI BASS. An arpeggiated accompaniment, generally found in the


bass line of works with keyboard. It is named after composer Domenico Al-
berti, who used and popularized it in his keyboard works. It became almost
ubiquitous throughout the 18th century and indeed can be seen as a stereo-
typical musical device.

ALBERTIN, PATER ALFONS (1736, PROBABLY KONSTANZ, GER-


MANY, TO 1790, PETERSHAUSEN MONASTERY, GERMANY).
German monastic composer. Nothing is known of his youth or training, save
that indications he may have been born in Italy cannot be substantiated. He
first appears as a Benedictine monk at Petershausen around 1765, where he
composed music. Among his works are a large Mass and a sonata for four
organs and brass.

ALBERTINI, GIAOCCHINO [JOACHIM] (30 NOVEMBER 1748,


PESARO, ITALY, TO 27 MARCH 1812, WARSAW). Polish-Italian com-
poser. Nothing is known of his early life or training, but in 1777 he moved
to Poland, where in 1782 he became Kapellmeister at the court of King
Stanisław Poniatowski in Warsaw. Although he had some success composing
operas for the court in Polish, in 1784 he embarked upon a career as a touring
composer, eventually arriving in Rome, where he stayed until 1803. He there-
upon returned to Warsaw, where he retired with a pension. His music reflects
the homophonic German idioms of the Singspiel, although he was versatile.
His works include seven operas, a Mass, an offertory, a cantata, a septet, a
symphony, and numerous arias and duets inserted into various operas.

ALBRECHTSBERGER, JOHANN GEORG (3 FEBRUARY 1736,


KLOSTERNEUBURG, NEAR VIENNA, TO 7 MARCH 1809, VI-
ENNA). Austrian composer, organist, and music educator. The son of an
innkeeper, he sang in local church choirs until 1749, when he became a cho-

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ALDANA, JOSÉ MANUEL • 29

rister at Melk Abbey. In 1753 he transferred to the Benedictine Seminary in


Vienna, where he studied under Georg Matthias Monn and became friends
with Michael Haydn and Joseph Haydn. Two years later he was appointed
organist in Raab (now Györ, Hungary), and subsequently at a shrine at Maria
Taferl. This led to a position in Melk as cellar master, but a difficulty with the
monastery forced him to return to Raab and then to Vienna in 1766. There he
worked as an organist and organ builder until 1770, when he was appointed
as second organist at St. Stephen’s Cathedral and two years later as second
court organist. In 1791 he was placed in line to succeed Leopold Hofmann
as Kapellmeister at St. Stephen’s Cathedral following the death of his first
choice of successor, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. He fulfilled this role from
1793 until his death.
During his lifetime, Albrechtsberger was considered a master of coun-
terpoint and the ideological successor of Johann Joseph Fux. He was much
sought after as a teacher, and in 1790 he published a treatise, Gründliche
Anweisungen zur Composition, which was well regarded. His most famous
pupils included Ludwig van Beethoven, Joseph von Eybler, Carl Czerny,
and Johann Nepomuk Hummel. He was a prolific composer whose works
ranged in style from the galant to the old-fashioned, particularly when it
came to sacred and keyboard music. His most important vocal work is an
oratorio, Die Pilger auf Golgotha, which explored a German literary text
by Friedrich Wilhelm Zachariä. His works include eight oratorios, five
cantatas, 35 Masses, three Requiems, 48 graduals, 16 Magnificats, two Te
Deums, 25 antiphons, 10 vespers, 38 hymns, five litanies, 15 motets, 24 other
sacred works, four symphonies, a dozen concertos (including works for or-
gan, trombone, Jew’s harp, and mandora), six concertinos, 16 divertimentos,
around 35 quartets, and about 278 fugues, sonatas, and other miscellaneous
works for keyboard (and organ). His works are known by Weinmann (W)
numbers. See also FUSZ, JÁNOS; LICKL, JOHANN GEORG; SEYFRIED,
IGNAZ XAVIER RITTER VON; SPERGER, JOHANN MATTHIAS;
STADLER, ABBÉ MAXIMILIAN; VRANICKÝ, ANTONÍN.

ALDANA, JOSÉ MANUEL (1758, MEXICO CITY, TO 7 FEBRUARY


1810, MEXICO CITY). Mexican composer. During his early years he stud-
ied violin at the Colegio de Infantes attached to the main cathedral in Mexico
City in New Spain. In 1775 he was appointed as a violinist in the orchestra
there, but in 1788 a second appointment in the orchestra of the Teatro Coliseo
led the authorities to force him to choose between the sacred and secular ca-
reers. He chose the latter, becoming the leader of the orchestra at the Coliseo
in 1791. His music is characterized by a good sense of orchestration and fluid
melodies. He was particularly adept at the verso, often turning them into

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30 • ALDAY, FRANÇOIS

substantial symphonic works. His surviving compositions include a Mass,


three motets, three cycles of versos, and numerous hymns.

ALDAY, FRANÇOIS (ca. 1761, MAHÓN, MENORCA, FRANCE


[NOW SPAIN], TO ca. 1835, LYONS, FRANCE). French violinist, or-
ganist, and composer. Born into a musical family, he made his debut as a
mandolin soloist at the Concerts spirituels in Paris in 1771. His ability on
his primary instrument, however, was only sufficient to have him appointed
as last chair of the second violins in the orchestra there, a post he occupied
until 1786. His whereabouts during the French Revolution are unknown, but
in 1797 he was principal violin and a well-regarded teacher in Lyons. There
he founded the Cercle Harmonique, a public concert series, in 1810. His mu-
sic has been all but unknown, although he has achieved a reputation for his
Grande méthode pour l’alto published in 1827. His works include an opera,
three concertos, 15 string quartets, 15 string duos, and a number of smaller
instrumental chamber works.

ALESSANDRI, FELICE (24 NOVEMBER 1747, NEAR ROME, TO


15 AUGUST 1798, CASINALBO DI FORMIGINE). Italian composer
and keyboardist. Following studies in Naples, he made his debut as a com-
poser in Rome in 1765 with an oratorio, Il tobio. He received commissions
throughout Italy thereafter, and by 1768 he was able to tour France, Austria,
and London, where he settled in 1770 as a keyboard virtuoso. By 1773 he
returned to his travels, arriving in Turin and Milan by way of Dresden, con-
tinuing his activity as a composer of opera. In 1777 he had returned to Paris,
where his music was performed at the Concerts spirituels, but he returned
to Italy to become director of the Teatro Nuovo in Padua. In 1786 he was of-
fered a position at St. Petersburg, but three years later resigned and traveled
to Berlin to become musical director of the Italian opera. He had little success
there and came back to Italy to continue his career as an opera composer.
Alessandri spent virtually his entire life on the road, writing in an accessible
and popular style.

ALGAROTTI, COUNT FRANCESCO (11 DECEMBER 1712, VEN-


ICE, TO 3 MAY 1764, PISA, ITALY). Italian nobleman, intellectual, and
writer. Educated in Rome and Bologna, as well as Paris and London, he
received his patent of nobility in 1740 in Berlin from Frederick II, where
he was a state counselor to both the Prussian and Saxon courts. In 1753 he
returned to Italy, writing librettos and an influential treatise, Saggio sopra
l’opera in musica, published in 1755. This was one of the seminal works on
the reform of stage music during the 18th century.

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ALMEIDA MOTA, JOÃO PEDRO DE • 31

ALIPRANDI, BERNARDO (ca. 1710, MILAN, TO 1792, FRANKFURT


AM MAIN). Italian composer and violinist. Nothing is known about his
youth or education, save that in 1731 he was listed as a chamber musician at
the court in Munich. There he became court chamber composer and Konzert-
meister in 1737, eventually retiring to Frankfurt in Germany in 1771. As a
composer, his style is considered conservative, still using Baroque figuration
and techniques. His surviving music includes 18 symphonies, five operas
(all seria), and a large Stabat mater. He is the father of Bernardo Maria
Aliprandi.

ALIPRANDI, BERNARDO MARIA (5 FEBRUARY 1747, MUNICH,


TO 19 FEBRUARY 1801, MUNICH). German-Italian cellist and com-
poser. Son of Bernardo Aliprandi, he probably studied music with his father
and other musicians at the Bavarian court. He was employed beginning in
1767, eventually reaching the position of principal cellist by 1778. He was
known for his adept performance, especially on the viola da gamba. His musi-
cal compositions, however, are little known and comprise several pieces for
the viola da gamba.

ALMEIDA, FRANCISCO ANTÓNIO DE (1702, LISBON, TO 1 NO-


VEMBER 1755, LISBON). Portuguese organist and composer. He was
sent to Rome on a stipend by Dom João V in 1722, where he studied mu-
sical composition, returning to Lisbon in 1726 to become organist at the
Capella Reale and later music teacher to the royal family. His first success
was a comic opera, La pazienzia di Socrate, in 1733, but followed there-
after by others, such as La Spinalba of 1739 that foreshadows the later
Italian buffa. He perished in the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. His surviv-
ing works include eight operas, about 20 sacred works, two oratorios, a
Mass, a cantata, and several arias. The bulk of his music has been lost,
however, including the presépios written for the Nativity. Although there
are Baroque elements in his music, his use of ensemble clearly shows the
emerging Italian operatic style.

ALMEIDA MOTA, JOÃO PEDRO DE (24 JUNE 1744, LISBON, TO


ca. 1817, MADRID). Portuguese-Spanish composer. Although information
on his early training is lacking, he was probably a chorister at either the Sé
or Church of São Vicente de Fora in Lisbon. In 1771 he decided to move to
Galicia in Spain as a church composer and organist, where he held positions
at Santiago de Compostela, Astorga, and Lugo. Around 1785 he became
maestro de música at the Capella Real in Madrid. A number of sacred works
survive, but he also wrote an opera and two concert arias.

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32 • ALTENBURG, JOHANN ERNST

ALTENBURG, JOHANN ERNST (15 JUNE 1734, WEISSENFELS,


SAXONY, GERMANY, TO 14 MAY 1801, BITTERFELD, GER-
MANY). German trumpeter and composer. The son of trumpeter Johann
Caspar Altenburg (1689–1761), he studied with his father and Johann The-
odor Römhild in Merseburg, as well as briefly with Johann Altnikol in
1757. Thereafter he joined the French army as a field musician, and in 1767
he became organist in the city of Landsberg, moving the following year to a
similar post in Bitterfeld. His main work is a tutorial-treatise, Versuch einer
Anleitung zur heroisch-musikalischen Trompeter- und Pauker-Kunst, which
gives a good overall view of trumpet performance practice of the period. His
own music has been little explored. What survives consists of six keyboard
sonatas and a number of pieces for two to seven trumpets published in his
treatise, many of which are probably arrangements by other composers.

ALTNIKOL [ALTNICKOL], JOHANN CHRISTOPH (bap. 1 JANU-


ARY 1720, BERNA BEI SEIDENBERG, OBERLAUSITZ, SILESIA
[NOW POLAND], TO 25 JULY 1759, NAUMBURG, GERMANY). Ger-
man singer, organist, and composer. Born in the outreaches of the German
lands, he attended Lauban Lyceum, where he received his elementary music
education. A four-year position as singer and assistant organist at Breslau fol-
lowed in 1740 before he matriculated at the University of Leipzig in theology
in 1744. At this time he began to study under Johann Sebastian Bach, eventu-
ally becoming his chief copyist. Upon Bach’s recommendation he obtained
the post of organist in Niederweisen near Greiffenburg in Silesia but later that
year left for a post as organist at St. Wenzel’s Church in Naumburg. He also
married Bach’s daughter Elisabeth Juliane at the same time. During his tenure
at Naumburg, his students included Johann Gottfried Müthel and Johann
Ernst Altenburg. Following Bach’s death, he became a trustee of the family
estate, maintaining excellent relations with the family. As a composer, much
of his music has not survived, and what has shows that he was extremely
conservative, following the models of his teacher. These include a Mass, two
Mass movements (Sanctus), two cantatas, 13 motets, and a few other smaller
chamber works (a ricercar, some dances, and a keyboard sonata).

ÅMAN, JONAS (ca. 1735, PROBABLY LUND, TO ca. 1770, STOCK-


HOLM). Swedish composer. Nothing is known about his youth, training, or
career. The only documentary evidence of his life comes in a protocol dated
1769 from the Utile dulci music society accepting him for membership, as
well as a memorandum thanking him for donating a cello to the Royal Acad-
emy of Music later that same year. It has been suggested that he was an active
member in a circle of amateur musicians founded at Lund University around

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ANDRÉ, JOHANN • 33

1745. Although he is designated an amateur on the manuscripts of his works,


Åman’s compositional style is similar to his colleague Johan Helmich Ro-
man’s late works. His surviving music includes six symphonies and several
smaller works for violin and keyboard.

AMENDOLA, GIUSEPPE (1750, PALERMO, SICILY, TO 1808, PAL-


ERMO). Italian composer and teacher. Little is known about his life and
works, save that an opera, Il Begliar-Bey di Caramania, written in 1776,
achieved international success in Spain and Germany (in translation). He
remained in his native city his entire life, teaching at the local conservatory.
His students, however, include Nicolò Isouard.

AMETLLER I PAGUINA, PADRE MAUR [FRANCESC] (6 AUGUST


1749, PALAFRUGELL, CATALONIA, TO 14 FEBRUARY 1833, SANT
BENET DE BORGES, CATALONIA). Catalan composer. After early
schooling in Bisbal, he entered the Escolania de Montserrat in 1758 to study
under Josep Martí and Benet Julià i Ros. In 1786 he was ordained a Bene-
dictine monk in Girona, where he was a vocalist at the cathedral there. He
was well known for his resonant baritone voice. He returned to Montserrat
around 1799, where he was presented to Carlos IV during the monarch’s visit
in 1802. He invented a special keyboard instrument known as a velacord, but
in later years he devoted most of his energies to studies as a naturalist. His
catalogs of flora and fauna of the region were renowned. By 1817 he had
been admitted to the Academy of Sciences and the Philharmonic Society in
Barcelona as an honorary member. His musical production consists of several
sonatas for keyboard and several motets for chorus and orchestra. His musi-
cal style is similar to his colleague Anselm Viola.

ANDRÉ, JOHANN (28 MARCH 1741, OFFENBACH AM MAIN,


GERMANY, TO 18 JUNE 1799, OFFENBACH). German composer and
publisher. In 1756 he obtained lessons in music in the nearby city of Frankfurt
am Main and later Mannheim, but in 1774 he began a publishing house spe-
cializing in music. Although he also served as musical director of the German
Theatre in Berlin for several years beginning in 1777, he returned home to
expand his business. He is best known for negotiating for the autographs of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart following that composer’s death in 1791 and
publishing much of his music in a works edition. Although well known him-
self as a composer of the Singspiel, he apparently ceased active composition
around 1784. His works include 28 Singspiels, 13 incidental works, several
volumes of Lieder, and three trio sonatas. His son Johann Anton André
also became a composer and publisher.

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34 • ANDRÉ, JOHANN ANTON

ANDRÉ, JOHANN ANTON (6 OCTOBER 1775, OFFENBACH AM


MAIN, GERMANY, TO 6 APRIL 1846, OFFENBACH). German violin-
ist, composer, and music publisher. Following initial studies with his father
Johann André, he went to Mannheim to study under Ignaz Fränzl, even-
tually attending the University of Jena. In 1799, however, he returned to
take over his father’s publishing house, expanding its reputation throughout
Europe. In 1805 he published his own Anweisung zum Violinspielen, but
became more focused upon civic duties, being appointed as state counselor
at Isenburg-Birnsteinschen in 1813. His own musical works include two
operas, a Mass, a Te Deum, three other sacred works, 48 Lieder, 11 sets of
part songs, nine symphonies, seven concertos, three overtures, five quartets,
three trios, six violin sonatas, 27 duos, and a host of smaller keyboard works.
His music has been little studied.

ANDREOZZI, GAETANO (22 MAY 1755, AVERSO, ITALY, TO 21


DECEMBER 1826, PARIS). Italian composer. His musical education was
obtained in Naples at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini. In 1780 he
had a successful premiere of his opera La morte de Cesare at the Teatro
Argentina in Rome, and thereafter he received commissions throughout Italy
for work, mostly seria. In 1784 he was invited to St. Petersburg to compose
for the court of Catherine II as a temporary replacement for Domenico Ci-
marosa. Upon his return to Italy in 1786, he continued his career. Always
a difficult personality, by 1791 he was beset by problems dealing with the
theatres and singers, and he was forced into exile in his hometown after a
series of affairs. Personal problems continued to dog him until 1825, when he
was invited by the Countess du Berry to teach singing in Paris. His musical
style was similar to colleagues such as Cimarosa, though his music has been
little studied. His compositions include 45 operas, several oratorios, and six
string quartets.

ANFOSSI, [BONIFACIO DOMENICO] PASQUALE (5 APRIL 1727,


TAGGIA, LIGURIA, ITALY, TO FEBRUARY 1797, ROME). Italian
composer. His early musical education was at the Conservatorio Santa Maria
di Loreto in Naples under Francesco Durante, Antonio Sacchini, and Nic-
colò Piccinni. In 1763 he made his debut as a composer of opera buffa at the
Carnival in Rome with La serva spirituosa, which launched an international
career. He served as musical director of the Ospedale dei Derelitti in Venice
beginning in 1771, moving to Paris in 1780. In 1782 the premiere of his opera
Il trionfo della costanza in London led to an appointment at the Italian Opera
there, but two years later he returned to Italy, first to Florence and eventually
becoming maestro di cappella at the church of St. John Lateran in Rome.

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ANNA AMALIA, DUCHESS OF SAXE-WEIMAR • 35

Although a prolific composer, his music was criticized as being stilted and
derivative, with little of the colorful characterizations of his contemporaries.
His music includes 76 operas, 24 oratorios (in Latin and Italian), two secular
cantatas, 12 Masses or Mass movements, 13 motets, numerous small sacred
works (Psalms, hymns), 67 symphonies (many drawn from his operas), and
five quintets. See also ZINGARELLI, NICCOLÒ ANTONIO.

ANGIOLINI, [DOMENICO MARIA] GASPARO (9 FEBRUARY 1737,


FLORENCE, TO 6 FEBRUARY 1803, MILAN). Italian choreographer,
dancer, and composer. He began his career as a dancer in Lucca in 1747 but
by 1750 had established himself in Vienna, where he was associated with the
Imperial Theater. There he worked with Franz Hilverding and Christoph
Willibald von Gluck to produce ballets in the new dramatic style known
as the ballet d’action. The most important of these was the 1761 collabora-
tion with Gluck, Don Juan. In 1766 he moved to St. Petersburg to succeed
Hilverding, remaining there until 1779 with a four-year sojourn in Vienna.
He then returned to Italy to take up a post at La Scala in Milan, with a third
lengthy visit to St. Petersburg in 1786. Toward the end of his life he was im-
prisoned in Milan for Republican sympathies. As a choreographer and theo-
retician, Angiolini was considered one of the most progressive of his time.
His treatises Dissertation sur les ballets-pantomimes des Anciens (1765) and
Lettere de Gasparo Angiolini a Monsieur Noverre sopra i balli pantomimi
(1773) were considered the most important works on the ballet d’action. Over
the course of his career he choreographed 24 major works, and as a composer
mostly contributed smaller ballet pieces for insertion into them.

ANNA AMALIA, DUCHESS OF SAXE-WEIMAR, PRINCESS OF


BRAUNSCHWEIG UND WOLFENBÜTTEL (24 OCTOBER 1739,
WOLFENBÜTTEL, GERMANY, TO 10 APRIL 1807, WEIMAR). Ger-
man noblewoman, literary figure, and composer. Following a typical upbring-
ing of a member of the upper nobility, she was married in 1756 to Duke Ernst
August II of Saxe-Weimar. She established a brilliant court there, adding to
her titles the Regent after the death of her husband in 1758, a position she
retained until 1775 when her son came of age. A talented artist and politician
with a keen mind, she surrounded herself with numerous intellectuals of the
period, whom she supported. These include literary figures Johann Wolfgang
von Goethe and Friedrich von Schiller as well as Johann Gottfried Herder.
In 1788 she undertook a lengthy tour to Italy, where she collected art and
literature, returning to Weimar as dowager for the remainder of her life. Her
passions included theatre and music, particularly the Singspiel, which she
encouraged both from her court Kapellmeister, Ernst Wilhelm Wolf, and her

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36 • ANNA AMALIA, PRINCESS OF PRUSSIA

other protégés. She herself attempted the composition of at least two, begin-
ning in 1776 with Erwin und Elmire to a text by Goethe. These and a chamber
divertimento with keyboard are all that survive of her music. The Singspiels
show the influence of Johann Adam Hiller. See also SCHROETER, CO-
RONA ELISABETH WILHELMINE; SCHWEITZER, ANTON.

ANNA AMALIA, PRINCESS OF PRUSSIA (9 NOVEMBER 1723,


BERLIN, TO 30 MARCH 1787, BERLIN). Abbess of Quedlinburg, sister
of Frederick II of Prussia, and German composer. Her earliest training in
music came only after the death of her father and was under the tutelage of
her brother. In 1743 she secretly married Baron Friedrich von der Trenck, but
when this became known and her pregnancy discovered, she was packed off
to the cloister at Quedlinburg. She preferred this location, though she spent
most summers thereafter in Berlin at a palace given her by her brother. In
1755 she became the abbess of the cloister. Adept as a performer on flute,
violin, and keyboard, she formed her own musical circle alongside the Berlin
School, taking composition from both Carl Heinrich Graun and Johann
Kirnberger, beginning in 1758. Her number of compositions is relatively
slight, given that she probably destroyed many in later years. Among them
are several cantatas, marches, and smaller chamber works much in the style
of the Berlin composers. She did, however, amass a significant library of
music, which is now at the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek in Berlin. She is not to
be confused with Anna Amalia, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar, also a composer.
See also BACH, WILHELM FRIEDEMANN.

ANSPACH, ELIZABETH (17 DECEMBER 1750, LONDON, TO 11


JANUARY 1828, NAPLES). English noblewoman and composer. The
daughter of the Earl of Berkeley, she married William, the Earl of Craven
in 1767. In 1780 she left him and, after initial success as a composer for
the stage, including the opera The Silver Tankard in 1781, she went on an
extended tour of Europe. In 1791, after Craven’s death, she abruptly married
Christian Friedrich, the Margrave of Anspach, thereby alienating her entire
family. Nonetheless she was able to get her opera The Princess of Georgia
mounted at Covent Garden in 1799. After the Margrave’s death left her with
a fortune, she settled in Naples. Her music, of which only an arrangement
survives, included songs and contributions to several operas.

ANTES, JOHN (24 MARCH 1740, FREDRICK, PENNSYLVANIA


COLONY [NOW UNITED STATES OF AMERICA], TO 17 DECEM-
BER 1811, BRISTOL, ENGLAND). American-Moravian composer and
missionary. Born into a German Reformed Church family, Antes was raised
in the Moravian community of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. In 1765 he moved

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ARAGÜÉS, JUAN ANTONIO DE • 37

to Neuwied am Rhein, Germany, where he apprenticed as a watchmaker. In


1769 he was ordained and sent to Egypt as a missionary, where difficulties
with his health forced him to return to Europe in 1781. He spent the remain-
ing years of his life as the business manager of the Moravian Church con-
gregation in Fulneck, England. His compositions include 25 anthems and 12
chorales, as well as a set of six trios written in Cairo and published in Eng-
land in 1795. His music shows the influence of Joseph Haydn, with whom
he was acquainted. See also LATROBE, CHRISTIAN IGNATIUS.

APELL, DAVID AUGUST VON (23 FEBRUARY 1754, KASSEL, GER-


MANY, TO 30 JANUARY 1832, KASSEL). German composer and author.
The son of a tax official, he was trained at the local court before becoming
an official in the Treasury. As of 1780 he began to conduct music, much of
which he composed, with the local philharmonic society that he founded. Al-
though technically a musical amateur, his lyrical and dramatic style was much
admired, enough to gain him an international reputation. In 1815 he founded
the Kassel Academy of the Fine Arts, and even served for a time as director
of the municipal theatre. His works, now almost entirely forgotten, include
a Mass, three operas, four cantatas, six canzonetts, three symphonies, and
three string quartets.

APRILE, GIUSEPPE (28 OCTOBER 1731, MARTINA FRANCA,


ITALY, TO 11 JANUARY 1803, MARTINA FRANCA). Italian castrato,
singing teacher, and composer. Known as Scirolo, Scirolino, or Sciroletto,
he studied in Naples under Gregorio Sciroli. He made his debut in Rome in
1752, subsequently serving in the royal cappella in Naples, as well as in Tu-
rin and Rome. He began touring in 1759, eventually winding up in Stuttgart
where he became the favorite of Niccolò Jommelli. In 1769 he returned to
Naples to become the main singer in the opera there. He also taught singers,
producing a treatise, The Italian Method of Singing, with 36 Solfeggi, in 1791.
He composed duets for two sopranos as well.

ARAGÜÉS, CAYETANO DE (ca. 1730, PROBABLY SALAMANCA,


SPAIN, TO 1809, CALATAYUD, SPAIN). Spanish composer and organist.
He was probably related to Juan de Aragüés, but the connection is unclear.
He spent his entire career as maestro di música at the Colegio de Soria in Cala-
tayud, where he composed largely sacred music, including two Lamentations.

ARAGÜÉS, JUAN ANTONIO DE (ca. 1710, SALAMANCA, SPAIN,


TO 28 MAY 1793, SALAMANCA). Spanish composer and organist. He
was trained at local schools and by 1738 had become maestro di capilla
de San Jerónimo at Salamanca. He received a master’s degree in 1741 and

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38 • ARAJA, FRANCESCO

by 1754 was appointed as professor of music at Salamanca University. His


music has been little studied but consists of two Masses, a Requiem, 81 vil-
lancicos, two Salve Reginas, two Magnificats, five Psalms, three hymns, four
Passions, and a cantata.

ARAJA, FRANCESCO (25 JUNE 1709, NAPLES, TO ca. 1770, BOLO-


GNA). Italian-Russian composer. His musical education was at the Conser-
vatorio where he studied under Leonardo Leo and Leonardo Vinci. At the
age of 20 he began his career as a composer of opera with Lo matriomonio
permenetto, establishing a career primarily in Rome. In 1735 he was hired
by Empress Elisabeth of Russia as her court composer. His first opera for St.
Petersburg, La forza dell’amore e dell’odio, of 1736, was a success in both
its Italian original and in a Russian translation. Over the next two decades he
worked at the Russian court, reaching the apex of his success with Tsefal i
Prokris in 1755, the first Russian opera to a text by Aleksandr Sumarokov. In
1759 Araja returned to Italy, only to be called back to Russia for the corona-
tion of Czar Peter III two years later. When the emperor was murdered the
following year, Araja left for Italy, taking up residence in Bologna, where
he lived the remainder of his life in obscurity. His 21 operas all reflect the
Neapolitan early Classical idiom with clear-cut lyrical lines, diatonic harmo-
nies, and close attention to text. In addition he composed two oratorios for
Bologna, as well as six large celebratory cantatas, one of which was used for
the coronation of the czar.

ARANAZ Y VIDES, PEDRO (2 MAY 1740, TUDELA, NAVARRE,


SPAIN, TO 24 SEPTEMBER 1820, CUENCA, SPAIN). Spanish com-
poser. He studied music with Luís Serra at the church of Nuestra Señora in
Zaragoza before moving to Madrid in 1765, where he achieved a reputation
as a composer of tonadillas. In 1769 he obtained a position as maestro di ca-
pilla at the Cuenca cathedral, being ordained in 1773. He retired from active
service in 1797. His works, little studied, include 22 tonadillas, 14 Masses,
150 motets, 20 Salve Reginas, and over 100 other sacred works.

ARENA, GIUSEPPE (1713, RABAT, GOZO, MALTA, TO 6 NOVEM-


BER 1784, NAPLES). Maltese-Italian composer and organist. At an early
age he was sent to Naples to be trained in music at the Conservatorio dei
Poveri di Gesù Cristo under Francesco Durante. Following in the footsteps
of fellow student Giovanni Pergolesi, he began a career as an opera com-
poser in 1738 with Achille in Sciro in Rome. In 1746, however, he abandoned
a growing reputation throughout Italy for his operas and returned to Naples to
become organist at the church of San Felipe Neri, a post he retained through-

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ARNE, MICHAEL • 39

out his career. His musical style is similar to other Neapolitans with good
sense of lyrical line and triadic harmony. His surviving works include eight
operas, as well as several smaller sacred works, and a symphony.

ARENZANA, MANUEL (ca. 1770, MEXICO, TO 1821, PUEBLA,


MEXICO). Mexican composer. Nothing is known of his youth or training.
He first appears in a recommendation for the post of maestro di capilla at
the Puebla cathedral in 1791, a post he retained until his death around 1821.
Although much of his time was spent composing sacred music, he became
well known for his comedies and zarzuelas beginning about 1800. None
of these appear to have survived. His surviving church music, consisting of
seven Masses, 20 motets, two Te Deums, a Requiem, and a set of Lamenta-
tions, is characterized by colorful orchestration and good contrasting tempos
and dynamics.

ARIA CANTABILE. Defined in the 18th century as a lyrical melody with


simple accompaniment allowing for considerable ornamentation by the
singer.

ARIA DI BRAVURA. Generally in the 18th century a fast movement often


in syllabic style that allows for the display of passion or drama, as well as
rapid figuration. Also called agitate or infuriate.

ARIA DI MEZZO CARATTERE. An aria form in the 18th century that is


slower, generally andante, with a rich orchestral texture that allows for the
singer to display drama.

ARIA DI PORTAMENTO. An 18th-century style that allows for a slower


tempo and more subtle rhythms, often with sustained notes and a flowing,
subdued accompaniment.

ARIA D’IMITAZIONE. An 18th-century aria that allows for the singer to


imitate other instruments or sounds.

ARIA PARLANTE. During the 18th century a type of cantilena style that
lies somewhere between recitative and arioso, creating a sort of spoken
melody, sometimes with effects such as the mezza di voce.

ARNE, MICHAEL (1740, LONDON, TO 14 JANUARY 1786, LON-


DON). English composer. He may have been the adopted son of Thomas
Arne, but was largely raised by his aunt, Susanna Cibber, owing to his

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40 • ARNE, THOMAS AUGUSTINE

mother’s frequent illnesses. In 1750 he began singing at various concert


venues around London, including Vauxhall Gardens, and the next year per-
formed a concerto on the organ in public, eventually earning a good living
through his talent. By 1766 he began to dabble in alchemy at a laboratory in
Chelsea that he had purchased. Three years later he was in debtor’s prison
for bankruptcy and to earn money went abroad to Germany in 1771. By 1775
he was active in Dublin, where a second attempt at alchemy resulted in his
being remanded to the local prison for his debts. To pay off his creditors, he
returned to London as a musician at Covent Garden in 1777. Arne was an
eccentric, though his music largely reflects the style of his father. His works
include nine operas (and insertions into 15 others) as well as over 250 songs.
He also published a treatise, Lessons for the Harpsichord, in 1761.

ARNE, THOMAS AUGUSTINE (12 MARCH 1710, LONDON, TO 5


MARCH 1778, LONDON). English composer. As a youth, Arne persisted
in learning music despite parental disapproval, eventually coming under the
influence of Michael Festing, who taught him violin and oversaw his musical
education. He also attended Eton College, and upon graduating practiced law
for three years, before he, his brother Robert, and his sister Susannah made
their debut in his masque Rosamund in 1733. By 1737 he was employed as
composer in residence at Drury Lane Theatre, and later, in 1750, moved to
Covent Garden after a dispute with the former’s manager, David Garrick. In
1741 he sued a publishing company over copyright, and although the issue
was settled privately, it marked one of the first instances where a composer
brought action in defense of his artistic rights. Arne’s personal life was dif-
ficult; in 1755 he and his wife separated (to be reconciled only a few months
before his death), and he was overbearing to theatre staff and relations. His
adopted son, Michael Arne, was also active as a composer.
His composition was focused almost exclusively on the stage, for which
he composed around 90 works, including incidental music, masques, operas,
pasticcios, and so forth. Several of these achieved considerable fame, includ-
ing the 1740 masque Alfred (later in 1755 turned into a three-act opera), writ-
ten for George II that included a vaudeville finale, which included a patriotic
tune “Rule Britannia”; one of the first through-sung comic operas, Thomas
and Sally, from 1760; a popular English seria, Artaxerxes, from 1762; and a
parody of Alexander’s Feast, titled Whitington’s Feast, from 1776. His other
surviving music includes 16 sonatas or lessons for the keyboard (1756–1757),
27 odes and cantatas, well over 60 songs (many published in collections),
at least 20 catches and glees (including 11 written for the Noblemen and
Gentlemen’s Catch Club), two Masses, two oratorios (Judith and The Death
of Abel), and several miscellaneous sacred works. The 12 “symphonies or

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ARQUIMBAU, DOMÈNIC [DOMINGO] • 41

overtures” are derived from his music for the theatre, as are the six keyboard
concertos, which were arranged and published in 1793. Arne’s style is noted
for the simple harmonies and textures but also for the colorful and innovative
orchestration. Arne’s music was vastly popular throughout the British Empire
of the period, with performances throughout the world and especially in the
various colonies. See also BURNEY, CHARLES; CHARKE, RICHARD.

ARNOLD, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (1 FEBRUARY 1773, NIEDER-


HALL, WÜRTTEMBERG, GERMANY, TO 26 JULY 1806, FRANK-
FURT AM MAIN). German cellist and composer. His earliest education was
from a local schoolmaster, and in 1785 he became a town musician in Kün-
zelsau. By 1796 he had obtained a position as principal cellist at the theatre
in Hamburg, where he remained the rest of his life. His music remains largely
unexplored. It consists of five cello concertos, a viola concerto, a sinfonia
concertante, five sets of variations for solo cello, and a series of waltzes for
guitar and flute.

ARNOLD, SAMUEL (10 AUGUST 1742, LONDON, TO 22 OCTOBER


1802, LONDON). English composer and organist. Allegedly the son of
Princess Amelia and a commoner, he was trained at the Royal Chapel under
Bernard Gates. He was then employed as a harpsichordist at Covent Garden,
where his opera The Maid of the Mill was premiered successfully in 1764. In
1769 he moved to Marleybone Gardens, and by 1783 he was listed among the
composers of the Royal Chapel. In 1789 he became a director of the Academy
of Ancient Music, and in 1793 he was appointed as organist at Westminster
Abbey. Arnold was one of the most prolific composers of operas in England
during the period, his success characterized by his use of pre-extant tunes
and melodies coupled with good orchestration. His works include 93 operas
(many pasticcios), nine oratorios, 17 anthems, two volumes of Psalms set-
tings, and two volumes of hymn tunes, as well as six services, 10 large odes,
over 60 songs, six symphonies, three keyboard concertos, 33 keyboard so-
natas, and a large number of catches and glees. He also published the works
of George Frederick Handel in 1786 in 36 volumes. His theatre music has
been cataloged by Robert Hoskins. See also CARR, BENJAMIN; TAYLOR,
RAYNOR.

ARQUIMBAU, DOMÈNIC [DOMINGO] (1760, CATALONIA, TO 26


JANUARY 1829, SEVILLE). Catalan-Spanish composer. His early train-
ing was likely in Barcelona, and he served as maestro di capilla at Tortosa,
as well as assistant director at the Barcelona cathedral, until 1785, when he
became Francesc Juncá i Carol’s successor at Girona. In 1790 he won the

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42 • ASIAÍN BARDAXI, JOAQUÍN

post of assistant at the Seville cathedral, eventually becoming maestro di


capilla on the death of Antonio Ripa y Blanques in 1795. In 1815 he was
elected a member of the Accademia filarmonica for a Lamentations setting.
His music includes three Magnificats, three hymns and an antiphon, and a
Mass; the last was disseminated as far away as Santiago de Chile. Much of
his music has been lost, however.

ASIAÍN BARDAXI, JOAQUÍN (20 FEBRUARY 1758, COTELLA,


NAVARRA, SPAIN, TO 1828, MADRID). Spanish-Basque monastic com-
poser and keyboardist. Following early training locally he entered the Hei-
ronymite order, becoming maestro di capilla at the monastery San Jerónimo
in Madrid until its dissolution in 1809. His music has been little known, but
includes 60 versos for organ, three Psalms, three Lamentations, a Magnificat,
and 10 sonatas for keyboard.

ASIOLI, BONIFAZIO (30 AUGUST 1769, CORREGIO, REGIO


EMILIA, ITALY, TO 18 MAY 1832, CORREGIO). Italian composer,
teacher, and keyboardist. Born into a highly respected family, he demon-
strated musical talent while still a child, writing his first compositions around
the age of 12. By 1782 he had advanced enough in musical study in Venice
and Bologna that he was able to return home as maestro di cappella at the
local church of San Quirino. The next year he obtained a similar post in Turin
and in 1799 was appointed as maestro di cappella in Milan, where he was
one of the founding members of the conservatory in 1807. Before his return
to Corregio in 1814, he taught Carl Mozart, among others. His musical style
is marked by a texture that presages the Romantic period. His most important
works were two theoretical treatises on harmony and elements of music pub-
lished in Milan in 1811–1815. See also MORIGI, ANGELO.

ASPLMAYR, FRANZ (1 APRIL 1728, LINZ, AUSTRIA, TO 29 JULY


1786, VIENNA). Austrian composer and violinist. Little is known of his
youth, save that his musical training was probably obtained from his father,
a dancing master. He appears as a secretary to Count Morzin in Lukaveč in
1759, where he probably studied under Joseph Haydn. Upon the dissolu-
tion of that court, he became a ballet composer at the Kärntnertor Theatre in
Vienna, where for the next decade or so he collaborated with choreographers
of the ballet d’action such as Franz Hilverding and Gasparo Angiolini to
produce works such as Iphigénie en Tauride in 1768. He later made his liv-
ing as a violinist in the city, becoming one of the founders of the Tonkünst-
lersozietät, though he appears to have died in poverty. Asplmayr can be con-
sidered one of the foremost composers of ballets, renowned for their dramatic

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AUDINOT, NICOLAS-MÉDARD • 43

intensity and dramatic content. He also contributed significantly to instru-


mental genres such as the string quartet and symphony. His works include
47 ballets, seven stage works (Singspiels and duodramas), 41 symphonies,
43 string quartets, 61 string trios, 70 wind partitas, 18 string duos, six violin
sonatas, a violin concerto, and numerous incidental dance pieces.

ASTARITA [ASTARITTA], GENNARO (1749, NAPLES, TO 18 DE-


CEMBER 1805, ROVERETO, ITALY). Italian composer. He was likely
born in or around Naples, beginning his career as an opera composer in a
collaborative work with Niccolò Piccinni in 1765. By 1770 he had been
appointed as maestro di cappella in Naples, from which he launched an
international career in Venice, Bratislava, and finally in 1771 in Moscow at
the Petrovsky Theatre. On his second visit to Russia, in 1796, he was asked
by Nicolai Yusupov to direct an opera troupe in St. Petersburg. In 1799 he
returned to northern Italy, where he spent the remainder of his career. As a
composer of mainly opera buffa, he was considered in the same class as
Tommaso Traetta or Pasquale Anfossi. He composed 36 operas (almost all
buffa), three ballets, a Mass, a litany, six sacred works, three cantatas, and
an oratorio.

ATTWOOD, THOMAS (bap. 23 NOVEMBER 1765, LONDON, TO 24


MARCH 1834, LONDON). English composer and organist. Son of a musi-
cian and page to George III of England, he began his musical education as a
chorister at the Chapel Royal. In 1781 he was sent to Naples to study under
Gaetano Latilla and in 1785 to Vienna, where he took lessons from Wolf-
gang Amadeus Mozart. In 1787 he returned to London as a courtier, later
becoming the tutor to the Duchess of York and Princess of Wales. By 1796
he was appointed organist at St. Paul’s Cathedral. During the 19th century he
was active in the musical life of the capital as both a teacher and professor
of the Royal Academy of Music and as a composer of opera, beginning with
The Prisoner of 1792. His music reflects the styles of his teachers. Works in-
clude 34 operas, five services, five Mass movements, 18 anthems, 50 songs,
seven trios, three pieces for winds, and a number of organ works.

AUDINOT, NICOLAS-MÉDARD (7 JUNE 1732, BOURMONT-EN-


BASSIGNY, HAUTE-MARNE, FRANCE, TO 21 MAY 1801, PARIS).
French singer, dramatist, composer, and impresario. Born in humble circum-
stances, he arrived in Paris around 1755, becoming a singer at the Opéra
Comique specializing in secondary roles around 1758. After a few years,
he was able to mount his own work, the opéra comique Le tonnelier, which
became an international success following a revision some four years later.

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44 • AUENBRUGGER, MARIANNA VON

At that time, he was employed by the Théâtre Italien (the successor to the
Opéra Comique), but in 1767 he left it to pursue his own career as an impre-
sario. After several years mounting puppet shows at the Foire St. Laurent,
he succeeded in forming his own theatrical company in 1769, the Théâtre de
l’Ambigu-Comique, which served as a popular stage up through the Revolu-
tion. As a composer Audinot had few gifts; his few opéras comiques are
simple and direct, with conventional harmony and no real drama. These,
however, were easily exportable and performed in places such as Sweden,
Denmark, Russia, and elsewhere.

AUENBRUGGER, MARIANNA VON (19 JULY 1759, VIENNA, TO 25


AUGUST 1782, VIENNA). Austrian keyboardist and composer. The daugh-
ter of a physician, she became a pupil of Antonio Salieri and Joseph Haydn,
who dedicated a set of six keyboard sonatas to her. She died of anorexia. Her
sole surviving works are a piano sonata and a song.

AUERNHAMMER, JOSEPHA BARBARA VON (bap. 25 SEPTEM-


BER 1758, VIENNA, TO 30 JUNE 1820, VIENNA). Austrian keyboardist
and composer. Daughter of a patrician family, she studied music under Georg
Friedrich Richter and Leopold Koželuh before becoming a pupil of Wolf-
gang Amadeus Mozart about 1781. Thereafter she performed frequently in
concerts he arranged, and after his death, continued to perform frequently in
Vienna. Her own works include six Lieder, 70 sets of variations (her favorite
compositional genre), and three keyboard sonatas.

AUFFMANN, JOSEPH ANTON XAVER (ca. 1720, PROBABLY NEAR


KEMPTEN, GERMANY, TO 1778, PRUNTRUT, SWITZERLAND).
German composer and organist. His training and early career are unknown.
He first appears in history as the successor to Franz Xaver Richter as Ka-
pellmeister to the Prince-Archbishop of Kempten-Allgäu in 1749, a post
he held for seven years. In 1756 he moved to Straubing and subsequently
probably to Donaueschingen before obtaining the position of organist for the
Archbishop of Pruntrut in 1773. His music is all but unknown, although he
wrote at least two Singspiels, six concertos, two symphonies, a sacred aria in
German, and several organ preludes.

AULETTA, DOMENICO (1723, NAPLES, TO 1753, NAPLES). Italian


composer and organist. The son of Pietro Auletta, he received his earliest
training from his father before settling into a life of complete obscurity in
Naples. It is not known where he was employed, but given that his compo-
sitional output is entirely sacred, it is likely that he was an organist at one

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AURISICCHIO, ANTONIO • 45

of the smaller churches. His musical style reflects the galant in its use of
contrasting phrases and dynamics, though the lyrical lines reflect Neapolitan
training. His surviving works include five Psalms, three Regina coelis, two
De profundis clamavis, a Dixit Dominus, and three keyboard concertos, as
well as a concert aria.

AULETTA, PIETRO (ca. 1698, SANT’ANGELO A SCALA, NEAR


AVELLINO, ITALY, TO SEPTEMBER 1771, NAPLES). Italian com-
poser. He was trained at the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio in Naples under
Nicola Porpora. In 1724 he became maestro di cappella at the church of
Santa Maria del Nova, composing his first opera Il trionfo dell’amore a year
later. Further success followed culminating in performances of his works in
Paris in 1737 and Munich in 1758. Although his early operas reflect Baroque
styles, his later works are much in the vein of Giovanni Pergolesi. These
include 17 operas, two oratorios, seven sacred works (Psalms and hymns),
a secular cantata, and a thoroughly modern symphony written around 1750.
His music has been largely forgotten and remains unexplored. His son Do-
menico Auletta also became a composer.

AUMANN, FRANZ ANTON (24 FEBRUARY 1728, TRAISMAUER,


LOWER AUSTRIA, TO 30 MARCH 1797, ST. FLORIAN, UPPER
AUSTRIA). German monastic composer. Following training as a chorister
in the Jesuit school in Vienna, he became an initiate in the Augustinian Order
in 1753 and was ordained as a priest in 1757. At that time he was appointed
as regens chori of the monastery of St. Florian, where he lived the rest of
his life. His music circulated widely during his lifetime, where it achieved
a reputation for good command of counterpoint, as well as the prevalent
Neapolitan sacred musical style. His Missa profana is a satire of poor church
musical composition, and his two Missae brevissimae are little disguised
comments on the Josephian reform movement. His Missa Germanica was
one of the earliest Mass settings in the vernacular. His works include 38
Masses, 12 Requiems, 29 Psalms, 25 Magnificats, 22 offertories, 10 litanies,
eight responsories, seven vespers, many other sacred motets and arias, four
oratorios, two Singspiels in Austrian dialect, numerous songs and canons,
three symphonies, and 25 serenades, divertimentos, and parthies. His mu-
sic was a distinct influence on Anton Bruckner.

AURISICCHIO, ANTONIO (1710, NAPLES, TO 4 SEPTEMBER 1781,


ROME). Italian composer. Nothing is known of his youth or education prior
to his debut as an opera composer at the Teatro dei Fiorentini in Naples in
1734 with the comic opera Chi dell’altrui si veste presto si spoglia. Despite

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46 • AUTOS SACRAMENTALES

successes on the stage, he chose to pursue a path as a church organist, becom-


ing a member of the Congregazione dei musici di Santa Cecilia in 1747 and
maestro di cappella at the church of San Giacomo degli Spagnoli in Rome
in 1766. His surviving works include seven operas. See also MOREAU,
HENRI.

AUTOS SACRAMENTALES. A uniquely Spanish form of interactive


drama first developed in the 13th century. The piece consists of a proces-
sional, during which a morality play is presented at several places on the way
to the main church. By the 18th century these included complete miniature
operatic scenes with arias, instrumental pieces, and other theatrical musi-
cal genres. One of the most prolific composers of these was José de Nebra
Blasco, who wrote 21. They were prohibited in 1765 but continued to be
performed over the next several decades in smaller towns in Spain.

AVISON, CHARLES (bap. 16 FEBRUARY 1709, NEWCASTLE UPON


TYNE, ENGLAND, TO 10 MAY 1770, NEWCASTLE). English organ-
ist and composer. Following early education at home, he was taken into the
service of the member of parliament for Northumberland, who allowed him
to study with Francesco Geminiani in London. In 1734 he returned home to
become the organist at two churches, St. John’s and St. Nicholas. Active in
the culture of Newcastle, he and John Garth founded the Marcello Society
in 1750. Charles Burney described him as an “ingenious and polished man,”
and Avison was best known for his opposition to the style of George Freder-
ick Handel, which he outlined in his treatise An Essay on Musical Expression,
published in three editions up through 1775. His own works were focused on
the concerto grosso and include 54 concertos, 24 trio sonatas, an oratorio,
two anthems, and a number of songs and marches, as well as adaptations of
the works of Giovanni Clari, Benedetto Marcello, and Domenico Scarlatti.

AVONDANO, PEDRO ANTÓNIO (16 APRIL 1714, LISBON, TO 1782,


LISBON). Portuguese composer and violinist. The son of a Genoese-born
violinist, Avondano probably received his earliest musical education from
his father and later probably also studied under Domenico Scarlatti. Much
of the information concerning his education and training is unknown due to
the destruction of documents in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, but it is known
that he was commissioned by the theatre in Macerata, Italy, to compose an
opera, Berenice, in 1742. By 1764 he was appointed as principal violinist
of the Royal Chamber, a post he held until his death. During this time, he
wrote a substantial number of dances for the court, as well as a popular op-
era, Il mondo della luna, and a pair of oratorios in 1770, Il voto di Jefte and

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AZZOPARDI, FRANCESCO • 47

Adamo ed Eva. He also composed a large number of sacred works, including


Masses, a Te Deum, Psalms, and other smaller works, in addition to keyboard
sonatas, two symphonies, and several works for solo cello, written no doubt
for his brother, João Baptista Andre Avondano, who was principal cellist. In
1765 he was part of the revival of a musical guild known as the Brotherhood
of St. Cecilia and shortly thereafter organized a musical society called the
Assembleia des Naçôes Estrangieras. He also purchased a knighthood in the
Orden de Cristo. José Mazza noted that his music contained “great harmony
and softness,” but the surviving compositions demonstrate a close affinity to
the Neapolitan style of the middle of the century.

AVOSSA, GIUSEPPE (1708, PAOLA, ITALY, TO 9 JANUARY 1796,


NAPLES). Italian composer. At an early age he was sent to the Conservatorio
dei Poveri di Gesù Cristo in Naples, where he studied under Francesco Du-
rante and Gaetano Greco. After an early career serving in various churches
and monasteries, he obtained the post of maestro di cappella in Pesaro at the
city theatre in 1749. In 1758 he returned to Naples in the same post at the
Teatro di Fiorentini. There he produced his most successful comic opera, La
Pupilla, in 1763. His music has been little studied, although it conforms to
the Neapolitan opera style of the time. Surviving works include nine operas
(all buffa), three Masses, two Magnificats, and two motets.

AZIONE SCENICA. See AZIONE TEATRALE.

AZIONE TEATRALE. Also known as Azione Scenica, this was an opera


consisting of a single act that was usually performed for festive or intimate
court settings, sometimes in concert, without staging. Larger versions of
this were called festa teatrale. An example of this can be found in Joseph
Haydn’s L’isola disabitata. See also COMPONIMENTO DA CAMERA.

AZZOPARDI, FRANCESCO (5 MAY 1748, RABAT, MALTA, TO 6


FEBRUARY 1809, RABAT). Maltese composer and theorist. His earliest
training was under composer Michel’Angelo Vella, prior to his being sent
to Naples in 1763, where he enrolled in the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio
a Porta Capuana. His teachers there were Joseph Doll and Niccolò Piccinni.
In 1774 he returned to Malta to become maestro di cappella at the Mdina
Cathedral of Saint Paul. In 1783 he was appointed as successor of Benigno
Zerafa at the St. John’s Co-Cathedral in Valletta, a position he finally at-
tained in 1789. During his lifetime, he was a well-known and much-sought-
after composer, particularly of church music. His style reflects the late Nea-
politan opera, but his use of instrumental color and harmony are particularly

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48 • AZZOPARDI, FRANCESCO

effective. His most famous theoretical work is the treatise Il musico prattico
from around 1781. His works include an opera; a festive cantata, Malta fe-
lice; an oratorio; 31 Masses; 76 Psalms; six Magnificats; two Passions; six
Lamentations; 70 motets; 16 antiphons; and three symphonies of the single-
movement da chiesa form. See also ISOUARD, NICOLÒ.

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B
BABCOCK, LEMUEL (26 MARCH 1748, MILTON, MASSACHU-
SETTS, UNITED STATES, TO 27 AUGUST 1835, MILTON). American
psalmodist. Like his cousin Samuel Babcock, he was in the militia during
the Revolutionary War and upon his release was a leather worker and music
teacher in Wrentham, Massachusetts, moving back to Milton, where he was
an assessor and important member of the community. He was an active and
well-regarded teacher, but only two of his works can be identified (and an-
other seven with less secure attributions).

BABCOCK, SAMUEL (ca. 1760, MILTON, MASSACHUSETTS,


UNITED STATES, TO 23 NOVEMBER 1813, FRENCH MILLS,
PENNSYLVANIA, UNITED STATES). American psalmodist, cousin of
Lemuel Babcock. He made his living primarily as a hatter in Watertown,
Massachusetts, after a period of service in the militia during the Revolution-
ary War. He also taught singing, publishing much of his psalmody in the
Middlesex Harmony of 1795. He wrote in all around 80 works.

BABU, NIDHU [GUPTA, RAMNIDHI] (1741, KURMUTALI, INDIA,


TO 1839, CALCUTTA). Hindi-Bengali singer and composer. Following
early musical education from local masters, he found a position in 1776 as a
clerk with the Chhapra Collective, but in 1794 he abandoned his bureaucratic
career to become a traveling musician. In 1805 he organized a troupe that
performed Classical Indian music, but in a few years he took up the life of
an aesthetic. He is known for his creation of an 18th-century Classical Indian
form, the tappā, which is based on love poetry of longing and denial. His
most famous work is a set known as Gitaratna.

BACH, CARL PHILIPP EMANUEL (8 MARCH 1714, WEIMAR, TO


14 DECEMBER 1788, HAMBURG). German composer, theorist, and key-
boardist. The second son of Johann Sebastian Bach, he received his earliest
musical education from his father, enrolling at the age of 10 in the Thomas-
schule. By 1731 he was a student in law at Leipzig University, later transfer-
ring to the university at Frankfurt an der Oder, where he obtained a degree in

49

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50 • BACH, CARL PHILIPP EMANUEL

1738. Deciding to become a musician, he was recommended to Crown Prince


Frederick in Rheinsburg, and upon the crown prince’s crowning as Freder-
ick II of Prussia, he moved to Berlin as a chamber musician, a formal title
granted in 1746. As an active member of the Berlin School, he participated
in the intimate inner circle of musicians and writers of the period, producing a
seminal treatise on keyboard playing, Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier
zu spielen, in 1752. The death of his godfather Georg Philipp Telemann in
1767 offered him the opportunity to seek the appointment as city Kapellmeis-
ter in Hamburg (a post that was temporarily occupied by Georg Michael
Telemann). From 1768 to his death, he was the leading musician in the city,
whose friendship with major literary figures such as Friedrich Gottlob Klop-
stock and Johann Heinrich Voss, his pedagogical efforts at the Johanneum,
and the maintaining of his close ties to colleagues in Berlin made him one of
the most prominent figures in music of the period.
Over the course of his long career, he composed almost 900 works in all
genres save opera (and there is an indication that he may have made an abor-
tive attempt at one). One of the main figures in the emerging empfindsamer
Stil (Empfindsamkeit) with its emphasis upon emotion and drama in music,
he created compositions that were far ahead of his time in terms of harmony
and form. For example, the introduction to the oratorio Die Auferstehung
und Himmelfahrt Jesu is both monophonic and atonal, while his free fanta-
sies move rapidly from tonal center to tonal center using sometimes harsh
dissonance, extreme changes in tempo and dynamics, and effective musical
moods, all without metrical regularity. Ludwig van Beethoven lauded him
as his spiritual father, and almost all other composers of the period imitated
his style. He published works, such as the Klopstock’s Morgengesang, by
subscription, having control over much of his own creative output. His com-
positions include 370 miscellaneous works for keyboard (sonatas, fantasias,
etc.), 69 keyboard concertos (plus 20 “sonatinas” for keyboard and orches-
tra), 11 flute concertos, 19 symphonies, two keyboard quartets, six pieces
for Harmoniemusik, 37 sonatas for various instruments (violin, viola da
gamba, harp, flute, etc.), 48 trio sonatas, 30 pieces for musical clockwork,
277 songs and secular cantatas, a Magnificat, two Psalms, 22 Passions/Pas-
sion cantatas, an oratorio, 13 large-scale choruses, an ode, 14 chorales, four
Easter cantatas, 26 pieces for Hamburg celebrations, and nine cantatas. He
can be considered one of the principal influences of the entire period. His
music is known by either Wq (Wotquenne) or H (Helm) numbers. See also
DUSSEK, JAN LADISLAV; HOLLAND, JOHANN DAVID; RELLSTAB,
JOHANN CARL FRIEDRICH; WESTENHOLZ, CARL AUGUST FRIED-
RICH; ZINCK, HARDENACK OTTO CONRAD.

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BACH, JOHANN CHRISTIAN • 51

BACH, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (5 SEPTEMBER 1735, LEIPZIG, TO 1


JANUARY 1782, LONDON). German-English composer of international
stature. The youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach, he received his earliest
musical training from his father and a cousin, Johann Elias Bach. After serv-
ing as a secretary to his father the final year of his father’s life, he moved to
Berlin in 1750, receiving further instruction from his brother Carl Philipp
Emanuel Bach. In 1755 he left for Milan, where he eventually obtained the
patronage of Count Agostino Litta. Following study with Padre Giovanni
Battista Martini and conversion to Roman Catholicism, he was appointed
second organist at the Milan cathedral in 1760. A commission for an opera
from the Teatro Regio in Turin the same year, however, altered his fortunes;
the work, Cantone in Utica, was a success that led both to commissions
throughout Italy and an international reputation as a composer of Italian
opera. In 1762 he was invited to London, where he set the opera Orione.
Its success and the appointment as Music Master to the Queen allowed him
to reside permanently there. A further trip to Paris solidified his ability to
publish his music, and, finally, his lodging with compatriot Carl Friedrich
Abel resulted in a collaborative concert series beginning in 1764. For the next
decade he traveled regularly to Paris where his works were highly esteemed,
and in 1772 he was invited to Mannheim to set the opera Temistocle. In 1779
he wrote his first tragédie lyrique for Paris, Amadis de Gaule. Despite the
successes, competition with rival concert series, a difficult economic situa-
tion, and ill health led to his early death.
Bach can be considered one of the pivotal composers of the age. Unlike
his brothers Wilhelm Friedemann Bach and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach,
he fully immersed himself in the Italian style, creating works that feature
clear period lyrical themes, solid harmonic foundations, and distinct formal
structures. His orchestration, often using obbligato instruments, is colorful,
and Bach used various Mannheim orchestral devices to great effect. He was
one of the most popular composers of the period, whose music had circula-
tion throughout Europe, influencing a later generation of composers, such
as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. He was a prolific composer in virtually
all genres. His works include 39 operas, three serenatas, an oratorio, seven
Mass/Requiem movements, 28 other sacred works, 15 concert arias and
cantatas, 45 songs/canzonetts, 34 symphonies, 19 sinfonia concertantes,
28 keyboard concertos, 11 other concertos (violin, flute, oboe, and bassoon),
six wind symphonies, 11 marches, a sextet, 13 quintets (string and piano), 20
quartets (string, flute, and piano), 14 trio sonatas, 12 trios (almost all piano
trios), 26 violin sonatas, two viola da gamba sonatas, 23 keyboard sonatas
(four for keyboard four hands), and numerous miscellaneous pieces for the

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52 • BACH, JOHANN CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH

keyboard and harp. His music has been cataloged according to Terry (T) or
Warburton (W or CW) numbers.

BACH, JOHANN CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH (21 JUNE 1732, LEIPZIG,


TO 26 JANUARY 1795, BÜCKEBURG, GERMANY). German composer
and keyboardist. One of four sons of Johann Sebastian Bach who became
professional musicians, he was trained by his father and his cousin Johann
Elias Bach at the Thomasschule. In 1750, upon the death of his father, he was
offered a position as harpsichordist with Count Wilhelm von Schaumberg-
Lippe in Bückeburg. In 1759 he was elevated to concertmaster, a position he
retained for the remainder of his life. He did not travel, save for a visit to his
youngest brother, Johann Christian Bach, in London in 1778, preferring the
calm surroundings of his small town. He was able to create music that was
different from his brothers, thanks both to the intellectual stimulus of people
such as Johann Gottfried Herder and his patron’s penchant for Italian music.
His son, Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst Bach, was trained in this environment,
becoming the third direct generation of the family of Johann Sebastian to
pursue a career in music.
Bach is known for his ability to imbue drama into his works, particularly
the oratorios, as well as his adherence to sonata principles and a progres-
sive sense of harmony and orchestral color. Although much of his music did
not survive the Second World War, what is left demonstrates that he was as
innovative in his own way as his siblings. His music, cataloged by Hansdie-
ter Wolfarth (and using BR numbers), includes eight oratorios, a Miserere,
nine sacred cantatas, 55 secular cantatas, odes, or other similar works, 79
Lieder, 28 symphonies, 16 piano concertos, three sinfonia concertantes
(titled “concerto grosso” by Bach himself), a septet, six flute quartets and six
string quartets, 13 trio sonatas, six piano trios, 22 sonatas (for flute, violin,
or cello), 43 keyboard sonatas, and around 92 miscellaneous pieces for the
keyboard.

BACH, JOHANN ERNST (28 JANUARY 1722, EISENACH, GER-


MANY, TO 1 SEPTEMBER 1777, EISENACH). German composer and
organist. The son of organist Johann Bernhard Bach and a cousin of the Bach
family of Leipzig, he became a pupil of Johann Sebastian Bach there. Fol-
lowing further education at Leipzig University, he returned to Eisenach as his
father’s successor in 1741. In 1756 he also became Kapellmeister at the court
in Weimar, although he actually performed duties there for only two years.
He was a prolific composer in the Empfindsamkeit style. His music consists
of three Passions/oratorios, 22 sacred cantatas (with a complete cycle lost
and two secular cantatas), a Mass, 15 motets, numerous Lieder, at least six

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BACH, WILHELM FRIEDEMANN • 53

symphonies (only one of which has survived), a trio sonata, six violin sona-
tas, and a large number of organ and keyboard works.

BACH, JOHANN MICHAEL (9 NOVEMBER 1745, STRUTH, NEAR


SCHMALKALDEN, GERMANY, TO 1820, EBERFELD, GERMANY).
German composer. Related to the more famous Bach family in Leipzig,
Johann Michael Bach exhibited a wanderlust early in his life. In 1767 he
traveled to Holland, and from there to England and the United States before
returning to Germany in 1779 to study law at Göttingen and Leipzig. Al-
though he practiced as a lawyer for several years, in 1793 he was appointed
as cantor at Tann, and afterward became a music teacher at the Gymnasium
in Eberfeld. His main claim to fame is a treatise on thorough-bass published
in 1780, but he also wrote six keyboard concertos, two cantatas, a motet, and
several other smaller works.

BACH, WILHELM FRIEDEMANN (22 NOVEMBER 1710, WEIMAR,


TO 1 JULY 1784, BERLIN). German composer and organist. The eldest
son of Johann Sebastian Bach, he received his earliest musical training from
his father, later enrolling in the Thomasschule in Leipzig. In 1726 he was
sent to Merseburg to study violin under Johann Gottlieb Graun, returning
in 1729 to enroll in Leipzig University. There he studied mathematics, but in
1733 he was appointed organist at the Sophiakirche in Dresden. In 1746 he
was appointed as organist at the Liebfraukirche in the Pietist city of Halle.
Unfortunately, his relations with the town fathers and his cantor Georg Mittag
were problematic, and he began to apply for other posts throughout Germany
without success, although he was allowed in 1762 to style himself as Kapell-
meister to the court of Hessen-Darmstadt even though he did not obtain the
position. In 1764 he simply quit his position and began to support himself
through private teaching, eventually leaving for Braunschweig in 1770 and
subsequently for Berlin four years later. There, he continued to teach even
though he was initially welcomed at the court of Anna Amalia, the sister of
Frederick II of Prussia. His last years were spent in extreme poverty exac-
erbated by alcoholism.
Although active as a composer, his reputation during his lifetime was pri-
marily for his keyboard improvisation, no doubt due in part to the rigorous
training provided by his father. His music, however, is often characterized
by a mixture of older styles (also inherited from his father) and a sense of
harmonic and formal experimentation that often created extreme contrast and
jarring dissonances. Not surprisingly, some of his earlier compositions were
so close in style to those of his father that they were misattributed. He was a
good teacher; his students include his brother Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach,

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54 • BACH, WILHELM FRIEDRICH ERNST

Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, and Johann Nikolaus Forkel, with whom he


also collaborated on that author’s biography of Johann Sebastian Bach. His
music, cataloged according to F (Falck) or BR numbers, consists of 32 canta-
tas (two secular); an opera, Lausus und Lydie; two Masses and several Mass
movements; a German Te Deum; several other smaller sacred settings; 15
keyboard sonatas; 18 works for musical clockwork; around 40 polonaises; 10
keyboard fantasies; some 40 or so miscellaneous works for the keyboard; 11
fugues/canons; three sonatas for two keyboards (one titled “concerto”); eight
symphonies; seven concertos (five for keyboard, and one each for flute and
two harpsichords); a sextet; nine flute duets; three viola duets; and five trio
sonatas. The famous portrait by Wilhelm Weitsch is now known to portray
his cousin.

BACH, WILHELM FRIEDRICH ERNST (24 MAY 1759, BÜCKE-


BURG, GERMANY, TO 25 DECEMBER 1845, BERLIN). German
composer. The son of Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach and grandson of
Johann Sebastian Bach, he grew up at the court of Schaumberg-Lippe, where
he was instructed by his father and Christian Friedrich Geyer, the local can-
tor. In 1782 he and his father paid a visit to his uncle, Johann Christian
Bach, in London, where he stayed until 1784. Following travels through
the Netherlands and France, he arrived in Minden, where he functioned as
music director of the city (although there was no formal title or post). Fol-
lowing successful performances of cantatas for the Prussian royal family, he
was appointed as Kapellmeister to the dowager queen Elisabeth Christine in
1789, further being keyboard tutor to the Prussian royal family of Friedrich
Wilhelm III until 1811, when he was pensioned. He was still alive in 1843
and attended the unveiling of the Bach memorial in Leipzig.
Like his father, he was fully versed in the styles of music of the later 18th
century, though it is difficult to trace a stylistic development due to much
of his music being lost. His sextet contains parts of considerable virtuosity
for horns, and his symphonies show a good sense of thematic contrast. He
is perhaps best noted, however, for his sense of humor. The piano piece for
six hands, Das Dreyblatt, for example, requires a large male teacher seated
between two smaller female pupils with his part being simultaneously the
highest and lowest in the work; another example is the “concerto buffo” for
bass voice, fortepiano, and toy instruments. His works include a Stabat mater,
five secular cantatas, a ballet-pantomime (of 43 movements), three odes, 23
Lieder, seven symphonies, three piano concertos (and one for two pianos and
orchestra), nine violin sonatas, six piano trios, seven larger chamber works
for various instrumental combinations, 13 keyboard sonatas, and a host of
small keyboard works.

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BAGUER, CARLES • 55

BACHMANN, PATER SIXT (18 JULY 1754, KETTERSHAUSEN,


BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG, GERMANY, TO 18 OCTOBER 1825,
REUTLINGENDORF, GERMANY). German monastic composer and
pedagogue. He entered the Benedictine monastery of Obermarschal in 1766
as a student, later taking his vows in 1770. During this period he displayed
his talent at the keyboard; while still a child he competed with Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart as a prodigy. His work at the monastery was as a teacher
of music, regens chori, and an assessor in the monastic treasury. He retired
when the monastery was dissolved in 1805. His music includes four large
Masses, as well as numerous pieces for organ and small church works. See
also BUCHER, FRANZ XAVER.

BACHSCHMIDT, ANTON (11 FEBRUARY 1728, MELK, AUSTRIA,


TO 29 DECEMBER 1797, EICHSTÄTT, GERMANY). Austrian-German
composer. Born into a family of musicians, he received his early training
from its members, becoming appointed at an early age as instrumental music
master in Melk. In 1753 he embarked upon a career as a virtuoso violin-
ist, settling in Eichstätt several years later where he was later appointed as
Kapellmeister in 1773. He served Prince-Bishop Johann Anton II as court
violinist and composer, as well as teaching students such as Pater Aemilian
Kaiser. His music has been little studied but consists of eight operas, five
Jesuit school dramas, 21 Masses, a Requiem, eight vespers, 10 hymns, 29
litanies, 34 offertories, six Te Deums, nine Psalms, two motets, five concer-
tos, 24 symphonies and 12 symphonic movements, and six string quartets.

BACK [BAGG], KONRAD (23 JUNE 1749, HAIGERLOCH, BA-


VARIA, GERMANY, TO 10 APRIL 1810, OTTOBEUREN, BAVARIA,
GERMANY). German monastic composer and organist. Although he was
schooled by local musicians at Zweifalten and Ehringen, it was not until 1771
that he began to receive formal musical training at the Benedictine monastery
in Ottobeuren from Franciscus Schnitzer and Christoph Neubauer. By
1785 he was Franciscus Schnitzer’s successor as regens chori, a position he
held until the dissolution of the monastery in 1802. He was highly regarded
as a proficient composer of sacred music. His works include two Masses, an
oratorio, two sacred dramas, numerous offertories, Psalms, and other smaller
sacred works, as well as a symphony that was published by Johann Julius
Hummel in Berlin.

BAGUER, CARLES (13 MARCH 1768, BARCELONA, TO 28 FEBRU-


ARY 1808, BARCELONA). Also known as “Carlets” or “Carlos.” Catalan
composer and organist. Following studies under Francesc Mariner, he was

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56 • BAILLOU, LUIGI DE

appointed as organist at the Barcelona cathedral in 1786, a position he re-


tained his entire life. Baguer was a much-respected teacher and composer
at the center of Catalonian musical life during the late 18th and early 19th
centuries. His musical style is similar to Joseph Haydn, and he was noted
for his development of formal structures. His music includes an opera, 14
oratorios, eight Masses, a Requiem, 11 concert arias (sacred and secular),
19 symphonies, eight duos, seven keyboard sonatas, and a large number of
smaller chamber works. See also BERTRAN, BERNAT.

BAILLOU, LUIGI DE (27 JULY 1736, MILAN, TO 14 MARCH 1804,


MILAN). Italian violinist and composer. Although born into a musical fam-
ily, there is no information on his early education. In 1762 he was appointed
to the court orchestra in Stuttgart, a position he held until his dismissal in
1774. In 1775 he arrived in Milan, where he eventually became the concert-
master of the orchestra at La Scala, achieving a reputation for his ballets.
He was appointed as a professor at the Pio Instituto in 1783 and retained his
positions even during the Napoleonic occupation. His music, little studied,
includes 21 ballets, seven symphonies, six trios, a divertimento, and several
smaller chamber works. His most important pupil was Alessandro Rolla.

BAINI, LORENZO (1740, ROME, TO 11 AUGUST 1814, RIETI, IT-


ALY). Italian composer. Little is known of his early education in Rome. His
earliest career was as maestro di cappella at the church of St. Apostoli in that
city, following which he was employed at the cathedral in Termi and, from
1804 onward, in Rieti. His music has been little researched, but includes three
operas, four ballets, three oratorios, and a host of smaller sacred works.

BALBASTRE, CLAUDE-BÉNINGE (8 DECEMBER 1724, DIJON, TO


9 MAY 1799, PARIS). French composer and keyboardist. One of France’s
best-known keyboardists, Balbastre received his earliest musical education
under Claude Rameau, the brother of Jean-Philippe Rameau, in Dijon.
Moving to Paris in 1750 he continued his studies with Pierre Février, and with
the help of Rameau was introduced to the most important musical circles. He
obtained a position as organist at Saint Reh, later adding additional posts at
Nôtre Dame and the Chapelle Royale, where he became the tutor of Marie
Antoinette in 1776. In 1759 he published his Premier livre pièces de clavecin
and began performing frequently as a soloist at the Concerts spirituels. At
this time Charles Burney noted that his performances at regular services
were almost legendary, with Balbastre introducing hunting tunes and dances
without official repercussion. He also was pleased with a close friendship
with Armand-Louis Couperin instead of the usual rivalry. Following the

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BALLAD OPERA • 57

revolution, Balbastre wrote patriotic tunes and variations, such as an exten-


sive set on “La Marseillaise.” His compositions include 14 organ concertos
(of which only one survives), four noëls variés, six sonates en quatuors, and
numerous variations and smaller pieces for keyboard. He also wrote church
music, of which nothing survives. His style is more homophonic than some
of his contemporaries.

BALBI, IGNAZIO (ca. 1700, PROBABLY MILAN, TO 1773, MILAN).


Italian composer. Nothing is known of his training or origins, save that in
1720 he appears as a composer with an oratorio in which he designates him-
self as an amateur. In several subsequent works, he is described as a private
secretary to the Duke of Milan and a dilettante. By 1753 he had begun to
compose operas. Although his early works reflect the Baroque style, later
operas and his symphonies seem to include galant traits. His works include
five oratorios, three operas, two symphonies, a duet and an aria with orches-
tra, and 20 trio sonatas.

BALDI, JOÃO [JOSÉ] (1770, LISBON, TO 18 MAY 1816, LISBON).


Portuguese composer. The son of a court musician, he was trained at the
Seminário Patriarchal in 1781 under João de Sousa Carvalho. In 1789 he
was named mestre de capella at the cathedral in Guarda, and in 1794 he
moved to the city of Faro. In 1800 he returned to Lisbon as assistant direc-
tor at the cathedral, and he later served in the local militia as a soldier. His
music reflects the Italian styles of his teachers and includes 14 Masses, 60
responsories, seven vespers, seven Psalms, two Te Deums, a symphony, and
numerous other smaller sacred works.

BALIUS Y VILA, JAIME (1750, PROBABLY GERONA, CATALONIA


[NOW SPAIN], TO 11 MARCH 1822, CÓRDOBA, SPAIN). Spanish-
Catalan composer and organist. Following training at the Montserrat mon-
astery in Catalonia he became maestro de capila at the cathedral in Seo de
Urgel in 1780. The following year he moved to Gerona and then in 1785 was
appointed to the senior post at the cathedral in Córdoba, which he retained the
remainder of his life, save for a two-year sojourn in Madrid at the Convento
de la Encarnación. His music has been all but ignored by modern scholarship,
although it consists of over 400 compositions, mostly sacred and including
Masses, villancicos, hymns, and Lamentations. See also PONS, JOSÉ.

BALLAD OPERA. A genre that developed in England in 1728 as a reaction


against Italian opera. Initially, it was in English, contained music derived in
pasticcio fashion from opera arias or popular tunes of the day, and had spoken

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58 • BALLET EN ACTION

dialogue. It developed into a larger genre with original music in the later 18th
century, being popular in the British Empire as well as the United States. It
also served as a model for the Singspiel and its cognates in Northern Europe,
as well as influencing the development of the opéra comique in France. The
earliest work was the popular Beggar’s Opera to a text by John Gay and with
music arranged by Johann Pepusch, but the most imitated work was Charles
Coffey’s farce The Devil to Pay. See also BARTHÉLEMON, FRANÇOIS-
HYPPOLYTE.

BALLET EN ACTION [BALLET D’ACTION]. A type of reform ballet


developed in France and the Holy Roman Empire by French choreographers
such as Jean-Georges Noverre, Gasparo Angiolini, Antoine Bournonville,
and Étienne Lauchery. It consists of original music and plots, often dramatic
in nature, with more versatile and flexible choreography and natural move-
ments, along with fluid gestures and graceful acting. Music for these was
written by composers such as Christoph von Gluck, Niccolò Jommelli,
Christian Cannabich, and Joseph Martin Kraus.

BALLET HÉROÏQUE. A self-contained ballet consisting of a heroic or


exotic plot. An example can be found in Jean-Philippe Rameau’s Les fêtes
de Paphos.

BAMBINI, FELICE (ca. 1742, BOLOGNA, ITALY, TO ca. 1795,


PARIS). French keyboardist and composer. Son of an impresario, he arrived
in Paris in 1752 with his father’s troupe. There he studied with André-Jean
Rigade and began a career as an opera composer at the Théâtre Italien un-
til the failure of one of his operas led him to compose and perform for the
Théâtre des Beaujolais. He disappears from history around the end of the
Reign of Terror during the French Revolution. His music, little studied, con-
sists of four operas, an oratorio, seven symphonies, 24 violin sonatas, nine
keyboard sonatas, and several trios for two violins and viola.

BAPTISTA, FRANCISCO XAVIER (d. 1797, LISBON). Portuguese


composer and organist. Nothing is known about his life, save that he func-
tioned as organist at the Santa María Church up until his death. He was,
however, an important composer of keyboard music, including 13 sonatas, a
violin sonata, a modhina, and a motet. His style is somewhat old-fashioned
and similar to Domenico Scarlatti.

BARBARA [DE BRAGANÇA] OF PORTUGAL, MARÍA TERESA


(4 DECEMBER 1711, LISBON, TO 27 AUGUST 1758, MADRID).
Portuguese-Spanish queen and composer. She was the daughter of João V of

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BARRIÈRE, ETIENNE-BERNARD-JOSEPH • 59

Portugal and Maria Anna of Austria. In 1719 she became a student of Do-
menico Scarlatti in Lisbon. Her progress as a keyboardist was remarkable,
such that Padre Martini stated in his Storia della musica that she had learned
everything he had to teach in extreme detail. In 1729 she married the crown
prince of Spain, later Ferdinand IV. In Madrid she was regarded as a sensitive
and emotional performer on the keyboard. Only one orchestral composition
by her survives, a Salve Regina for voices and orchestra, but she wrote a va-
riety of keyboard works in the style of her mentor Scarlatti.

BARBELLA, EMANUALE (17 APRIL 1718, NAPLES, TO 1 JANU-


ARY 1777, NAPLES). Italian composer and violinist. He received his musi-
cal training at the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto under Pasquale
Bini and Giuseppe Tartini, with composition under Leonardo Leo. In 1744
he was taken to England by Leo, where he had his debut as a violinist. He
later was appointed to positions at the Teatro Nuovo in 1753 and the Teatro
San Carlo in 1761. Barbella was known as a fine violinist with great techni-
cal ability. His music, mostly in the style of Tartini, includes two concertos,
33 trio sonatas, 29 violin sonatas, 33 duets for two violins, two operas, and
several smaller works. He wrote a number of pieces for the mandolin, includ-
ing sonatas and duets.

BARBOSA, DOMINGOS (1739, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL, TO 9


NOVEMBER 1800, LISBON). Brazilian-Portuguese composer and viola
d’amore virtuoso. Little is known about his life, save that he was a mulatto,
the son of a Portuguese father and English mother. He arrived in Portugal in
1763 to study in Coimbra, thereafter achieving a reputation as a virtuoso on
his instrument. Few compositions survive, save for several modhinas and a
treatise titled Viola de Loreno.

BARMANN, PATER JOHANN BAPTIST (1709, IMMENSTADT,


ALLGÄU, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 1788, HOFEN MONASTERY,
GERMANY). German monastic composer. Nothing is known of his training
or education, save that he entered the Benedictine monastery in Weingarten
around 1735, eventually becoming a superior and librarian there. Around
1770 he became prior at the monastery in Hofen, Bavaria. His music has been
little performed or studied, even though he wrote a complete hymnal in 1765.
Surviving works include four Marian antiphons and a Mass.

BARRIÈRE, ETIENNE-BERNARD-JOSEPH (7 OCTOBER 1748, VA-


LENCIENNES, FRANCE, TO ca. 1816, PARIS). French violinist and
composer. He arrived in Paris in 1760 to study under François-André

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60 • BARRIÈRE, JEAN-BAPTISTE

Danican Philidor, making his debut at the Concerts spirituels in 1767. Al-
though he returned to Valenciennes thereafter, he was again in Paris in 1775,
where his violin playing was noted for its delicacy. For the next 30 years
he traveled back and forth between the two cities, and in 1803 he became
concertmaster to Napoleon. As a violinist he was celebrated for his ability,
but he is less well known as a composer. His works include an opera, three
symphonies (and two sinfonia concertantes), 18 string quartets, six trios,
and 18 duos, as well as several smaller chamber works.

BARRIÈRE, JEAN-BAPTISTE (2 MAY 1707, BORDEAUX, TO 6


JUNE 1747, PARIS). French cellist and composer. Little is known of Bar-
rière’s early life or musical training, save that he arrived in Paris around 1730
as a competent performer on the viol and violoncello. The following year, he
was employed by the Opéra and Academie Royale de Musique, as well as ob-
taining from Louis XV a royal privilege to compose and publish instrumental
works. In order to perfect his skills, in 1736 he traveled to Vienna to study
under Italian cellist Francesco Alborea, and in 1738 upon his return to Paris
he made his debut at the Concerts spirituels as a soloist. Renowned for his
“grand precision,” he soon attained a reputation as the finest performer on his
instrument. In 1739 his privilege was renewed. His works include four Livres
of sonatas for cello and continuo, published in 1733, 1735, 1739, and 1740.
These works were lauded for their sensitivity of affect and sense of tonality
that was idiomatic to the instrument. He also published a set of works titled
Pardessus de Viole for viol and basso (Livre V) as well as a set of individual
pieces and sonatas for keyboard (Pièces de Clavecin, Livre VI).

BARSANTI, FRANCESCO (1690, LUCCA, TO 1772, LONDON). Ital-


ian violinist and composer. Trained in Lucca, he attended the University of
Padua before deciding to devote his career to music. By 1720 he was active in
London, and in 1735 he moved to Scotland, where he married into the Scot-
tish aristocracy in Edinburgh. By 1750 he had returned to London, where he
was employed in the Vauxhall Gardens orchestra both as a violinist and as a
flautist. Although his early compositions reflect Baroque styles of his model
Francesco Geminiani, his arrangements of 30 Scottish popular songs (1742),
as well as the Op. 4 Nine Overtures, reflect his knowledge and interest in the
emerging Classical style. He also composed numerous violin sonatas as well
as 12 violin concertos (lost). His 12 concerti grossi, however, are arrange-
ments of works of Giovanni Battista Sammartini.

BARTH, CHRISTIAN SAMUEL (11 JANUARY 1735, GLAUCHAU,


SAXONY, GERMANY, TO 8 JULY 1809, COPENHAGEN). German-
Danish oboist and composer. Following early studies at the Thomasschule in

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BARYTON • 61

Leipzig, he was appointed as an oboist in several courts beginning in 1753


in Rudolstadt, Hannover, and Weimar before obtaining a permanent post
in Kassel in 1772. In 1786 he accompanied Johann Gottlieb Naumann to
Denmark, where he remained as principal oboist of the Kongelige Kapel,
from which he retired in 1797. Although deemed one of the best oboists of
his time, his compositions were limited to several oboe concertos and six
Écossaises for the keyboard, as well as a Psalm and a cantata dating from
his early years. His son Frederik Philip Carl Barth was also a well-regarded
woodwind player and composer.

BARTH, FREDERIK PHILIP CARL (1775, KASSEL, GERMANY,


TO 22 DECEMBER 1804, COPENHAGEN). German-Danish woodwind
player and composer. Son of Christian Samuel Barth, he studied under his
father, following him to Denmark in 1786. He debuted at a concert at the
Royal Theatre in 1789, and by 1793 he was appointed as conductor of the
Holstein Society concert series, as well as the court Harmoniemusik. His
works include two volumes of Lieder in Danish, a wind partita, and concer-
tos for oboe, flute, and two horns.

BARTHÉLEMON, FRANÇOIS-HYPPOLYTE (27 JULY 1741, BOR-


DEAUX, FRANCE, TO 20 JULY 1808, CHRIST CHURCH, SURREY,
ENGLAND). French-English composer and violinist. Trained in Paris, his
first position was as a violinist at the Comédie-Italienne. In 1764, however, he
was engaged at the King’s Theatre in London, later performing frequently at
Marylebone Gardens and at Drury Lane. He was especially noted for his vari-
ous stage works, all of which are in English and represent the best examples
of the late ballad opera. Works include 23 stage pieces (operas, etc.), 16
ballets, two dramatic cantatas, 12 symphonies, seven violin concertos, 12
quartets, 18 violin sonatas, six trios, 12 duos, and six organ sonatas, as well
as a large amount of arrangements and occasional vocal music.

BARTHÉLEMON, MARIA. See YOUNG, MARY POLLY.

BARYTON. Also called bariton, barydon, paradon, paridon, pariton, viola


paradon, viola di bordoni, viola di bardone, and viola di bordone. Used in
the 18th century, the baryton was a bowed instrument around the size of a
violoncello and related to the viol family. It contains six or seven strings
made of gut and 12 sympathetic strings made of wire. It was not a common
instrument, being extremely cumbersome to play. Its most famous performer
was Prince Nicholas Esterházy, for whom Joseph Haydn wrote about 175
chamber works for the instrument.

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62 • BASILI, ANDREA

BASILI, ANDREA (16 DECEMBER 1705, PIEVE, PERUGIA, IT-


ALY, TO 28 AUGUST 1777, LORETO, ITALY). Italian composer,
theorist, and organist. He studied in Rome under Tommaso Gaffi, and in
1729 he became maestro di cappella at the cathedral in Tivoli. In 1738
he became organist at the Congregazione di Santa Cecilia and two years
later at the cathedral of Santa Causa di Loreto. His style of composition
follows older models of the stile antico, but he was aware of more modern
trends, as exemplified in his correspondence with Padre Giovanni Bat-
tista Martini. His surviving works include two oratorios, six Psalms,
three Misereres, and over 150 smaller church works, as well as numerous
canons, fugues, and a keyboard sonata. His son Francesco Basili also
became a composer.

BASILI, FRANCESCO (31 JUNE 1767, LORETO, ITALY, TO 25


MARCH 1850, ROME). Italian composer. Son of Andrea Basili, he studied
with his father and Giovanni Borghi in Loreto. In 1777 he moved to Rome to
continue his studies under Giuseppe Jannacconi, eventually being admitted
to the Academia di Santa Cecilia. In 1786 he became maestro di cappella at
Foligno and in 1789 in Macerata before returning to Loreto in 1809. He was
later head of the conservatory in Milan. While the bulk of his music was writ-
ten after 1800 and conforms to the style of his colleague Luigi Cherubini, his
earlier works, consisting mainly of three opera serias and a handful of sacred
works, reflects the more homophonic style of his father.

BATES, WILLIAM (ca. 1730, LONDON, TO ca. 1785, LONDON).


English composer, also nicknamed Jack Catch. Little is known of his life or
training, save that he began to appear in concerts in London around 1750. In
1763 he was accused by the courts of trying to sell a pupil, Ann Caffrey, to
Sir Francis Blake Delaval as a sex slave. His last appearance as a composer
occurs around 1780, and his final whereabouts are unknown. His music con-
sists of seven operas, two arias, six concertos, 54 duos, and six trio sonatas.

BAUMGARTEN, CARL FRIEDRICH (ca. 1740, LÜBECK, GER-


MANY, TO 1824, LONDON). German-English composer and violinist.
Trained under Johann Paul Kunzen, he immigrated to London in 1758,
where he became an organist at the Lutheran Chapel in Savoy and an or-
chestral leader. Although he was not perceived as brilliant, his technique was
apparently fairly serviceable, for he performed in both London and Dublin
frequently. His music has been little explored but consists of two stage works,
two overtures, a concerto, a sinfonia concertante, 14 quartets, six violin
sonatas, four fugues, and a number of songs.

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BECK, FRANZ IGNAZ • 63

BAYON, MARIE-EMMANUELLE [MADAME LOUIS] (1746, MAR-


CEI, FRANCE, TO 19 MARCH 1825, AUBEVOYE, NEAR ROUEN,
FRANCE). French keyboardist and composer. She received her earliest
musical education supported by the family of the Marquise de Langeron,
eventually becoming part of the circle of intellectuals surrounding Denis
Diderot. Her first work, a collection of six sonatas for keyboard, some with
violin, was her Op. 1 in 1769. A year later she married architect Victor Louis,
and subsequently moved to Bordeaux, where she wrote several operas, in-
cluding Fleur d’épine, her most famous work, which was a success at the
Comédie-Italienne in 1776. Other works (now lost) include chamber works
and a divertissement titled La fête de Saint Pierre. Returning to Paris in 1780
she maintained her activity as a composer and musician during the French
Revolution. She disappears from public life after the death of her husband
in 1780. Her musical style, compared by Diderot to some of the best male
composers of the time, including Johann Christian Bach, is closer to André
Ernest Modeste Grétry and François-Joseph Gossec than the Italian style.

BEAUMESNIL, HENRIETTE ADÉLAÏDE VILLARD (30 AUGUST


1748, PARIS, TO 5 OCTOBER 1815, PARIS). French singer and composer.
She made her debut in 1766 as a principal singer at the Opéra, where she at-
tained a reputation as a fine singer in soubrette roles. In 1781 she retired to
marry, becoming known as Madame Caury. Several of her operas were well
received, reflecting a thorough knowledge of composition. She is best known,
however, for her duel with dancer Marie-Madeleine de Crépé (1760–1796;
known as Mademoiselle Théodore), but no one was hurt since both pistols
misfired. Her works include four operas, an oratorio, and several songs.

BECK, FRANZ IGNAZ (20 FEBRUARY 1734, MANNHEIM, TO 31


DECEMBER 1809, BORDEAUX). German composer, keyboardist, and
violinist. After his earliest training from his father Johann Aloys Beck (d.
1742), he was taught composition by Johann Stamitz, probably attending the
Jesuit Gymnasium and Music Seminar in Mannheim. Around 1752 he fled
to Italy as the result of a duel (in which the victim feigned death), where he
spent several years performing and studying. In 1760 he moved to Marseilles
as first violinist in the theatre orchestra, and in 1764 he became leader of the
Grand Théâtre in Bordeaux. In 1774 he was appointed as organist at the St.
Seuron Church as well. Beck’s work was published and performed in Paris on
a regular basis. His symphonies especially were characterized by a dramatic
flair, often written in a Sturm und Drang style. His music consists of 18 op-
eras, a Stabat mater, two Revolutionary hymns, a Te Deum, 29 symphonies,
24 keyboard sonatas, and other smaller works.

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64 • BECKER, JOHANNES

BECKER, JOHANNES (1 SEPTEMBER 1726, HELSA-WICKEN-


RODE BEI KASSEL, HESSEN-KASSEL, GERMANY, TO 1 JULY
1804, KASSEL). German composer and organist. Although nothing is
known about his early years, he did attend the Friedrich Gymnasium in Kas-
sel for a time before transferring to the St. Thomas School in Leipzig, where
during the years 1745–1748 he studied under Johann Sebastian Bach. His
first post was at Harmuthsachsen in 1751, but he managed to stay there only
nine months, after which he returned to Kassel-Bettenhausen. In 1759 he was
appointed as a teacher at the Lyceum in Kassel and the same year also became
organist at the St. Martin’s and Altstädter churches. This activity led to him
being appointed city organist in 1761, and in 1764 he moved to the resident
court as a secretary, later in 1764 being promoted to treasurer of the Collegio
Carolino. By 1770 he was appointed court organist, a post he held until his
death. The number of compositions written by Becker remains unknown,
but his most important published works, the 1771 Choralbuch and the 1773
Instruction für die Organisten, were used widely throughout Germany. He is
said to have written much music for the organ, in addition to civil music such
as marches and overtures, the latter probably three-movement symphonies.

BEČVAŘOVSKÝ [BECZWARZOWSKY], ANTONÍN FRANTIŠEK (9


APRIL 1754, MLADÁ BOLESLAV, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH RE-
PUBLIC], TO 15 MAY 1823, BERLIN). Bohemian composer and pianist.
His earliest education was at the Priorist College in his hometown beginning
in 1767. In 1774 he went to Prague to study with Jan Kuchař, as well as
functioning as organist at the Minorite Church. In 1780 he arrived in Braun-
schweig as Kapellmeister at the court and Hauptkirche. After a brief sojourn
in Bamberg he arrived and settled in Berlin in 1799, where he was involved
with the public concerts and National Theatre. Although a prominent musi-
cian of this period with a style that was a direct influence on 19th-century
composers such as Carl Maria von Weber, his music has been little studied.
His works include numerous Lieder, four piano concertos, six instrumental
sonatas, some 16 keyboard sonatas, and numerous smaller works for key-
board. His music is known by Kladic (KA) numbers.

BEECKE, [NOTKER] IGNAZ [FRANZ] VON (28 OCTOBER 1733,


WIMPFEN-IM-TAL, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 2 JANUARY 1803,
WALLERSTEIN, GERMANY). German military man and composer. As a
member of the minor nobility, he began his career in military service as an of-
ficer of the Zollern Dragoons during the Seven Years’ War. In 1759 he joined
the court and regiment of Prince Philipp Carl of Oettingen-Wallerstein, and in
1763 he was advanced to the rank of captain. In 1770 he was court music di-

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BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VAN • 65

rector and personal adjutant to Prince Crafft Ernst. In 1792 he was promoted
to major and pensioned, but despite his rank, he apparently led a dissipate life
and died in poverty. His music displays a sound compositional method and is
similar to his colleague at Wallerstein, Antonio Rosetti. His works include
11 stage works, a Mass, a Requiem, a litany, an oratorio, three Tantum
ergos, two other smaller sacred works, 10 larger cantatas, 34 symphonies,
24 concertos, two serenades, several wind partitas, 14 string quartets, six
flute quartets, two quintets, seven trios, 12 violin sonatas, and 42 keyboard
sonatas and smaller works.

BEER [BOER], JOSEPH (18 MAY 1744, GRÜNEWALD, BOHEMIA


[NOW PASTVINY, CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 28 OCTOBER 1812,
POTSDAM, GERMANY). German trumpeter, clarinetist, and composer.
His earliest career was as a trumpeter in the military, following which he
made his way to Paris, where he debuted as a clarinetist at the Concerts
spirituels in 1771. He was subsequently employed by the duc d’Orléans in
his private orchestra. In 1882 he began to tour Europe extensively, and by
1783 he had obtained a post at the Imperial orchestra in Moscow. In 1792
he returned to Germany, where he was employed at the court in Berlin. His
music has been little studied, but he wrote mostly for his own instrument,
including three clarinet concertos, a sonata for clarinet and bassoon, and six
duos for two clarinets.

BEETHOVEN, LODEWIJK VAN (5 JANUARY 1712, MECHELEN,


BELGIUM, TO 24 DECEMBER 1773, BONN). Flemish-German singer
and Kapellmeister. At the age of 12 he attended singing school under Louis
Colfs, following which he functioned at the local cathedral as a tenor and
organist. In 1727 he moved to Liège, where he was employed as choirmaster
of the St. Lambert cathedral. He was successful enough in this position to
come to the attention of the Elector of Bonn, and in 1733 he was appointed
as choirmaster of the St. Remigius Church and subsequently Kapellmeister
at the Electoral court. Although known as a master singing teacher, it is
unknown if he composed music, which was a requirement of the court. His
reputation as a musician was substantial, and he was idolized by his grandson,
Ludwig van Beethoven.

BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VAN (bap. 17 DECEMBER 1770, BONN, TO


26 MARCH 1827, VIENNA). German-Austrian composer. The grandson
of Lodewijk van Beethoven and son of court tenor Johann van Beethoven
(ca. 1740–1792), he received his first musical training from his father,
who intended that he be seen as a child prodigy like Wolfgang Amadeus

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66 • BEETHOVEN, LUDWIG VAN

Mozart. Further studies in music with Gilles van den Eeden, Tobias Pfeiffer
on keyboard, and Franz Rovantini on violin followed his debut at a concert
in 1778. The following year, the arrival of Christian Gottlob Neefe allowed
Beethoven to find a mentor that would both educate him thoroughly and
present opportunities for his own advancement. Under Neefe’s tutelage he
composed his first works: three piano sonatas, a piano concerto, and, in 1785,
three piano quartets. He also functioned as Neefe’s assistant and from 1783
was a keyboardist with the court ensemble. In 1787 he traveled to Vienna,
where he performed before (and probably had a lesson or two from) Mozart,
but the death of his mother prevented further study there. His father, mean-
while, sank into alcoholism, and in 1789 Beethoven petitioned the court at
Bonn to become titular head of the family, adding half his father’s salary to
his own. He also composed two cantatas, one for the death of Holy Roman
Emperor Joseph II and another for the coronation of his successor as Leopold
II in 1790.
In 1792 he was accepted as a student of Joseph Haydn and in November
of that year arrived in Vienna, where he settled permanently. Though their
student-teacher relationship lasted only a short time, terminating when Haydn
left for his second visit to London in 1794, Beethoven later dedicated his pi-
ano sonatas Op. 2, though he refused to style himself Haydn’s pupil. He also
studied with Johann Baptist Schenk and Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
(his additional studies with Antonio Salieri did not occur apparently until
after 1800), and in 1795 he began a career as a performer with a concert on
25 March. Cut off from his stipend from Bonn, he nonetheless began to make
a living as an independent musician, winning the patronage of people such
as Prince Carl Lichnowsky. In 1796 he undertook a concert tour to Bohemia
and Germany, returning to Prague in 1798, around the same time as he began
to collect compositional drafts in the well-known sketchbooks. In 1799 he
published both a set of string quartets Op. 18 and the C-minor “Pathetique”
sonata Op. 13, setting the stage for his later progressive style. In 1800 he
held his first benefit concert on 2 April where his Septet Op. 20 and first
symphony were premiered.
Although his most progressive and innovative works were composed after
1800 and thus will be considered in this volume’s chronological sequel, the
developmental trends can be discerned in works prior to that time, including
those already noted. Beethoven’s use of motivic expansion through repetition
and sequence, his adaptation of the sonata principle, his often colorful and
expansive orchestration, and his highly advanced sense of harmony all rep-
resent a constant evolutionary process, particularly during the last decade of
the 18th century, thus negating the formerly predominant Caesarian division
of his compositions into three periods. There can be no doubt that Beethoven

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BELLABENE, GREGORIO • 67

must be considered an iconic, seminal figure in the development of the music


of 19th-century musical Romanticism, one who straddles the chronological
boundaries between the two centuries and turning his Classical musical style
into something far more advanced. See also DRESSLER, ERNST CHRIS-
TOPH; LUCHESI, ANDREA LUCA; SALOMON, JOHANN PETER.

BEISSEL, [JOHANN] CONRAD (1 MARCH 1691, EBERBACH,


WÜRTTEMBERG, GERMANY, TO 6 JULY 1768, EPHRATA, PENN-
SYLVANIA COLONY). German-American cleric and composer. Beissel
immigrated to North America in 1720 with the intent of joining a sect of
mystics founded by Johannes Kelpius, but in 1732 he himself founded a mo-
nastic group titled The Camp of the Solitary at Ephrata, Lancaster County,
Pennsylvania. He became their spiritual and musical advisor, creating a sort
of idiosyncratic-mannered notation based upon Pietist hymns and chorale
tunes. This was based upon sequences or series of master notes, from which
secondary notes provided the harmony. In 1747 he published a large collec-
tion of original compositions in The Song of the Lonely and Forsaken Turtle
Dove, containing mostly homophonic music with some antiphonal effects.

BELCHER, SUPPLY (29 MARCH 1751, STOUGHTON, MASSACHU-


SETTS, UNITED STATES, TO 9 JUNE 1836, FARMINGTON, MAINE,
UNITED STATES). American psalmodist. During the Revolutionary War
he served in the Continental Army, rising to the rank of captain. Afterward
he became a merchant in Boston before moving first to Hallowell, Maine, in
1785 and then to Farmington a few years later. There he also functioned as a
teacher in the local singing school. His 80 works include publications in The
Worcester Collection and The Harmony of Maine.

BELKNAP, DAVID (9 FEBRUARY 1771, FRAMINGHAM, MAS-


SACHUSETTS, UNITED STATES, TO 3 OCTOBER 1815, PROVI-
DENCE, RHODE ISLAND, UNITED STATES). American psalmodist.
He was a farmer and mechanic for virtually all of his life, being largely self-
taught. His works appeared in The Harmonist’s Companion of 1797 and The
Evangelical Harmony of 1800. He wrote about 90 works in total.

BELLABENE, GREGORIO (1720, ROME, TO ca. 1803, ROME). Ital-


ian composer. Trained in Rome, he was assistant director of the church of
Madonne dei monte and a member of the Congregazione di Santa Cecilia in
1746. In 1754 he was elected to the Accademia filarmonica in Bologna, and
by 1760 he became maestro di cappella in Gubbio. One of the conservative
contrapuntists of the period, he excelled in polychoral compositions, including

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68 • BELLINZANI, PAULO BENEDETTO

a Mass for 12 four-part choruses a cappella. His works have been little stud-
ied, but they include two Masses, an oratorio, a Dixit Dominus, four operas
(lost), 10 other sacred works, a symphony, and several string quartets.

BELLINZANI, PAULO BENEDETTO (ca. 1690, MANTUA, TO 25


FEBRUARY 1757, RECANATI, ITALY). Italian composer and organist.
He was ordained in 1717 following an appointment to his first position in the
city of Undine. In 1722 he also became maestro di cappella in Ferrara, two
years later in 1724 in Pesaro, and finally concluded his career with a post at
the main cathedral of Recanati in 1737. He was elected to the Accademia
filarmonica in 1727. Although the bulk of his music, almost all of it for the
church, conforms to the Italian Baroque, there are hints of a more homopho-
nic style in his later works. These include two oratorios, four Masses, 12
Psalms, 40 offertories, 12 duetti da camera, and 12 flute sonatas. He also
wrote 20 madrigals, of which 12 published in 1733 demonstrate perhaps the
last examples of this genre, being more like Classical part songs.

BELLMAN, CARL MICHAEL (4 FEBRUARY 1740, STOCKHOLM,


TO 10 FEBRUARY 1795, STOCKHOLM). Swedish composer, poet, and
troubadour. Born into an educated family of a professor of law at Uppsala
University, Bellman received his earliest training in literature from a family
friend. By 1764 he had obtained a post at the customs office and was later ap-
pointed to a position in the lottery. In 1783 he published his first set of songs
titled Bacchi Tempel, which were an instant success. He became attached to
the court of Gustav III as an Anacreonic poet, writing panegyrics and satire,
as well as performing while accompanying himself on the cittern. As a mem-
ber of the Palmstedt literary circle, he helped to formulate Gustavian cultural
policy, as well as writing song texts for the leading composers of the day,
including Joseph Martin Kraus and Olof Åhlström. His other publications
include the sets of songs Fridmans Epistlar (1790) and Fridmans Sånger
(1791), with melodies taken from popular tunes or operas. His improvisa-
tory style, mirrored in his published songs, includes vocalizations of musical
instruments and tales of common people and their foibles.

BELLO, BARTOLOME (24 AUGUST 1758, CARACAS, VENEZU-


ELA, TO JULY 1804, CUMANÁ, VENEZUELA). Venezuelan composer
and singer. A student of Ambrosio de Carreño, he was appointed singer at
the Caracas cathedral in 1774, prior to which he attended university in Cara-
cas and Santo Domingo. In 1787 he was listed as a musician of the Tribune
or provincial government, but in 1790 he moved to Cumaná as maestro di
capilla. His few surviving works consist of small sacred pieces.

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BENDA, FRANZ [FRANTIŠEK] • 69

BENCKHARD, PATER HIERONYMUS (ca. 1730, WÜSTENSACHSEN,


GERMANY, TO ca. 1775, ARNSBURG, GERMANY). German monastic
composer. Little is known of his early education, save that he was admitted
to the Cistercian order in 1754, becoming ordained five years later. Although
an active musician at the Arnsburg monastery, he also functioned as confes-
sor at the Marienschloss cloister between 1770 and 1772. His music has been
mostly lost, although a set of vespers survives that shows him to have been a
competent composer.

BENDA, CARL HERMANN HEINRICH (2 MAY 1748, POTSDAM,


TO 15 MARCH 1836, BERLIN). German violinist, keyboard player, and
composer. Son of Franz Benda, he received his earliest training from his
father, entering the Kapelle about 1766 as a violinist. He served as a regular
musician there and at the opera until 1802, when he was appointed Konzert-
meister. He retired in 1809. His music is little known, and much of it has been
lost. Only a violin sonata, an early work, apparently has survived.

BENDA, FRANZ [FRANTIŠEK] (bap. 22 NOVEMBER 1709, STARÉ


BENÁTKY, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 7 MARCH
1786, NEUENDORF BEI POTSDAM, PRUSSIA). Czech composer and
violinist, brother of Johann Georg [Jan Jiří] Benda and Jiří Antonín
[Georg Anton] Benda. After elementary music education in his hometown,
Benda became a chorister in Prague in 1720, before moving to Dresden,
where he studied violin under Carl Heinrich Graun. In 1727 he returned
to Prague and then to Vienna to continue his education before landing a
position as a violinist in the Kapelle of August II in Warsaw in 1729. Since
August was also the king of Saxony, this allowed Benda the opportunity to
spend time in Dresden again, where he came to the attention of Crown Prince
Frederick, who hired him for his own Kapelle at Rheinsburg in 1733. When
Frederick became king of Prussia, Benda moved to Berlin, where he was ap-
pointed Konzertmeister in 1771.
During his lifetime, Benda attained a reputation for his versatile and tech-
nically proficient violin playing, especially the singing tone in the higher
registers of the instrument. He was the model for many soloists who came
after, including Johann Peter Salomon, being the foremost representative of
the German School of violin performance. Indeed, he was invited frequently
during the 1740s and 1750s to courts such as Bayreuth on tour. In 1763 he
wrote his autobiography detailing his life and career, and Charles Burney
considered him possibly the best violinist in Europe. As a composer, he was
a member of the Berlin School along with colleagues such as Carl Philipp
Emanuel Bach, brothers Carl Heinrich and Johann Gottlieb Graun, and
Johann Joachim Quantz, concentrating mainly upon instrumental genres.

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70 • BENDA, FRIEDRICH LUDWIG

He was one of the major developers of the North German symphony,


composing 17 works. He also wrote 110 solo violin caprices, 73 sonatas
for violin/keyboard, 26 violin concertos, 31 violin duets, 10 trio sonatas,
four flute sonatas, and two flute concertos (including one in E minor that is
considered one of the harbingers of the Sturm und Drang style with its emo-
tionally charged music), as well as several other chamber works, including a
harp sonata. He also wrote three odes. His music is known by L (Lee) num-
bers. His brothers and children also became important composers/perform-
ers, making the Benda family one of the most influential of the period. See
BENDA, CARL HERMANN; BENDA, FRIEDRICH LUDWIG; BENDA,
FRIEDRICH [WILHELM HEINRICH]; BENDA, JOSEPH; BENDA, JULI-
ANNE; BENDA, MARIA CAROLINA; FODOR, JOSEPHUS ANDREAS;
HERTEL, JOHANN WILHELM; ZARTH, GEORG.

BENDA, FRIEDRICH LUDWIG (bap. 4 SEPTEMBER 1752, GOTHA,


GERMANY, TO 20 MARCH 1792, KÖNIGSBERG, PRUSSIA [NOW
KALININGRAD, RUSSIA]). German violinist and composer. Son of Jiří An-
tonín [Georg Anton] Benda, he was trained by his father but decided to join the
resident Seyler troupe in Gotha as a musical director in 1775. He traveled with
them throughout northern and central Germany until 1779, when he obtained
more permanent posts in Berlin and subsequently Hamburg. In 1782 he became
chamber composer at the court of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in Lud-
wigslust. He was dismissed from his post in 1788, moving to Königsberg. As a
composer, his music has been overshadowed by his father and his uncle, Franz
Benda. Works include six operas or ballets, eight large cantatas or oratorios,
several Lieder, two symphonies, three concertos, and a violin sonata.

BENDA, FRIEDRICH [WILHELM HEINRICH] (15 JULY 1745,


POTSDAM, TO 19 JUNE 1814, BERLIN). German violinist and com-
poser. Son of Franz Benda, he was trained by his father and Johann Philipp
Kirnberger, following which he obtained a position as violinist in the Ka-
pelle. As a composer, he was best known for his dramatic works, including
two serious operas, Orpheus and Alceste. In addition, he wrote a Singspiel,
two oratorios, two large cantatas, seven symphonies, eight concertos, two
string quartets, six trios, six sonatas, and several smaller keyboard works.
His music has been little studied.

BENDA, JIŘÍ ANTONÍN [GEORG ANTON] (bap. 30 JUNE 1722,


STARÉ BENÁTKY, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 6
NOVEMBER 1795, KÖSTRITZ, GERMANY). Bohemian-German com-
poser and violinist, brother of Franz Benda and Johann Georg Benda.

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BENDA, JOHANN GEORG [JAN JIŘÍ] • 71

Trained initially by his father, he was sent to a local school in Kosmonosy


in 1735, and in 1739 he attended the Jesuit Gymnasium in Jičín in music.
In 1742 he joined family members in Berlin, where he functioned for a few
years as a violinist. In 1750 he was offered the position of Kapellmeister at
the court of Saxe-Gotha by Duke Friedrich III, where he composed mainly
church music. A journey to Italy in 1765 brought him into contact with lead-
ing opera composers of the day, who influenced his compositional style. In
1770 he was named kapelldirector, a largely symbolic post, but his regular
duties for Friedrich’s successor, Duke Ernst II, included writing a new style
of work that fused spoken drama with music, called the duodrama. The first
work, Ariadne auf Naxos, was performed in 1774 and soon began to be imi-
tated throughout Germany. At the same time, Benda gained a reputation as
a composer of Singspiel, becoming the most popular composer of the genre
of the time. A dispute with rival Anton Schweitzer led him to resign his
post and leave Gotha for a year of travel to Hamburg and Vienna. Increasing
fame brought about by his duodramas subsequently allowed him to tour vari-
ous musical centers, such as Paris in 1781 and Mannheim in 1787, although
he was formally retired. His last work, ironically, is a cantata titled Bendas
Klagen from 1792.
As a composer, Benda was one of the most celebrated people of the latter
18th century, known mainly for his sacred music and innovations in theatre
music. In his duodramas in particular, one can note a carefully delineated
harmonic and melodic sensitivity that underscores the text. His Singspiels are
noted for their more complex musical settings and serious tone that is often
far more progressive than in similar works by Johann Adam Hiller. His in-
strumental music, however, still maintains elements of the galant style, with
sequenced themes and short rhythmic motives. His works include 13 operas
(including incidental music and duodramas), 166 cantatas (mainly Lutheran),
two Masses, an oratorio, six secular cantatas, about 25 Lieder, 30 sympho-
nies, 23 concertos (mostly violin and harpsichord), 54 keyboard sonatas,
and several other sonatas for violin and flute, as well as a large number of
keyboard works. See also BENDA, JOSEPH.

BENDA, JOHANN GEORG [JAN JIŘÍ] (bap. 30 AUGUST 1713,


STARÉ BENÁTKY, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 1752,
BERLIN). German violinist and composer, brother of Franz Benda and Jiří
Antonín [Georg Anton] Benda. Son of a local musician, he was trained by
his father and in 1733 moved first to Dresden and then to Ruppin with his
brother Franz Benda. When the crown prince became Frederick II, he found
employment in the court orchestra as a violinist. Destined not to become as
famous as any of his other siblings, he nonetheless composed music mainly

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72 • BENDA, JOSEPH

for his instrument, including four violin concertos, 11 flute sonatas (for his
patron), four violin sonatas, a trio sonata, 10 caprices for solo violin, and
eight duets for two violins. See also BENDA, JOSEPH.

BENDA, JOSEPH (bap. 7 MAY 1724, STARÉ BENÁTKY, BOHEMIA


[NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 22 FEBRUARY 1804, BERLIN). Ger-
man violinist and composer. Son of Johann Georg Benda, he was taught by
his father and grandfather. In 1742 he was placed under the tutelage of his
uncle, Franz Benda, in Potsdam, succeeding him in 1787 as Konzertmeister.
He retired in 1797. He is known to have composed for his own instrument,
but all that has survived is a violin sonata and 12 caprices for solo violin
published in 1804.

BENDA [REICHARDT], [BERNHARDINE], JULIANNE (14 MAY 1752,


POTSDAM, TO 9 MAY 1783, BERLIN). German singer and composer.
Daughter of Franz Benda, she was trained under her father, becoming noted as
one of the most expressive performers of the Berlin School. In 1777 she mar-
ried Johann Friedrich Reichardt, forming a solid artistic partnership. Her own
compositions were also noted for their expressivity. These include 30 Lieder and
two keyboard sonatas, 17 of which were published in Hamburg in 1782.

BENDA [WOLF], MARIA CAROLINA (27 DECEMBER 1742, BER-


LIN, TO 8 FEBRUARY 1820, WEIMAR). German singer and composer.
The daughter of Franz Benda, she received her earliest musical training in
voice and keyboard from her father. In 1761 she was appointed as hofsän-
gerin at the court of Weimar, where she performed for almost two decades
as a lead singer in the Liebhabertheater directed by Johann Wolfgang von
Goethe. She later married Kapellmeister Ernst Wilhelm Wolf. Her musical
compositions consist almost entirely of Lieder, some of which she published
beginning in 1779.

BENGRAF, JOSEF (20 JUNE 1745, NEUSTADT AN DER SAALE,


NEAR WÜRZBURG, GERMANY, TO 8 JUNE 1791, BUDAPEST).
Also known as Jószef Bengráf. German-Hungarian composer. Following
training from his father, a local organist, he moved to Budapest in 1776. By
1784 he had become regens chori at the Budapest cathedral. The same year
he published a ballet titled Ballet Hungarois, which contains one of the first
published verbunkos. His music consists of 30 Masses, 15 offertories, 18
Marian antiphons, 15 Tantum ergos, 40 motets, eight Requiems, four hymns,
three Te Deums, 12 Lieder, a sextet, six string quartets, and a large number
of dances, in addition to the ballet.

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BEREZOVSKY, MAXIM [MAKSIM] SOZONTOVICH • 73

BENHAM, ASHAEL (15 DECEMBER 1754, NEW HARTFORD, CON-


NECTICUT, UNITED STATES, TO 3 OCTOBER 1803, WALLING-
FORD, CONNECTICUT). American psalmodist. In 1785 he went into
business with a fellow composer, Oliver Brownson, in New Hartford, but
by 1790 he was active in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, as a promoter of his publi-
cations. In 1793 he settled in Wallingford, where he taught singing. Around
25 works survive, some published in two collections, the Federal Harmony
of 1790 and the Social Harmony of 1798. See also WOODRUFF, MERIT.

BENNETT, JOHN (ca. 1735, LONDON, TO SEPTEMBER 1784, LON-


DON). English composer and organist. Nothing is known about his youth
or education, save that he was a student of Johann Pepusch. He first appears
in 1752 as organist at the church of St. Dionis. Later he also functioned as a
musician at Drury Lane Theatre, performing on the harpsichord. His music
consists of 10 published organ voluntaries, as well as several hymn tunes.

BERETTI [BARETTI], PIETRO (1705, ITALY, TO 1759, LONDON).


Italian composer and violinist. Nothing is known of his life or training,
save that he may have been the brother of Giuseppe Marc’Antonio Beretti
(1719–1789), who wrote chronicles of travels to Italy, Spain, and England.
He published a set of six trio sonatas in London in 1755, probably during a
residence there. These demonstrate a stylistic adherence to Empfindsamkeit.
He also produced several sonatas for psaltery and keyboard.

BEREZOVSKY, MAXIM [MAKSIM] SOZONTOVICH (25 OCTO-


BER 1745, GLUHOV [HLUKHIV], UKRAINE [THEN RUSSIA], TO
2 APRIL 1777, ST. PETERSBURG). Ukrainian-Russian singer, violinist,
and composer. His first musical study occurred at the Kiev Conservatory
before he was hired in 1758 as a tenor in the court musical establishment
of Prince Peter Fedorovich in Lomonosov outside of St. Petersburg. There
he participated in the performance of seria and studied composition under
Baldassare Galuppi and Vincenzo Manfredini. In 1769 he was sent to Italy
to complete his musical education under Padre Giovanni Battista Martini.
He was elected a member of the Accademia filarmonica in 1771 and had
his opera Demofonte performed in Livorno two years later. Recalled to St.
Petersburg, he was appointed as a musical director in the Imperial Theatre
and court Kapelle. His career ended prematurely due to respiratory illness.
Berezovsky’s musical style reflects his Italian training, but his vocal music is
characterized by careful declamation of his Russian or Old Church Slavonic
texts, which lend them a unique rhythmic underlay. Few of his compositions
survive, but he is known to have written 39 Russian Orthodox choral concer-

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74 • BERGER, LUDWIG

tos, a symphony, four piano sonatas, a keyboard concerto, several arias, and
the aforementioned opera.

BERGER, LUDWIG (18 APRIL 1777, BERLIN, TO 16 FEBRUARY


1839, BERLIN). German composer. Son of an architect, Berger studied
music in Frankfurt am Main under Joseph Augustin Gürrlich and Muzio
Clementi. Although he toured briefly, he settled in Berlin, where he be-
came a member of the Berlin School. Though the bulk of his music reflects
Romantic styles, he wrote over 100 songs similar to Johann Friedrich
Reichardt, many before 1800.

BERLIN, JOHAN DANIEL (12 MAY 1714, MEMEL, PRUSSIA, TO


4 NOVEMBER 1878, TRONDHEIM, NORWAY). Norwegian composer
and polymath. Born in a port city on the eastern Baltic (today in Lithuania),
Berlin was trained in music by his father, Heinrich Berlin, before finishing his
studies in Copenhagen with Andreas Berg. In 1737 he was appointed as city
musician in Trondheim, and three years later became organist at the cathedral
as well. Besides his work in music as a theorist, composer, and instrument
builder, he was also in charge of the city waterworks and fire brigades, as well
as writing treatises on astronomy and meteorology. His theoretical works
include Musikalske Elementer (1744), the first music text in Norwegian, and
Anleitung zur Tonometrie (1767), an early work exploring the physics of the
art form. His works include three symphonies and nine concertos (six for
harpsichord, and others for violin and bass viol), as well as two cantatas and
a host of smaller dance and occasional works for the keyboard. His musical
style tends toward the North German Empfindsamkeit. See also BERLIN,
JOHAN HEINRICH.

BERLIN, JOHAN HENRICH (bap. 1 SEPTEMBER 1741, TROND-


HEIM, NORWAY; buried 10 SEPTEMBER 1807, TRONDHEIM).
Norwegian composer and organist. The son of Johan Daniel Berlin, he
received his musical education from his polymath father. In 1772 he became
organist at the Hospitalskirkja in the city and in 1787 succeeded his father as
town musician and organist at the Nidarosdom. As an active member of Det
Tronhjemske Musikaliske Selskab, he was responsible for composing music
for civil functions, such as the festival cantata of 1787, to procuring works
for the public concerts. He is said to have composed about 59 works, includ-
ing a large oratorio, of which two symphonies, two piano sonatas, a piano
trio, and a host of smaller dances and individual works for keyboard (as well
as the aforementioned cantata) survive. His musical style in the sonatas and
symphonies shows him to have been a competent and thoroughly well-trained

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BERNASCONI, ANDREA • 75

composer in their often interesting modulatory patterns, close adherence to


standard sonata principle forms, and good lyrical melodic lines.

BERLIN SCHOOL. Sometimes referred to as the Berlin School of Song


(Berliner Liederschule). Although not a formal organization, it rather rep-
resented a group of composers resident in Berlin, mostly surrounding the
court of Frederick II. It flourished during the years 1732–1777 and included
composers Carl Heinrich Graun, Johann Gottlieb Graun, Christian
Gottfried Krause, Johann Joachim Quantz, Johann Kirnberger, Carl
Philipp Emanuel Bach, and Johann Agricola. Poets included Carl Ramler
and Christian Felix Weisse. Later members, often designated the Second
Berlin School, included Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Carl Friedrich
Zelter. The main focus was the introduction of the Italian singing style into
North German music, but topics of discussions in this salon or music circle
included efficacy of poetry in German as a vocal text.

BERNARD, PATER GEORG (11 SEPTEMBER 1745, LANGENAR-


GEN, GERMANY, TO 15 JANUARY 1811, KLOSTER WEINGARTEN,
GERMANY). German monastic composer. Although little is known about
his education or musical activities, he entered the Benedictine monastery in
Weingarten around 1765, where he remained his entire life. His music is care-
fully composed in the prevailing style of the period but has been little studied.
Surviving works include two Magnificats, three vesper hymns, and a Te Deum.

BERNARDINI, MARCELLO (ca. 1730, CAPUA, ITALY, TO ca. 1799,


KRAKÓW, POLAND). Italian composer and librettist. The son of com-
poser Rinaldo da Capua, little is known of his early training or life. In 1764
he had a successful premiere of his comic opera La schiava astute in Rome,
and by 1769 he was a teacher at the Collegio Nazareno in the same city.
By 1785 he had embarked upon a wandering life in central Europe, visiting
Vienna and Munich before becoming Kapellmeister at the estate of Maria
Elisabetha Czatoryska Lubomirska in Kraków. He disappears from history
in 1799, when he presumably died. His compositions, which conform to the
prevalent lyrical Italian style, include 40 operas, five oratorios, and three
cantatas. His music, however, has been little studied.

BERNASCONI, ANDREA (1706, MARSEILLES, FRANCE, TO 27


JANUARY 1784, MUNICH). Italian composer. Son of a military officer,
he grew up in Parma. In around 1725 he apparently received further musical
education in Milan, where he made his debut as a composer in 1737. In 1744
he was appointed as music director of the Ospedale della Pietà in Venice. By

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76 • BERTEAU, MARTIN

1753 he had moved to Munich, where he became Kapellmeister in 1755. Al-


though known as a composer of comic opera, he began to devote the majority
of his time to sacred works after 1772, retiring from active service in 1778
with the arrival of Carl Theodor as elector of Bavaria. His works include
20 operas, 34 Masses, 11 offertories, eight oratorios, six litanies, around
125 smaller sacred works, 20 symphonies, and a flute concerto. His music
has been little explored. See also DELLA PIETÀ, AGATA; DELLA PIETÀ,
MICHIELINA; DELLA PIETÀ, SAMARITANA.

BERTEAU, MARTIN (ca. 1708, FRANCE, TO 23 JANUARY 1771,


ANGIERS, FRANCE). French cellist and composer. Trained in Germany
on his instrument, he returned to Paris in 1739 where he made his debut at
the Concerts spirituels in one of his own concertos. Thereafter, he remained
in Paris as a teacher, becoming one of the founders of the French school of
violoncello playing. After 1756, he apparently moved to Angiers, where he
continued to teach privately. His own music includes 20 cello sonatas (all
published), as well as four concertos, a trio, and various pièces for his instru-
ment. His students include Jean-Pierre Duport and Jean-Baptiste Bréval.

BERTINI, GIUSEPPE (20 JUNE 1759, PALERMO, SICILY, ITALY,


TO 15 MARCH 1852, PALERMO). Italian composer. Son of Salvatore
Bertini, he received his first education from his father and at the Pie degli
Scolapi in Palermo. In 1789 he and his brother Natale Bertini composed
music for King Carlo III, which led to him being appointed as his father’s
assistant at the Cappella Palatina. His most famous work is the Dizionario
storico-critico published in 1814; many of his compositions were written
after 1800 and show affinities with Giaocchino Rossini.

BERTINI, NATALE (ca. 1750, PALERMO, SICILY, ITALY, TO 1828,


PALERMO). Italian composer. Trained alongside his brother Giuseppe
Bertini by his father, Salvatore Bertini, he made his debut as a composer
in special celebratory music for King Carlo III in 1789. He appears to have
taken a more administrative role thereafter in 1794 with the Commissione di
censura adjudicating sacred music; only after 1800 did he return to writing
operas in the style similar to Giaocchino Rossini.

BERTINI, SALVATORE (1721, PALERMO, SICILY, ITALY, TO 16


DECEMBER 1794, PALERMO). Italian composer. Following studies with
Pietro Pozzuolo he was sent to the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in
Naples to complete his musical education. In 1748 he obtained the post of
maestro di cappella with the Cappella Palatini in Palermo, where he became

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BERTONI, FERDINANDO GIUSEPPE • 77

a leading musical figure in the city. His compositional efforts are little studied
but include two oratorios, two Misereres, and two Lamentations.

BERTON, HENRI-MONTAN (17 SEPTEMBER 1767, PARIS, TO 22


APRIL 1844, PARIS). French composer and violinist. The son of Pierre
Berton, he was largely self-taught due to his father’s belief that music was
a “natural” autodidactic process. Nonetheless, he became proficient enough
to be employed in 1780 at the Opéra as a violinist. Success with operatic
works beginning in 1784 led him to be known as one of the most innovative
composers in Paris. In 1795 he was appointed professor of harmony at the
Conservatoire, a post he retained until his death. His most innovative work
was the opera Ponce de Léon of 1797, for which he wrote both text and
music. Although much of his music dates from Napoleonic times after 1800,
prior to this date he had written 20 operas, three cantatas, five Revolutionary
hymns/songs, a Requiem, and a Te Deum, much of which was produced with
considerable success.

BERTON, PIERRE MONTAN (7 JANUARY 1727, MOULERT-FON-


TAINE, ARDENNES, FRANCE, TO 14 MAY 1780, PARIS). French
composer. A chorister at the Senlis cathedral, he received his earliest musical
education in the church school there. In 1743 he moved to Paris, where he
studied under Jean-Marie Leclair and sang in the Nôtre Dame Cathedral
choir. By 1746 he had obtained a position briefly as a tenor with the Opéra,
but he left to perform first in Marseilles and subsequently in Bourdeaux. In
1753 he returned as orchestral director of the Opéra in Paris, and later in
1762 became its manager. In 1771 he served as manager of the Concerts
spirituels for two years. His works include six operas, a motet, a cantata,
four songs, and a set of dances, but much of his work has been lost. His son
Henri-Montan Berton was also a composer.

BERTONI, FERDINANDO GIUSEPPE (15 AUGUST 1725, SALIÒ,


NEAR BRESCIA, ITALY, TO 1 DECEMBER 1813, DESENZANO
DEL GARDA, ITALY). Italian composer and organist. His earliest studies
were in Bologna with Padre Giovanni Battista Martini, upon whose recom-
mendation he was appointed in 1745 as an organist at the San Mosé Church in
Venice, the same year as the successful premiere of his first opera, La vedova
accorta. In 1752 he was appointed organist at St. Mark’s, and three years later
he became a teacher at the Ospedale dei Mendicanti. His fame as an opera
composer led to commissions throughout Italy, and by 1778 he had moved to
London and Paris to accept commissions. By 1784, however, he returned to

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78 • BERTRAN, BERNAT

Venice to become maestro di cappella at St. Mark’s. Like his contemporaries


such as Giuseppe Sarti, he was known for a facile and lively style of lyrical
composition. This is evident in his 52 operas (many buffa). Other works in-
clude seven oratorios, two cantatas, 19 miscellaneous dramatic works, nine
secular arias, two Masses, 25 Mass movements, 40 Psalms, 87 motets, nine
antiphons, 17 hymns, 22 other sacred works, and 10 symphonies. See also
CAPUZZI, GIUSEPPE AMBROSIO; GRAZIOLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA.

BERTRAN, BERNAT (1774, BARCELONA, TO 25 OCTOBER 1815,


MATARÓ, NEAR GIRONA, CATALONIA). Catalan composer and
singer. His earliest training was at the Cathedral school under Francesc
Queralt and Carles Baguer. In 1796 he was appointed cantor at the Girona
cathedral, a position he occupied until 1815. In October 1815 he was offered
a position at the priory of Sant Pere de les Puel-les outside of Barcelona but
died unexpectedly on his way there. Little of his music survives; only nine
works, including two symphonies and seven sacred compositions, all of
which were apparently written for Girona. His symphonies show the influ-
ence of Joseph Haydn in terms of their form and structure.

BERWALD, JOHANN FREDRIK (4 DECEMBER 1787, STOCK-


HOLM, TO 26 AUGUST 1861, STOCKHOLM). Swedish composer and
child prodigy. Although his compositional career more appropriately belongs
to the Romantic period, his earliest musical efforts date from the 18th century,
even though he was but a child. His debut at the Stockholm public concerts
was at the age of 6 as a violinist. At the age of 9 he performed as a regular
member of the orchestra in Copenhagen, giving his first solo recital in 1797,
during which he performed a symphony of his own composition, which was
later published. In 1800 he was taken by his father on concert tour, eventually
winding up in St. Petersburg where he was employed at the Imperial Theatre
and finally received formal training on the violin from Pierre Rode. He was
instructed beginning at the age of 5 or 6, first by Abbé Georg Joseph Vogler
and subsequently by Johan Wikmanson, whose minuet he expropriated for
his first symphony.

BESOZZI, ALESSANDRO (22 JULY 1702, PIACENZA, ITALY, TO


26 JULY 1793, TURIN). Italian oboist and composer. The son of bassoonist
Cristoforo Besozzi, he was trained in the Guarda Irlandese beginning in 1714
as an oboist. In 1728 he served at the court of Duke Farnese in Milan, later
moving in 1731 to Turin to serve Carlo Emanuale III. In 1735 he traveled
to Paris to perform at the Concerts spirituels but returned to Turin shortly
thereafter to spend the remainder of his life there. He was noted by Charles
Burney as an excellent instrumentalist. His compositions include six oboe

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BETSCHER, PATER NIKOLAUS • 79

concertos (and two for flute), over 100 trio sonatas, 12 violin sonatas, and
65 trios.

BESOZZI, ANTONIO (1714, PROBABLY PIACENZA, ITALY, TO


1781, TURIN). Italian oboist and composer. Son of oboist Giuseppe Be-
sozzi and cousin of Alessandro Besozzi, he was sent to Naples in 1734 to
be trained. By 1738 he had obtained an appointment at the court of Saxony
in Dresden. During the Seven Years’ War he traveled to Paris, performing in
1757 at the Concerts spirituels. Following a brief sojourn in Stuttgart, he re-
turned to Dresden, finally moving back to Italy to Turin in 1775. Although he
was known as a composer, none of his works have survived, although much
remains to be done in terms of research. His son Carlo Besozzi became his
successor in Dresden.

BESOZZI, CARLO (1738, NAPLES, TO 22 MARCH 1791, DRESDEN).


Italian oboist and composer. The son of Antonio Besozzi, he followed his fa-
ther in being appointed to a post in Dresden in 1754, later escaping to Paris and
London in 1757. By 1764 he had returned to Dresden, accepting only tempo-
rary positions elsewhere, such as in Salzburg in 1778. He was regarded as one
of the finest oboists of the age, with a strong, clear tone and great facility on his
instrument. His concertos demonstrate a good sense of drama, lending them a
Sturm und Drang feeling. His compositions include 23 oboe concertos (as well
as four for two oboes); two sonatas; 24 quintets for two oboes, two horns, and
bass; and a divertimento. His students include Georg Druschetzky.

BESOZZI, GAETANO (25 MARCH 1725, PIACENZA, TO 1798, LON-


DON). Italian oboist and composer. The son of Giuseppe Besozzi, he was
trained in Naples in 1736, obtaining his first position there. By 1765 he had
moved to Paris, where he made his debut at the Concerts spirituels, moving
on to London in 1793. He was known for his excellent performance and for
his sensitive compositions, although none of these have apparently survived.

BESOZZI, GIROLAMO (ca. 1745, NAPLES, TO 1788, PARIS). Italian


oboist and composer. The son of Giuseppe Besozzi, he was trained like his
brother Antonio Besozzi in Naples, being appointed to the court orchestra
there in 1765. By 1770 he had moved to Paris, where he performed at the
Concerts spirituels, generally with his own compositions (of which none
apparently survive).

BETSCHER, PATER NIKOLAUS (31 OCTOBER 1745, BERKHEIM,


BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG, GERMANY, TO 12 NOVEMBER 1811,
ROT AN DER ROT, GERMANY). German monastic composer and abbot.

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80 • BIANCHI, ANTONIO

Following education at the monastic school at the Rot an der Rot Benedictine
monastery, he was ordained there in 1765. In 1789 he had become the abbot
of the monastery, and by 1795 he had become one of the leading prelates of
the Schwabian region. At the secularization of the monastery in 1803, he was
allowed to remain in residence there until his death. A prolific composer, he
wrote over 175 works, almost all sacred music.

BIANCHI, ANTONIO (ca. 1750, VENICE, TO ca. 1816, PROBABLY


VENICE). Italian composer. Not related to the Antonio Bianchi (1758–ca.
1817) whose entry follows this one, his origins and training are unknown. He
was probably a student of Padre Giovanni Battista Martini, for in 1772 he
was admitted as a full member of the Accademia filarmonica in Bologna. He
appears to have had a position at the church of San Filippo Neri in Venice, the
main source for his compositions. These include four Masses, a Requiem,
seven hymns, three litanies, 10 Psalms, and a number of smaller works. The
music has been little studied.

BIANCHI, ANTONIO (1758, MILAN, TO ca. 1817, PROBABLY


AACHEN, GERMANY). Italian baritone and composer. Not related to the
Antonio Bianchi (ca. 1750–ca. 1816) of the preceding entry, he was trained
at the Milan conservatory, following which he embarked upon a career as a
soloist in opera buffa. By 1790 he was employed by the Prince of Nassau-
Weilburg, and in 1792 he was a member of the Prussian opera in Berlin.
On the death of Friedrich Wilhelm in 1797, he became principal in a touring
company in Thuringia. As a composer, he appears to have written at least two
operas, two ballets, and a great many Lieder, which were favorably reviewed
in the first issues of the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung.

BIANCHI, [GIUSEPPE] FRANCESCO (1752, CREMONA, ITALY,


TO 27 NOVEMBER 1810, HAMMERSMITH, NEAR LONDON, ENG-
LAND). Italian composer. He studied in Naples under Niccolò Jommelli,
returning to Cremona in 1752 for the successful premiere of his first opera,
Giulio Sabino. Thereafter followed a string of successes throughout Italy,
and by 1775 he was employed at the Théâtre Italien as a cembalo player. In
1779 he was offered the post of maestro di cappella at the Milan cathedral,
and in 1785 he was appointed organist at St. Mark’s in Venice. By 1790
he moved to London, and in 1798 he was director of the theatre in Dublin.
Bianchi was one of the most successful and popular composers of opera dur-
ing the last two decades of the 18th century. His works were known for their
progressive harmonies, flowing melodies, and accessibility to audiences. His
compositions include 80 operas, five oratorios, a Mass, four concert arias,

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BIECHTELER, PATER IGNATIUS • 81

eight motets, five symphonies, a concerto, six trios, three violin sonatas, and
several smaller keyboard works. His music awaits further study and research.

BIANCHI, GIACOMO (1768, AREZZO, ITALY, TO ca. 1820, PROB-


ABLY AREZZO). Italian singer and composer. Often confused with Anto-
nio Bianchi (1758–ca. 1817), to whom he was not related, he was known as
a singer and teacher in his hometown. He published several sets of songs that
were popular about 1800 in France and Germany, but was otherwise largely
unknown. His only other work is a simple symphony written probably during
his youth.

BIANCHI, GIOVANNI (1758, GORGONZOLA, ITALY, TO 1829,


GORGONZOLA). Italian composer. Trained locally, Bianchi remained
closely connected to his hometown his entire life. His only excursion was to
Paris around 1785, where he became proficient on the serpent. Little is known
of his musical works, save that he wrote numerous chamber works featuring
this instrument. His contributions still require research.

BIANCHI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (ca. 1740, PROBABLY MILAN,


TO AFTER 1782, PROBABLY LONDON). Italian composer and conduc-
tor. Nothing is known of his life or training, save that he first appears as con-
ductor of the King’s Theatre in London in 1780, a post he held for two years,
quite probably until his death. His only music seems to have been several
insertion arias into works performed there.

BIECHTELER, PATER BENEDIKT (26 MARCH 1689, OBERGÜN-


ZENBURG, GERMANY, TO 21 AUGUST 1759, KLOSTER WIBLIN-
GEN, GERMANY). German monastic composer. He was probably trained
at the Benedictine monastery near Ulm, Germany, which he entered in 1706,
eventually becoming professor at the abbey school there. Several years later
he moved to Kempten as prior to the local monastery, returning to Wiblingen
near the end of his life. Like many early monastic composers, he published
music for general use by local establishments in southern Germany. His
works include eight Masses, 24 Marian antiphons, and six Psalms. The style
is conservative, but he does show some Empfindsamkeit tendencies in works
published after 1730. See also BIECHTELER, PATER IGNATIUS.

BIECHTELER, PATER IGNATIUS (1701, OBERGÜNZENBURG,


GERMANY, TO 26 NOVEMBER 1767, KLOSTER WIBLINGEN,
GERMANY). German monastic composer and brother of Pater Benedikt
Biechteler. Like his brother, he was trained at the monastic school at the

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82 • BIELING, FRANZ IGNAZ

Benedictine monastery in Wiblingen, near Ulm, which he entered in 1719.


Although he attended university at Augsburg, he remained at the monastery
as a parish priest there and in nearby Gögglingen until his death. Like his
brother, he was interested in developing music for small churches. His works
probably included the same genres, but he also composed a sacred Singspiel
titled Theodorus I.

BIELING, FRANZ IGNAZ (ca. 1701, KEMPTEN, GERMANY, TO


14 AUGUST 1757, KEMPTEN). German composer and organist. Prob-
ably trained at the local Benedictine school in his hometown, he entered the
service of the Prince-Abbot of Kempten about 1730, serving as an organist
at the main church in the city. Like many local composers, he concentrated
upon church music, publishing works for production in smaller towns. While
his earliest compositions, sets of sacred arias and motets, are in the Baroque
style, his 11 Te Deums show stylistic similarities to the emerging galant
style. His son, Joseph Bieling, also became a composer.

BIELING, JOSEPH IGNAZ (7 MARCH 1735, KEMPTEN, GERMANY,


TO 7 JANUARY 1814, KEMPTEN). German composer and keyboardist.
The son of musician Franz Bieling, he studied under his father and Franz
Xaver Richter before going to Salzburg to attend university in law. There
he became a student of Leopold Mozart. In 1757 he returned to Kempten
as his father’s successor as court organist. His music has been little studied
but consists of a Te Deum, four sacred works, a harpsichord concerto, three
keyboard sonatas, and several miscellaneous pieces for keyboard.

BIHARI, JÁNOS (21 OCTOBER 1764, NAGYABONY, HUNGARY


[NOW VEL’KÉ BHALHONE, SLOVAKIA], TO 26 APRIL 1827, BU-
DAPEST). Hungarian-Romany violinist and composer. Trained by his father
in Poszony (Bratislava), he began his career in that city and in Budapest,
where he formed his own folk orchestra in 1801. In 1824 his career came
to an abrupt end when he could no longer perform following a hand injury.
Although he could not read or write music, his 84 verbunkos and czardas
tunes became often imitated by composers such as Ludwig van Beethoven.
He is one of the few known Gypsy violinists of the period.

BIHLER [BÜHLER], PATER GREGOR [FRANZ] (12 APRIL 1760,


UNTERSCHNEIDHEIM, NEAR NÖRDLINGEN, GERMANY, TO
4 FEBRUARY 1823, AUGSBURG). German monastic composer. While
still a child he attended school at the Minorite monastery in Maihingen,
where he learned the rudiments of music. In 1770 he was a boy soprano at

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BILLINGTON, ELIZABETH [WEICHSEL] • 83

the Benedictine Abbey at Neresheim before transferring to the University of


Augsburg where he studied philosophy. In 1778 his first work, an oratorio,
was performed at the Capuchin monastery, shortly before he became an initi-
ate in the Benedictine order at the Heiligen Kreuz Abbey near Donauwörth,
being ordained as a priest in 1784. A brief sojourn in Bozen in the Tirol as
Kapellmeister at the Palazzo Menz followed, during which he was given a
dispensation to live outside the monastic community. Thereafter Abbé Bihler
returned to Augsburg in 1801 to become the cathedral organist. The Allge-
meine musikalische Zeitung praised his service to music in glowing terms in
1814. His musical style is ornate and homophonic, often using large orches-
tral forces. His music includes 48 Masses, eight Requiems, five oratorios,
and 123 other sacred works such as motets, offertories, hymns, and Psalms.

BILLINGS, NATHANIEL (ca. 1760, WESTERN MASSACHUSETTS,


UNITED STATES, TO AFTER 1802, PROBABLY SPRINGFIELD,
MASSACHUSETTS). American psalmodist. Little is known about his life,
save that in 1794 he appears to have been a teacher at a singing school in Coo-
perstown, New York. The following year he was a publisher of a newspaper
in Troy, New York, and later appears to have moved to Springfield. Some
21 works have survived, many published in a collection titled Republican
Harmony of 1795. He is not related to William Billings.

BILLINGS, WILLIAM (7 OCTOBER 1746, BOSTON, TO 26 SEP-


TEMBER 1800, BOSTON). American composer. Although he concluded
his education in 1760 at the death of his father, he was largely self-taught in
terms of music. He spent his entire life in Boston, where he was a tanner by
trade, but he began to publish series of hymns or a cappella choral composi-
tions beginning in 1770 with The New England Psalm-Singer, for which he
also wrote many of the lyrics himself. Eventually six volumes of these works,
ending with The Continental Harmony of 1794, were published, making him
one of the first original composers of the British colonies and subsequently
the United States of America. His style is simple; the counterpoint and har-
mony flow well in a diatonic fashion. From a personal standpoint, he had a
large family, lived in reduced circumstances for the bulk of his life (even
functioning as a street sweeper in Boston in the 1790s), and according to
documents he was half blind, had a deformed arm, and was addicted to snuff.
See also FRENCH, JACOB.

BILLINGTON, ELIZABETH [WEICHSEL] (27 DECEMBER 1765,


LONDON, TO 25 AUGUST 1818, VENICE). English singer and com-
poser. She made her debut as a child in 1775 and studied under Johann

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84 • BILLONI [BIGLIONI], SANTIAGO

Christian Bach and Johann Friedrich Schroeter. In 1786 she began to per-
form as a soprano in London theatres, gaining a reputation for her easy access
to society. The publication of the Memoirs of Mrs. Billington in 1792 caused
such a scandal that she and her family were forced to move to Dublin. In 1794
she began to tour the continent, eventually settling in Venice. She came back
briefly to London in 1801, but returned to an abusive relationship in Venice,
where her husband is said to have caused her death. As a composer, she wrote
a few songs and two sets of keyboard pieces.

BILLONI [BIGLIONI], SANTIAGO (ca. 1700, ROME, TO ca. 1763,


DURANGO, NEW SPAIN [NOW MEXICO]). Italian-Spanish composer.
Almost nothing is known about his education or early years. He appears in
Guadalajara in New Spain, now Mexico, in about 1738, after having come to
Mexico City as a violinist. In 1749 he was appointed as maestro di capilla
at the Durango cathedral, a position he held until his resignation in 1758. He
was also active in Morelia. Some 30 works, all sacred, survive, showing that
he had a gift for a lyrical line and composed in an Italian style.

BINDER [BENDER] (ca. 1730, TO ca. 1770). Possibly a German monastic


composer, probably resident in East Prussia in the Barczewo region [now
Poland]. Nothing is known about his life, save that he was a relatively prolific
composer of sacred music. His style, with good harmony and an innate sense
of lyrical melody, indicates that he was most likely a monk. His works include
about 12 Masses, four antiphons, a litany, two partitas, and two offertories.

BINDER, AUGUST SIEGMUND (1761, DRESDEN, TO 1815, DRES-


DEN). German composer and son of Christlieb Binder. Trained by his
father and probably Johann Gottlieb Naumann, he succeeded his father
as court organist in 1789, having functioned in the post for two years prior.
He retained this position his entire career. Although a prolific composer of
church music, only a set of organ preludes appear to have survived. Since he
was Protestant, he does not appear to have been identical with the anonymous
Binder [Bender] whose Catholic church music survives in Poland.

BINDER, CHRISTLIEB SIGMUND (bap. 29 JULY 1723, DRESDEN,


GERMANY, TO 1 JANUARY 1789, DRESDEN). German composer and
organist. Born into a family of musicians, he received his musical education
from Pantaleon Hebenstreit in Dresden. In 1751 he became a court musician
in Dresden, performing on the pantaleon and harpsichord. In 1764 he became
court organist, retiring in 1787. As a composer, he wrote in a style that was
similar to Johann Adolph Hasse and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. His

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BLAVET, MICHEL • 85

works include 32 concertos (mostly for harpsichord), four divertimentos, 15


trios, two quartets, and around 43 keyboard sonatas, as well as one sym-
phony. His son August Siegmund Binder became his successor.

BINI, PASQUALE (21 JUNE 1716, PESARO, ITALY, TO APRIL 1770,


PESARO). Italian violinist and composer. Also known as Pasqualino, he
was one of the most successful violinists of his time. Under the patronage of
Cardinal Olivieri, he was sent in 1731 to study under Giuseppe Tartini in
Padua. He later went to Rome to study under Antonio Montanari and Pietro
Nardini. In 1738 he obtained a position with Cardinal Acquaviva Troieno
in Rome, but by 1747 he had returned to Pesaro to perform in the Teatro del
Sole. A brief sojourn in Stuttgart with the Duke of Württemberg followed
in 1754, but five years later he returned to his hometown, where he passed
away from a “mental disturbance.” He was noted for his technical virtuosity
and smooth, lyrical tone in performance. His surviving compositions include
four violin concertos, five violin duets, and two violin sonatas. See also
BARBELLA, EMANUALE.

BIRK, WENZEL RAIMUND. See PIRK, WENZEL RAIMUND JOHANN.

BLAND, MARIA THERESA. See ROMANZINI, MARIA THERESA.

BLAVET, MICHEL (13 MARCH 1700, BESANÇON, FRANCE, TO


28 OCTOBER 1768, PARIS). French flautist and composer. The son of a
wood turner, he was largely self-taught. During his youth he specialized in
woodwind instruments, primarily the flute, as well as the bassoon. In 1723
he was employed by Duc Charles-Eugène Lévis, and in 1726 he debuted
at the newly created Concerts spirituels in Paris. The same year he was
befriended by Johann Joachim Quantz, who attempted to lure him to the
court of Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia as his patron’s flute teacher. In
the late 1730s he was employed as part of the Musique du Roi, Louis XV’s
private orchestra, and he continued his career at public concerts as a soloist
noted for his brilliant and accurate playing. He later also joined the orchestra
of the Opéra, eventually composing four works for the stage. One of these,
the pasticcio Le jaloux corrigé (1752), was one of the first operas to employ
recitative in the Italian manner. His playing was admired by a wide range of
professionals, including Georg Philipp Telemann, Johann Joachim Quantz,
Jean-Marie Leclair, and Voltaire. His surviving works include a flute con-
certo that seems modeled upon Antonio Vivaldi, three books of flute sonatas
meant for amateurs, and several songs. He had a reputation as one of the
premier instrumentalists of the time.

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86 • BLAVIER, ANDRÉ-JOSEPH

BLAVIER, ANDRÉ-JOSEPH (29 DECEMBER 1713, LIÈGE, BEL-


GIUM, TO 30 NOVEMBER 1782, ANTWERP, BELGIUM). Franco-
Flemish composer and organist. Following early musical education in his
hometown, he was appointed as maître de chapelle at the monastery of Saint-
Pierre, before moving to Antwerp in 1737 as the successor of Joseph-Hector
Fiocco at the cathedral of Onze-Lieve-Vrouw. There he directed the chorus
and taught students such as François-Joseph Gossec until 1768, when he
was appointed director of music at the Sint-Andries monastery. Little of his
music has survived, apart from a Mass written early in his career, although
much probably remains to be discovered.

BOCCHERINI, LUIGI (19 FEBRUARY 1743, LUCCA, ITALY, TO 28


MAY 1805, MADRID). Italian-Spanish composer and cellist. The son of a
cellist, he was sent to Rome at an early age to study under Giovanni Battista
Costanzi, and in 1757 he and his father were employed at the Burgtheater in
Vienna. By 1761 he had returned to Lucca as a member of the Cappella Pa-
latina but shortly thereafter set off on a tour of Europe as a virtuoso. By 1768
he intended to make his reputation in London but was diverted to Madrid on
the invitation of the Spanish ambassador, where he was employed as musical
director for the Infante Don Luís Antonio de Borbón. In 1770 he was named
as compositor y virtuoso da camera, and for the next 15 years he followed
his patron to various country estates and homes in Boudilla del monte, Olias-
Velada-Cadalso, and Arenas de San Pedro, where he composed the greater
portion of his chamber music. Returning to Madrid in 1785 he conducted
the private orchestra of the Duke of Ossuna, as well as the Real Capilla
until 1799, when Spain was occupied during the Napoleonic wars. In 1786
he was appointed as chamber composer to Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia,
who bestowed upon him an annual pension, even though there is no evidence
that Boccherini ever traveled to Potsdam in person. By 1802 he obtained the
patronage of Lucien Bonaparte, which allowed him to continue his duties,
although economic circumstances appear to have been difficult.
Boccherini, whose music was published in Paris and elsewhere and widely
distributed throughout the world, can be seen as one of the most popular com-
posers of the last half of the 18th century. His style was known for its fluid
melodic lines, advanced sense of harmony, innovative forms and structure,
and rhythmic drive. He often used Spanish rhythms and dances in his music,
and he was often compared with Joseph Haydn as one of the most progres-
sive composers of the period. He left over 500 compositions, including two
operas, a zarzuela, two Stabat maters, three oratorios, three Psalm settings,
two sacred cantatas, a Mass (and several Mass movements), 18 “academic”
arias/duets, around 30 symphonies, 19 concertos (13 for violoncello alone),
two sinfonia concertantes, 23 divertimentos or notturnos, a serenade,

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BOIELDIEU, FRANÇOIS-ADRIEN • 87

seven string sextets, 157 string quintets (the majority of which have two
cellos instead of two violas), nine guitar quintets, 24 flute quintets, 95 string
quartets (including arrangements of quintets), nine flute quartets, six piano
quartets, nine woodwind quartets, 68 string trios, six flute trios, 16 piano
trios, 46 violin sonatas, 42 cello sonatas, 14 keyboard sonatas, 22 violin
duets, and numerous smaller occasional works. His music is known by G
(Gérard) numbers.

BÖCKLIN VON BÖCKLINSAU, FRANZ FRIEDRICH SIEGMUND


AUGUST VON, REICHSFREIHERR ZU RUST (28 SEPTEMBER
1745, STRASBOURG, ALSACE, TO 2 JUNE 1813, ETTENHEIM,
ALSACE). German-Alsatian nobleman, theorist, and composer. He studied
composition under Niccolò Jommelli and Franz Xaver Richter in Stras-
bourg, but he was considered a musical amateur, who wrote only occasion-
ally for public concerts in Alsace, both in its capital and for his estate in
Ettenheim. His main reputation was in musical aesthetics, such as his 1790
treatise Beyträge zur Geschichte der Musik, which advocates the unification
of music, dance, and poetry into a type of Gesamtkunstwerk. Much of his own
music has been lost, including seven Singspiels, sacred works, and sympho-
nies, as well as several odes. What has survived, including around 30 Lieder,
gives little or no impression of his skill as a composer, which was reported to
have been considerable.

BODE, JOHANN JOACHIM CHRISTOPH (12 JANUARY 1730,


BARUM, NEAR BRAUNSCHWEIG, GERMANY, TO 13 DECEMBER
1793, WEIMAR, GERMANY). German bassoonist, cellist, publisher, and
composer. Following early musical education in Helmstedt, he moved to
Celle in 1752 as an oboist and composer, although he mainly performed on
the bassoon. In 1757 he was in Hamburg, earning his living as a publisher and
teacher, becoming close friends with author Ephraim Gotthold Lessing. In
1778 he was posted as a diplomat to the court in Weimar, where he remained
the rest of his life. His main focus was as publisher, producing translations
of Charles Burney and Pietro Metastasio, as well as the Hamburgischer
unpartheyischer Correspondent. His own music has been little studied but
consists of eight symphonies, a cello concerto, two volumes of Lieder, a
string partita and quartet, and six trios, all heavily influenced by the style
of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.

BOIELDIEU, FRANÇOIS-ADRIEN (16 DECEMBER 1775, ROUEN,


FRANCE, TO 8 OCTOBER 1834, JARCY, SEINE ET OISE, FRANCE).
French composer. Following musical studies with Charles François Broche
and Urbain Cordonnier, he made his debut as an opera composer in 1792 at

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88 • BON, ANNA

the Théâtre des Arts with La fille coupable. Its success allowed him to obtain
further commissions and in 1796 to move to Paris, where two years later he
was appointed as professor of piano at the Conservatoire. In 1800 he had his
greatest success with Le calife de Bagdad, but marital difficulties forced him
to leave Paris for St. Petersburg in 1804. After eight years he returned to Paris
where he became court composer and in 1817 was elected to the Académie
des beaux arts. Although the bulk of his operatic composition occurred after
1800 and more properly belongs to the Romantic period, his early successes
show a gifted composer with similar orchestrational technique to André
Ernest Modeste Grétry. He also had a good sense of lyrical melody and in-
teresting harmony. His works to 1800 include 11 operas, two concertos (harp
and fortepiano), and 81 romances.

BON, ANNA (1738, BOLOGNA, ITALY, TO AFTER 1770, PROB-


ABLY VENICE). Italian composer, sometimes known as Anna Boni or
Anna Bonni di Venezia. Little is known about her, save that she was the
daughter of a touring singer, Rosa Ruvinetti, and a scenographer/architect,
Girolamo Bon (d. 1761). In 1743 she was enrolled at the Ospedale della Pietà
in Venice, where she received her musical education. Around 1750 or so she
rejoined her parents, probably in Berlin, publishing her first works, a set of
six flute sonatas dedicated to Frederick II. Thereafter she appears to have
followed her parents to the court of Frederick’s sister Princess Wilhelmine
in Bayreuth, where her father was professor of architecture at the university
there. In 1759 she was singing in Pressburg, and in 1762 she was hired as
a singer at the Esterházy court in Eisenstadt, where she remained for three
years. Thereafter she disappears from history, save for an announcement in
1772 seeking a divorce in Venice from a man from Brescia, who she appar-
ently married around 1770. As a composer she published only 18 works, the
aforementioned six flute sonatas, six keyboard sonatas, and six divertimen-
tos for two flutes and continuo (trio sonatas), but recent discoveries include
two sacred arias and an offertory.

BONAZZI, ANTONIO (24 JULY 1754, MANTUA, ITALY, TO 17 JAN-


UARY, 1802, MANTUA). Italian violinist, music collector, and composer.
Trained at the Accademia Teresiana in his hometown, he was appointed at
an early age as violinist in the ducal cappella. In 1772 he was asked by Gia-
como Puccini to direct an opera in the city of Lucca, and in 1782 he became
principal violin at the Teatro Nuovo in Mantua, a position he held his entire
life. A literate and erudite man, he was a member of the literary Accademia
Arcadia Virgiliana, and during his lifetime amassed a huge collection of
works, mainly by his Italian contemporaries. These were cataloged after his

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BONESI, BARNABA • 89

death, forming one of the most significant collections in the country. His
own music includes a ballet, several operas, several symphonies, a quartet,
several violin concertos, 13 trios, and several sonatas.

BONAZZI, FELICE ANTONIO (ca. 1735, MILAN, TO 1802, MILAN).


Italian composer. No information survives regarding his life or training. He
first appears around 1785 as a maestro di cappella in Milan, where he was
possibly a student of Giovanni Battista Sammartini. His music has been
mostly lost, and what remains is often confused with Ferdinando Bonazzi,
who was most likely his son. These works show the influence of the Lom-
bardic composers such as Sammartini. They consist of five Glorias for chorus
and orchestra, as well as three symphonies.

BONAZZI, FERDINANDO (1764, MILAN, TO 18 NOVEMBER 1845,


MILAN). Italian organist and composer. Most likely the son of Felice Bon-
azzi, he was probably trained by his father, being appointed in 1802 as prin-
cipal organist at the Duomo in Milan. The bulk of his music more properly
belongs to the 19th century, but he composed at least four sacred works (a
Kyria, Gloria, Magnificat, and Tamtum ergo) prior to 1800 in the late Italian
Classical style.

BOND, CAPEL (bap. 14 DECEMBER 1730, GLOUCESTER, ENG-


LAND, TO 14 FEBRUARY 1790, COVENTRY, ENGLAND). English
composer and organist. He studied at the Crypt School in Gloucester before
being apprenticed to the local organist. In 1749 he moved to Coventry, where
he was appointed as organist at St. Michael and All Angels Church, later in
1752 adding a similar position at Holy Trinity Church. In 1768 he was one
of the founders of the Birmingham Festival, which produced oratorios for
over 30 years. His own music is somewhat conservative in style, similar to
that of Thomas Arne and William Boyce. His surviving music includes six
published concertos (and concerti grossi) and six anthems.

BONDINERI, MICHEL. See NERI[-BONDI], MICHELE.

BONESI, BARNABA (1745, BERGAMO, ITALY, TO 25 OCTOBER


1824, PARIS). Italian composer and theorist. He received his musical edu-
cation under Giovanni Andrea Fioroni in Milan before moving to Paris in
1778 to make his living as a composer there. He debuted as a composer at
the Concerts spirituels in 1781 with an oratorio, Judith, and by 1788 he was
active as an opera composer at the Théâtre des Beaujolais. He then retired to
teaching, publishing in 1806 the well-regarded treatise Traité de la mesure,

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90 • BONFICHI, PADRE PAOLO

ou de la division du temps dans la musique et dans la poésie. His own mu-


sic has been little studied but consists of an oratorio, several operas, two
symphonies, two concertos, six string quartets, several Mass movements, a
concert aria, a Te Deum, a litany, and seven motets.

BONFICHI, PADRE PAOLO (6 OCTOBER 1769, LIVRAGA, NEAR


LODI, ITALY, TO 29 DECEMBER 1840, LODI). Italian monastic com-
poser. Largely self-taught in terms of music, he attended the University of
Parma, where he finally received some formal musical training. In 1787 he
entered the order of the Servi di Maria, giving up music as part of his vows.
In 1790, however, he became a student of Pietro Guglielmi in Rome while
studying theology. In 1796 he returned to Parma but settled in Milan in 1806
after the dissolution of the monastery. Thereafter he made his living largely
as a music teacher, although in 1829 he was appointed as maestro di cappella
of Santa Causa in Loreto. He retired in 1839. Although much of his operatic-
style church music was written in the 19th century and reflects the emerging
Romanticism, his early works, including an oratorio and three cantatas, all
date from the end of the 18th century.

BONFIG, PATER CAJETAN [JOHANN PETER] (28 SEPTEMBER


1730, UNSLEBEN, GERMANY, TO 26 JANUARY 1797, MAINZ, GER-
MANY). German monastic composer, organist, and theologian. He received
his early musical education in Münnerstadt at the Augustinian Gymnasium
before he entered the order as a novice in 1749. Thereafter he was transferred
to the monastery in Oberndorf, where he served as organist until 1752, when
he left for Mainz. There he studied theology at Mainz University, and in 1753
he was ordained. His music, consisting of a number of Masses and other
smaller sacred works, has largely been lost.

BONNO, GIUSEPPE BATTISTA (29 JANUARY 1711, VIENNA, TO


15 APRIL 1788, VIENNA). Austrian-Italian composer and teacher. The son
of a courtier to the Holy Roman Court, Bonno was trained in music at St.
Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna before being sent off to Naples to study under
Francesco Durante and Leonardo Leo. His first compositions date from
this period and are mostly sacred work, but in 1736 he returned to Vienna,
where he began to produce celebratory operas for the court, such as L’amore
insuperabile. In 1739 he was named court composer, writing for the Italian
theatre until 1749, when he became Kapellmeister at the Viennese court of
Joseph Friedrich of Saxony-Hildburghausen. This post offered him contact
with composers such as Florian Gassmann and Christoph Willibald von
Gluck, succeeding the former as hofKapellmeister in 1774. His intensive ac-

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BORGHI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA • 91

tivity in Vienna in musical circles, as well as his reputation as a solid teacher,


occupied him until his retirement, shortly before his death.
His most famous pupils were Carl von Dittersdorf and Marianne von
Martinez. His musical style is thoroughly steeped in the Neapolitan opera
style of his training, being focused upon vocal works. These include 23
operas; four oratorios; 33 Masses; two Requiems; two Te Deums; three
litanies; around 88 other pieces of sacred music, including offertories, mo-
tets, hymns, and canticles; 12 concert arias; four symphonies; and a flute
concerto. Although not an innovative composer, he maintained the Viennese
preferences in court circles for the mellifluous Italian style.

BOOG [POCK], JOHANN NEPOMUK (ca. 1724, PROBABLY VI-


ENNA, TO 24 APRIL 1764, VIENNA). Austrian composer and organist.
He was probably a pupil of Johann Joseph Fux and was appointed as regens
chori at the St. Peter’s Church in Vienna around 1745. He was succeeded in
this position by Leopold Hofmann. His music has been little studied, but it
consists of at least eight Masses and a Psalm setting.

BORDONI, FAUSTINA (30 MARCH 1697, VENICE, TO 4 NOVEM-


BER 1781, VENICE). Italian singer. Trained initially by Michele Gasparini
and Benedetto Marcello, she made her debut in Venice in 1716. In 1726 she
was taken to London, where she performed regularly in the King’s Theatre,
excelling in roles by George Frederick Handel. In 1727 a rivalry with soprano
Francesca Cuzzoni broke into fisticuffs and, although she was reengaged for
the following season, Bordoni left to resume her career in Italy. In 1730 she
married Johann Adolph Hasse, becoming one of the leading singers in his
operas for the next several decades in Dresden. She retired from the stage
in 1751, spending the remainder of her life alongside her husband. She and
Hasse were considered during this period as one of the chief power couples.
As a mezzo-soprano, she had parts written for her that were able to show off
her penetrating power and dexterity. Johann Joachim Quantz considered
her to be one of the most important singers of the period.

BORGHI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (25 AUGUST 1738, CAMERINO,


TO 25 FEBRUARY 1796, LORETO). Italian composer and organist, not
related to Luigi Borghi. He received his earliest training under Girolamo
Abos at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples beginning in
1757. By 1759 he was appointed as maestro di cappella at the cathedral in
Orvieto, during which time he also traveled throughout Italy and may have
gone as far afield as Vienna. In 1778 he obtained his last position at the Santa
Causa Church in Loreto. Borghi was best known for his operas written in

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92 • BORGHI, LUIGI

a mid-century Neapolitan style. His works include 24 operas (split evenly


between buffa and seria), 20 oratorios, 11 Masses, 35 introits, 27 graduals,
67 offertories, 14 Psalms, 25 Marian antiphons, six litanies, a violin concerto,
and six violin duets. See also BASILI, FRANCESCO.

BORGHI, LUIGI (ca. 1745, BOLOGNA, TO ca. 1806, LONDON). Italian


composer and violinist, not related to Giovanni Battista Borghi. A student
of Gaetano Pugnani, he moved to London in 1769 at the behest of William
Hamilton. By 1785 he was active as a violinist in the Professional Concerts.
His music is representative of the Empfindsamkeit style, with good contrast
and lyrical motivic lines. The bulk of his music was published during his
lifetime and includes six violin concertos, six symphonies/overtures, two
ballets, 12 violin sonatas (titled “solos”), nine duos for two violins, 12 duets,
64 cadenzas, and a sonata for viola d’amore.

BORRONI, ANTONIO (1738, ROME, TO 25 DECEMBER 1792,


ROME). Italian composer. Following initial studies under Padre Giovanni
Battista Martini in Bologna, he attended the Conservatorio della Pietà dei
Turchini in 1757, where his teachers included Girolamo Abos. The fol-
lowing year he established himself in Rome as a teacher, whose students
included Muzio Clementi and where in 1761 his opera Demofoonte was
produced successfully. This led to commissions throughout the Holy Roman
Empire, including Venice, Prague, and Dresden. In 1770 he was appointed
Kapellmeister in Stuttgart, but in 1777 he returned to Rome, where he was
appointed as maestro di cappella at St. Peters. He subsequently held similar
posts at several other churches in the city. Although the bulk of his composi-
tions consist of sacred works (as many as 82 Masses, motets, etc.), he also
wrote 20 operas, two symphonies, and two concertos (flute and bassoon), as
well as a large-scale setting of the Odes of Horace. His musical style con-
forms with that of late 18th-century Naples, save for the sacred works, many
of which are in the stile antico.

BORTNYANS’KY, DMYTRO [DMITRI BORTNIANSKY] (28 OCTO-


BER 1751, GLUKHOV, RUSSIA [NOW HLUKHIV, UKRAINE], TO
10 OCTOBER 1825, ST. PETERSBURG). Russian composer. At the age
of 9 Bortnyans’ky displayed such vocal talent that he was sent to the Impe-
rial Choir in St. Petersburg, where he studied under Baldassare Galuppi.
Galuppi then took him to Italy in 1769, where Bortnyans’ky began to make
a name for himself as a composer of Italian opera and sacred music. In 1779
he returned to St. Petersburg, where he wrote music for the Russian Orthodox
Church, as well as operas for the court of Catherine II. By 1796, her suc-

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BOYCE, WILLIAM • 93

cessor, Paul III, made him director of the Imperial Choir and recognized him
as a national musical figure. Bortnyans’ky’s style follows the harmony and
lyricism of his Italian teacher, but the Russian works include paraphrases of
Old Slavonic chant, as well as occasional folk elements, particularly in the
instrumental compositions. Over 100 sacred works survive, including 45 sa-
cred concertos, seven Orthodox liturgical settings, an Ave Maria and a Salve
Regina, and numerous other pieces in Russian. In addition, he wrote seven
operas, a large ode, several part songs, a quintet and a symphony (titled
Symphonie concertante), two harp sonatas, and a march for wind band.

BOURNONVILLE, ANTOINE [ANTON] (19 MAY 1760, LYONS,


FRANCE, TO 11 JANUARY 1843, COPENHAGEN). French dancer and
choreographer active in Sweden and Denmark. Born into a family of actors,
he became a student of Jean-Georges Noverre in 1769, earning this master’s
approbation as his most capable student. As a member of his troupe he ar-
rived in Vienna, where he performed with Gasparo Angiolini. In 1782 he
was appointed as premier dancer at the Royal Ballet in Stockholm, where he
became known as an “Apollo” for his grace and fluid movement. Two of the
major ballets of the period, Landsby Mölleren (1788) by Johann Friedrich
Grenser and Fiskarena (1789) by Joseph Martin Kraus, were considered
seminal works in the development of the Romantic ballet. In 1792 he moved
to Copenhagen, where he was one of the major developers of ballet at the
Royal Theatre there. He continued to dance up to a few days before his
death. His son, August Bournonville, built his reforms and developments
on the style and innovations introduced by his father. See also BALLET EN
ACTION.

BOWIE, JOHN (1759, HUNTING TOWER, NEAR PERTH, SCOT-


LAND, TO 1815, TIBBER MORE, NEAR PERTH). Scottish composer
and musician. Although nothing is known of his early life or training, he first
appears in 1787 as a musician for hire and keyboard tuner. In 1797 he issued his
first collection of dances (reels and Strathspeys) and four years later published
the “Perthshire Yeomanry and Lady Herriot’s Reel.” By 1803 he was a music
seller, organizing annual balls and concerts in the Scottish town of Perth, as
well as teaching keyboard instruments. He also tuned instruments “on reason-
able terms.” His compositions are the popular Scots idioms of the period.

BOYCE, WILLIAM (11 SEPTEMBER 1711, LONDON, TO 7 FEBRU-


ARY 1779, KENSINGTON, NEAR LONDON). English composer and
organist. His earliest musical education was as a chorister at St. Paul’s Cathe-
dral in London, after which he was a student of Johann Pepusch and Maurice

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94 • BOYVIN D’HARDANCOURT, ANNE-LOUISE [MADAME BRILLON DE JOUY]

Greene. In 1734 he obtained his first position as an organist at the Oxford


Chapel, and in 1736 he became a composer for the Chapel Royal. By 1755 he
was well known for his stage works, including the 1740 masque Peleus and
Thetis and The Chaplet, a favorite pastoral opera from 1749. In 1755 he was
appointed as master of the King’s Musick, and three years later organist of the
Chapel Royal. Shortly thereafter he was forced to retreat from official duties
owing to increasing deafness, and instead concentrated upon finishing the
compendium Cathedral Music begun by his teacher Greene. This volume of
Anglican Church services from all ages is still partially in use. His other mu-
sic includes eight symphonies derived from stage works, 50 or more canta-
tas and odes, 60 anthems, 12 trio sonatas, 12 overtures or small symphonies,
five complete Anglican services, two oratorios (including David’s Lamenta-
tion over Saul and Jonathan from 1736), and a host of incidental music and
keyboard voluntaries. See also OVEREND, MARMADUKE; SMITH, JOHN
STAFFORD; WESLEY, CHARLES, JR.; WESLEY, SAMUEL.

BOYVIN D’HARDANCOURT, ANNE-LOUISE [MADAME BRILLON


DE JOUY] (13 DECEMBER 1744, PARIS, TO 5 DECEMBER 1824,
VILLERS, FRANCE). French patroness of the arts and composer. Born
in the parish of St. Eustache to a Royal Secretary for the French court, she
received a thorough education before marrying Jacques Brillon de Jouy, a
financier, in 1763. In her role as the wife of a wealthy upper-class citizen, she
soon created one of Paris’s finest cultural salons, eventually including people
such as Benjamin Franklin as lodgers. In 1789 she moved with her daugh-
ters to Villers during the French Revolution, eventually retiring there after
Napoleon came to power. As a musician, she had a reputation for being an
outstanding keyboardist. For her patronage, several composers, among them
Luigi Boccherini and Johann Schobert, dedicated works to her. Her corre-
spondence with Franklin provides one of the best indicators of the society of
the time. She also wrote music, of which 88 compositions still survive, almost
all of which include the keyboard. The bulk of these are chamber works and
sonatas, but she also wrote an orchestral march, an aria and a small cantata
with orchestra, and 35 songs.

BRACCINI, PATER LUIGI [ROBERTO] (ca. 1755, FLORENCE, TO


1791, FLORENCE). Italian monastic composer. In 1766 he entered the
monastery of Santa Annunziata in Florence as a student, becoming a novice
there in 1772 and taking Holy Orders in 1777. The following year he was
assigned to the basilica of San Giuseppe in Bologna, where he studied with
Padre Giovanni Battista Martini. Shortly thereafter he returned to Florence
as maestro di cappella at Santa Annunziata until his ill health forced him

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BRANT, PER • 95

to return to secular life in 1790. As a composer, he was quite conservative,


writing mostly sacred works in the stile antico. While little of his music has
been studied, surviving works include 16 sacred works (mainly motets), 12
madrigals, and six instrumental trios.

BRANDENBERG, PATER GEROLD [BEAT ERASMUS] (2 JUNE


1729, ZUG, SWITZERLAND, TO 11 JANUARY 1795, EINSIEDELN,
SWITZERLAND). Swiss monastic composer. The son of a town bureaucrat,
he entered the Benedictine monastery in Einsiedeln in 1748, becoming or-
dained five years later. In 1755 he was made vice Kapellmeister and in 1770
Kapellmeister. In 1781 he also took over the monastic printing shop. His mu-
sic consists of several works for the Engelweihe ceremony at the monastery,
including two Mass movements, two Psalms, and a Magnificat. He is not to
be confused with another Pater Gerold Brandenberg (1733–1818), who was a
prior at St. Gall monastery, an important teacher, and his brother.

BRANDL, JOHANN EVANGELIST (14 October 1760, ROHR PRI-


ORY, MARKTFLECHEN, NEAR REGENSBURG, BAVARIA, TO 26
MAY 1837, KARLSRUHE). German composer. Following early musical
training, probably at Regensburg, he was appointed as Kapellmeister at Bar-
telstein in 1784, five years later moving to Bruchsal. Intermittent temporary
appointments in Karlsruhe and Stuttgart occurred until 1805, when he moved
to Karlsruhe as Kapellmeister and director of the town theatre along with
Franz Danzi. Brandl was a composer who was concerned with the infusion
of drama into musical settings. His monodrama Hero und Leander attempts
to provide a lush orchestral setting for the Greek tale. His other works include
five operas, over 50 Lieder, 60 Masses, numerous smaller church works
(hymns and litanies), nine symphonies, 20 string quintets (and several oth-
ers with winds), five concertos, three sextets, and two serenades, as well as
six string quartets and numerous concert arias. His music remains largely
unstudied.

BRANT, PER (DECEMBER 1714, STOCKHOLM, TO 9 AUGUST


1767, STOCKHOLM). Swedish conductor and violinist. Little is known
about Brant’s life, save that he served as concertmaster of the Swedish
Hovkapell for a period of almost 20 years under his mentor and probable
teacher, Johan Helmich Roman. In 1758 he took over as hovkapellmästare
following Roman’s death, but he had been functioning as an interim for al-
most a decade previous. Under his leadership, the Hovkapell went into steep
decline, furthered by the existence in Stockholm of King Adolph Fredrick’s
own private orchestra under Hinrich Philip Johnsen and troupes such as

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96 • BRAU, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG

the Mingotti troupe headed by Francesco Antonio Uttini. A revival of the


orchestra occurred only after Brant’s death and Uttini’s appointment in his
place. Brant was well known as a music copyist, but his work as a composer
is minimal. Only 14 pieces are attributed to him, of which only one, a song, is
indisputably authentic (a currently popular Symphony in D minor is probably
by his teacher Roman).

BRAU, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG (10 OCTOBER 1746, DRAMMEN,


NORWAY, TO 4 FEBRUARY 1777, BARBY, SAXONY, GERMANY).
Norwegian-German composer. Born into a Moravian Church family, he
was educated in music in the Netherlands and Germany with the intent that
he enter the mission field in the West Indies. This did not occur due to peren-
nial ill health, and he spent his career as an educator at Moravian schools in
Saxony. In 1776 he was forced to retire to Barby, where he died a year later.
His music consists mostly of hymns, many of which demonstrate a solid basis
in harmony and a good grasp of text underlay; he also wrote hymn texts.

BREITKOPF, BERNHARD THEODOR (20 MARCH 1745, LEIPZIG,


TO 1820, ST. PETERSBURG). German publisher, music teacher, com-
poser, and librarian. The son of Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf,
he apprenticed at the family firm. He also became a close friend of Johann
Wolfgang von Goethe, whose poems he set and published in 1770 as the Neue
Lieder in Melodien gesetzt. In 1777 he relocated to St. Petersburg, where
he functioned as an administrator in the state theatre, its librarian, and ran
a publishing firm. He also taught music privately. His compositional output
consists almost entirely of Lieder. These are particularly important in that
they are the fruits of collaboration with Germany’s foremost poet.

BREITKOPF, JOHANN GOTTLOB IMMANUEL (23 NOVEMBER


1719, LEIPZIG, TO 28 JANUARY 1794, LEIPZIG). German music seller
and publisher. He learned the business of printing from his father, Bernhard
Christoph Breitkopf (1695–1777), who he succeeded in taking over a thriving
firm founded in 1719. Over the course of the century, he published music by
composers such as Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Johann Adam Hiller,
using a novel method of typesetting developed around 1754. He also ran a
copy house, which supplied manuscript copies to clients using a series of
catalogs that appeared for several decades following the War of the Austrian
Succession; their appearance was caused by a surplus of music on hand in poor
economic times. Although there are questions surrounding their authenticity,
these catalogs provide a good source of the quantity and type of music available
to the general public. At the height of his activity in the 1780s, he employed

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BRIEFER, PATER JAKOB [GREGOR] • 97

around 100 staff. Following his death the firm merged with Härtel to become
Breitkopf und Härtel. See also BREITKOPF, BERNHARD THEODOR.

BRESCIANELLO, GIUSEPPE ANTONIO (ca. 1690, BOLOGNA, TO


4 OCTOBER 1758, STUTTGART). Italian composer and violinist. Little
is known of his early musical education; he first appears as a violinist in the
Bavarian court in Munich in 1715, but the following year he was appointed
court Kapellmeister in Stuttgart for Archduke Carl Eugen. Though he had
periods of unemployment, he continued in this position until being pensioned
in 1751. Although the bulk of his music reflects Baroque style and practice,
in 1738, during one of his periods without a position, he published a set of
12 symphonies and concertos in Amsterdam that conform with the emerging
galant style. He also published in 1744 a set of 18 pieces for Gallichone, a
sort of mandora or lute, likewise in the new style.

BRÉVAL, JEAN-BAPTISTE SÉBASTIAN (6 NOVEMBER 1753,


PARIS, TO 19 MARCH 1823, COLLIGIS, AISNE, FRANCE). French
composer and cellist. Son of a wig maker, Bréval began his studies with
François Cupis and Martin Berteau at an early age. In 1775 he published
his first set of quartets, the Six quatours concertantes in Paris, and by the
following year he was a member of an elite organization of instrumentalists,
the Société académique des enfants d’Apollon. In 1778 he debuted at the
Concerts spirituels, becoming a regular soloist thereafter. He wrote and pub-
lished a wide variety of instrumental works, including sinfonia concertantes
and chamber music. Following the French Revolution, Bréval remained in
Paris, performing his concertos at the Cirque du Palais Royal and Théâtre
Feydeau. In 1791 he toured London as part of the Salomon concerts, where
he received considerable acclaim for his performances. When the Opéra
orchestra was formed in 1800, Bréval joined as principal cellist. Between
1803 and 1804, he published his Traité du violoncel, which was subsequently
used at the Conservatoire as a method book. After his retirement in 1814, he
removed to a suburb of Paris, where he spent the remainder of his life. As an
instrumentalist, he remained one of the leaders of musical culture in Paris,
and his music, known for its tunefulness, remained popular his entire life. He
wrote about 170 works, including 10 sinfonia concertantes, seven concertos
for his instrument, and a large number of chamber works, almost all of which
were published. See also SALOMON, JOHANN PETER.

BRIEFER, PATER JAKOB [GREGOR] (21 MAY 1763, AESCH,


SWITZERLAND, TO 11 MAY 1845, EINSIEDELN, SWITZERLAND).
Swiss monastic composer. He entered the Benedictine monastery in 1782,

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98 • BRIOSCHI, ANTONIO

becoming ordained four years later. Initially he functioned at the local school
as professor of rhetoric but soon abandoned this to become a confessor. In
1794 he was librarian but soon thereafter went to Ottobeuren, Regensburg,
and Kremsmünster, where he was able to save the monastery there from pil-
laging by French troops. In 1806 he returned to Einsiedeln, functioning in
several administrative capacities in nearby towns until 1836. He was known
as a fine organist, but only one work survives, a Domine ad adjuvandum,
which shows him to have been a talented composer as well.

BRIOSCHI, ANTONIO (ca. 1715, PROBABLY CASALE MONFER-


RATO, ITALY, TO AFTER 1750, MILAN OR ALESSANDRIA[?]).
Italian composer and violinist. Although a popular composer whose works
were performed throughout Europe, virtually nothing is known about his
life, save that he worked alongside Giovanni Battista Sammartini in Milan
around 1734. A year earlier, he was asked to compose a symphony for a
new synagogue in Casale Monferrato, the circumstances of which seem to
indicate that this was more likely his hometown than the Milanese suburb
of Brioscho. Despite this dearth of concrete biographical data, he was one of
the most prolific and popular composers of the early symphony in three- and
four-part format, with independent inner voices, good lyrical and harmonic
contrasts, and the use of an early sonata principle. His works include 51
authentic symphonies, 14 trio sonatas, and almost 180 other works, which
may be either sonatas or symphonies. He also composed a concerto for two
oboes, which has been lost. Sources of his music can be found throughout
Europe, from Vienna and Prague to Paris and London, and from Naples and
Rome to Stockholm.

BRIVIO, GIUSEPPE FERDINANDO (ca. 1700, MILAN, TO ca. 1758,


MILAN). Italian composer, violinist, and singer. Brivio probably came from
a prominent family of musicians in Milan, but his training is obscure. Al-
though he was listed as early as 1728 as a violinist in the court orchestra, he
also functioned as a director of the court theatre beginning that same year. He
may have gone to London about 1740, but this is uncertain, as is the date of
his death. His musical style shows Neapolitan influences in the nine operas,
four trio sonatas, two symphonies, and one concerto that survive.

BRIXI, FRANTIŠEK XAVER (2 JANUARY 1732, PRAGUE, TO 14


OCTOBER 1771, PRAGUE). Bohemian composer and organist. Brixi came
from a musical family that had a close relationship to the Benda family. He
was the son of composer Simon Brixi (1693–1735) and probably received
his earliest education from him. He later attended the Priarist Gymnasium in

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BROSCHI, CARLO • 99

Kosmonosy, where his teachers include Václav Kalous. After several posi-
tions in churches around Prague, he was appointed in 1759 as organist at the
St. Vitus Cathedral, a position he held until his early death. Brixi composed
mainly sacred music, and his reputation for solid compositions featuring
rhythmically active bass lines, a good sense of harmony and form, and in-
strumentation that was precise and often did much with sparse forces made
his works popular, particularly in monastic circles in Bohemia and Bavaria.
He is known to have composed around 400 works, including 105 Masses, six
litanies, four oratorios, school dramas, at least five concertos for organ, and
three symphonies. His sacred music parody, the Luridi scholars, is one of
the best parodies of monastic music teaching, while his organ concertos have
been widely performed as exemplars for the instrument. He also set sacred
texts in Czech, using folk material adroitly. See also LAUBE, ANTON.

BROCHE, CHARLES FRANÇOIS (20 FEBRUARY 1752, ROUEN,


FRANCE, TO 30 SEPTEMBER 1803, ROUEN). French composer and
organist. Displaying a talent for music at an early age, Broche was educated
in Rouen at the cathedral school, and in 1771 he became organist at the Aca-
démie des beaux arts in Lyons. A few years later he went to Bologna to study
under Padre Giovanni Battista Martini, returning to Rouen in 1777, where
he taught students such as Adrien Boieldieu and lived on a stipend from the
duc de Bouillon. His music, consisting of concertos, sacred works, Revolu-
tionary hymns, songs, concertos, string quartets, and other chamber music,
has largely been lost. His only surviving works are three sets of sonatas.
These have a penchant for minor keys, but it is difficult to say whether they
actually are indicative of a more dramatic style.

BROOKS, JAMES (ca. 1757, BATH, ENGLAND, TO DECEMBER


1809, LONDON). English composer and violinist. At the age of 19 he be-
came the leader of the orchestra in Bath, and over the next decade he toured
the country as a violinist and conductor. In 1794 he became president of the
Catch Club in London. His economic circumstances were always precarious,
and he was well known for an abrasive personality. His music consists of a
violin concerto, 36 military marches, 24 glees, a stage work, 20 songs, and
two violin sonatas.

BROSCHI, CARLO (24 JANUARY 1705, ANDRIA, APULIA, NEAR


NAPLES, TO 17 SEPTEMBER 1782, BOLOGNA). Italian composer and
castrato, known popularly as Farinelli. By 1711 his family had relocated
to Naples, and it was here that he probably received initial musical educa-
tion from his brother, Riccardo Broschi. In 1717 he studied under Nicola

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100 • BROSCHI, RICCARDO

Porpora, making his debut in 1720 in one of Porpora’s operas. By 1730 he


was in great demand throughout Italy and was elected to the Accademia fi-
larmonica. Although he had an international reputation, it was not until 1734
that he was hired in London. Breaking his contract, he moved to Madrid in
1737, where 10 years later he became director of the Buon Retiro Theatre. In
1759 he returned to Italy, retiring to an estate near Bologna. Broschi must be
considered one of the most famous singers of his age, known for his power,
range, and acute musicianship. He mentored numerous other singers through-
out his career and was in every sense a major star of the period who was
sought out by composers to sing their works. A composer himself, he wrote
at least 20 insertion arias (mostly for himself), as well as sonatas for viola
d’amore. See also MELE, GIOVANNI BATTISTA.

BROSCHI, RICCARDO (ca. 1698, NAPLES, TO 1756, MADRID). Ital-


ian composer and brother of Carlo Broschi. His earliest musical training
was probably at one of the conservatories in Naples, and in 1725 he achieved
some success with a comic opera, La vecchia sorda. In 1727 he was in Rome
and thereafter throughout Italy writing operas on commission. Eclipsed in
fame by his brother, for whom he wrote numerous insertion arias, he settled
in Milan, where by 1735 he was living in poverty. The following year, how-
ever, he was appointed as court composer by Archduke Carl Alexander in
Stuttgart, only to lose the position two years later. He returned to Naples,
where his operas were performed at the Teatro San Carlo, but with little
success. Sometime during the 1740s he moved to Madrid. His works have
been little performed apart from those written for his brother. His operas
demonstrate a knowledge of the galant style, though they are not especially
inventive. Known works include nine operas, a cantata, and an oratorio.

BROWNSON, OLIVER (13 MAY 1746, BOLTON, CONNECTICUT,


UNITED STATES, TO 20 OCTOBER 1815, SMITHFIELD, NEW
YORK). American psalmodist. Between 1775 and 1797 he was active as
a music teacher in Litchfield, Simsbury, and West Hartford in Connecticut,
where he also briefly collaborated with Ashael Benham in a business ven-
ture. By 1802 he had moved to Peterborough, New York, where he continued
his teaching. His 19 works are published in two collections, the Select Har-
mony of 1783 and the Sacred Harmony of 1797.

BRUNETTI, ANTONIO (ca. 1735, NAPLES, TO 25 DECEMBER 1786,


SALZBURG, AUSTRIA). Italian violinist. Following studies at the Con-
servatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in 1755, he was appointed as court music
director and first concertmaster in Salzburg. A close associate of Michael

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BRUNETTI, GAETANO • 101

Haydn (whose sister-in-law he married) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,


he was a competent performer, though neither composer regarded him highly
for his odd personal habits. His compositional efforts apparently were re-
stricted to a few works for his own instruments, although both composers
wrote works for him. His relationship to Antonio Brunetti, Gaetano Bru-
netti, and Giuseppe Brunetti has not been established.

BRUNETTI, ANTONIO (1767, SIENA OR PISA, ITALY, TO AFTER


1845, URBINO, ITALY). Italian composer. The son of Giuseppe Brunetti,
he was probably trained by his father. In 1786 he wrote an oratorio for Bolo-
gna that allowed him to be promoted to membership in the Accademia filar-
monica, and by 1790 he had become maestro di cappella at Chieti Cathedral.
In 1791 he wrote his first opera for Venice, and thereafter seems to have
composed commissions for several Italian cities. In 1810 he was appointed
at the cathedral in Urbino, and even though he had similar posts in Imola and
Macerata, he returned to that city during the later part of his life. His com-
positional career is divided in half, with the bulk of his 10 operas (almost all
buffa) written prior to 1800, as were the four oratorios and three concertos.
Many of his 82 sacred works seem to have post-dated the turn of the 19th
century. His style is similar to the later style of Domenico Cimarosa.

BRUNETTI, GAETANO (1744, FANO, ITALY, TO 16 DECEMBER


1798, COLMENAR DE OREJO, NEAR MADRID). Italian-Spanish com-
poser and violinist. Born on the Adriatic coast, he received his first instruc-
tion in violin from Carlo Tessarini in Urbino before becoming a disciple of
Pietro Nardini in Livorno. At the age of 16 or 17 he immigrated to Madrid
as a violinist in the Real Capilla and was later appointed in 1767 as instructor
of the Prince of Asturia by Carlos III. By 1779 he had become musical direc-
tor in Aranjuez, but he was recalled to Madrid in 1788 by Carlos IV to lead a
family ensemble, the musicos de la real camera, that played exclusively for
the court. During his lifetime, Brunetti had a reputation for writing dramatic
instrumental works that often deviated from conventional formal structures.
He also incorporated Spanish melodies and rhythms frequently. His music in-
cludes incidental music to the comedy Garcia del Castañal, two zarzuelas, an
Italian opera buffa, two Masses, a Miserere, three Lamentations, nine con-
cert arias, 32 songs (canciones), 37 symphonies, four concertos, five sinfo-
nia concertantes, 109 pieces of dance music, 18 sextets, 68 string quintets,
62 string quartets, 59 string trios, 23 divertimentos, 78 violin sonatas (and
one for viola), and 328 duos. He can be considered one of the most popular
and important composers resident in Spain during the 18th century. His music
is known through L (Labrador) numbers.

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102 • BRUNETTI, GIUSEPPE

BRUNETTI, GIUSEPPE (1740, NAPLES, TO AFTER 1780, FLOR-


ENCE). Italian composer. Born into a musical family, he received his early
training at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini. In 1754 he was active
as a musician in Pisa, where the first documentation of his career occurs.
Thereafter he wrote works for churches in Pisa and Siena, but in 1762 he
spent a year in Braunschweig writing an opera on commission. When no
further employment was offered, he returned to Siena, but in 1780 he was
living in Florence, eking out a living. His music has been almost completely
ignored, but surviving works include two operas, two Psalms, two Lezioni,
and a Tantum ergo. See also BRUNETTI, ANTONIO (1767–1845).

BRUNI, ANTONIO BARTOLOMEO (28 JANUARY 1757, CUNEO,


PIEDMONT, ITALY, TO 6 AUGUST 1821, CUNEO). Italian-French
composer and violinist. Following studies with Gaetano Pugnani in Turin,
Bruni traveled to Paris, where he made his debut as a violinist at the Con-
certs spirituels in 1780 and as an opera composer with Coradin in 1785. By
1789 he had been hired by Giovanni Battista Viotti as principal violin at the
Théâtre de Monsieur and during the Revolution was a commissioner of music
instruments. In 1799 he became director of the Opéra Comique and in 1801
the Théâtre Italien. A favorite of Empress Josephine, he retired in 1806, re-
turning from his native Cuneo only once more. A popular composer and bril-
liant violinist, he made significant contributions to methodology of stringed
instruments, particularly his method book for viola published in 1821, as
well as over 100 exercises for violin and viola. He was also a publisher of the
Journal du Violon. His works include 22 operas, a Revolutionary hymn, 60
string quartets, 36 trios, 123 violin duos (and a further 21 for violin/viola
and six for two violas), 21 violin sonatas, and other smaller chamber works.

BRUSA, [GIOVANNI] FRANCESCO (1700, VENICE, TO 20 MAY


1768, VENICE). Italian composer and organist. Little is known of his early
training, but he made his debut as an opera composer in Venice in 1724 with
Il trionfo della virtù. Two years later he was appointed as an organist at St.
Mark’s, and by 1736 he had received commissions for sacred music from
Genoa. In 1766 he replaced Baldassare Galuppi as director of music at the
Ospedale degli Incurabili. His music demonstrates a faithful adherence to the
lyrical musical styles of the middle of the 18th century in good lyrical lines
and fluid counterpoint. His works include 12 operas, six oratorios (includ-
ing three in Latin), a Requiem, four antiphons, 11 Psalms, four hymns, three
motets, and two symphonies.

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BUFFA • 103

BUCHER, FRANZ XAVER (1760, VIOLAU, NEAR ZUSMARSHAU-


SEN, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 1828, WANGEN, BAVARIA). Ger-
man organist and composer. Cousin of composer Pater Sixt Bachmann, he
received his musical education from Franz Anton Schmöger, the local regens
chori. In 1784 he moved to Wangen to become schoolmaster in Latin, later
also taking on duties as the musical director and organist of the St. Martin-
skirche. Although primarily a local composer, his music has been largely lost.
Surviving works include a set of waltzes, a set of variations, and two songs.
Nineteenth-century catalogs list 16 sacred works, among them a Te Deum, a
pastoral Mass, and a concerto for Alphorn.

BUCHWIESER, BALTHASAR (1765, SENDLING, NEAR MUNICH,


GERMANY, TO 1815, VIENNA). German composer. Like his brother
Matthias Buchwieser, he was trained at the monastic school at Bernreid and
arrived in Munich to study at the Gymnasium. He obtained a post as singer
at the court of the Prince-Archbishop of Trier and in 1808 was appointed Ka-
pellmeister at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna. His music includes several
operas, five Masses, six arias, two canzonetts, two offertories, and a number
of Lieder, which he published.

BUCHWIESER, MATTHIAS (14 SEPTEMBER 1772, SENDLING,


NEAR MUNICH, GERMANY, TO 1813, MUNICH). German composer
and organist. Trained at the monastic school at Bernreid, he entered the Jesuit
Gymnasium in Munich in 1783. In 1792 he was appointed as Bavarian court
organist, as well as accompanist at the state theatre. His music is reminiscent
of Michael Haydn, although little survives save for a Mass and two Mass
movements. He composed a number of Singspiels and German Masses. His
brother, Balthasar Buchwieser, was also a composer.

BÜELER, FRANZ JOSEPH (1751, RAPPERSWIL, SWITZERLAND,


TO 1816, ST. GALL, SWITZERLAND). Swiss administrator and amateur
composer. His early career was as a salt merchant in Rorschach, and in 1798
he became a city administrator in Rapperswil. By 1802 he was a district
administrator for the canton of Linth and in 1803 became state counselor
in St. Gall. Although he was mainly an administrator, he was also an active
composer. A sacred song in Einsiedeln demonstrates a good knowledge of
the naïve style.

BUFFA. See OPERA BUFFA.

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104 • BULANT, ANTONÍN ŠTĚPÁN

BULANT, ANTONÍN ŠTĚPÁN (9 FEBRUARY 1751, MELNÍK, BO-


HEMIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 25 JUNE 1821, ST. PETERS-
BURG). Also known as Antoine Bullant or Jean Bullant. Bohemian-Russian
composer and bassoonist. Trained by local musicians, he probably obtained
his first position at the nearby estate of Prince Lobkowitz, who sent him to
Paris in 1771. There he attracted the attention of Count Stroganov, who of-
fered him a position at the Imperial Theatre in St. Petersburg. Remaining in
Russia the rest of his life, he often spent time in Moscow, as well as becom-
ing one of the founding members of the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Society
in 1802. His major focus was on Russian language opera, and he wrote in
a folklike style without actually using folk material. His works include 13
operas (of which the 1784 Sbitenscik and the 1799 Vinetta were extremely
popular), five symphonies, a bassoon concerto, six quartets, six trios, seven
duos for two clarinets, and a number of partitas for wind instruments.

BULL, AMOS (9 FEBRUARY 1744, ENFIELD, CONNECTICUT,


UNITED STATES, TO 23 AUGUST 1825, HARTFORD, CONNECTI-
CUT). American psalmodist. In 1766 he published his first collection of
psalmody, The New Universalist Psalmodist. During the Revolutionary War
he served as a clerk in New York City, returning to Hartford in 1788. He
composed 57 works.

BURACH, PATER JUSTUS [FRANZ AEGIDIUS] (28 JANUARY 1706,


SACHSELN, SWITZERLAND, TO 20 JUNE 1768, FREUDENFELS,
SWITZERLAND). Swiss monastic composer. He entered the Benedictine
order in Einsiedeln in 1725, becoming ordained in 1730. In 1738 he acted
as abbey organist and proofer in the monastic print shop, where he became
director in 1750. In 1754 he moved as parish priest to Freudenfels. He cre-
ated one of the first catalogs of the Einsiedeln library. As a composer, his
style demonstrates considerable homophony, although the settings are often
sparse. The works consist of 11 Magnificats, a motet, and a book of organ
accompaniments for Laudes and vespers.

BURGESS, HENRY, JR. (ca. 1720, LONDON, TO ca. 1770, LONDON).


English composer and organist. The son of composer and organist Henry
Burgess (d. 1765), he probably trained under his father. He first appears as
a writer of songs in 1738 at the Drury Lane concerts and a few years later
appeared with great success as a soloist in one of his own concertos. He
performed regularly at the London public concerts thereafter, and in 1763
he listed himself as a teacher. He inherited the bulk of his father’s musicalia

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BUTTSTETT, FRANZ VOLLRATH • 105

in 1765 but appears to have retired shortly thereafter. His works include six
concertos for organ, 12 English songs, as well as several catches and glees.

BURLETTA. Also known as burla. An Italian term meaning “little joke” but
often used elsewhere in Europe, especially England, for short, satirical works
in a single act or afterpieces.

BURNEY, CHARLES (7 APRIL 1728, SHREWSBURY, ENGLAND,


TO 17 APRIL 1814, LONDON). English organist, composer, and man of
letters. Son of a violinist, he attended the Free Schools at Shrewsbury and
Chester, eventually becoming an assistant organist in the first city in 1742. In
1744 he became a protégé of Thomas Arne, who provided further education
leading to membership in the Freemen of the Musicians Company in 1749.
He directed and provided music for several staged works, most significantly
The Cunning Man, a translation of Le devin du village by Jean-Jacques
Rousseau. In 1770 he began a series of musical tours, first to Italy and France
and in 1772 to Germany and Holland, which resulted in published diaries
that are significant descriptions of the music and musicians of the period.
In 1776 he published his first volume of the General History of Music (two
other volumes followed in 1782 and 1789), which gained him prominence in
English society, as did his work as official chronicler of the Handel Centenary
Festival in 1785. By 1801 he had taken on additional work writing music
articles for Reese’s Encyclopedia. Burney was known during his lifetime and
afterward as one of the first major historians of music, though he also wrote
on scientific matters such as astronomy. Although trained as a composer, his
works are modest in number; qualitatively they follow the style of his con-
temporaries and teachers such as Arne. His works include three operas, two
odes, 12 canzonetts, 16 trio sonatas, 21 keyboard sonatas and other works,
six violin duets, and a number of songs, catches, and glees. See also ABEL,
CARL FRIEDRICH; CAPUA, RINALDO DA; MILLER, EDWARD.

BUTTSTETT, FRANZ VOLLRATH (2 APRIL 1735, ERFURT, GER-


MANY, TO 7 MAY 1814, ROTHENBURG OB DER TAUBER, GER-
MANY). German organist and composer. After early musical education in
Erfurt, he was sent to Leipzig to study under Johann Friedrich Doles. He
obtained a position as organist in Weikersheim in 1755, and in 1758 he was
appointed interim organist at Rothenburg, a position he held the remainder of
his life, although it took almost 20 years to become permanent. He was well
regarded as a composer of church music, writing oratorios, symphonies, and
much chamber music. In addition he revised the Rothenburger Gesangbuch

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106 • BYSTRÖM, THOMAS

in 1774. Much of his music was destroyed during the Napoleonic invasion.
What survives includes 36 cantatas, 30 sacred songs, 14 motets, 12 Psalms,
seven chorales, and three keyboard sonatas.

BYSTRÖM, THOMAS (28 AUGUST 1772, HELSINKI, TO 10 OCTO-


BER 1839, STOCKHOLM). Finnish-Swedish composer. The son of a suc-
cessful statesman in the province of Finland (then part of Sweden), Thomas
Byström was encouraged to study violin and piano at an early age by his
father. In 1787 he enrolled at a military academy in St. Petersburg, later join-
ing the Swedish army in 1792 as an adjutant and subsequently aide-de-camp
to Gustav IV Adolph. Byström was mostly stationed in Stockholm beginning
with his Swedish army career and was thus able to participate in musical
social circles. He was elected in 1794 to the Royal Swedish Academy of
Music, and in 1801 he published a set of violin sonatas, as well as a series
of strophic Lieder. As a government military official, however, his compo-
sitional career was limited. He taught music for a period (1813–1825) at the
Royal Academy. His works include the three violin sonatas, nine songs, and
a set of variations on a Russian theme, as well as several smaller keyboard
works. His style has been likened to early Ludwig van Beethoven in its use
of motives and sequencing, as well as bold harmonic modulations.

BYZANTIOS, PETROS (ca. 1750, NEOCHORIOS, GREECE, TO 1808,


IAŞI, ROMANIA [NOW MOLDOVIA]). Greek singer and composer. A
student of Petros Peloponnesios, in 1771 he became a cantor at the Ecumeni-
cal Patriachate in Constantinople, where he also taught a number of singers
as one of the founders of the Third Patriarchal School. Dismissed from his
post due to internal politics, he fled to Kherson in the Crimea in 1805, later
attempting to reach Western Europe. Using an original notation, he composed
chants and an entire heirmologion of the divine office.

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C
CABALONE, MICHELE (1692, NAPLES, TO 19 JANUARY 1740,
NAPLES). Italian composer and violinist. His earliest education was at the
Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto, and in 1717 he made his debut at the
Teatro Fiorentini with insertion arias. Although he wrote for the various the-
atres in the city, his subsequent career was mostly as a teacher of violin and
singing. His most important student was Faustina Bordoni. As a composer,
the bulk of his music conforms to the Baroque style, but his 1731 opera buffa
Li dispiette amoruse displays a similar style to Giovanni Pergolesi, indicat-
ing that he was aware of the trends in Neapolitan opera. His later sacred
works also demonstrate a galant style. His music consists of nine operas and
nine sacred works (mainly Psalms), but has been little studied.

CADENZA. In the 18th century generally an improvised virtuoso passage


in a concerto or concert aria that takes place immediately before the final
ritornello on a six-four chord with a fermata. It was considered embellishment
and performed in one or more movements of a work with solo voice or instru-
ment. Initially intended to be improvised based upon music from the move-
ment, it could also be written out by the composer who did not think it wise to
leave it to the soloist. Called an Übergang (Johann Adam Hiller) or Eingang
(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart), instructions for the performance and writing
are contained in the Clavierschule by Daniel Gottlob Türk of 1789 and in
the Traité des agréments by Giuseppe Tartini from 1771, among others.

CAFARO [CAFFARO], PASQUALE (8 FEBRUARY 1718, SAN PI-


ETRO IN GALATINA, ITALY, TO 25 OCTOBER 1787, NAPLES).
Italian composer and teacher. He entered the Conservatorio della Pietà dei
Turchini in 1735, where his teachers included Lorenzo Fago and Leonardo
Leo. By 1745 he had his first operatic successes, resulting in commissions
from several other Italian cities. He chose to stay in Naples, however, suc-
ceeding Girolamo Abos as second maestro in 1759. His music, the majority
of which is sacred, conforms to the lyrical Neapolitan style of the mid-18th
century. It includes eight operas, 15 secular cantatas, six oratorios, three

107

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108 • CAJANI, GIUSEPPE

Masses, six Kyries, a Requiem, four motets, 12 Psalms, a litany, a Stabat


mater, and three antiphons. His students include Giacomo Tritto.

CAJANI, GIUSEPPE (1774, MILAN, TO 1821, PARIS). Italian com-


poser. Little is known of his life or training, save that he moved to Paris
around 1799, where he was active as a teacher and musician. His music, writ-
ten in a conventional and pleasant late 18th-century Italian style, includes six
operas, 11 ballets, a Requiem, and two symphonies. He also wrote a treatise,
Elementi di musica, which was published in Paris in Italian in 1805.

CALEGARI, ANTONIO (17 FEBRUARY 1757, PADUA, ITALY, TO


22 JULY 1828, PADUA). Italian composer. Following initial studies under
Jacopo Scalabrin and Ferdinando Turrini, he was appointed as organist at
the Santa Giustina Church. Further studies in Venice under Ferdinando Ber-
toni, whose opera Orfeo he conducted at the Teatro Obizzi in Padua in 1776,
led to a successful premiere of his own opera in Venice in 1779. Although he
received several commissions from other northern Italian cities, he returned
to Padua in 1790 and by 1800 was organist at the Basilica di Sant’Antonio.
His style conforms closely to that of other colleagues, such as Giovanni
Paisiello. His works consist of six operas, 12 secular cantatas, four concert
arias, three oratorios, three Masses (and 27 Mass movements), 18 antiphons,
17 responsories, 10 Psalms, and six keyboard sonatas (as well as a fugue for
string orchestra). His brother Giuseppe Calegari was a cellist and composer
in Padua as well.

CALEGARI, GIUSEPPE (ca. 1750, PADUA, ITALY, TO 1812, PADUA).


Italian violoncellist and composer. Brother of Antonio Calegari, he remained
in Padua his entire life following early training with Antonio Vandini. In
1778 he was appointed as principal cellist in the orchestra of the Basilica di
Sant’Antonio, although he also concertized in Venice and Modena, cities for
which he also composed opera. His works have been little studied, but what
survives consists of six operas and six cantatas.

CALL, LEONHARD VON (19 MARCH 1767, EPPAN, TYROL [NOW


APPIANO, ITALY], TO 19 FEBRUARY 1815, VIENNA). Austrian com-
poser. He probably received his musical training locally in the Tyrol, but in
1787 he moved to Vienna, where he was employed as an assistant liquidator
to the Imperial court. He also began to gain a reputation for his performance
on guitar, publishing music beginning in 1802. His works consist of several
sets of part songs for male chorus; two sextets; four quintets; 14 quartets; 34
trios; 52 duos; and 12 works for guitar, flute, and pianoforte.

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CAMBINI, GIUSEPPE MARIA GIAOCCHINO • 109

CALZABIGI, RANIERO (23 DECEMBER 1714, LIVORNO, ITALY,


TO 12 JULY 1795, NAPLES). Italian librettist. After training at the local
Jesuit college, Calzabigi moved to Naples in 1741 to write opera librettos for
resident composers. In 1761 Count Giacomo Durazzo put him into contact
with Christoph von Gluck after Calzabigi’s move to Vienna. Their collabo-
ration resulted both in dramatic ballets such as Don Juan as well as the reform
operas Orfeo ed Euridice and Alceste. He returned to Pisa in 1775, where he
continued to write texts for other composers.

CAMACHO (ca. 1710, BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA, TO AFTER 1749,


BOGOTÁ). Colombian composer. Nothing is known of him, not even his
first name, save that he was a local musician in the provincial capital of New
Spain. Two of his works survive, a cantada from 1736 and a set of Lamenta-
tions for polyphonic chorus from 1749.

CAMBINI, GIUSEPPE MARIA GIAOCCHINO (13 FEBRUARY 1746,


LIVORNO, ITALY, TO ca. 1818, POSSIBLY THE NETHERLANDS).
Italian-French composer. Born in Livorno, almost nothing is known about his
musical training, other than he probably studied violin under Filipo Manfredi.
He first appears in Paris in 1773, when one of his sinfonia concertantes was
performed at the Concerts spirituels. Thereafter, he embarked upon a career
that was closely associated with this series, as well as becoming a popular
and prolific composer whose music was published extensively. Although he
was able to make a living through these means, in 1788 he became musical
director of the Théâtre des Beaujolais, for which he began composing numer-
ous operas. When this theatre folded during the French Revolution, he was
given a similar post at the Théâtre Louvois. By 1795 his music had declined
precipitously in popularity, and he turned his attention toward pedagogical
works, mainly method books for the violin and flute, published in 1795 and
1799, respectively. By 1810 he had largely vanished from history, although
recent research has disproven that he died in Paris in 1825, as early lexicog-
raphers had noted.
Cambini is a problematic figure in music history. He was a prolific com-
poser, but his early life, drawn from anecdotes he himself related, is difficult,
or impossible, to verify. For example, he allegedly left Naples in 1766 after
the failure of one of his operas, only to be captured by pirates along with his
fiancée and then ransomed by a Venetian merchant. His position as one of the
in-house composers at the Concerts was maintained through a certain sense of
political machination, and there is no evidence from Italy that his biography
is true, good story though it may be. As a composer, he was often criticized
for his predictability, and though he does offer some interesting musical color

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110 • CAMERLOHER, JOSEPH ANTON VON

in his orchestrations, the harmonies are not advanced, the formal structures
often static, and the melodies not well developed, lyrical as they may be. He
was by any account the master composer of the sinfonia concertante. His sur-
viving music includes 14 operas (all in French), five Masses, four oratorios,
a grand Miserere, 25 Revolutionary hymns, 82 sinfonia concertantes, 14 con-
certos, six symphonies, 114 string quintets, 149 string quartets, 104 trios,
212 duos, and 30 sonatas (mainly violin), in addition to other smaller works.

CAMERLOHER, JOSEPH ANTON VON (4 JULY 1710, MURNAU,


NEAR FREISING, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 17 JUNE 1743, MU-
NICH). German composer and organist. Like his younger brother Placidus
von Camerloher, he was educated at the Ritterakademie in Ettal, later trans-
ferring to the Wilhelmsgymnasium in Munich. In 1739 he became a chamber
composer at the Bavarian court, where he spent the remainder of his life. He
was a prolific composer of the early symphony whose music corresponds to
the galant style. His works include two operas, nine meditations, four other
sacred works, 43 symphonies (mainly for strings), a flute sonata, and 31 trio
sonatas.

CAMERLOHER, PLACIDUS CAJETANUS LAURENTIUS VON (9


AUGUST 1718, MURNAU, NEAR FREISING, BAVARIA, GER-
MANY, TO 21 JULY 1782, FREISING). German monastic composer
and organist. Trained like his brother Joseph von Camerloher at the Rit-
terakademie in Ettal, he also attended the Wilhelmsgymnasium in Munich
beginning in 1739. In 1749 he was appointed as Kapellmeister to Prince-
Archbishop Johann Theodor in Freising, whose domains also included Liège
in Belgium, where he spent several years beginning in 1753. Camerloher was
ordained a priest in 1744 and served throughout his career as canon at several
Benedictine monasteries in the Freising region. His music demonstrates the
emerging galant style in Germany, especially with respect to his instrumen-
tal music. His works include 25 Masses, a Requiem, two offertories, three
litanies, seven antiphons, 19 school comedies, four Passions, 17 meditations,
37 symphonies, two partitas, and 18 lute trios. See also MICHL, JOSEPH
WILLIBALD; ULLINGER, PATER AUGUSTIN.

CAMPAGNOLI, BARTOLOMEO (10 SEPTEMBER 1751, CENTO,


ITALY, TO 1827, NEUSTRELITZ, GERMANY). Italian composer and
violinist. His initial musical education was under Certo Dalloca, a pupil of
Antonio Lolli, as well as Paolo Guastrobba, a pupil of Giuseppe Tartini. By
1770 he had established himself as a concert soloist in Italy, prior to leaving
for a position at the court of the Bishop of Freysingen. He continued to tour

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CAMPION, CHARTER ANTOINE • 111

northern Europe for the next several years, finally becoming musical direc-
tor at the court of the Duke of Kurland in Dresden in 1779. He subsequently
went on to direct the Gewandshaus orchestra in Leipzig, writing pedagogical
works such as the 41 Caprices pour viola and the Nouvelle Méthode. Follow-
ing his retirement in 1818, he moved first to Hannover and subsequently to
Neustrelitz. He composed and published 22 sets of pieces, mainly orchestra
and chamber over the course of his lifetime, almost all of the latter of which
were written for either the violin or viola. Others include three flute concertos
and a sinfonia concertante for flute, violin, and orchestra. His music was
cataloged by Hugo Montanari in 1969.

CAMPBELL, JOSHUA (ca. 1730, GLASGOW, TO DECEMBER 1800,


GLASGOW). Scottish musician and composer. He most likely studied under
Daniel Dow in Glasgow during the 1760s or perhaps earlier, but in 1762 he
advertised himself as a teacher of guitar in the city. By 1779 he had become
an impresario and composer, offering collections of Scots tunes for sale in
versions arranged for flutes or violins and continuo. His second collection of
The Newest Scots Reels Etc. appeared for sale in 1788, around the same time
as city directories listed him as a “teacher of instrumental music” and “bell
ringer,” probably for the main city church. He also composed a series of reels
for the newly established Scots regiments around 1782.

CAMPDERRÓS, JOSÉ DE (1742, BARCELONA, TO 1812, SAN-


TIAGO, CHILE). Catalonian-Chilean composer. Trained in music and
ordained as a Franciscan priest in Spain, he embarked in 1774 from Cadíz for
New Spain, becoming the chorusmaster at the main cathedral in Lima, Peru.
In 1793 he was appointed as maestro di capilla at the cathedral in Santiago de
Chile, where he remained the rest of his life. His music consists of 84 works,
including eight Lamentations. It has been little explored or studied.

CAMPION, CHARTER ANTOINE (16 NOVEMBER 1720, LUNÉ-


VILLE, FRANCE, TO 12 APRIL 1788, FLORENCE). Also known as
Carlo Antonio Campioni. French-Italian composer and organist. A student
of Henri Desmarets, he was trained in Paris before obtaining a position as
violinist at the court of Archduke Francesco Steffano of Tuscany in Florence
in 1737. He also studied under Giuseppe Tartini. In 1752 he was maestro di
cappella at the cathedral in Livorno, and in 1761 he spent a year in Paris over-
seeing the publication of trio sonatas. By 1763 he was appointed a maestro
di cappella at the Florence duomo. Although mostly forgotten today, he was
considered as the model of correct composition by Thomas Jefferson, who
wrote out a thematic catalog of his music (still unpublished). His surviving

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112 • CAMPIONI, CARLO ANTONIO

works include two Masses, a Requiem, 12 duets for violins or violin/cello,


46 trio sonatas, and six violin sonatas, in addition to other sacred works.

CAMPIONI, CARLO ANTONIO. See CAMPION, CHARTER AN-


TOINE.

CANDEILLE, AMÉLIE-JULIE (30 JULY 1767, PARIS, TO 4 FEBRU-


ARY 1834, PARIS). French polymath. Born in the parish of Saint-Sulpice, she
was the daughter of Pierre-Joseph Candeille. Her first public performance as
a keyboardist was at the age of 5, and she received accolades thereafter from
Louis XVI and the composer Christoph Willibald von Gluck. In 1779 she
debuted at the Opéra as a soprano, joining the troupe permanently three years
later. Her pre-Revolutionary career proceeded along a dual path as a keyboard
soloist and singer, and in 1790 she became an actress in Jacques Marie Boutet
de Monvel’s celebrated theatrical company. During the French Revolution she
was a favorite actress at the Théâtre de la République, retiring in 1796 to write
literature. She continued to write and perform throughout the Napoleonic era
and after, eventually moving to Nîmes in 1819. She returned to Paris in 1833,
where she died a year later. Famed as a performer and composer, Candeille
wrote no fewer than nine sonatas for piano; a well-received piano concerto
and another sinfonia concertante for piano, flute, and horn; a number of
smaller chamber works and piano fantasies; an opera, Catherine, ou la Belle
Fermière (1792, text and music); and an opéra comique, Ida (1803).

CANDEILLE, PIERRE-JOSEPH (8 DECEMBER 1744, ESTAIRES,


FRANCE, TO 24 APRIL 1827, CHANTILLY, FRANCE). French com-
poser and singer. He received his earliest musical education at the church
of St. Pierre in Lille, and by 1767 he was employed at the Opéra in Paris as
a baritone. Following his debut at the Concerts spirituels two years later,
he became an important musician in the French capital, even, according to
his daughter Amélie-Julie Candeille, spending time in Germany on tour.
Following the successful performance of his first symphony in 1784, Can-
deille devoted himself to musical composition, although his operas, with
the exception of Castor et Pollux of 1791, were regarded as failures. In 1800
he returned to the Opéra as chorusmaster, retiring in 1805 to Chantilly. Al-
though he had mixed success as a composer, he was regarded highly in Paris
throughout the last decades of the 18th century and first years of the 19th. His
musical style was considered similar to François-Joseph Gossec and other
contemporaries. His works, little studied, consist of 20 operas; a number of
ballets, motets, and other smaller sacred works (all lost); a Mass; a Magnifi-
cat; a Revolutionary hymn; and four symphonies.

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CANNABICH, [JOHANN] CHRISTIAN INNOCENZ BONAVENTURA • 113

CANNABICH, CARL AUGUST (bap. 11 OCTOBER 1771, MANNHEIM,


GERMANY, TO 1 MAY 1806, MUNICH). The son of Christian Canna-
bich, he was trained by his father and Franz Joseph Eck. In 1788 he was a
substitute in the court orchestra in Munich, assuming a professional position
in 1794. In 1796 he moved to Frankfurt am Main as a conductor but returned
as his father’s successor to Munich two years later. He remained there until
1805, when he undertook a trip to Paris that undermined his health. As a com-
poser, he was a popular figure during his lifetime, although his musical repu-
tation was largely ignored thereafter. His works are often colorful, with good
orchestration and inventive harmonies. His music, little studied, consists of
four operas; two large cantatas, including a monumental piece in honor of
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; numerous canzonetts and other works for vo-
cal quartet, trio, and duet; five violin concertos; two symphonies; and several
chamber works.

CANNABICH, [JOHANN] CHRISTIAN INNOCENZ BONAVEN-


TURA (bap. 28 DECEMBER 1731, MANNHEIM, TO 20 JANUARY
1798, FRANKFURT AM MAIN). German composer, violinist, and Kapell-
meister. The son of the private music tutor for the Elector of the Palatinate,
he began his formal study of violin under Johann Stamitz and at the Jesuit
Gymnasium and Music Seminar in Mannheim. At the age of 12 he was ap-
pointed as a scholar with the Mannheim orchestra, receiving full employ-
ment in the violin section in 1746. In 1750 Elector Carl Theodor sent Can-
nabich to Rome to study under Niccolò Jommelli, after which he followed
his teacher to Stuttgart as a violinist. In 1756 he returned to Italy, this time to
Milan, where he took lessons from Giovanni Battista Sammartini. Upon the
death of Stamitz, Cannabich returned to Mannheim where he was appointed
first violin, later becoming Konzertmeister. He became a friend of the Duke
of Zweibrücken, who introduced him to Parisian musical circles in 1764;
Cannabich returned to Paris several times over the next years, both to perform
at the Concerts spirituels and to publish his music. In 1778 he followed the
Electoral court to Munich, where he spent the remainder of his life and career.
Cannabich was one of the most important composers of the second gen-
eration in Mannheim. He composed prolifically, in particular for ballets that
were created by choreographer Étienne Lauchery during the 1760s. He was
admired internationally, particularly by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with
whom he was a close friend. His musical style has clear-cut themes, harmonic
progressions, and formal structures that are all hallmarks of the Classical
style of the period. His ballets are particularly adept for dancing, while his
duodramas such as Elektra of 1777 show a dramatic flair in his music. He
wrote well over 200 works, including at least 75 symphonies (and perhaps

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114 • CANNOBIO, CARLO

as many as 90), 40 ballets, two operas, two duodramas, 18 duets (flute/violin


or violin/viola), 30 violin sonatas, 16 concertos or sinfonia concertantes, 12
string quartets, six piano trios, six flute quartets, and a number of works for
the keyboard. See also STAMITZ, ANTON; STAMITZ, CARL PHILIPP.

CANNOBIO, CARLO (1741, VENICE, TO 7 MARCH 1822, ST. PE-


TERSBURG). Italian violinist and composer. Little is known of his early
training, save that his first employment was in opera orchestras in Venice
and in Spain. In 1770 he entered into a music publishing partnership with
Luigi Marescalchi. By 1773 he was active at the Teatro San Samuele in
Venice composing ballets choreographed by Onorato Viganò, whose son
Salvatore Viganò was to become his student. In 1779 he was offered a
position as violinist at the Imperial Theatre in St. Petersburg. There in 1790
he collaborated with Vasily Paskevich and Giuseppe Sarti on an opera,
Nachal’noye pravleniye Olega, to a text by Catherine II. Considered one of
the most important violinists in Russia, his music reflects late 18th-century
Italian styles. Surviving works include two operas, 13 ballets, six sonatas for
guitar and violin, six duets for flute and violin, and around 11 symphonies,
of which only two or three survive.

CANTADA. Used in New Spain to indicate the expansion of the estribillo of


a villancico through the insertion of recitatives and often elaborate arias and
choruses, all accompanied by orchestra. Sometimes excerpted as independent
works on their own. Cantadas were composed by Santiago Billoni, Esteban
Salas y Castro, and others.

CANTATA. It is defined generally as a single work in several movements,


most often alternating aria and recitative, with additional movements added
according to the circumstances or occasion. The genre originated in the 17th
century as a secular work created as an offshoot of opera seria. By 1700
the Kantate had come to define a sacred composition derived from the 17th-
century Gospel motet (Evangelienmotette), which included a combination
of choruses, arias, and recitatives that included and often concluded with a
chorale, as an exegesis of the sermon of the day or liturgical season. These
were found in areas of Lutheran worship, particularly northern Europe.
Although popular in the Baroque period with composers such as Johann
Sebastian Bach, Georg Philipp Telemann, and others, its use and function
as a Protestant sacred composition declined during the Classical period, with
few composers, such as Gottfried August Homilius and Johann Christoph
Altnikol, continuing the tradition to any extent. These became more elaborate
and longer, often including multiple choruses and large orchestras, until they

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CANZONETT • 115

became almost oratorio size. In Italy, the cantata was occasionally used in
similar fashion as sacred music, but the bulk of the works were based upon
miniature scenes and secular poetry, used as larger works for solo display.
Texts by poets such as Pietro Metastasio include pastoral and idyllic im-
agery, amorous subject matter, and often highly descriptive music, set by
composers throughout Europe, from Joseph Martin Kraus in Sweden to
Francesco Azzopardi in Malta; these usually consist of two arias and two
recitatives, although other movements such as an instrumental introduction
could be added. Cantatas could also be in local languages, even as they con-
formed to this structural model.
The occasional cantata, however, was most often a large-scale celebra-
tory work commissioned on special occasions, such as weddings, military
victories, or funerals of prominent personages, such as rulers or royal visi-
tors. These are often divided into two parts with laudatory or didactic texts
and set with music that reflects the particular occasion and always in the
vernacular. Good examples of this are the Funeral Cantata for Frederick the
Great by Johann Friedrich Reichardt or the Funeral Cantata for Joseph II
and Coronation Cantata for Leopold II by Ludwig van Beethoven. These
works mimic the oratorio in length and substance. During the final two de-
cades of the century, a subgenre called the Piano Cantata was created for use
in private homes or intimate social settings. Often through-composed with a
succession of short airs and recitatives (and the occasional chorus), these had
only the accompaniment of a keyboard. Such works were popular in England,
particularly in sympathy with the royalists during the French Revolution but
also elsewhere where social and intellectual circles exist, such as Stockholm.
See also CANTATILLES.

CANTATA CONCERTO. A French genre created for the Concerts spiri-


tuels that consists of an instrumental concerto that incorporates a chorus or
choral movements. This hybrid genre may have been developed by Jean-
Jacques de Mondonville and was written up through the works of Jérôme-
Joseph de Momigny in the early 19th century.

CANTATILLES. A series of arias or a miniature cantata usually inserted


between the acts of French or Italian operas written in Paris during the pe-
riod, similar to an intermezzo but without plot. These were also written by
Parisian society composers as salon music during the period 1730–1789.

CANZONETT. Also known as canzonette or canzonetta. Generally in the


18th century a short vocal work, sometimes scored for several voices and

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116 • CAPRANICA, MATTEO

generally with keyboard accompaniment, of lyrical character and often con-


taining a dance rhythm. It could also be a lyrical song. The term was popular
in France and England, with composers such as Charles Burney or Thomas
Arne writing numerous works for publication and performance, primarily in
salons. Derived from and often identical with the canzone.

CAPRANICA, MATTEO (26 AUGUST 1708, AMATRICE, ITALY, TO


AFTER 1776, NAPLES). Italian composer and organist. His early stud-
ies were under Francesco Feo and Nicola Porpora at the Conservatorio di
Sant’Onofrio in Naples. After several years performing in various churches
in the city, he achieved his first success with the opera buffa Il Carlo at the
Teatro Nuovo in 1736. Thereafter he was appointed as organist at the duomo
in Naples. His work clearly reflects the Neapolitan style of the time with good
lyrical lines and simpler harmonies. These include nine operas, two orato-
rios, a cantata, a Dixis Dominus, a Salve Regina, two sonatas with violin,
and six toccatas for harpsichord.

CAPUA, MARCELLO DI. See BERNADINI, MARCELLO.

CAPUA, RINALDO DA (ca. 1705, PROBABLY CAPUA, ITALY, TO


ca. 1780, ROME). Also known as Rinaldo di Capua. Italian composer.
Probably the son of a minor nobleman, according to Charles Burney; little
is known of his youth or musical education, save that it was probably at one
of the conservatories in Naples. He first appears in 1737 in Rome with the
successful premiere of a comic opera, Ciro reconosciuto, which achieved
international fame. In 1740 he traveled to Lisbon, where he remained for
three years before returning to Rome to become part of Eustachio Bambini’s
traveling troupe. Although his works were considered important exemplars
of the Italian style and played a role in the Querelle des bouffons, his fame
did not last and by 1770 he was living in reduced circumstances in Rome.
He presumably passed away there. During his career, he also achieved some
fame as a teacher, and his son, Marcello Bernadini, also became a composer.
His contribution toward the development of the Classical style came mainly
in the Sinfonia to his operas, where the structure tends toward contrasting
themes in the expositions, as opposed to a simple binary structure. His music
includes 40 operas, several oratorios, nine cantatas, and five symphonies,
though much of his music has been lost or misattributed to other composers.
See also RUST, GIACOMO; SORKOČEVIĆ, LUKA.

CAPUZZI [CAPUCCI], GIUSEPPE AMBROSIO (1 AUGUST 1755,


BREMO, ITALY, TO 28 MARCH 1818, BERGAMO, ITALY). Ital-
ian violinist and composer. At an early age he moved to Venice where he

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CARI, GIOVANNI CARLO MARIA • 117

studied violin under Antonio Nazari and composition under Ferdinando


Bertoni. By 1780 he was employed in various theatres around the city
and in 1785 became a violinist at St. Mark’s. In 1792 he was appointed
concertmaster at La Fenice theatre, and four years later undertook a tour
of Vienna and London to display his talents. When the Venetian Republic
was dissolved, he found another position at the Basilica di Santa Maria
Maggiore in Bergamo. Capuzzi can be reckoned as one of the most profi-
cient violinists of the period. His concertos demonstrate a good sense of
drama and technical display similar to Giovanni Battista Viotti. He was
also one of the most proficient ballet composers of the last two decades
of the century. His music includes five operas, 20 ballets, five violin and
one contrabass concerto, two sinfonia concertantes for violins, 18 string
quartets, six string quintets, six divertimentos, a sonata, and a number
of sacred works.

CARCANI, GIUSEPPE (1703, CREMA, ITALY, TO 31 JANUARY


1771, PIACENZA, ITALY). Italian composer and organist. He received
his musical education in Venice, where in 1739 he became the successor
to Johann Adolph Hasse at the Ospedale degli Incurabili. In 1744 he was
appointed maestro di cappella at the cathedral in Piacenza, and in this posi-
tion he was a favorite composer at the Bourbon courts there and in Parma.
In 1760 he found a position at the Congregazione di Sant’Alessandro but in
1768 returned briefly to Venice at the request of Hasse. His music, mainly
sacred works, was noted for its inventive harmony. These include eight op-
eras, three secular cantatas, three oratorios, 35 motets, several other smaller
sacred works, two symphonies, two sonatas (violin and flute), a concertino,
and a quintet. His music has been little explored.

CARCERES, ABRAHAM (ca. 1695, AMSTERDAM, TO ca. 1765, AM-


STERDAM). Dutch composer. A member of the Portuguese-Jewish con-
gregation, he probably received his early training in Amsterdam from local
musicians. His first pieces, written for the synagogue there, appear in 1718,
and by 1740 he was well known for his settings of the Talmud. His last work
is a large cantata composed in 1765. His most famous composition is the
cantata Le’el Elim, from 1738.

CARI, GIOVANNI CARLO MARIA (27 SEPTEMBER 1677, PISA,


ITALY, TO 16 MAY 1754, PISTOIA, ITALY). Italian maestro di capella
and composer. Although Cari more properly belongs to the Baroque period in
terms of his musical style and production, following his appointment in Pisa
in 1736 he published sets of vocal duets and trios with continuo from 1740
to 1747 that conform to the new galant style. These combine lyrical melodies

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118 • CARL THEODOR, ELECTOR OF THE PALATINATE AND BAVARIA

with careful counterpoint and were acknowledged by several generations of


composers up through Luigi Cherubini.

CARL THEODOR, ELECTOR OF THE PALATINATE AND BA-


VARIA (11 DECEMBER 1724, BRUSSELS, TO 16 FEBRUARY 1799,
MUNICH). German ruler and patron of the arts. A member of the Wittels-
bach branch of the Suzbach family, heir to several duchies and principalities
in both the Netherlands and Germany, he was educated in Mannheim, where
in 1742 he inherited the title of Elector. There he set about establishing the
city as a center for the arts, hiring Johann Stamitz, Ignaz Holzbauer, and
others to provide an orchestra without peer, as noted by Charles Burney. He
also promoted opera, especially German works such as Holzbauer’s Günther
von Schwarzburg, and arts education, primarily through the Jesuit Gymna-
sium and Music Seminar. In 1778 he moved with his court to Munich when
he inherited the title of Elector of Bavaria. There in 1783 he was responsible
for the founding of the German National Theatre. Styling himself as the
“Prince of Peace,” Carl Theodor was an immensely cultured man who con-
sidered his legacy to be the promotion of drama, music, and art by hiring and
producing works by the leading artists of the period. Under his leadership,
the Mannheim orchestra was considered the best in Europe, continuing this
reputation after the move to Munich. Works such as Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart’s Idomeneo and innovative pedagogical institutions such as Abbé
Georg Joseph Vogler’s Mannheimer Tonschule were created within the en-
vironment he fostered. See also ZONCA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA.

CARO DE BOESI, JOSÉ ANTONIO (ca. 1740, CHACAO, VENEZU-


ELA, TO 16 OCTOBER 1814, CUMANÁ, VENEZUELA). Venezuelan
composer, singer, and guitarist. Little or nothing is known about his youth
or education, although he was considered part of the Chacao School run by
Padre Pedro Palacios y Sojo. In 1779 he composed a Requiem that figures
as one of the earliest large-scale pieces of church music in Caracas, where he
was employed in the cathedral. He was arrested and executed in the massacre
at Cumaná. His works include four Masses, a Tantum ergo (from 1781), and
a gradual, apart from the Requiem. Little of his music, indicating a style
similar to Joseph Haydn, has survived.

CARPANI, GAETANO (1692, ROME, TO 8 MARCH 1785, ROME).


Italian composer and teacher. A student of Orazio Benevoli and Alessandro
Scarlatti, he obtained a permanent post at the Chiesa del Gesù around 1715,
where he remained his entire life, receiving some acclaim as Cardinal Al-
bani’s favorite composer. His music, with the exception of two opera buffas,

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CARTELLIERI, ANTONIO CASIMIR • 119

remains the best examples of church music in the stile antico. His music has
been little studied, but surviving works include a Te Deum, three sacred arias,
two offertories, seven motets, and an a cappella Mass. He is best known as
the counterpoint teacher of Muzio Clementi and Giuseppe Jannacconi.

CARR, BENJAMIN (12 SEPTEMBER 1768, LONDON, ENGLAND,


TO 24 MAY 1831, PHILADELPHIA, UNITED STATES). American
composer, publisher, and performer. He studied music with Charles Wesley
Jr. and Samuel Arnold. Carr immigrated to the United States in 1793, where
he worked as a singer (tenor) and musician at the Chestnut Street Theatre,
making his debut the following year. He also established a business selling
musical instruments and, eventually, as a publisher. He was choir director at
the St. Augustine Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, as well as a founding
member of the Musical Fund Society. His works include six stage pieces (op-
eras, ballets), around 50 songs, a Federal Overture, 12 keyboard sonatas (as
well as other keyboard works). He also regularly published music in journals
and magazines for the public, including Carr’s Musical Miscellany.

CARREÑO, AMBROSIO DE (11 DECEMBER 1721, CARACAS, VEN-


EZUELA, TO ca. 1801, CARACAS). Venezuelan organist and composer, fa-
ther of Cayetano Carreño. Trained by Jacobo de Miranda, he became a singer
and organist at the Caracas cathedral, and in 1750 he was appointed maestro di
capilla. He resigned this post in 1774 to take on responsibility for the Oratorio
di San Felipe Neri, the main center of the Chacao School. His music includes
several smaller sacred works. See also OLIVARES, JUAN MANUEL.

CARREÑO, [JOSÉ] CAYETANO (7 AUGUST 1774, CARACAS, VEN-


EZUELA, TO 4 MARCH 1838, CARACAS). Venezuelan composer and
organist, son of Ambrosio de Carreño. He was educated by Juan Manuel
Olivares and Padre Pedro Palacios y Sojo at the Academia de Música of the
Chacao School. By the age of 15 he was employed as an organist at the Caracas
cathedral, a position he maintained his entire life. His music includes homopho-
nic style with expressive orchestration. Surviving works include two Masses
and 10 motets, some substantial. His secular patriotic music has not survived.

CARTELLIERI, ANTONIO CASIMIR (27 SEPTEMBER 1771, DAN-


ZIG, PRUSSIA, GERMANY [NOW GDAŃSK, POLAND], TO 2 SEP-
TEMBER 1807, LIEBESHAUSEN, BOHEMIA [NOW LIBČEVES,
CZECH REPUBLIC). German-Polish composer. Cartellieri was born into a
musical family, with his father an Italian and his mother Latvian. From them,
both singers, he received his early musical training, later following his mother

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120 • CARTIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE

to Berlin when his parents divorced in 1785. In 1791 he became attached to


the court of Polish Count Oborsky, and in his company Cartellieri divided
his time between the count’s Polish estates and cities such as Berlin and
Vienna. On a visit to the latter, he studied with Johann Georg Albrechts-
berger and Antonio Salieri, as well as becoming a close friend of Ludwig
van Beethoven. At a concert in 1795, he so impressed Prince Joseph Franz
Maximilian Lobkowitz that he was invited to become a teacher and violin-
ist in Bohemia, where he spent the remainder of his life. Cartellieri’s music
is characterized by a good sense of orchestral color, as well as progressive
harmony. Works include seven operas, two monodramas or dialogues, three
oratorios, 11 Masses, three symphonies, five concertos, three wind partitas,
and numerous other smaller sacred works.

CARTIER, JEAN-BAPTISTE (28 MAY 1765, AVIGNON, FRANCE,


TO 1841, PARIS). French violinist and composer. Son of a dancing master,
he moved to Paris in 1783 to study violin with Giovanni Battista Viotti,
eventually becoming one of his best students known for brilliant technique.
In 1788 he was appointed accompanist to Marie Antoinette, and performed
in the Opéra orchestra from 1791 until 1821, when he was pensioned. In
1797 he wrote a treatise, L’art du violon, dedicated to the new Conservatoire,
although he was never offered a position on its faculty. He also served both
the Napoleonic and Bourbon courts. Although he wrote at least two operas
and several symphonies, his published music (14 sets) remains focused upon
sonatas, variations, and smaller pieces for his instrument.

CARULLI, FERDINANDO MARIA MEINRADO FREANCESCO


PASCALE ROSARIO (9 FEBRUARY 1770, NAPLES, TO 17 FEBRU-
ARY 1841, PARIS). Italian guitarist and composer. Although the bulk of his
over 400 compositions, most featuring the guitar, were written and published
after 1800, he began his career as a student in Naples on the cello, being
trained by local musicians. By 1795 he had switched over to guitar and begun
a career as a solo performer on this instrument, traveling throughout Europe.
He expanded the technical side of performance, although many of his works,
especially the concertos, reflect his own fascination with the music of Wolf-
gang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn, who he imitated. The result is
that the music tends to be diatonic, though with an expanded range and tech-
nique of the guitar. More properly, his works must be seen as transitionary
between the Classical and Romantic periods, belonging more to the society
of the latter than the former.

CARUSO, LUIGI (25 SEPTEMBER 1754, NAPLES, TO 15 NOVEM-


BER 1823, PERUGIA, ITALY). Italian composer. Caruso was educated at
the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples under Nicola Sala. In

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CASANOVES, PADRE NARCÍS • 121

1773, the debut of his opera Il barone di Trocchia during the Carnival led to
commissions throughout Italy for operas, mainly buffa. By 1786, however,
he obtained permanent employment at the San Lorenzo Church in Perugia,
where he remained save for a two-year sojourn in Urbini beginning in 1808.
He was well traveled throughout Europe, but he never achieved the same
fame as his colleagues Domenico Cimarosa or Giovanni Paisiello, whose
musical style he imitated. His works include 64 operas, six oratorios, six
secular cantatas, 12 sets of dances, a symphony, and a sonata for organ.

CARVALHO, JOÃO DE SOUSA (22 FEBRUARY 1745, ESTREMOZ,


PORTUGAL, TO ca. 1799, ALENTEJO, PORTUGAL). Portuguese
composer. Following early study of music at the Colégio dos Santos Reis
Magos in Vila Viçosa, he was admitted to the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio
in Naples, where he came into contact with leading opera composers of the
Neapolitan theatres. In 1766 his opera Nitteti was performed in Rome with
great success, but the following year he returned to Portugal to become the
Mestre-de-capela at the Irmandale de Santa Cecilia and professor at the Semi-
nário de Patriarcal, where his students included António Leal Moreira and
Marcos António de Fonseca Portugal. In 1778 he succeeded Davide Perez
as the music teacher for the royal family. He retired in 1798 a very wealthy
man. His surviving compositions are few but include 15 operas, an oratorio,
a secular cantata, six Masses, four Te Deums, vespers, a modhina, and two
keyboard sonatas. His operatic style is reminiscent of Niccolò Jommelli,
with whom he is often compared. See also BALDI, JOÃO.

CASALI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1715, ROME, TO 6 JULY 1772,


ROME). Italian composer and organist. Trained in Bologna under Padre
Giovanni Battista Martini, he became assistant at the church of St. John
Lateran in Rome in 1759, later becoming maestro di cappella. While he
remained there the rest of his life, he also functioned in the same post at the
church of Santa Maria in Vallicella. Casali was noted for his adroit writing
of a cappella church music, even though he also indulged in larger orchestral
settings. His works include nine operas, 12 oratorios, 25 Masses, 150 anti-
phons, 60 Psalms, 10 graduals, 90 offertories, 10 Magnificats, 43 introits, 20
motets, and numerous other smaller sacred works.

CASANOVES, PADRE NARCÍS (17 FEBRUARY 1747, SABADELL,


NEAR BARCELONA, TO 1 APRIL 1799, VIÑA-VIEJA, NEAR MON-
SERRAT, CATALONIA). Catalan monastic composer and organist. As
a child, he was educated in the monastery of Monserrat, where in 1763 he
became a novice and a few years later a Benedictine monk. His position his
entire career was as teacher in the monastery school and organist alongside
his colleague Anselm Viola. He left about 50 compositions, almost all of

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122 • CASSATIO, CASSATION

which are smaller sacred works or organ pieces, although there exist five
Masses. The Christmas responsories are particularly intricate, although the
style is somewhat conservative.

CASSATIO, CASSATION. See DIVERTIMENTO.

CASTELLANOS, RAFAEL ANTONIO (ca. 1728, PROBABLY AN-


TIGUA, GUATEMALA, TO 1791, GUATEMALA CITY). Guatemalan
composer and organist. Little is known of his youth or family, save that he
was an assistant to his uncle, Manuel José de Quiroz, at the Antigua cathedral
from 1745 to 1765. Thereafter he was appointed maestro di capilla at the
main cathedral in Guatemala City, where he raised the standard of the music
to a degree that competed with other centers in New Spain, such as Mexico
City. He also taught music at the Colegio de Seises along with his sister. By
1784 his health began to fail. He was known for his elegant, if simple, har-
monies and lyrical lines whose rhythms conform to the linguistic patterns of
Spanish, Quiche Mayan, and other indigenous languages of the region. His
music includes 10 motets, as well as around 160 villancicos, few of which
were known outside the immediate neighboring provinces.

CASTRATO. A high male voice, generally in the soprano or mezzo-soprano


range that was created by castrating young boys before they reached puberty
in order to preserve their high voices. The practice was almost entirely Ital-
ian, but, if the operation and subsequent training was successful, those who
underwent it were often the most valued singers, primarily of Italian opera
seria, who also took stage names. The most famous castrato of the age was
Carlo Broschi/Farinelli, whose vocal prowess was considered the height of
artistic achievement, both in Italy and in London. They excelled in major
roles of Greek and Roman royalty or heroes, though beginning around 1740
their numbers (and, subsequently, popularity) began to decline, as fewer male
vocalists considered undergoing the necessary operation. The voice type was
powerful and flexible, and as physiognomy developed, they had tremendous
sustaining power. Virtually all opera serias of the period used castratos, but
the best known today are those by Johann Adolph Hasse and the young
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Lucio Silla, Idomeneo, La clemenza di Tito).
In modern revivals, the parts are either sung by well-trained countertenors or
women in cross-gender roles.

CATCH. A puzzle canon or round generally with two or more voices popu-
lar in 18th-century English or English-speaking regions. Often, the poetry is
benign in content, but when certain words of the text are combined in canon

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CECERE, CARLO • 123

with others, a secondary, frequently obscene, subtext occurs. Usually these


were performed at gentlemen’s clubs or single-gender singing societies.

CATHERINE II, EMPRESS OF RUSSIA [YEKATERINA II VE-


LIKAYA, SOPHIE FREDERIKE AUGUSTE VON ANHALT-ZERBST-
DORNBURG] (2 MAY 1729, STETTIN, GERMANY [NOW SZC-
ZECIN, POLAND], TO 17 NOVEMBER 1796, ST. PETERSBURG).
Also called “Catherine the Great,” monarch and librettist. Born into a family
of German nobility, she was chosen to be the consort of the future Czar Peter
by Empress Elizabeth of Russia in 1744. Her reign as empress (czarina) be-
gan in 1762 and made her one of the most powerful political figures in Europe
during the 18th century. Her focus on the arts made St. Petersburg a destina-
tion for composers and performers. In terms of opera, she employed some
of the leading Italian composers of the age, including Tommaso Traetta,
Domenico Cimarosa, Giuseppe Sarti, and Giovanni Paisiello. In 1783
she established the Imperial Opera to perform Russian operas, for which she
wrote nine librettos to be set by Vasily Pashkevich, Dmitri Bortniansky and
others. Although she did not write music, she was a significant national opera
patroness of the period, similar to her cousin, Swedish king Gustav III. See
also LOLLI, ANTONIO; ZUBOVA, MARIJA.

CAVALIERI, CATERINA MAGDALENA JOSEPHA (18 MARCH


1755, VIENNA, TO 30 JUNE 1801, VIENNA). Austrian soprano. Follow-
ing her debut in 1775 she became one of the leading sopranos in Vienna,
equally adept at Italian and German opera. She is best known for her work
with Antonio Salieri, her mentor, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. She had
a strong, pleasant voice and was well known for her stamina on stage.

CAVALLO, FORTUNATO FERDINANDO (ca. 1738, AUGSBURG,


GERMANY, TO 1801, REGENSBURG, GERMANY). German composer.
Born into a family of Italian parentage, he was educated at the Studenten
Seminar in Augsburg before going to Regensburg for further education under
Joseph Riepel. In 1770 he became Kapellmeister at the Regensburg cathedral,
a post he held until his death. Although well regarded as a composer, his mu-
sic was largely written for local consumption. At least 20 Masses, numerous
symphonies, cantatas, and chamber music were all lost in the fire of 1809 that
destroyed the cathedral musical archives. What survives, a Mass and a sacred
aria, does not give an accurate picture of his musical endeavors.

CECERE, CARLO (7 NOVEMBER 1706, GROTTOLE, ITALY, TO


15 FEBRUARY 1761, NAPLES). Italian composer, flautist, and violinist.
Little is known about his early life or training, although he may have received

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124 • CENNICK, JOHN

education at one of the Neapolitan conservatories. He first appears as a com-


poser of opera buffa in 1738, when his Lo secretista (to a text by Pietro
Trinchera) was premiered successfully in Naples. His opera La tavernola
abentorosa was censured in 1741 due to its satirical portrayal of monastic
life, even though it was apparently written for a monastic audience. During
this period he attained a reputation as an excellent contrapuntist and chamber
musician. His main instrument was the violin, but he probably also played
the flute, due to the focus of his music on that instrument. In addition to three
operas, he wrote 25 duets for two flutes, concertos for one and two flutes, a
mandolin concerto, and a double concerto for flute and violin. His style typi-
fies the lyrical Neapolitan opera, with clear tunes and stable formal structures
(mostly ritornello or binary).

CENNICK, JOHN (12 DECEMBER 1718, READING, BERKSHIRE,


ENGLAND, TO 4 JULY 1755, LONDON). English minister and composer.
Although born an Anglican, he joined the Moravian Church in 1745 after
leading a dissolute life. Thereafter he formed and led congregations through-
out Western England and Ireland. He composed over 200 hymns for his
parishioners, many of which were sung throughout the United Kingdom. His
most famous publication was A Collection of Hymns (1749).

CERUTI, ROQUE (ca. 1683, MILAN, TO 3 DECEMBER 1760, LIMA,


PERU). Italo-Hispanic composer and organist. Born in Italy, he migrated to
the Viceroyalty of Peru in New Spain in 1708 as a musician in the governor’s
palace. By 1717 he was maestro di capilla at the Trujillo cathedral, and a de-
cade later he obtained the same post at the Lima cathedral. He held this until
his retirement in 1758 due to ill health. Much of his music conforms to the
Italian Baroque style of Alessandro Scarlatti, but a number of his villancicos
show that he was aware of the emerging galant in their lyricism and diatonic
harmony. He often indicated indigenous instruments as accompaniments,
creating in effect a unique orchestra. His music includes two Masses, a Mag-
nificat, a Psalm, a jácara, and 38 villancicos or cantadas. See also OREJÓN
Y APARICIO, JOSÉ DE.

CERVELLINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1735, CENEDA, ITALY, TO


1801, CENEDA). Italian composer and organist. Little is known of his life
or education, save that he may have studied in Bologna with Padre Giovanni
Battista Martini. By 1752 he was appointed to the only position he held dur-
ing his life as organist at the Ceneda cathedral. There he composed a large
number of sacred and solo organ works, almost none of which have been
studied. His brother Giuseppe Cervellini was also a composer.

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CHARKE, RICHARD • 125

CERVELLINI, GIUSEPPE (1745, CENEDA, ITALY, TO 1824, CIVI-


DALE DEL FRIULI, ITALY). Italian composer. Following studies with
his brother Giovanni Cervellini in Ceneda, he traveled to Bologna to con-
tinue his education under Padre Giovanni Battista Martini. In 1765 he had
obtained the post of organist at the Cividale del Friuli Church. By 1780 he
moved to Salzburg, but two years later he was appointed organist and com-
poser at the court of Stanislaw II in Warsaw. He returned to Italy in 1805
to become organist at the Trieste cathedral and to teach at the conservatory
there. Like his brother, his music has been little studied, although a number
of sacred works and an opera (1799) exist.

CHABRAN, CHARLES. See CHIABRANO, CARLO.

CHABRAN, FELIX. See CHIABRANO, FELICE FRANCESCO.

CHACAO SCHOOL. A literal school of music and music composition


founded in Caracas, New Spain (now Venezuela), by Padre Pedro Palacios
y Sojo in 1783 to serve a rapidly developing musical establishment. Public
concerts in the city had begun in 1767, and by this time the need for locally
trained musicians and composers was crucial. Local musicians such as José
Angel Lamas, Juan Manuel Olivares, José Antonio Caro di Boesi, and
Pedro Nolasco Colón were involved, though the focus was on church music.
The school fell victim to the War for Independence that began in 1811.

CHAMPEIN, STANISLAUS (19 NOVEMBER 1753, MARSEILLES,


FRANCE, TO 19 SEPTEMBER 1830, PARIS). French composer and
singer. Following early training as a chorister in Pignon, he left for Paris in
1776 to perform at the Opéra, becoming a member of the cast in 1779. Dur-
ing the French Revolution he performed at the Théâtre Feydeau and rejoined
the Opéra around 1800. A popular tenor, he also wrote 66 operas, most of
the comic variety. In addition, he wrote several Revolutionary hymns and
part songs.

CHANDLER, SOLOMON (17 JANUARY 1756, ENFIELD, CON-


NECTICUT, UNITED STATES, TO 1827, CATSKILL, NEW YORK).
American psalmodist. After early training in mercantile business, in 1792 he
arrived in Arminian, New York, where he ran a hotel and a number of shops.
Self-taught, he composed about 12 works.

CHARKE, RICHARD (ca. 1709, LONDON, TO ca. 1738, JAMAICA).


English singer, violinist, and composer. Although born in London, little is

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126 • CHARPENTIER, JACQUES-MARIE BEAUVARLET

known about his education. He first appears in 1729 as the leader of the
orchestra at the Theatre Royal on Drury Lane run by playwright Colley Cib-
ber. Prior to that he was allegedly a dancing master, though he may have
functioned in a private capacity. This year he also began to appear on stage
in ballad opera, achieving some fame as a baritone in Henry Carey’s The
Contrivances. He collaborated with Thomas Arne on the pantomime called
Harlequin Restored, or The Country Revels in 1732 and two years later had
his own work, The Festival, performed with reasonable success at Drury
Lane. During this decade he also wrote some of the earliest examples of the
medley overture, which were performed frequently through the 1740s. Al-
though married to Cibber’s daughter Charlotte, Charke was profligate, earn-
ing a reputation as a womanizer and gambler. Eventually his debts became
overwhelming, and in 1736 he fled to the colony of Jamaica to avoid debtor’s
prison. He died there, probably in early 1738. His musical style is simple and
tuneful, consistent with the popular ballad opera songs. He contributed to
numerous pastiche works, such as The Lover’s Opera and The Humours of
Oxford (1730).

CHARPENTIER, JACQUES-MARIE BEAUVARLET (31 JULY 1766,


LYONS, FRANCE, TO 7 SEPTEMBER 1834, PARIS). French composer.
Son of Jean-Jacques Charpentier, he received his earliest musical educa-
tion from his father. He moved with his family to Paris in 1771, where he
eventually became known as a teacher. In 1797 he was organist at the church
of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. The bulk of his music dates after 1800 and thus
conforms to the early 19th-century styles. But during the French Revolution
he was known for writing dramatic scenes, including the 1791 Victoire de
l’Armée d’Italie.

CHARPENTIER, JEAN-JACQUES BEAUVARLET (28 JUNE 1734,


ABBEVILLE, FRANCE, TO 6 MAY 1794, PARIS). French composer
and organist, father of Jacques-Marie Charpentier. Himself the son of
an organ builder, he moved to Lyons in 1750, eventually attending the
Académie des beaux arts in 1763. His first position was with the Hospice
de la charité, but in 1771 he moved to Paris to become organist at the
St. Victor Abbey. In 1783 he became organist at Nôtre Dame Cathedral.
Charpentier can be considered one of the most important organists of the
period, producing in 1784 the Journal d’orgue, a compendium containing
scores of hymns, Masses, preludes, and other works for daily use. He also
wrote two organ concertos, six keyboard sonatas, 18 violin sonatas, three
Magnificats, an Organ Mass, two keyboard concertos, 12 carols (Noëls),
and numerous Recueils d’ airs.

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CHERUBINI, [MARIA] LUIGI [CARLO ZENOBIO SALVATORE] • 127

CHELLERI, FORTUNATO (MAY 1686, PARMA, ITALY, TO 11


DECEMBER 1775, KASSEL, GERMANY). Italian composer. Following
studies under Francesco Bassani in Piacenza, he was offered employment in
Spain in 1710. By 1723, however, he had moved to Würzburg and in 1725
became a violinist at the court of Count Karl of Hessen-Kassel. As tutor to
the son of the count, he moved to Sweden in 1732 to serve Frederik I, but
found the weather not to his liking, returning to Kassel in 1734. During the
later years of his life, he became a court counselor. Although the bulk of
his music reflects Baroque practice, works written after 1732 begin to show
early galant forms, structures, and genres. These include an oratorio, six
symphonies, and six keyboard sonatas. He can be considered one of the ear-
liest composers of the 18th-century symphony. See also AGRELL, JOHAN
JOACHIM; HÖPKIN, ARVID NICLAS FRIHERR VON.

CHERUBINI, [MARIA] LUIGI [CARLO ZENOBIO SALVATORE]


(8 SEPTEMBER 1760, FLORENCE, ITALY, TO 15 MARCH 1842,
PARIS). Italian-French composer of opera. The son of a keyboard player
and teacher, he showed considerable talent for music from an early age.
In 1773 he was sent to Bologna to study music, and in 1778 he went on to
Milan, where his teachers included Giuseppe Sarti. By 1782 he had begun
to compose opera seria, generally following models established by Niccolò
Jommelli and Antonio Sacchini. A successful comic opera performance
in Venice in 1783 led to commissions throughout Italy, and in 1785 he was
invited to write an opera for the King’s Theatre in London. Upon the recom-
mendation of Giovanni Battista Viotti, he was presented at court in Paris
and received a commission for a French opera, Démophon, which was suc-
cessfully premiered at the Opéra in 1788. At that time, Cherubini decided to
make Paris his permanent home, being appointed director of the Théâtre de
Monsieur (later the Théâtre Feydeau) the following year. During the French
Revolution, his rescue operas became popular favorites, and in 1805 Na-
poleon appointed him music director in Vienna, where he came into contact
with Ludwig van Beethoven. His popularity as a composer waned after Na-
poleon’s defeat, and in 1822 he became director of the Conservatoire, where
he helped a number of composers, such as Daniel Esprit Auber and Hector
Berlioz, to launch their careers.
As a composer, his early works reflect the styles of Italian opera of the
period, but his French works, beginning with Lodoïska in 1791, were char-
acterized by adventurous harmony, extreme musical drama, and expressive
orchestration. His fame as an opera composer peaked with Les deux journées
in 1800, a subject that had a profound influence on Beethoven’s Fidelio.
Though he continued to write a considerable amount of music after 1800 in the

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128 • CHIABRANO, CARLO

19th-century style, his early works reflecting Classical period forms and struc-
tures include five Masses, 38 hymns, a Revolutionary hymn, and 24 operas. He
and other composers in Paris also contributed to a comédie mêlée des ariettes
titled Les congrès des rois in 1794. See also DELLA MARIA, ANTOINE.

CHIABRANO, CARLO (9 FEBRUARY 1725, TURIN, ITALY, TO


ca. 1790, PROBABLY PARIS). Also known as Charles Chabran. Italian-
English violinist and composer. Son of violinist Giovanni Nicola Chiabrani
(1686–1776), he was trained by his father and at the age of 10 was already
active in the orchestra in Turin. In 1752 he was appointed as a contrabass
player, but in 1755 he made his debut at the Concerts spirituels as a violin-
ist, known for his brilliant technique. By 1784 he appeared in London with
his brother Gaetano Chaibrano, becoming known by his English name as a
teacher and performer at the Concerts of Ancient Music. Although he disap-
peared from the London musical scene shortly thereafter, he moved to Paris,
where his students included Edouard Du Puy. He is presumed to have died
during the French Revolution. His compositional fame rests upon 44 violin
sonatas published in London and Paris during the 1780s, but he is alleged to
have written concertos for his instrument as well.

CHIABRANO, FELICE FRANCESCO (6 MARCH 1756, LONDON,


TO 1 MARCH 1829, LONDON). Also known as Felix Chabran. English
violinist and composer. Possibly the son of Gaetano Chiabrano, he was
active as a violinist at the Italian Opera in London around 1782. By 1798 he
had become a governor in the Royal Society of Musicians, a position that he
retained his entire life. Although he composed a fair amount of music, his
greatest work is a treatise, New Tutor for the Harp and Spanish Guitar, pub-
lished in 1813, as well as a set of violin duos and several solos.

CHIABRANO, GAETANO (12 FEBRUARY 1723, TURIN, ITALY, TO


ca. 1790, LONDON). Italian-English violoncellist and composer. Son of
Giovanni Nicola Chiabrani and brother of Carlo Chiabrano, he was trained
by his father, entering the court orchestra in Turin in 1737. By 1751 he had
performed at the Concerts spirituels in Paris, moving on to London the
following year, where he was a well-respected performer and teacher. It is
known that he was active up through 1782, and he presumably remained in
London his entire life thereafter. His surviving music consists of a set of six
violin sonatas in the galant style.

CHIARINI, PIETRO (ca. 1717, BRESCIA, ITALY, TO ca. 1765, CRE-


MONA, ITALY). Italian composer. Nothing is known of his life or educa-
tion, save that he appears as an opera composer in 1738 in Venice, with suc-

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CHOURMOUZIOS CHARTOPHYLAX • 129

cess allowing for commissions throughout Italy for the next decade. In 1754
he was listed as a violinist in Cremona, and two years later was appointed
maestro di cappella. He disappears around 1765. His only known composi-
tions are 16 operas, some buffa that show a lively sense of rhythm, although
the compositional style seems derivative.

CHIESA, MELCHIORE (ca. 1725, PROBABLY FLORENCE, ITALY,


TO ca. 1805, MILAN). Italian harpsichordist and composer. Nothing is
known about his origins or training. His first appearance as a composer is
in Milan in 1758, when he performed a motet in Milan, and in 1762 he was
appointed as maestro di cappella at the church of Santa Maria della Scala. In
1778 he functioned as first harpsichordist for the Milanese opera along with
Giovanni Lampugnani, and in 1799 he applied for the post of maestro di
cappella at the main cathedral. His music was praised by Charles Burney,
but little of it has survived. He composed a number of operas (all lost), and
his fame rests upon two symphonies, a flute concerto, 12 trio sonatas, and a
sonata for dulcimer and keyboard. He also wrote numerous pieces of sacred
music, which remain unexplored.

CHILCOT, THOMAS (ca. 1700, BATH, ENGLAND, TO 24 NOVEM-


BER 1766, BATH). English composer and organist. A pupil of Josiah Priest,
he succeeded his teacher as organist at the main church in Bath in 1725.
Throughout the remainder of his life he was a successful musician and active
participant in the musical life of the city. His music reflects the influences of
George Frederick Handel but also looks forward to the galant in some of the
movements. His most important student was Thomas Linley Sr. His music
consists of four anthems, 12 concertos, 12 English songs, and six Lessons for
keyboard.

CHIODI, BUONO GIUSEPPE (20 JANUARY 1728, SALÒ, LOM-


BARDY, ITALY, TO 7 SEPTEMBER 1783, SANTIAGO DE COMPOS-
TELA, SPAIN). Italian-Spanish composer. Little is known of his youth or
training, but he was ordained a priest and served at the Bergamo cathedral
before being offered the post of maestro di capilla in Santiago de Compostela
in 1769. His music has been little studied, but he was a prolific composer.
His works include two operas, 14 Masses, 27 motets, 90 Psalms, 27 hymns,
seven Lamentations, six Stabat maters, five Magnificats, and 320 villancicos.

CHOURMOUZIOS CHARTOPHYLAX (1770, CHALKI, GREECE,


TO 1840, CHALKI). Also known as Chourmouzios the Archivist. Greek
singer and composer. A student of Gregorius of Crete and Petros Byzantios,
he became a singer at the Second Patriarchal School in Constantinople, later

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130 • CHRISTADLER, PATER PLACIDUS [JOSEPH]

becoming instrumental in the further development of 19th-century Byzantine


chant. He wrote 21 Marian hymns before 1800, and over 34 volumes of litur-
gical music for the Greek Church.

CHRISTADLER, PATER PLACIDUS [JOSEPH] (1709, WANGEN,


ALLGÄU, BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG, GERMANY, TO 1767, OT-
TOBEUREN, BAVARIA). German monastic composer and organist. He
came from a musical family, one of whose members, Pater Joseph Christadler
(1687–1730), had become known as a composer at the Benedictine monas-
tery of Ottobeuren. In 1724 he followed his uncle’s footsteps by being initi-
ated into the order there, where he remained the rest of his life. He was known
as both a builder and performer on the organ, having partially designed the
Riepel organ for the monastery. He was better known as a teacher in the local
monastic school, whose students included Franciscus Schnitzer. His compo-
sitions are largely unknown but include 37 offertories and a litany. The style
is mostly homophonic, with little attention to counterpoint.

CHRISTEN, PATER MAURUS (1747, PROBABLY NEAR ST. GALL,


SWITZERLAND, TO 1812, ST. GALL). Swiss monastic composer. Noth-
ing is known of his life or education, save that he was a monk in the Benedic-
tine monastery of St. Gall and a minor composer. His works include a Mass,
six sacred songs in both Latin and German, eight marches, and 17 movements
for trumpets and timpani, probably processional music.

CHUDY, JÓSZEF (14 JUNE 1753, POZSONY, HUNGARY [NOW


BRATISLAVA, SLOVAKIA], TO 4 MARCH 1813, BUDAPEST). Hun-
garian composer and conductor. Trained locally, he was appointed as conduc-
tor of the theatrical troupe of Count Erdődy in 1785, moving to Budapest. He
is credited both with the first performance of a Mozart opera in that city (Die
Entführung aus dem Serail, 1785) and with writing the first Hungarian opera,
a Singspiel titled Pikkó Herzeg es Jutka Perszi in 1795. His other music has
been little studied.

CIAMPI, FRANCESCO (1690, PISA, ITALY, TO ca. 1764, ROME).


Italian composer and violinist. His training was probably in either Florence or
Bologna, and in 1719 he was elected to the Accademia filarmonica. At that
time he was maestro di cappella to Duke Massa Alderamo Cybo-Malaspina.
In 1735 he became maestro di cappella at the church of Sant’Angelo Custode
in Rome, and over the next several years also performed the same office in
several other Roman churches. His most successful opera, written in the

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CIMAROSA, DOMENICO • 131

galant style, was Demofoonte of 1735. His works include 10 operas, 11 ora-
torios, a Mass, a motet, and a Salve Regina. The relationship with Vincenzo
Ciampi has not been determined.

CIAMPI, VINCENZO LEGRENZO (2 APRIL 1719, PIACENZA,


ITALY, TO 30 MARCH 1762, VENICE). Italian composer. He received
his education in Naples at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini, where
his teachers included Francesco Durante and Leonardo Leo. Following his
initial success of an opera at Carnival, he received commissions from Rome
and other Italian cities. In 1746 he moved to Palermo as harpsichordist at the
theatre, following which he went to Venice as a teacher at the Osepdale degli
Incurabili. His music reflects the Neapolitan style of his teachers. Works
include 25 operas, four oratorios, a Mass, a Te Deum, a Salve Regina, six
organ concertos, 12 trio sonatas, six other concertos, six violin sonatas, and
six keyboard sonatas, as well as several organ works. The relationship with
Francesco Ciampi has not been determined.

CIMADOR, GIAMBATTISTA (1761, VENICE, TO 27 FEBRUARY


1805, BATH, ENGLAND). Italian-English composer, singer, and violin-
ist. Of noble birth, he had his debut as a composer in Venice in 1789 with
Aci e Cibele. In 1791 he moved to London, where he became well known
as a singer. In 1794 he had a position in Bath as a violinist and editor of the
journal The Open Music Warehouse. His music reflects late 18th-century
styles. This includes three operas, two canzonetts, a contrabass concerto, a
hornpipe for keyboard, and numerous arrangements of the works of others.

CIMAROSA, DOMENICO (17 DECEMBER 1749, AVERSA, CAM-


PAGNA, ITALY, TO 11 JANUARY 1801, VENICE). Italian composer of
opera. Born into poverty, his family sent him to Naples to be educated. There
his musical talent was recognized by a priest, Padre Polcano, who arranged
for him to attend the Conservatorio di Santa Maria de Loreto, where his teach-
ers included Niccolò Piccinni and Antonio Sacchini. In 1772 he had his first
success at the Teatro Fiorentini with a pair of operas, Le stravaganze de conte
and Le magie de Merlina e Zoroastro. Thereafter, he became one of the most
popular and successful composers of opera buffa, working in virtually all of
the major cities in Italy, beginning with Rome. In 1779 he was appointed as
organist at the Cappella Reale in Naples. His fame grew internationally, so
that in 1788 Russian empress Catherine II called him to St. Petersburg to
write opera for the court. In 1792, however, economic circumstances forced
her to reduce her theatre personnel, and Cimarosa left to accept an invitation

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132 • CIRRI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA

of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II to write for Vienna. Traveling to the


Imperial capital, he sojourned in Warsaw, where he composed three operas,
before continuing on to Vienna, where his opera Il matrimonio segreto was a
stunning success. Upon his return to Naples, he joined with the opposition to
the French occupation, eventually in 1799 being imprisoned and condemned
to death. The sentence was commuted to banishment, and an intended return
to St. Petersburg was thwarted by his death in Venice on his journey. It was
suspected that he had been poisoned by rivals, but an inquest revealed no hint
of foul play.
Cimarosa was once of the most prolific composers of the Classical period
in terms of opera buffa. He wrote almost 100 operas (mostly buffa but also
including the late intermezzo), six oratorios, 17 Masses, 16 miscellaneous
sacred works, 10 solo motets, two Requiems, 10 secular cantatas, eight
duets, seven patriotic hymns, 88 keyboard sonatas, six string quartets, two
symphonies, two concertos (one for harpsichord, one for two flutes), two
sextets (including one with lyra organizzata), and several partimenti. His
style is fluid and facile, with a special focus on lyricism. Cimarosa solidified
the potpourri opera buffa overture as a sequence of non-sequitur material in
a single movement. His most successful opera Il matrimonio segreto is still
part of the standard repertory. See also NICOLINI, GIUSEPPE.

CIRRI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1 OCTOBER 1724, FORLÌ, ITALY,


TO 11 JUNE 1808, FORLÌ). Italian composer and cellist. Brother of Ig-
nazio Cirri, he studied under Padre Giovanni Battista Martini in Bologna.
In 1739 he took Holy Orders and was elected to the Accademia filarmonica
in 1759. Thereafter he embarked upon a tour of Europe, appearing with suc-
cess at the Concerts spirituels in 1764, whereupon he was invited by the
Duke of York to go to London. There he obtained a post with the Duke of
Gloucester as director of music, but in 1780 he returned to Forlì to help his
ailing brother. Although he spent a year as a cellist in Naples in 1782, he be-
came his brother’s successor in 1787. As a composer, he was well regarded
for his cheerful and lively music. Works include six symphonies, seven cello
concertos (and two others for violin), a sextet, 18 string quartets, 12 trios,
six duos, and 36 cello sonatas.

CIRRI, IGNAZIO (20 SEPTEMBER 1711, FORLÌ, ITALY, TO 13


JULY 1787, FORLÌ). Italian composer and organist. His musical education
was obtained locally, and in 1758 he took Holy Orders and was elected to the
Accademia filarmonica. The following year he obtained the post as maestro
di cappella at Forlì. Little has been done on his musical style or works; a
number of sacred works exist, as do 12 organ sonatas and six violin sonatas.

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CLEMENTI, MUZIO • 133

CLARER, PATER THEODOR (15 JUNE 1766, DORNDORF, NEAR


ULM, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 18 JULY 1820, OTTOBEUREN,
BAVARIA). German monastic composer. Following early studies at the
Benedictine schools in Augsburg and Ottobeuren, he entered the monastery
as a novice in 1785, being ordained in 1789. There he taught music and in
1801 became the master of the novices and regens chori. He was a promoter
of music of earlier times, and his own works were sent to Michael Haydn,
who praised them for their solid compositional foundations. Surviving music
includes three Masses, three motets, a Magnificat, and a Lied.

CLARI, GIOVANNI CARLO MARIA (27 SEPTEMBER 1677, PISA,


TO 16 MAY 1754, PISA). Italian composer. He studied in Bologna under
Giovanni Colonna, where he produced his first opera, Il savio delirante, in
1695. In 1703 he became maestro di cappella in Pistoia, and around 1724
moved to Pisa, where he remained his entire life. Although the bulk of his
music adheres to the Baroque style, beginning in 1730 he began to publish
sets of vocal duets and trios with continuo, which eventually numbered
over 50. These were admired as the harbingers of the new Italian style and
remained as models for composers such as Luigi Cherubini, who considered
them the epitome of lyrical melody mingled with delicate counterpoint.
George Frederick Handel too valued Clari’s sacred music highly, appropriat-
ing five pieces for his own 1750 oratorio Theodora. The bulk of the remain-
ing music, including a substantial amount written for Pistoia, conforms more
to the heavily contrapuntal Baroque style.

CLEMENT, PATER JOHANN GEORG (1 APRIL 1710, FREUDEN-


THAL [NOW BRUINTÁL, CZECH REPUBLIC), TO 23 MAY 1794,
BRESLAU [NOW WROCŁAW, POLAND]). German clerical composer.
Trained in music at the Academia Leopoldina in Breslau, he became rector at
the Sandkirche there in 1730. By 1745 he had become bishop at the cathedral,
and shortly thereafter also functioned as regens chori at the Heilige Kreuz-
kirche. By 1755 he had become Kapellmeister at the main cathedral, as well
as an important ecclesiastical figure in the city. A prolific composer of sacred
music, he was often criticized for his lack of originality, even as his critics
noted his excellent sense of counterpoint. His works include 35 Masses, 138
graduals, 64 offertories, nine litanies, two antiphons, 28 hymns, six responso-
ries, seven German cantatas, seven German sacred arias, an oratorio, three
Te Deums, 12 vespers, and 10 other miscellaneous sacred works.

CLEMENTI, MUZIO (23 JANUARY 1752, ROME, TO 10 MARCH


1832, EVESHAM, WORCESTERSHIRE, ENGLAND). Italian-English
composer, keyboardist, born Mutius Philipus Vicentius Franciscus Xaverius

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134 • CLÉRY [DU VERGER], MARIE-ELIZABETH

Clementi. A student of Antonio Borroni in Rome, he was brought to Eng-


land in 1766 by William Beckford, who established him in Dorset. By 1774
he had moved to London, where he appeared frequently at the public con-
certs. By 1780 he embarked upon a tour of the European continent, perform-
ing before royalty and engaging in friendly competitions with colleagues
such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. By 1783 he had returned to London,
although in the next years he traveled to Paris, Switzerland, and Italy. In 1790
he had established himself in London, where he began a secondary career as a
publisher and fortepiano builder, as well as a sought-after teacher. In 1802 he
toured Europe to gain business for his enterprises, including signing Ludwig
van Beethoven to publish that composer’s works. He retired in 1830.
Clementi’s reputation has rested upon the sometimes harsh judgment of
his peers, some of whom labeled him a “mechanicus” (Mozart), and on his
graded keyboard works such as those found in The Art of Playing on the
Piano Forte, published around 1800 and revised several times thereafter. He
composed over 200 pieces for fortepiano, including almost 100 sonatas (with
and without optional string accompaniment), as well as six symphonies, a
piano concerto (and several others lost), an oratorio, as well as two can-
zonetts. His music is known by Op and WO numbers in the Tyson catalog.
See also BERGER, LUDWIG; CARPANI, GAETANO; MONTGEROULT,
HÉLÈNE.

CLÉRY [DU VERGER], MARIE-ELIZABETH (ca. 1761, PARIS, TO


ca. 1800, PARIS). French keyboardist, singer, and composer. Little is known
of her life or training, save that she appeared on the music scene in Paris with
a printed air in the Mercure de France in 1761, and in 1780 she appeared at
the Concerts spirituels as a singer. She was then appointed harpist at the
court of Marie Antoinette. She apparently escaped the French Revolution.
Her music includes two Revolutionary odes, four sonatas for harp and violin,
and a number of Recueils d’airs.

COCCHI, GIAOCCHINO (ca. 1715, PADUA, ITALY, TO 1804, VEN-


ICE). Italian composer. Though little is known of his early training, he
achieved his first success with the opera Adeleide in Rome in 1743. By
1750 he had become a popular composer in Naples, and further commissions
throughout Italy led him to Venice, where he was offered the post of maestro
di cappella at the Ospedale degli Incurabili. In 1757 he moved to England,
where he remained for several years, but in 1773 he returned to his position in
Venice. His music is little known, but he was a popular and prolific composer
of operas, mainly buffa. Although there exist a number of sacred works, his
fame rests upon his 48 operas.

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COLIZZI [KAUCHLITZ], JOHANN ANDREAS • 135

COCCIA, MARIA ROSA (4 JUNE 1759, ROME, TO NOVEMBER 1833,


ROME). Italian composer and harpsichordist. Acclaimed a child prodigy who
wrote her first oratorio at the age of 14 for the Oratorio San Felipe Neri, she
received training from Sante Pesci at the Basilica Liberiana in Rome begin-
ning in 1772. In 1775 she was awarded the title maestro di cappella of the
Accademia Santa Cecilia in Rome by examination, and by 1779 she was so
well regarded that she was admitted to the Accademia filarmonica in Bologna.
Although her admittance to these institutions was questioned by Francesco Ca-
palti, a published defense in 1780 included testimonials from Carlo Broschi/
Farinelli and Pietro Metastasio. Her music includes two oratorios, an opera,
four Psalms, two cantatas, and six motets, but much has been lost.

COELHO NETO, MARCOS (ca. 1740, VILA RICA DE ALBUQUER-


QUE (NOW OURO PRÊTO), BRAZIL, TO 22 OCTOBER 1806, VILA
RICA). Brazilian composer. His early education and later occupations were
in musical conservatories in Minas Gerais, namely, the Irmandade de São
José dos Homens Pardos and the Irmandade de Nossa Senhora dos Mercês
de Cibe. His works are often richly scored, reflecting an active musical estab-
lishment. Surviving compositions include three Masses, three litanies, three
antiphons, and a large Credo.

COFFEY [COBHTHAIGH], CHARLES (ca. 1690, PROBABLY NEAR


LIMERICK, IRELAND, TO 13 MAY 1745, LONDON). Irish-English
playwright. Best known for his 1731 ballad opera The Devil to Pay, which,
although it failed at its first performance at Drury Lane Theatre in London,
went on to become the most popular international work, being produced
throughout Europe in local translations and being responsible for, among
other things, the genesis of the German Singspiel. He was responsible for
over a dozen ballad opera texts during his lifetime.

COLASCIONE. See GALLICHONE.

CÖLESTINE. An instrument invented around 1800 consisting of a three-


manual combination of organ and glass harmonica. The inventor was a
headmaster in the town of Bad Homburg, Germany, named Zinck, not to
be confused with Bendix Friedrich Zinck, to whom the invention has been
falsely attributed.

COLIZZI [KAUCHLITZ], JOHANN ANDREAS (ca. 1740, GRUDIM,


BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 1808, THE HAGUE).
Bohemian-Dutch composer, presumably of Italian origin. Little is known

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136 • COLLA, GIUSEPPE

of his early life or training. He first appears at Leiden, where he defended


a thesis in 1765. Active in the university musical life, he published his first
works there, but by around 1772 he found a position in The Hague as teacher
to Princess Louise of Orange. His music has been little studied, but it consists
of an opera (lost), 12 concertos, 21 violin sonatas, six divertimentos, and 12
ariettes, almost all of which were published in the Netherlands.

COLLA, GIUSEPPE (4 AUGUST 1731, PARMA, ITALY, TO 16


MARCH 1806, PARMA). Italian composer. Following studies in Bologna
with Padre Giovanni Battista Martini, he was elected in 1758 to the Acca-
demia filarmonica. In 1760 he moved to Germany but returned to his home-
town of Parma in 1766 to become court musical director. In 1790 he was
appointed as director of the Ducal Theatre. His music has been little studied
but consists of 13 operas, two symphonies, five cantatas, three antiphons,
an oratorio, and a bassoon concerto (lost).

COLLETT, JOHN (ca. 1730, LONDON, TO 1775, EDINBURGH). Eng-


lish composer and violinist. It is not known who his parents were, although
he was the son of either Robert or Thomas Collett, both of whom were active
in the Royal Society of Musicians beginning in 1739. It is presumed that
either or both trained him in music, for in 1757 he became a member of the
society as well. The following year he published a series of “solos” (actually
violin sonatas) as his Op. 1, and several years later a set of six “overtures”
(recte symphonies) were published dedicated to Thomas Erskine, the Earl
of Kelly. This presumes some connection, for in 1770 Collett moved to Ab-
erdeen, Scotland, and a year later to Edinburgh, where he was active in the
musical societies there. His orchestral music shows traces of the Mannheim
style. These include an opera, five songs, six symphonies, two flute duets,
and several sonatas or “solos.”

COLÓN, PEDRO NOLASCO (ca. 1750, VALENCIA, VENEZUELA,


TO ca. 1800, CARACAS, VENEZUELA). Venezuelan singer and com-
poser. Born into a provincial family of musicians, he probably studied under
Padre Pedro Palacios y Sojo and later taught at the Chacao School’s Aca-
demia de Música. Active as a church composer, his surviving music consists
of nine motets, a lesson for the dead, and a villancico.

COMÉDIE EN VAUDEVILLE. See OPÉRA COMIQUE.

COMÉDIE LYRIQUE. Also called opéra lyrique. An 18th-century comedy


of a much more classical and formal type, the analog to the tragédie lyrique.

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COMIC WAR • 137

The form consists of the same sort of succession of choruses, recitatives,


dances, and arias as the tragédie lyrique. An example is Jean-Philippe Ra-
meau’s Platée.

COMÉDIE MÊLÉE DES ARIETTES. A comic opera where the music


is composed of various pre-extant popular tunes drawn mainly from other
operas but which could also have several newly composed movements. An
example is Le diable a quatre by Christoph Willibald von Gluck. See also
OPÉRA COMIQUE.

COMÉDIE PASTORALE. A comic opera with primarily a pastoral setting,


generally involving bucolic subjects, usually with a plot that revolves around
prodigal behavior or characters that are interpolated into strange settings,
such as court. An example would be Ninette à la cour by Egidio Duni. See
also OPÉRA COMIQUE.

COMES [GOMEZ], PIETRO (1739, NAPLES, TO ca. 1755, NAPLES).


Italian singer and composer. Possibly of Spanish parentage, he received his
musical training at one of the conservatories in Naples. He held a position
as maestro di cappella to the Duke of Castropignaro and was a professional
singer at the Teatro alla Pace. Although he achieved some limited success
with his seven operas, his musical style seems simplistic and derivative,
probably due to the comparisons with better-trained colleagues.

COMI, GAUDENZIO (ca. 1749, CIVITÀ VECCHIA, ITALY, TO ca.


1785, POSSIBLY PARIS). Italian composer. Nothing is known about his
youth or training, save that he might have been a bassoonist who performed
in London in 1771. By 1784, however, he had moved to Paris, where he
published six sets of works in rapid succession. His music is similar to that
of Giuseppe Cambini in its predictability and accessibility for popular audi-
ences of the time. His music includes at least 18 symphonies, six duets for
two horns and basso, and 12 trios.

COMIC WAR. Known in German as Der komische Krieg. A polemic


similar to the Querelle des bouffons between actor Heinrich Georg Koch
and Leipzig University professor Johann Christoph Gottsched on the social
effects and status of the German Singspiel. The controversy began with a
performance of Der Teufel ist los in Leipzig on 6 October 1752 by Koch’s
troupe, leading to a series of broadsides and public documents, the tone
of which was often vociferous and perhaps even slanderous. It followed
Gottsched’s condemnation of opera as a genre in his 1742 Der critische

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138 • COMMEDIA DELL’ARTE

Dicktkunst. It ended in fall 1753 with a broadside penned by Johann C. Rust


that smugly remarked that German opera was a permanent popular entertain-
ment despite efforts to derail it and even though Gottsched won a lawsuit for
slander against Koch. By 1766 when the Singspiel was revived by Johann
Adam Hiller, its success had been assured in other towns throughout Ger-
many, and only sporadic debate ensued, such as Christoph Martin Wieland’s
1775 Versuch über das deutsche Singspiel.

COMMEDIA DELL’ARTE. Improvised street theatre from Italy with stock


plots, characters, and situations, the equivalent of modern situation comedy.
Characters include Arlecchino, Columbina, et al., portraying clueless lovers,
clever servants, rich older men with lack of sense, and often elaborate ruses.
These characters often reappear in 18th-century ballet and opera buffa.

COMMEDIA IN (or PER) MUSICA. See OPERA BUFFA.

COMPONIMENTO DA CAMERA (OR DRAMATICO OR PASTO-


RALE). See AZIONE TEATRALE.

COMPTA BATTLÉS, PEDRO ANTONIO (ca. 1770, GERONA, TO


1818, SEGOVIA, SPAIN). Spanish-Catalan composer and organist. Follow-
ing early training at Gerona, he was appointed as maestro di capilla at the ca-
thedral of Vic in 1791 and three years later offered the same post in Barcelona
at the church of Santa María del Mar. Denounced for insufficient ability, he
returned to Vic the same year, and subsequently worked at the main cathedral
in Segovia. Little of his music has been studied, although he was considered a
popular composer of his time. Works, almost all sacred, include four settings
of the Lamentations.

CONCERTMASTER. See KONZERTMEISTER.

CONCERTS SPIRITUELS. The most famous 18th-century public concert


series begun in 1725 in Paris. These were held first at the Salle des Cent
Suisses in the Tuileries Palace, but in 1784 they were moved to the stage
area of the Salle des Machines, a former opera house in the same location.
In their last year, 1790, it occurred at a city theatre. The concerts generally
started at six o’clock in the evening and were originally meant to provide
entertainment during Lent and religious holidays when other entertainments
were prohibited; it was a public venue initially run by Anne-Danican Phili-
dor (1681–1728). The early years were characterized by a preponderance of
sacred works and a tenuous economy. In 1734 the series was taken on by the

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CONTI, GIACOMO • 139

Académie royale de musique, which used it to promote French music. By


1762, when it was taken on by Antoine Dauvergne, it had become profitable
and a showplace for the debuts of composers and performers, both French
and foreign. In 1773 the triumvirate of Simon LeDuc, François-Joseph
Gossec, and Pierre Gaviniès ran the series, following which singer Joseph
Legros took it on. It was finally closed in 1790 during the Revolution. The
Concerts spirituels became the model for imitators throughout Europe, such
as the Riddarhuskonserter in Stockholm founded in 1730. New talent and
new genres, such as the sinfonia concertante were developed and made
popular here, and it was the forerunner of the modern concert series in all
respects. See also BALBASTRE, CLAUDE-BÉNINGE; BRÉVAL, JEAN-
BAPTISTE SÉBASTIAN; BRUNI, ANTONIO BARTOLOMEO; CAM-
BINI, GIUSEPPE MARIA GIAOCCHINO; CANTATA CONCERTO; DE-
SHAYES, PROSPER-DIDIER; DEVIENNE, FRANÇOIS; DUVERNOY,
FRÉDÉRIC; PIANTANIDA, GIOVANNI; SINFONIA CONCERTANTE.

CONFORTI, ANTONIO (1743, PIEDMONT, ITALY, TO ca. 1790,


PROBABLY VIENNA). A pupil of Gaetano Pugnani, he was probably
trained in Turin and sent on tour. By 1772 he had found a permanent position
in Vienna, where Charles Burney commented on his style of playing. As
a composer, he wrote mainly for his instrument, but the only works to have
survived are two violin and two keyboard sonatas.

CONFORTO, NICOLA (25 SEPTEMBER 1718, NAPLES, TO 17


MARCH 1793, ARAJUEZ, SPAIN). Spanish-Italian composer. Follow-
ing musical education at the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto under
Francesco Mancini, he had his first success in Naples in 1746, followed by
commissions from Rome. In 1755 he was named as the court composer in
Madrid, a post he held until his death. His works all reflect the Neapolitan
style of the time. These include 22 operas; nine Lamentations; a motet; a
Miserere; 21 cantatas, arias, and duets; and two symphonies, as well as two
organ toccatas.

CONTI, GIACOMO (24 MAY 1754, MILAN, TO 24 JANUARY 1805,


VIENNA). Italian violinist and composer. Little is known of his early train-
ing or career, save that he probably was trained by Milanese composers,
perhaps Giovanni Andrea Fioroni. He first appears as a participant at a con-
cert in Zürich in 1786, whereafter he left to serve in the orchestra of Prince
Potemkin in St. Petersburg. After Potemkin’s death he moved to Vienna,
where he was first violinist at the Italian opera and in 1796 became a mem-
ber of the Hofkapelle. He also taught noble pupils, and on certain occasions

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140 • CONTI, NICOLA [NICCOLÒ]

after 1803 substituted for Antonio Salieri as orchestra leader. His playing
was dismissed as perfunctory, and his musical compositions were noted for
dry, technical passages and superficial content. These include three violin
concertos, 12 violin sonatas, three trios, nine duos, a symphony, and several
popular song arrangements.

CONTI, NICOLA [NICCOLÒ] (ca. 1715, PROBABLY NAPLES, TO ca.


1760, PROBABLY NAPLES). Italian composer. His musical education was
under Francesco Durante, but there is no record of his having attended one
of the famed conservatories. In 1733 he was named a member of the court
capella, and thereafter he seems to have functioned as maestro di cappella
at a number of churches in the city. His surviving music shows that he was
a careful and thoughtful composer, whose harmony and use of the voice was
often praised as progressive. His works, little studied, include five operas,
six oratorios, four cantatas, three Lamentations, 10 Lessons, and a number
of smaller motets.

COOKE, BENJAMIN (1734, LONDON, TO 14 SEPTEMBER 1793,


LONDON). English composer and organist. Son of a well-known music
publisher, Cooke received his musical education from Johann Pepusch, from
whom he took over the directorship of the Academy of Ancient Music after
Pepusch’s death in 1752. He later attended both Oxford and Cambridge
universities, where he obtained doctorates in music. By 1760 he had been
admitted as a member of the Royal Society of Musicians, and in 1762 he was
appointed as organist at Westminster Abbey. A second appointment as organ-
ist at St. Martin’s in the Fields was made in 1782. Cooke was well regarded
during his life as an organist and composer of glees, often winning prizes for
his social works, such as the 1775 collection of Catches, Glees, and Canons.
Although his style was deemed old-fashioned, he nonetheless was one of the
major figures in English musical society of the time, influencing an entire
generation of organists. His 1784 Ode to the Passions, an oratorio, owes
much to George Frederick Handel in its conservatism. His compositions,
which have been little studied, include 20 anthems, two complete Anglican
services (one for Gibraltar), the aforementioned oratorio, and a large number
of catches and keyboard works. Several organ concertos are also extant.

CORBISIERI, ANTONIO (21 MAY 1720, MARZANO DI NOLA,


ITALY, TO 7 JANUARY 1790, NAPLES). Italian composer and organist,
brother of Francesco Corbisieri. His earliest musical education was at the
Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in 1733. By 1749 he had a successful
premiere of an opera buffa in Naples, but in 1754 he turned almost exclu-

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CORRI, DOMENICO • 141

sively to sacred music as organist in several Neapolitan churches. His work


reflects the Neapolitan style with good melodic lines and homophonic cho-
ruses. These include four operas, a concert aria, two oratorios, four Passions,
and a large number of smaller sacred works. His music has been little studied.

CORBISIERI, FRANCESCO (ca. 1733, MARZANO DI NOLA, ITALY,


TO ca. 1802, NAPLES). Italian composer and organist. Brother of Antonio
Corbisieri, he was trained at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini be-
ginning in 1744. His teachers include Lorenzo Fago. In 1764 he obtained the
post of organist at the Cappella Reale in Naples. By 1779 he was first organist
and subsequently vice maestro di cappella. His works, little studied, include
three operas, six Mass movements, four motets, two litanies, nine Psalms,
and numerous sacred arias and organ works.

CORDANS, BARTOLOMEO (12 MARCH 1698, VENICE, TO 14 MAY


1757, UDINE, ITALY). Italian organist and composer. Although he initially
began his career intending to become a Franciscan monk, he abandoned this
in 1724 to study music. In 1733 he became maestro di coro at several of the
Ospedales, a position that allowed him to obtain the post of maestro di cap-
pella at the cathedral in Udine in 1735. Although much of his early music
reflects Baroque practice, his five operas and 24 violin sonatas (as well as
a considerable amount of late sacred music) reflect a more modern style. His
music, however, has been little studied.

CORFE, JOSEPH (bap. 9 FEBRUARY 1740, LONDON, TO 29 JULY


1820, LONDON). English singer and organist. In 1752 he was a chorister
and by 1783 had been appointed as a singer and Gentleman of the Royal
Chapel. In 1792 he left London for a post as organist in Salisbury, where he
remained until 1804. He is best known for his treatise on singing, but left few
musical compositions. These include only glees, songs, and several anthems.

CORRI, DOMENICO (4 OCTOBER 1746, ROME, TO 22 MAY 1825,


HAMPSTEAD, ENGLAND). Italian-English composer and keyboardist.
He received training in music in the household of Cardinal Portocarero in
Rome, and in 1763 he was sent to Naples to study with Nicola Porpora. In
1767 he returned to Rome to conduct concerts for the English nobility, the
success of which brought him an invitation to direct the series at St. Cecilia
Hall in Edinburgh, Scotland. There in 1779 he founded a music publishing
business, which eventually became Corri and Sutherland. In 1790, he moved
to London, where he continued his trade as a publisher, sold keyboard instru-
ments with Jan Ladislav Dussek, and wrote operas for the King’s Theatre.

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142 • CORYPHÉE

Toward the last years of his life, he was active as a keyboard teacher, though
he suffered occasional bouts of insanity. His music, considered popular and
tuneful, reflects galant stylistic practices, although his operas contain hints
of exoticism. His works include six operas, six canzonetts, numerous songs,
a concerto for fortepiano, 21 keyboard sonatas, numerous smaller keyboard
works, and several tutorials.

CORYPHÉE. A dancer in 18th-century ballet ranked just below the soloists


and above the general corps de ballet.

COSTA, ABBÉ ANTÓNIO DA (ca. 1714, PORTO, PORTUGAL, TO


ca. 1780, VIENNA). Portuguese guitarist and music theorist. In 1749 he left
Portugal to tour Spain and Italy, eventually settling in Rome by 1754. There
he found a patron in Duke João de Bragança, who took him to Venice and
subsequently to Vienna. There he associated frequently with leading musi-
cians of the city, including Christoph Willibald von Gluck and Carl Ditters
von Dittersdorf. Charles Burney, who became a close friend, describes him
as “a kind of Rousseau, but still more original,” with a penchant for living
in extreme poverty by refusing monetary patronage. Burney also noted his
attempts to improve the guitar, his unusual concepts of harmony and modula-
tion, and his unique performance style, which can only be termed eccentric.
No compositions survive, but Burney mentions sonatas for the guitar, as well
as a duo for two violins.

COSTA, ANTÓNIO PEREIRA DA (ca. 1697, FUNCHAL, PORTUGAL,


TO ca. 1770, FUNCHAL). Portuguese organist and composer. In 1740 he
was appointed as organist at the cathedral in his hometown, achieving some
success in London for his published compositions, such as 12 concerto gros-
sos in the style of Francesco Geminiani. Although the bulk of his surviving
music is Baroque in style, a set of 12 serenatas for solo guitar published in
London in 1755 demonstrates a newer style. He also composed cantatas and
organ music, though his works remain to be studied.

COSTANZI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (3 SEPTEMBER 1704, ROME,


TO 5 MARCH 1778, ROME). Italian composer and organist. A student of
Giovanni Lulier, he entered the service of Cardinal Ottoboni in 1721. With
the cardinal’s support he had his first operatic success in 1727 but decided
thereafter to devote his time to sacred music. In 1740 he became the maestro
di cappella at the Congregazione di Santa Cecilia. His most famous student
was Luigi Boccherini. His own music has been little studied but includes 17
operas, four cantatas, and a large amount of sacred music.

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COWPER, WILLIAM • 143

COTUMACCI, CARLO (1711, VILLA SANTA MARIA, ITALY, TO


1785, NAPLES). Italian composer, son of Michele Cotumacci. Following
study in Naples at the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio a Porta Capuana under
Francesco Durante, he was appointed organist at the Naples cathedral in
1755, a post he held for the remainder of his life. His music has been little
studied but includes a Mass, a Requiem, and 14 toccatas for organ.

COTUMACCI MICHELE (1682, VILLA SANTA MARIA, ITALY, TO


1750, VILLA SANTA MARIA). Italian organist and father of Carlo Cotu-
macci. He was educated in Naples at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini
under Gennaro Ursino and Francesco Provenzale, and became an organist both
in his hometown and later in Naples. Almost all of his music has been lost, but
the two works that have survived, an opera based upon St. Francis of Sales and
a cantata, show some knowledge of the developing galant Neapolitan style.

COUPERIN, ARMAND-LOUIS (25 FEBRUARY 1727, PARIS, TO 2


FEBRUARY 1789, PARIS). French composer and keyboardist. Born into
the famed family of musicians, he was the son of Nicolas Couperin, who
probably gave him his entire musical education. He succeeded his father as
the organist at St. Gervais Church in 1752, later obtaining additional posts at
St. Barthélemy, St. Jean-en-Grève, and in 1755, Nôtre Dame. He also became
a successful teacher, along with his wife, keyboardist Elisabeth-Antoinette
Blanchet (1729–1815). In 1770 he was appointed as keyboardist for the
Royal Chapel. He died as the result of being hit by a carriage on his way to a
service. Couperin’s music includes a number of motets; four cantatilles for
voice and instruments; a symphony, trio, and quartet all for two keyboards;
as well as sets of variations and two published collections of named keyboard
works: the Pièces de Clavecin of 1751 and the Sonates en pièces de Clavecin
of 1765. His surviving motet from 1787 demonstrates a good sense of homo-
phonic style, while the keyboard works tend to be old-fashioned in the vein of
Jean-Philippe Rameau or family forebears. Charles Burney lauded him for
his improvisatory prowess. See also BALBASTRE, CLAUDE-BÉNINGE.

COWPER, WILLIAM (26 NOVEMBER 1731, BERKHAMSTED,


HERTFORDSHIRE, ENGLAND, TO 25 APRIL 1800, EAST DERE-
HAM, ENGLAND). English hymnodist and poet. Son of a rector, he was
educated at the Westminster School and intended to become a lawyer. After a
nervous breakdown, he moved to the English countryside near Olney, where
his mentor John Newton asked him to contribute to a new hymnal. He pub-
lished some 12 hymns in the Olney Hymnal. His later career as a writer and
poet was important, but his most enduring legacy are these hymns.

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144 • CRAMER, CARL FRIEDRICH

CRAMER, CARL FRIEDRICH (7 MARCH 1752, QUEDLINBURG,


SAXONY, GERMANY, TO 8 DECEMBER 1807, PARIS). German theo-
logian and music publisher. A member of the Sturm und Drang literary group,
the Göttinger Hainbund, he began to study literature at the University of Kiel
around 1775. There he began translating opera librettos and began a journal
Magazin der Musik, which was one of the most progressive and forward-
looking works of the time that discussed music in all its aspects. Although not
a musician himself, he developed the art of music criticism in the 18th century.
He is not related to either Johann Baptist Cramer or Wilhelm Cramer.

CRAMER, JOHANN BAPTIST (24 FEBRUARY 1771, MANNHEIM,


TO 16 APRIL 1858, LONDON). German-English keyboardist and com-
poser. Son of Wilhelm Cramer, he received his earliest training from his
father before being taken to London at an early age. There he studied forte-
piano under Johann Friedrich and Muzio Clementi, and he began to con-
certize while still in his teens. In 1788 he began touring Europe in France and
Austria, and in 1799 he undertook a second tour to the continent but without
much success. In England he became a well-respected figure, whose students
included numerous English keyboardists of the early 19th century. His music
is little performed but consists of nine fortepiano concertos, two piano quin-
tets, a piano quartet, over 20 songs, 56 keyboard rondos, 33 divertimentos,
and 73 piano sonatas written before 1800.

CRAMER, WILHELM (bap. 2 JUNE 1746, MANNHEIM, TO 5 OCTO-


BER 1799, LONDON). German-English violinist and composer. The son of
a violinist, he studied under Johann Stamitz and Christian Cannabich in
Mannheim. In 1752 he was appointed as violinist in the Mannheim orches-
tra but left soon thereafter for a post in Stuttgart. In 1769 he made his debut
at the Concerts spirituels, and in 1772 he moved to London, where he was
encouraged to settle by Johann Christian Bach. He soon became one of the
foremost performers on the instrument, being a favorite at the public concerts
until the arrival of Johann Peter Salomon and Giovanni Battista Viotti in
the late 1780s. His music has been little studied but consists of eight violin
concertos and several smaller chamber pieces. His son Johann Baptist Cra-
mer became a leading composer and keyboardist, while a second son, Franz
Cramer (1772–1848) followed in his footsteps as a violinist.

CRINAZZI, GIORGIO. See FOSSOMBRONI, ANTONIO MARIA.

CRISPI, PIETRO MARIA (ca. 1737, ROME, TO 16 JUNE 1797,


ROME). Italian composer. By 1762 he had become a member of the Organi-
zatione di Santa Cecilia and in 1772 was appointed as organist at the church

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CUMMING, ANGUS • 145

of San Luigi dei Francesci, as well as functioning as maestro di cappella


for the Marescotti family. His music, little studied, includes five operas, 13
oratorios, and numerous sonatas, symphonies, and trios.

CROTCH, WILLIAM (5 July 1775, NORWICH, ENGLAND, TO 29


DECEMBER 1847, TAUNTON, ENGLAND). English organist and com-
poser. A child prodigy, he was taken to London to be educated beginning in
1779. While in his teens he attended Oxford University, where he obtained
a B.A. degree. His first oratorio (set twice during his life), The Captivity of
Judah, was performed at Oxford successfully in 1789, and by 1797 he was
awarded a professorship in music at the university, receiving his doctorate
two years later. He was also well known for his paintings during the early part
of the 19th century. His music written prior to 1800 consists of the aforemen-
tioned oratorio, as well as two symphonies, an organ concerto, and several
anthems. During his later years he continued to write sacred music but also
turned toward the catch and glee.

CSÁRDÁS. Also known in German and English as czardas. A Hungar-


ian dance that derived from the verbunkos by the end of the 18th century.
Consisting of a slow section and a fast conclusion, it was a popular national
form, particularly among violinists. Composers of the period specializing in
this genre include János Bihari.

CSERMÁK, ANTAL GYÖRGY (ca. 1774, PROBABLY BRATISLAVA


[NOW SLOVAKIA], TO 25 OCTOBER VESZPRÉM, HUNGARY).
Hungarian violinist and composer. Nothing is known of his youth or training,
save that the earliest information is that he made his debut as a violinist in
Vienna and Bratislava around 1794. The following year he was appointed as
concertmaster in Budapest, where he came into contact with János Bihari.
In 1802 he was appointed as violinist in the orchestra of Prince Antal Gras-
salkovich in Gödöllő, later moving to Veszprém. He is best known for his
arrangements of Hungarian dances, specifically the verbunkos. His music
includes six string quartets, numerous arrangements for quartets of strings,
and a series of Hungarian dances.

CUMMING, ANGUS (ca. 1750, GRANTOWN, SCOTLAND, TO


AFTER 1790, GRANTOWN). Scottish composer of popular music. A
musician in the small town of Grantown on the Strathspey, his only contri-
bution to music is a collection of reels published in Edinburgh in 1780. He
was, according to the publisher’s note, one of the most “original” of pure
Scottish dance music composers from “many generations of musicians in
Strathspey.”

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146 • CUNHA, DOMINGOS SIMÕES DA

CUNHA, DOMINGOS SIMÕES DA (1755, BARACATU, MINAS


GERAIS, BRAZIL, TO 1824, BARACATU). Brazilian composer. Prob-
ably trained at the local Imandade, he became maestro de capilla there about
1780. His music, never explored, consists mainly of sacred works, several
short operas, and a number of vocal pieces.

CUPIS [DE CARMAGO], FRANÇOIS (10 NOVEMBER 1732, PARIS,


TO 13 OCTOBER 1808, PARIS). Also known as le Cadet or Cupis de
Renoussard. French cellist and composer. The son of a music teacher and
brother of Jean-Baptiste Cupis Sr., he was a problematic child. Trained at
the Collèges des Quatre Nations in Paris under Martin Berteau, he was ar-
rested in 1751 for theft and had a complaint brought against him for drunken-
ness in 1759 by his own brother, Charles Cupis, a horn player at the Opéra. In
1764 he joined the orchestra at the Concerts spirituels and three years later
the Académie royale de musique. He renounced the theatre in 1770 in order
to marry, and thereafter he may have become a maker of violins in Paris. In
1803 he published a treatise titled Méthode d’alto précédé d’un abrégé des
principes de musique de différents airs nouveaux dont plusieurs avec varia-
tions et terminé par un long caprice ou étude. His own compositions, which
included mostly chamber works, have remained unstudied.

CUPIS [DE CARMAGO], JEAN-BAPTISTE, JR. (1741, PARIS, TO


ca. 1800, PROBABLY PARIS). French cellist and composer. The son of
Jean-Baptiste Cupis Sr., he may have studied both with his uncle, François
Cupis, and Martin Berteau. He spent an uneventful but brief career at the
Académie royale de musique and at the Opéra before turning exclusively to
private teaching in 1772. His best-known works are a treatise, Méthode nou-
velle et raisonée pour apprendre à jouer du violoncello, published in 1772,
and three cello concertos, six cello sonatas, and 15 duos for two cellos, as
well as a number of song adaptation collections.

CUPIS [DE CARMAGO], JEAN-BAPTISTE, SR. (bap. 23 NOVEM-


BER 1711, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM, TO 30 APRIL 1788, MONTREUIL,
FRANCE). French violinist, horseman, horticulturist, and composer. The son
of a music teacher, he received his earliest training from his father. In 1729 he
moved to Paris where in 1738 he made his debut at the Concerts spirituels
as a violinist. Although he received a privilege to publish his music, he appar-
ently did not obtain an official position but rather worked freelance for over
two decades. In 1750 he became a forester for the Vincennes royal park, and
in 1773 he was ennobled by Empress Maria Theresia. He retired thereafter to
Montreuil, where he cultivated peaches. Virtually all of his music reflects the

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CZARDAS • 147

late French style of the 1740s, but has been little studied, despite a contem-
poraneous reputation as a fine player and musical arranger. His works include
four symphonies, 13 violin sonatas, and a musical divertissement for the
marriage of the Dauphin (later Louis XVI) in 1745.

CURCIO, GIUSEPPE (17 JULY 1752, NAPLES, TO 9 AUGUST 1832,


ROME). Italian composer. Following training at the Conservatorio della Pi-
età dei Turchini in 1779, he was appointed as a composer for the Teatro del
Fondo. In 1800 he moved to Fermo, where he served as maestro di cappella
at the local church. A prolific composer of sacred music, he and his music
have received little study. His works include 22 operas (mostly opera buffa),
10 Masses, five cantatas, 27 offertories, 10 antiphons, 20 Psalms, 24 introits,
five litanies, four Lessons, four Magnificats, and six keyboard sonatas.

CZARDAS. See CSÁRDÁS.

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D
DA PONTE, LORENZO [EMMANUALE CONIGLIANO] (10 MARCH
1749, CENEDA, ITALY, TO 17 AUGUST 1838, NEW YORK). Italian
librettist. The son of a Jewish tanner, he took the name of the local bishop. In-
tending to become a teacher and clergyman, he was ordained a priest in 1773,
but he was banned from Venice for various affairs. In 1783 he arrived in Vi-
enna, where he established himself as an opera librettist, writing for Antonio
Salieri, Vicente Martín y Soler, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart; the three
works written for Mozart have become iconic examples of 18th-century opera
(Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosí fan tutte). In 1790, he was dismissed
upon the death of Joseph II, eventually moving to Paris and then London,
where he sought employment as a wine seller and an opera librettist. Intrigues
led to his dismissal there in 1799, and in 1805 he immigrated to the United
States, settling in New York and Pennsylvania as a grocer and merchant. He
became an American citizen in 1819 and in later life was appointed as pro-
fessor of Italian at Columbia College, though the post was largely honorary.
Da Ponte had a gift for excellent timing and language, with his opera texts
sidestepping some of the more controversial topics of the period. He is best
known for his work with Mozart, as well as his own reminiscences published
toward the end of his life.

DA PONTE, VINCENTA (ca. 1750, PROBABLY VENICE, TO AF-


TER 1775, PROBABLY VENICE). Although her name indicates patrician
origins, it is unknown what connection if any she shared with Lorenzo Da
Ponte. She was a member of the chorus at the Ospedale della Pietà around
1775, when she composed a series of four monferrina dances. Nothing is
known about her later life.

DAISSER, SISTER PEREGRINA (28 OCTOBER 1710, INNSBRUCK,


AUSTRIA, TO 22 NOVEMBER 1757, INNSBRUCK). Austrian monastic
composer. Little is known about her life, save that she joined the Servite
cloister in Innsbruck at around the age of 18. There she became known as a
composer and keyboardist, though most of her music, consisting of Masses

149

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150 • DAL BARBA, DANIEL

and other sacred works, were provided mainly for her order. Her music, most
of which seems to have been lost, has never been studied.

DAL BARBA, DANIEL (5 MAY 1715, VERONA, ITALY, TO 26 JULY


1801, VERONA). Italian composer, librettist, violinist, and singer. Although
he attended the University of Verona in law, he was self-taught as a musician,
and in 1737 he was appointed as a violinist at the local theatre. In 1744 his
opera Il Tigrane was premiered with some success, and over the next several
years he performed on stage as a tenor. In 1749 he was named as maestro
di cappella at the local Accademia filotema as well as the Accademia filar-
monica, also serving for ten years beginning in 1769 as the musical director
of the cathedral. His musical style, which has been little explored, is galant.
His compositions include seven operas, an oratorio, five symphonies (four
with a quartet of horns), four concertos (flute and violin), and 12 trio so-
natas. In addition, he published the treatise Teorica e prattica musicale per
suonare bene il violin in 1751.

DALAYRAC, NICOLAS-MARIE (8 JUNE 1753, MURET, HAUTE


GARRONE, FRANCE, TO 22 NOVEMBER 1809, PARIS). French com-
poser. Born into a family in the minor nobility (original name D’Alayrac,
changed during the Revolution), he was educated in music at the College of
Toulouse before moving to Paris to study law. An interlude at home in Muret
convinced him of his talent for music, and despite a commission in the pri-
vate guard of the comte d’Artois, he began to frequent musical salons in the
French capital. By 1777 he had published string quartets, and in 1781 he was
asked by the baron de Bésenval to compose music for the stage, beginning
with the one-act opéra comique Le petit souper. The success of this work
allowed him to be considered the successor of André Ernest Modeste Gré-
try, and between 1788 and 1789 he achieved his greatest successes with Nina
and Les deux petits Savoyards. During the Revolution he prospered writing
Revolutionary hymns. In 1804 he was one of the first recipients of the Lé-
gion d’honneur. He passed away the day before his last opera was scheduled
to be performed on the anniversary of Napoleon’s coronation. His music is
known by its facility with melody, much of which became well known inter-
nationally. His works include 57 operas (all comic), six Revolutionary odes,
Masonic music, 36 string quartets, six string trios, and six violin duets. His
operas, performed at the beginning of the 19th century throughout Europe,
await resurrection.

D’ALEMBERT, JEAN LE ROND (16 NOVEMBER 1717, PARIS, TO


29 OCTOBER 1783, PARIS). French encyclopedist and music theorist. Fol-

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DANKOWSKI, ADALBERT WOJCIECH • 151

lowing training at a Jansenist School, he completed his study of medicine and


law in Paris, submitting his first treatise (on mathematics) to the Académie
royale du sciences in 1739. By 1751 he had partnered with Denis Diderot to
produce the Encyclopédie, producing an outline of its contents in a Discours
préliminaire. In 1749 he reviewed a Mémoire by Jean-Philippe Rameau,
synthesizing his musical-theoretical propositions in a work titled Eléments de
musique théoretique et pratique suivant les principes de M. Rameau in 1751.
He also produced a balanced and insightful critique of the Querelle des bouf-
fons. See also PHILIDOR, FRANÇOIS-ANDRÉ DANICAN.

DALL’CROUBELIS, [DOMINGO] SIMONI (ca. 1727, AMSTERDAM,


TO ca. 1790, COPENHAGEN). Dutch-Danish composer. Nothing is known
about his origins or training, but by 1765 he was active as both a composer
and teacher (music master) in Amsterdam, which he indicated was his place
of birth. By 1785 he had moved to Copenhagen, where he became well
known as a teacher, writing music for the public concert series. His style
closely conforms to that of Empfindsamkeit, although he demonstrates a
good sense of sonata form structure. His surviving music includes eight flute
concertos, 11 symphonies (and six sinfonia concertantes), two sextets, four
quintets, 11 string quartets, 11 trios, and various Recueils, or arrangements
of popular opera arias.

DALL’OGLIO, DOMENICO (ca. 1707, PADUA, ITALY, TO 1764,


NARVA, RUSSIA [NOW ESTONIA]). Italian-Russian violinist and com-
poser. A student of Giuseppe Tartini, he was appointed as concertmaster of
the cathedral orchestra in Padua in 1721. In 1735, however, he and his brother
Giuseppe, a cellist, accepted an invitation of employment at the Russian court
in St. Petersburg, where for the next 30 years they both served. He died on
his way back to Italy in 1764. He was known for his performance on the lute
and violin, as well as his collaborations with Francesco Araja. His music
includes a prologue, a concert aria, 34 violin sonatas, around 12 sympho-
nies (six published 1735 in Paris, as well as several “Russian” symphonies),
17 violin concertos, a sonata for string quartet, several pieces for viola and
basso, as well as numerous ballets.

DANKOWSKI, ADALBERT WOJCIECH (ca. 1760, WIELKOPOL-


SKA, POLAND, TO ca. 1810, LEMBERG, POLAND [NOW L’VOV,
UKRAINE]). Polish composer and violist. Following early training at the
Cistercian monastery in Obra, he became a musician there beginning in 1779
and may have taken Holy Orders. In 1787 he was active as organist at the
Gniezno cathedral, but by 1790 he was reported to be a violist at the theatre

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152 • DANZI, FRANCESCA DOROTHEA [LEBRUN]

in Lemberg, where he apparently remained the rest of his life. His music is
little explored, but consists of 39 Masses, three Requiems, 27 vespers, seven
litanies, 37 motets, a Salve Regina, and two symphonies.

DANZI, FRANCESCA DOROTHEA [LEBRUN] (24 MARCH 1756,


MANNHEIM, TO 14 MAY 1791, BERLIN). German soprano and com-
poser. Daughter of cellist Innocenz Danzi and elder sister of Franz Ignaz
Danzi, she made her debut as a soloist in 1772 in Antonio Sacchini’s op-
era La Contadina in corte. She was a popular singer who won praise from
Charles Burney for her talent. By 1777, the same year she married oboist
and composer Ludwig August Lebrun, she was regularly touring Europe as
a soloist. She wrote few pieces; indeed she published only two sets of sona-
tas for the keyboard and violin in London in 1780 but probably wrote other
chamber works as well. Fétis cites a set of trios for piano, violin, and cello,
which have been lost.

DANZI, FRANZ IGNAZ (15 JUNE 1763, SCHWETZINGEN, GER-


MANY, TO 13 APRIL 1826, KARLSRUHE, GERMANY). German
composer and cellist. Son of Mannheim orchestra cellist Innocenz Danzi,
he received his earliest musical education in Mannheim from members of
the Kapelle, as well as Abbé Georg Joseph Vogler. At the age of 15 he
was appointed to the orchestra, but a few years later he remained behind in
Mannheim when the majority moved to Munich. His earliest successes as a
composer of works for the stage occurred there, but in 1784 he was named his
father’s successor as principal cellist in Munich. In 1791 he undertook tours
throughout Germany as a conductor, including with the Guardasoni troupe,
and in 1807 he was appointed as conductor at the court in Stuttgart. Here
he formed a fast friendship with Carl Maria von Weber. In 1812 he moved
to Karlsruhe, where he spent the remainder of his life. An active composer,
he wrote 16 operas; incidental music to 25 plays; eight Masses; 87 cham-
ber works, among which several dozen woodwind quintets were popular
throughout Europe; five symphonies; six sinfonia concertantes; concertos
for the bassoon, horn, flute, and violoncello; as well as a large number of
other sacred works, songs, and smaller instrumental pieces. He was also ac-
tive as a librettist. His style, though conservative, is characterized by inven-
tive use of orchestral color, particularly with respect to the wind and brass
instruments. See also BRANDL, JOHANN EVANGELIST.

DANZI, INNOCENZ (ca. 1730, ITALY, TO 17 APRIL 1798, MUNICH).


Italian-German violoncellist and composer, father of Franz Iganz, Maria
Margarethe, and Francesca Danzi. Although it is not known from whence

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DAVAUX, JEAN-BAPTISTE • 153

he came in Italy, he was already well known as a solo cellist when he joined
the Mannheim orchestra in 1754. Shortly thereafter, he married the sister of
composer Carl Toeschi, and within a decade had become one of the highest
paid members of the ensemble. In 1778 he moved with the court to Munich
and retired in 1783. He was known for his facility on his instruments. As a
composer, he is less well known, although he, like the rest of the members of
the orchestra, composed for his instruments. Surviving works include a string
quartet and a concerto for violoncello. See also RITTER, PETER.

DANZI, MARIA MARGARETHE. See MARCHAND, MARIA MARGA-


RETHE.

DAUVERGNE, ANTOINE (3 OCTOBER 1713, MOULINS, FRANCE,


TO 11 FEBRUARY 1797, LYONS, FRANCE). French violinist and com-
poser. The son of a musician, he received his earliest training from his father
before moving to Paris to study composition under Jean-Philippe Rameau.
In 1739 he was appointed violinist in the royal chambers, and in 1744 he be-
came a violinist at the Opéra. By 1752 he began a career as a conductor and
opera composer, becoming director of the Opéra in 1769. By 1787 he was
given less responsibility there due to his inept administrative skills, retiring
in 1790 to a life of economic distress.
Dauvergne was one of the most influential composers in Paris, being re-
sponsible for bringing Christoph Willibald von Gluck there to write French
opera. Although Charles Burney criticized his music as pedantic and dull,
his works demonstrate a solid sense of harmony. These include 18 operas or
ballets, a number of other stage works, a cantatille, 14 motets, two concerts
en symphonies (a sort of suite), six sonatas, and a number of smaller key-
board works. See also LA BORDE, JEAN-BENJAMIN FRANÇOIS DE.

DÁVALOS CHAVEA, MANUEL (ca. 1730, LIMA, PERU, TO 1811,


LIMA). Peruvian organist and composer. The son of an organist at the Lima
cathedral, he received training from his father Juan Crisóstomo Dávalos be-
fore obtaining the appointment as second organist at the cathedral in 1757.
By 1765 he succeeded his father as first organist and in 1798 was appointed
as maestro di capilla. His music has been little studied, but it includes several
villancicos, as well as a Mass and Lamentations setting.

DAVAUX, JEAN-BAPTISTE (19 JULY 1742, LA CÔTE SAINT-AN-


DRÉ, FRANCE, TO 2 FEBRUARY 1822, PARIS). French composer and
government official. Born into a family of privilege, he was trained on the
violin beginning in 1767. Thereafter he started a career as an official, joining

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154 • DE AMICIS, ANNA LUCIA

the household of the Prince de Rohan in 1775 and later serving the Ministry
of War. His first comic operas were produced in 1785, and his works were
premiered frequently at the Concerts spirituels. These include two operas,
13 sinfonia concertantes, four symphonies, four violin concertos, 26 quar-
tets (mainly for strings), four quintets, six duos, and six trios.

DE AMICIS, ANNA LUCIA (ca. 1733, NAPLES, TO 1816, NAPLES).


Italian soprano, also known as Anna de Amicis-Buonsollazzi. Born into a
family of actors and singers, she received her training as part of the family
company, touring Italy and France as a comic opera soprano. In 1762 she
debuted in London at the King’s Theatre, after which she became an interna-
tional star in dramatic roles. In 1768 she married a doctor in Florence but con-
tinued her career until 1778, when she starred in the main role in Christoph
Willibald von Gluck’s Armide. She is best known for her versatile voice and
extended range, which was used in operas written for her by Johann Chris-
tian Bach, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Niccolò Jommelli.

DE CHARRIÈRE, ISABELLE [BELLE VAN ZUYLEN, ISABELLE


AGNETA ELISABETH VAN TUYLL VAN SEROOSKERKEN] (20
OCTOBER 1740, CASTLE ZUYLEN, NEAR UTRECHT, TO 27 DE-
CEMBER 1805, COLUMBIER, SWITZERLAND). Dutch-French woman
of letters, author, noblewoman, and composer. Born into a privileged family,
she was sent at the age of 10 to Geneva, Switzerland, where she completed
a thorough education emphasizing the arts. She married Charles-Emmanuele
de Charrière de Penhaz in 1771 and thereafter moved permanently to Colum-
bier outside of Neuchâtel, although she traveled frequently to both Holland
and Paris, where her teachers included Niccolò Zingarelli. An admirer of
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, she became well known in Parisian intellectual
circles as a prolific correspondent and author of plays and novels. When the
French Revolution occurred, many of those fleeing the Terror were taken
in by her as refugees. As a composer, her work reflects the popular French
idioms of the time and includes numerous songs, some minuets, and several
keyboard sonatas. Her musical education is not entirely clear, although she
was well versed in compositional skills.

DE CROES, HENRI-JACQUES (19 SEPTEMBER 1705, ANTWERP,


TO 16 AUGUST 1786, BRUSSELS). Belgian composer and organist. He
received his earliest training at the St. Jakobskerke in Antwerp before becom-
ing employed as a violinist with the Thurn und Taxis court, spending much
of his time beginning in 1723 in Frankfurt. In 1725 he entered the service
of Charles of Loraine where he became concertmaster in 1744 and maître

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DELLA PIETÀ, AGATA • 155

de chapelle in 1746. A good friend of Pierre van Maldere, de Croes was


responsible for the excellent reputation of the Brussels court ensemble. His
works include five operas, 53 Masses, 63 motets, 32 symphonies, six con-
certos for two violins, five concertos for flute, 12 quartets, six violin duos,
and 12 violin sonatas (six published in Paris as Op. 1 in 1743), as well as
numerous smaller chamber works. Much of his sacred music has been lost.

DEGTYARYOV, STEPAN ANIKIYEVICH (1766, BORISOVKA,


NEAR KURSK, RUSSIA, TO 5 MAY 1813, KURSK). Russian singer and
composer. Born a serf, he was trained as a chorister and by 1789 had become
concertmaster on the estate of his overlord, Count Sheremet’yev. In 1790 he
traveled to Italy with Giuseppe Sarti and on his return enrolled at the Smolny
Institute in St. Petersburg. By the early part of the 19th century, he had be-
come Kapellmeister at the Sheremet’yev estate. All of his music, save for the
oratorio Minin i Poiharsky about the defeat of a Polish invasion in 1612, was
burned by the composer in advance of the Napoleonic occupation of Moscow.

DELAVAL, MADAME (fl. 1791–1802). English harpist, pianist, and com-


poser. Her actual name and origins are unknown, although she studied in Paris
with Jan Křtitel Krumpholtz. She apparently was part of the Seaton Delaval
family of Northumberland, and in 1790 she was employed by Johann Peter
Salomon in his public concerts. Her last appearance in London was in 1796
at Covent Garden. As a performer, she was well regarded among the salon
society of the time, publishing a number of smaller works and songs, though
she also wrote a memorial cantata for Louis XVI.

DELLA MARIA, [PIERRE] ANTOINE [DOMINIQUE] (14 JUNE


1769, MARSEILLES, FRANCE, TO 9 MARCH 1800, PARIS). French
composer. After training with local musicians in Marseilles, he had his first
opera performed there in 1787. Its success allowed him to go to Naples
for further training under Nicola Sala, after which he had a short career in
Italy as an opera composer. In 1797 he arrived in Paris, where he was well
received as a potential rival to Luigi Cherubini. His early death prevented a
promising career. His music was noted for simplicity and expressive feeling
for whatever language he chose. His music consists of 15 operas, six Psalms,
three concertos, seven string quartets, six concert arias or duets, a fortepiano
sonata, and several songs.

DELLA PIETÀ, AGATA (ca. 1720, VENICE, TO ca. 1780, VENICE).


Venetian composer, singer, and educator. As a foundling admitted to the Os-
pedale della Pietà in Venice, nothing is known of her parents or birth name; as

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156 • DELLA PIETÀ, MICHIELINA [MICHAELIS, MICHIELETTA]

was usual, she took the last name of the orphanage, adding the first name of
a popular saint. As a student, she was trained in the musical arts by Giovanni
Porta, Nicola Porpora, and Andrea Bernasconi, who wrote solo parts for
her. Around 1740 she was singled out in an anonymous tribute to the musi-
cians of the Ospedale, and she wrote music up through at least 1777. Only
two pieces survive, a Novo aprili and a setting of Psalm 134. In addition, she
wrote a pedagogical work on singing titled Regali per Gregoria, dedicated to
one of her pupils. See also DELLA PIETÀ, MICHIELINA; DELLA PIETÀ,
SAMARITANA.

DELLA PIETÀ, MICHIELINA [MICHAELIS, MICHIELETTA] (ca.


1700, VENICE, TO ca. 1750, VENICE). Venetian composer, singer, or-
ganist, and educator. As a foundling admitted to the Ospedale della Pietà in
Venice, nothing is known of her parents or birth name; as was usual, she took
the last name of the orphanage, adding the first name of a popular saint. She
apparently began her education under Francesco Gasparini, continuing under
Giovanni Porta, Nicola Porpora, and Andrea Bernasconi, receiving a li-
cense to teach in 1726. None of her compositions survive, but she is known to
have written a litany in 1740 and a hymn, Pange lingua, the following year.
See also DELLA PIETÀ, AGATA; DELLA PIETÀ, SAMARITANA.

DELLA PIETÀ, SAMARITANA [SANTA, SANZA] (ca. 1715, VENICE,


TO ca. 1774, VENICE). Venetian composer, singer (contralto), violinist,
and educator. As a foundling admitted to the Ospedale della Pietà in Venice,
nothing is known of her parents or birth name; as was usual, she took the last
name of the orphanage, adding the first name of a popular saint. As a student,
she was trained in the musical arts by Giovanni Porta, Nicola Porpora, and
Andrea Bernasconi, and by 1740 she was able to perform in public both vio-
lin concertos and cantatas by former director Vivaldi. Around the same time,
she succeeded Anna Maria della Pietà as director of the orphanage orchestra.
Her compositions were mainly sacred works, and only one of them, a Laudate
pueri, has survived. It shows her to have been a competent composer well
versed in both the stile antico and modern homophonic choral style. See also
DELLA PIETÀ, AGATA; DELLA PIETÀ, MICHIELINA.

DELLER, FLORIAN JOHANN (1 MAY 1729, DROSENDORF, LOWER


AUSTRIA, TO 19 APRIL 1773, MUNICH). German composer and violin-
ist. Little is known of his early education, save that it was at regional monastic
schools. He first appears in 1751 as a violinist in Stuttgart, where he studied
under Niccolò Jommelli. His first success as a composer was with a ballet,
Orfeo, choreographed by Jean-Georges Noverre. By 1769 he had achieved a

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DEMAR, JOHANN SEBASTIAN [JAKOB-IGNAZ-SEBASTIAN] • 157

success as an opera composer in Vienna with a production at the Burgtheater


of Il maestro di cappella and had been appointed concertmaster and Hofcom-
positeur in Stuttgart. He died in Munich on his way back from further work in
Vienna. Deller was known as a facile composer particularly of ballet music,
with a good solid sense of danceable rhythm and lively melodies. His works
include 11 ballets, nine comic operas, four symphonies, six trio sonatas, two
flute concertos, and numerous sacred compositions. He has been little studied
as a composer.

DELUSSE, CHARLES (ca. 1720, PARIS, TO ca. 1774, PARIS). French


flautist and composer. Nothing is known about his origins or training, al-
though, as a flautist, he must have been related to the Delusse family of wood-
wind makers. He first appears in 1743, where he is described in the Mercure
de France as a teacher. His L’Art de la flute was a well-respected tutorial, and
in 1758 he may have performed as a member of the orchestra at the Opéra-
Comique. He disappears from history around 1774. His music, all published,
includes a cantatille, several Recueils, a comic opera, six flute sonatas, a
trio, and six flute duets. His musical style is decidedly galant.

DEMACHI, GIUSEPPE (7 JUNE 1732, ALESSANDRIA, ITALY, TO


1791, LONDON). Italian violinist and composer. Following training in
his hometown and initial employment in the cathedral, he moved to Casale
Monferrato to become a composer in the ensemble of Count Sannazarro. In
1774 he moved to Geneva to become one of the founders of the Société de
Musique, and in 1779 he became maestro di cappella at the court of Princess
Caroline of Nassau-Weilberg in Kirchenheim in the Pfaltz-Rheinland. In
1763 he returned to Alessandria, and he died shortly after arriving in London
to perform as a soloist in the public concerts. His music conforms to the
mid-century Italian style, with galant tendencies. His compositions include
four sinfonia concertantes, several symphonies (of which one is titled Le
campane di Roma [The Bells of Rome]), 56 trio sonatas, 18 duos, 10 violin
concertos, and six orchestra quartets.

DEMAR, JOHANN SEBASTIAN [JAKOB-IGNAZ-SEBASTIAN] (29


JUNE 1763, GAUASCHACH, NEAR WÜRZBURG, GERMANY, TO
25 JULY 1832, ORLÉANS, FRANCE). German composer and organist.
Born into a musical family, he was sent by his parents to Strasbourg to study
with Franz Xaver Richter. By 1783 he had obtained a position as organist at
the town of Weissenburg but a few years later left for Vienna, where he was
a pupil of Joseph Haydn. In 1788 he went to France, first to Paris and then
a year later to Orléans, where he established himself as a teacher. He was a

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158 • DEMARS, HÉLÈNE-LOUISE

founder of the Société des Concerts in 1806 and finally became organist at
Saint-Paterne Church, thereafter changing his name to reflect that of Johann
Sebastian Bach. His music has been little studied but includes concertos for
fortepiano, horn, clarinet, and flute, as well as a Mass, several motets, several
songs, and a trio for two horns and keyboard.

DEMARS, HÉLÈNE-LOUISE (ca. 1736, PARIS, TO AFTER 1770,


PARIS). French composer. The daughter of Baroque composer Jean Odéo
Demars (1695–1756), she achieved recognition for three cantatilles pub-
lished by the Mercure de France in 1748. One of these, L’oroscope, was ded-
icated to Mademoiselle de Sodise, indicating her involvement with Parisian
intellectual society of the time. She disappears from history shortly thereafter.

DEMMLER, JOHANN MICHAEL (bap. 28 SEPTEMBER 1748,


HILTENFINGEN, GERMANY, TO 6 MAY 1785, AUGSBURG). Ger-
man composer and organist. Trained as a chorister at Augsburg cathedral,
he attended the Jesuit College of Sankt Salvator in 1769, becoming organist
at the cathedral a year later. Although a close friend of Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart, who recommended him for the position of organist in Salzburg in
1778, he chose to remain in Augsburg. His music has received only cursory
attention by scholars, but consists of 18 stage works (Singspiels, panto-
mimes, incidental music), nine Masses, two hymns, 15 sacred arias or duets,
a symphony, and a keyboard concerto. Much of his music appears to have
been lost, however.

DENKE, JEREMIAS [JEREMIAH] (2 OCTOBER 1725, LANGEN-


BIELAU, SILESIA, GERMANY [NOW BIELAWA, POLAND], TO
28 MAY 1795, BETHLEHEM, PENNSYLVANIA, UNITED STATES).
German composer and organist. After his baptism into the Moravian
Church at Gnadenfrei, he moved to Herrnhut in 1748 as an organist. In 1761
he immigrated to the United States along with Johann Peter and Simon Pe-
ter. His first American work was a simple piece for the Provincial Synod in
Bethlehem in 1766, possibly the earliest concerted music written in America.
His music, with diatonic harmony and simple voice leading, includes three
sets of sacred songs, as well as several anthems.

DEPPISCH, VALENTIN JOSEPH (ca. 1746, PÉCS, HUNGARY, TO 14


MARCH 1782, PÉCS). Hungarian-German organist and composer. Nothing
is known of his youth or training, but in 1769 he was appointed as a musi-
cian at the cathedral in Pécs. By 1778 he had attained the position of first
organist. His music reflects the ornate Italianate style of the time, though his

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DEURING [DÖRIG], PATER BENEDIKT [JOHANN GABRIEL] • 159

instrumental compositions show the influence of Joseph Haydn. His surviv-


ing works include four Masses, a Requiem, two vespers, a Magnificat, a
symphony, two Italian concert arias, and several small secular chamber and
sacred works.

DESHAYES, PROSPER-DIDIER (ca. 1740, FRANCE, TO 1815, PARIS).


French dancer, teacher, and composer. Nothing is known about his early ca-
reer, although it was said by later biographers that he may have been a pupil
of Jean-Georges Noverre. He first appears in 1761 in Paris, where he was
a dancer at the Comédie-Française, later becoming balletmaster there and a
dancer at the Opéra. In 1777 he premiered his first works at the Concerts spi-
rituels, eventually receiving some acclaim for his instrumental works and ora-
torios. In 1784 he joined the École royale de chant as a dance teacher, around
the time his first opera premiered. For several years during the Revolution
he was employed at the National Treasury, during which he wrote his most
successful opera, Zélia, in 1791. In 1801 he returned to the Opéra as a dancer.
During his lifetime, he was known for his use of colorful orchestration
and singable melodies in his vocal works. These include 19 operas, two ora-
torios, and numerous motets and hymns, as well as two concertos (bassoon
and clarinet) and several pieces of Harmoniemusik. In 1799 six symphonies
were published in Vienna under the name “Dechaye,” which may be those
referred to in Robert Eitner’s lexicon almost a century later. These show a
pattern whereby in the finales a modulation to the parallel minor is always
present, indicating a single author of the set. Whether these are by this com-
poser is not yet established. Two were published separately and attributed to
Giuseppe Cambini, although they are stylistically incompatible with that
composer’s style.

DESORMERY, LÉOPOLD-BASTIEN (ca. 1740, BAYONNE, LOR-


RAINE, FRANCE, TO ca. 1810, BEAUVAIS, FRANCE). French singer
and composer. Trained in Nancy, he first appears as a singer at the Opera in
Lyons, where he later taught at the music school. In 1770 he was in Stras-
bourg, where he appeared on stage as an actor, and in 1774 he performed at the
Théâtre Italien in Paris. His music was performed, but he had no lasting career
as a composer, for much of it is derivative. His works include six operas, two
Revolutionary odes, three motets, a cantatille, and numerous songs.

DEURING [DÖRIG], PATER BENEDIKT [JOHANN GABRIEL] (17


SEPTEMBER 1690, GLARUS, SWITZERLAND, TO 3 JANUARY
1768, ENGELBERG, SWITZERLAND). Swiss monastic composer. The
son of an organ builder, he received his musical education from his father

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160 • DEVIENNE, FRANÇOIS

before entering the Benedictine monastery in Engelberg in 1710. By 1734


he was a teacher there, and in 1736 he became parish priest in Auw and Sins
before being selected as sub-prior in 1759. As a composer, his music, exclu-
sively sacred works, reflects the changes between the Baroque and Classical
styles. Although his early works were destroyed in a fire in 1729, his surviv-
ing compositions include 40 vespers and a Salve Regina.

DEVIENNE, FRANÇOIS (31 JANUARY 1759, JOINVILLE,


FRANCE, TO 5 SEPTEMBER 1803, CHARENTON, NEAR PARIS,
FRANCE). French flautist and composer. Following early musical educa-
tion as a choirboy, he was sent to Paris to study flute with Félix Rault. In
1780 he joined the orchestra of the Prince de Rohan, making his debut at
the Concerts spirituels in 1782. Thereafter he played flute and bassoon
at the Opéra until the Revolution, when he joined the military band of
the French Guards. In 1795 he was appointed as an inspector and profes-
sor of flute at the new Conservatoire following the publication two years
earlier of his treatise Méthode de flûte théoretique et pratique. A prolific
composer especially for his own instrument, he wrote 12 operas, seven
sinfonia concertantes, 14 flute and five bassoon concertos, 25 quintets
and quartets, 46 trios, 147 duos, and 67 sonatas, as well as a symphony
and two Revolutionary hymns.

DIDEROT, DENIS (5 OCTOBER 1713, LANGRES, FRANCE, TO 31


JULY 1784, PARIS). French philosopher, writer, and critic. After early
education at the Lycée Louis le Grand, he received his master’s degree in phi-
losophy in 1732, thereupon embarking upon a career as a writer. Approached
to put together the comprehensive Encyclopédie in 1749, he partnered with
Jean d’Alembert to create a monumental compendium of knowledge, with
the first comprehensive discussions of music. He wrote many of the articles
himself, but allowed others to be written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. He was
also friends with Baron Friedrich Melchior Grimm, one of the figures in the
Querelle des bouffons. See also BAYON, MARIE-EMMANUELLE.

DIETER, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG (13 JUNE 1757, LUDWIGSBURG,


GERMANY, TO 15 MAY 1822, STUTTGART, GERMANY). German
composer and violinist. Orphaned at the age of 13, he entered several military
academies, eventually being employed by Duke Carl Eugen of Württemberg.
Although he was initially thought of as a court painter, his musical talents
soon allowed him to study with Antonio Borroni. After the success of his
first opera in 1779, he attempted to escape from Württemberg but was caught
and imprisoned. Pardoned in 1781 he was promoted to court musician, a post

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DITTERSDORF, [AUGUST] CARL DITTERS VON • 161

he held until his retirement in 1817. Although he was a well-regarded com-


poser for his dramatic music, his works have received little attention. These
consist of 13 operas, several ballets, five concertos, 48 duets, 12 trios, and
a quartet.

DISCHNER, JOHANN MICHAEL (ca. 1728, POSSIBLY MUNICH,


GERMANY, TO 19 OCTOBER 1796, AUGSBURG). German organist
and composer. He attended the Jesuit Gymnasium in Munich before being
employed as an organist in Ingolstadt, where he possibly attended university.
His move as organist in Augsburg at the cathedral is not known but he func-
tioned as choir director there from about 1760 on. His music has been little
studied but includes six Masses, two litanies, and a hymn.

DITTERSDORF, [AUGUST] CARL DITTERS VON (2 NOVEMBER


1739, LEIGRUBE, VIENNA, TO 24 OCTOBER 1799, ČERVENÁ
LHOTA, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC]). Austrian composer,
chief forester, and violinist. Born August Carl Ditters, he received his earli-
est education at the Jesuit school in Vienna, where he displayed a precocious
talent as a violinist, enough so that in 1751 he was performing with local
court orchestras. Here he came to the attention of Giueseppe Bonno and
Christoph Willibald von Gluck, the latter of whom took him with him to
Italy in 1763. There Ditters achieved success as a virtuoso, and by 1765 he
had been hired by Archbishop Adam Patachich as Michael Haydn’s succes-
sor at Großwerdein (now Oradea, Romania). He improved the quality of the
ensemble, but in 1769 it was dissolved and Ditters relieved of his duties. He
found other employment with the Archbishop of Breslau, Count Philipp Got-
thard von Schaffgotsch as a state administrative functionary at Schloss Johan-
nesberg (now Janský vrch, Poland), and in 1773 he was appointed as chief
forester at nearby Javernig (Javornik). This appointment required aristocratic
rank, and Ditters was ennobled as von Dittersdorf at Freiwaldau (Jeseník). In
1784 he returned to Vienna where he participated actively in the musical life
of the city. His rank allowed him access to all levels of the court society, and
his abilities earned him the friendship of colleagues such as Joseph Haydn
and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with whom he performed in a string
quartet (the cellist was his student Jan Křtitel Vanhal). In 1790, however,
he returned to music as Kapellmeister to Duke Carl Christian Erdmann zu
Württemberg-Oels, a post that also included governmental administrative
duties. He moved to Oels (Olésnice) and then Karlsruhe in Upper Silesia. A
reversal of fortune caused him to retire in 1796, and he moved to the small
town of Neuhof (Červená Lhota), where he died only a couple of days after
completing his autobiography.

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162 • DIVERTIMENTO

Dittersdorf was a prolific and progressive composer, particularly with


respect to his use of the characteristic symphony, sometimes based upon
Classical stories. He was conventional in terms of his harmony, but his
skill in contrasting instruments (as well as writing for unusual timbres and
combinations) demonstrates a good sense of color. His formal structures
are often conventional, and his textures mainly homophonic, but he was
considered one of the foremost composers of Vienna during his day. He can
be considered one of the most popular composers of Singspiels of his day,
with one work, Doktor und Apotheker, achieving international success. The
number of works composed demonstrates an almost inexhaustible creativity
and includes: 127 symphonies (with another 90 likely, making him the most
prolific composer in the genre of all time, if true), 18 violin concertos, five
viola concertos, eight oboe concertos, four keyboard concertos, nine other
concertos (for oboe d’amore, harp, contrabass, cello, flute, and two violins),
four sinfonia concertantes (including two for string quartet and orchestra,
one for viola, contrabass, and orchestra, and another for 11 solo instruments),
four serenades, five cassations, 16 divertimentos, 18 string trios, seven
string quartets, six horn quintets, six string quintets, 35 partitas, 72 pre-
ludes, 31 keyboard sonatas, 136 solo keyboard works, 16 violin sonatas, 32
operas, three concert arias, 16 secular cantatas, 16 Masses, a Requiem, four
oratorios, 11 offertories, eight litanies, and 170 smaller sacred works such
as Psalms, motets, and so forth. His music is known by K or Krebs numbers.
See also MÜLLER, WENZEL.

DIVERTIMENTO. An occasional instrumental work, also called Cassatio


(Cassation) or Notturno (Nachtmusik), meant for light entertainment during
the 18th century. It usually consists of a suite of movements, the most common
structure being five arranged fast-minuet-slow-minuet-finale. The first move-
ments are generally composed according to the sonata principle, while the last
movement is commonly a rondo. It is related to the partita and serenade, the
former of which is generally for wind instruments and the latter a much larger
work. Scoring ranges from single instruments, such as a keyboard, to large
orchestras. An example of the former is by Raynor Taylor, published in the
United States around 1795, but the majority come from Central Europe. Wolf-
gang Amadeus Mozart wrote over 25 works in this genre, though some, such
as the three “divertimenti” (KV 136–138), are actually closer to the regular
18th-century symphony in form and structure. Divertimenti sometimes have a
more pictorial or situational context, such as Michael Haydn’s Sinfonia Berch-
tesgadiensis, commonly known as the “Toy Symphony.”

DIVERTIMENTO GIOCOSO. See OPERA BUFFA.

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DOMNICH, HEINRICH • 163

DIVERTISSEMENT. Derived from the ballet portions of the tragédie


lyrique, this was used to describe the succession of ballet movements, some-
times mixed with solo vocal portions and chorus, ending in a Passacaglia or
Chaconne. Originally these were to conclude large-scale operas based upon
French models, during the 17th century, but by the middle of the 18th they
could be independent works. Composers include Christoph Willibald von
Gluck, Niccolò Piccinni, and Joseph Martin Kraus (Soliman II, Quatre
intermèdes pour Amphitryon).

DIVERTISSEMENT CONCERTANT. This has nothing to do with the regu-


lar divertissement but rather appears to have been a sort of single-movement
concerto for keyboard or harp and orchestra in which there are three shorter
sections imitating the longer concerto format. Perhaps the only composer of
this is Nathaniel Gottfried Gruner, who published two works about 1770.

DOLES, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (23 APRIL 1715, STEINBACH-HAL-


LENBERG, THURINGIA, TO 8 FEBRUARY 1797, LEIPZIG). German
composer. In 1727 he entered the Thomasschule in Leipzig as a pupil of Johann
Sebastian Bach, and in 1739 he matriculated in law at Leipzig University,
where in March 1744 he performed a festival cantata in honor of the founding
of the Gewandshaus musical establishment the prior year. He initially obtained
a post as organist in Freiburg that same year, and in 1756 he succeeded Johann
Gottlob Harrer as cantor of St. Thomas and leader of the Thomasschule in
Leipzig. He retired in 1789. There he continued to create sacred music, col-
laborate with leading poets of the period on songs, and became acquainted with
the leading composers of the period. A 1790 cantata, Ich komme vor dein An-
gesicht, to words by Christian Fürchtegott Gellert (1715–1769), was dedicated
to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Johann Gottlieb Naumann. His most
important theoretical work is the Anfangsgründe zum Singen, which carried on
the vocal performance traditions he learned from Bach, elaborated with his own
notions of simplicity in sacred music. He was often criticized for his elaborate
and modern settings that fully conformed to late 18th-century standards of
large choral and orchestral forces, as well as elaborate and often virtuoso parts.
His surviving music includes 160 cantatas, 35 motets, three Passions, two Te
Deums, two Masses, and a German Magnificat; a Singspiel written in 1748 for
the Peace of Wesphalia has been lost. He also published around 40 songs, many
to texts by Gellert. Among his students is Franz Vollrath Buttstett.

DOMNICH, HEINRICH (13 MARCH 1767, WÜRZBURG, GERMANY,


TO 19 JUNE 1844, PARIS). Franco-German horn player and composer. The
son of the court horn player Friedrich Domnich (1728–1790), he and his two

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164 • DONBERGER, GEORG JOSEPH

brothers, Jacob (1758–1806) and Arnold (1771–1834), studied under their


father. His first position was in the orchestra of Count von Elz of Mainz, but
in 1783 he moved to Paris to study under Jan Václav Stich (Giovanni Punto).
In 1785 he made his debut at the Concerts spirituels, later being appointed as
second horn at the Opéra. During the French Revolution, Heinrich Domnich
was a member of the National Guard ensemble, and in 1795 he was appointed
as professor at the Conservatoire. His most important work is a treatise titled
Méthode de premier et de second cor published in 1807, which outlines how
the 18th-century natural horn was to be taught and used. His own works in-
clude three horn concertos (and a sinfonia concertante for two horns) and 27
romances for voice and pianoforte.

DONBERGER, GEORG JOSEPH (3 MARCH 1707, BRUCK AN


DER LEITHA, LOWER AUSTRIA, TO 2 APRIL 1768, HERZOGEN-
BURG PRIORY, LOWER AUSTRIA). Austrian monastic composer.
Following training at the local Jesuit schools, Donberger was sent to Vi-
enna to study under Antonio Caldara. In 1733 he was ordained and entered
the priory at Herzogenburg, where he remained his entire life. He was a
prolific composer of sacred music whose music was widespread through-
out the various Catholic monasteries and churches of Austria. While he
demonstrates some contrapuntal mastery, the fruit of his studies in Vi-
enna, much of his later music reflects the homophonic style of mainstream
sacred music of the period. His works include 92 Masses, 17 Requiems,
12 offertories, 10 Te Deums, and over 200 smaller sacred works such as
motets, Psalms, and vespers.

DOOLITTLE, ELIAKIM (29 AUGUST 1772, CHESHIRE, CONNECT-


ICUT, UNITED STATES, TO APRIL 1850, ARGYLE, NEW YORK).
American psalmodist. After attending Yale University he appeared in Hamp-
ton, New York, as a teacher. In 1806 he published The Psalm Singer’s Com-
panion, which contained a number of his 45 works.

DORSCH, JOSEPH (ca. 1740, PROBABLY MUNICH, TO AFTER


1775, MUNICH). German composer and probably violinist. Nothing is
known about him, save that he is not to be confused with noted German
theologian Anton Joseph Dorsch (1758–1819). He was apparently an instru-
mentalist in Munich, although he does not appear as a member of the court
orchestra. His sole surviving works—six trios, a violin sonata, a symphony,
and a wind serenade—show him to have been a talented and descriptive
composer.

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DRAGONETTI, DOMENICO CARLO MARIA • 165

DOSSENBACH, PATER MICHAEL [JOHANN] (14 DECEMBER


1764, BAAR, SWITZERLAND, TO 4 JUNE 1833, EINSIEDELN,
SWITZERLAND). Swiss monastic composer. The son of a state councilor,
he became a Bendictine novice at Einsiedeln in 1787. In 1794, the year he
was ordained, he was appointed as associate musical director at the monas-
tery. He fled to Bludenz in Austria in 1798 in advance of the French troops,
serving there and in Salzburg until 1801, when he returned to Switzerland.
A literate and talented man, he wrote a number of works reminiscent of the
style of Michael Haydn. His music, little studied, includes 10 Lieder and two
Marian antiphons.

DOW, DANIEL (1732, PROBABLY GLASGOW, SCOTLAND, TO


JANUARY 1783, GLASGOW). Scottish musician and composer. Nothing
is known about his early life or education. He first appears in 1765 as the
impresario of a series of concerts that featured his own students. He may
have been a guitar player, but over the next decade he arranged and promoted
concerts in the city that included his own dance tunes, particularly reels and
Strathspeys. In 1774 he published a collection of these arranged for violin and
basso, several of which were later appropriated by other Scottish composers
such as Nathaniel Gow.

DOYAGÜE, MANUEL JOSÉ (17 FEBRUARY 1755, SALAMANCA,


SPAIN, TO 18 DECEMBER 1842, SALAMANCA). Spanish organist and
composer. A student of Juan Martín Ramos, he became his teacher’s assis-
tant and replaced him as chorusmaster in 1781. In 1789 he was appointed to
the permanent post of professor of music at Salamanca University. Although
quite prolific as a composer of sacred music, his works have never been
studied or cataloged.

DRAGONETTI, DOMENICO CARLO MARIA (9 APRIL 1763, VEN-


ICE, TO 16 APRIL 1846, LONDON). Italian composer, guitarist, and
contrabassist. At the age of 12 he began his studies with Michele Berini,
eventually being employed as a contrabass player in the theatres in Venice.
Other posts at the St. Mark’s Cathedral and in the nearby town of Vincenza
kept him in Venice for 30 years. Although his fame as a performer and com-
poser spread, he turned down offers of touring and foreign employment until
1794, when he moved to London to perform at the King’s Theatre. Therafter
he toured Europe regularly as a soloist, being acquainted with figures such as
Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Leopold Koželuh. His main
contributions involved his own instrument and include a new type of bow, the

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166 • DRAMATIC POEM

idiomatic writing that separated the contrabass from the cello, and the devel-
opment of new techniques. His music includes six concertos for contrabass
(and several other works with orchestra), 12 waltzes for solo contrabass, 10
works with keyboard, a quintet, a quartet, and a duo. His most important
work is the method Complete System for the Double Bass published in Lon-
don in 1795.

DRAMATIC POEM. A type of musical work that developed in the late


18th century as the result of the Sturm und Drang literary movement and
consisting of the portrayal of a work of literature or a character, involving
conflict and emotions, with the plot developing through dialogue, action, and
incidental music. It may or may not be staged, but it consists of a number of
movements, both vocal and instrumental. An exemplar is Antonín Reicha’s
Leonore.

DRAMMA BERNESCO. See OPERA BUFFA.

DRAMMA EROICOMICO. See OPERA BUFFA.

DRAMMA GIOCOSA. An outgrowth of the opera buffa featuring ele-


ments of drama or tragedy interwoven with comedy, often in two or four
acts. Examples include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Don Giovanni and
Giuseppe Gazzaniga’s Il convivitato di pietra, both based upon the Don
Juan story.

DRAMMA PER MUSICA. See OPERA SERIA.

DRESSLER, ERNST CHRISTOPH (1734, GEUSSEN, GERMANY,


TO 6 APRIL 1779, KASSEL, GERMANY). German singer and com-
poser. Although he demonstrated talent in music at an early age, his train-
ing was at the universities in Jena and Halle in theology before moving to
Leipzig to study literature with Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. He then found
an occupation as quartermaster with a Hussar regiment before coming to
the notice of the Margrave of Hessen-Kassel, who appointed him court
secretary and supported his musical education. He served as a singer and
organist at Wetzlar beginning in 1771 and by 1774 was resident in Kassel.
His music is all but unknown; his claim to fame is that one of his marches
was the theme for a set of variations, the first published work of Ludwig
van Beethoven. His surviving music includes a symphony, six Lieder, and
several dances.

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DU PUY, [JEAN BAPTISTE] EDOUARD [LOUIS CAMILLE] • 167

DREXEL, JOHANN CHRYSTOSOMUS (24 JANUARY 1758, EPFEN-


HAUSEN, GERMANY, TO 9 FEBRUARY 1801, AUGSBURG, GER-
MANY). German composer and organist. The son of a farmer, he was sent
in 1761 to Augsburg to be educated by the Augustinians, later attending the
Jesuit College of Sankt Salvator. In 1786 he went to Salzburg to study under
Michael Haydn, becoming ordained in 1790, the same year as he was ap-
pointed musical director at the Augsburg cathedral. He became Kapellmeister
there in 1797. His musical style is similar to his teacher Haydn and consists
of around 30 Masses, as well as a litany, two vespers, and several smaller
motets.

DREYER, JOHANN MELCHIOR (24 JUNE 1747, RÖTTINGEN,


WÜRTTEMBERG, GERMANY, TO 22 MARCH 1824, ELLWANGEN,
GERMANY). German organist and composer. After study at the Jesuit Gym-
nasium in Ellwangen, Dreyer obtained his only position, the organist at the
monastery, which he retained for over 40 years. His music, little studied, is
characterized by a studied simplicity. Works include 24 sonatas for organ,
six Requiems, 24 vesper Psalms, six Tantum ergos, 26 Masses (six published
as “simple country Masses” as his Op. 2), six symphonies, three Marian an-
tiphons, and six Misereres.

DRUSCHETZKY, GEORG (7 APRIL 1745, JEMNÍKY, BOHEMIA


[NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 21 JUNE 1819, BUDAPEST). Bohe-
mian oboist and composer. After musical training in his hometown and Dres-
den under Carlo Besozzi, he joined the 50th Regiment of the grenadiers in
1762, performing in the regimental band in Dresden and Vienna. By 1783 he
had settled in Vienna, but three years later he joined the court of Count An-
ton Grassalkovich in Bratislava, and in 1794 Cardinal Battyány in Budapest.
He was a prolific composer of Harmoniemusik, with a talent for combining
wind sonorities. His works include nine Masses, three theatre pieces, two
motets, five graduals, seven offertories, three Te Deums, 27 symphonies, 12
concertos (including two for timpani), two fantasies, 47 string quartets, 16
other wind quartets, two quintets, seven songs, 32 miscellaneous chamber
works, and over 150 partitas or serenades for Harmoniemusik.

DU PUY, [JEAN BAPTISTE] EDOUARD [LOUIS CAMILLE] (ca.


1770, BAIGORY, BASSE NAVARRE, FRANCE, TO 3 APRIL 1822,
STOCKHOLM). French-Swedish violinist, tenor, and composer. Raised in
Geneva, Switzerland, by an uncle, he studied keyboard under Jan Ladislav
Dussek and violin under Carlo Chiabrano in Paris. Thanks to connections

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168 • DUFF, CHARLES

he was appointed to the court of Prince Heinrich of Prussia at Rheinsburg but


was forced to leave after he rode a horse into the middle of a church service
in 1792. He then wound up in Stockholm, where he was appointed as a vio-
linist in the Royal Opera orchestra. In 1799 his Jacobin sympathies forced
him to leave Stockholm, and he was offered a post at the Opera in Copenha-
gen. Caught in bed with a royal princess, he was forced to leave for Paris in
1809, but the appointment of Field Marshal Bernadotte as the crown prince
of Sweden in 1812 allowed him to return to Stockholm, where he spent the
remainder of his life. Du Puy was noted as a fine singer, excellent actor, and
versatile violinist in the French manner, but he also wrote prolifically for both
the stage and public concerts. His works include 24 operas (including Ung-
dom og dårskap), five official cantatas for state occasions, five concertos,
several symphonies, about 50 Lieder, and numerous other chamber works.

DUFF, CHARLES (ca. 1750, DUNDEE, SCOTLAND, TO ca. 1822,


DUNDEE). Scottish musician and composer. Information on his youth and
musical training is nonextant, but his brother Archibald Duff was a dancing
master at Montrose and Aberdeen, where he may also have been educated.
By 1792 he was a resident in Dundee, where he was the leader of the musical
society there, as well as publishing arrangements of tunes by John M’Donald,
a local dancing master, as well as his own reels. In 1798 he returned to
Montrose, where he performed on the violin, returning to Dundee sometime
before 1808. He continued making a living as a teacher, seller of instruments,
and arranger or composer of music until his death.

DULONGPRÉ, LOUIS (16 APRIL 1759, SAINT-DENIS, PARIS, TO 26


APRIL 1843, ST. HYACINTHE, QUÉBEC, CANADA). French Canadian
musician, painter, music teacher, performer, and stage manager. Nothing is
known about his early life in France, but it appears that he arrived in Albany,
New York, on a French troopship during the American Revolution. In 1785
he arrived in Montréal, where he advertised as a dancing master and music
teacher; he was reputed to have been an excellent performer on stringed
instruments and woodwinds. In 1789 he formed, along with Louis-Joseph
Quesnel, the Théâtre de Société, the first major public performance venue in
the city. In 1793, after the company dissolved, he went to Baltimore to study
painting, and upon his return to Canada in 1795 he did not resume his career
in music. It is not known if he composed musical works.

DUNI, ANTONIO (1700, MATERA, CALABRIA, ITALY, TO ca. 1770,


SCHWERIN, GERMANY). Italian composer. Like his younger brother,
Egidio Duni, he was trained by his father, later entering the Conservatorio

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DUODRAMA • 169

della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples. His first position was in Trier with the
cathedral, but he was appointed after only a year to the court of the Duke of
Ossuna in Madrid, where he became a friend of the castrato Carlo Broschi/
Farinelli. In 1755 he sought to expand his reputation by touring northern Eu-
rope. After a brief sojourn in Paris, he traveled to Schwerin, where he joined
a traveling Italian opera troupe as maestro di cappella. After performances
in Riga in 1766 he resigned in a disagreement with the troupe’s director and
returned to Schwerin as the music teacher of the Duchess of Mecklenburg.
He apparently remained there for the rest of his life. His music includes five
symphonies, five concert arias for Farinelli, six duets for two violins, six
motets, a Mass, a litany, a vesper setting, two zarzuelas, and at least one
intermezzo; other operas have not survived.

DUNI, EGIDIO ROMUALDO (11 FEBRUARY 1708, MATERA, CA-


LABRIA, ITALY, TO 11 JUNE 1775, PARIS). Franco-Italian composer.
Following early education by his father, Francesco Duni, he attended the
Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto in Naples, where his teachers in-
cluded Giovanni Pergolesi and Leonardo Vinci. In 1738 he had his first
success with an opera seria, Nerone, in Rome. Further commissions fol-
lowed, including Demofoonte for London, but in 1749 he settled in Parma
as the maestro di cappella. In 1755 confounded by the emerging popularity
of the opera buffa over the opera seria and the preference of the court for
French opera, he was turned exclusively to the latter, composing a series of
extremely popular works, such as Le peintre amoreux de sa modèle, which
became an international success (in addition he was said to have contributed
to the pasticcio Ninette à la cour, though evidence is lacking). Following this
he moved to Paris, where he established a reputation as one of the leading
comic opera composers. His successes include the popular La fée Urgèle
of 1765, which was first produced at Fontainebleau. His style is simple and
melodic, blending the Italian lyricism with French homophony. His works
include 37 operas (seria and comique), four oratorios, Masses, a Te Deum,
a litany, six trio sonatas, and a set of minuets. See also DUNI, ANTONIO.

DUNI, JEAN-PIERRE (27 SEPTEMBER 1759, PARIS, TO ca. 1810,


PARIS). French violinist and composer. Son of Egidio Duni, he was prob-
ably trained by his father and joined the Opéra orchestra around 1779. The
remainder of his life is unknown, although he appears to have survived the
Revolution and continued into Napoleonic times. His sole surviving composi-
tions are a set of six violin sonatas published in 1781.

DUODRAMA. See MELODRAMA.

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170 • DUPHLY, JACQUES

DUPHLY, JACQUES (12 JANUARY 1715, ROUEN, FRANCE, TO 15


JULY 1789, PARIS). French keyboardist. Trained at the cathedral at Évreux
by François d’Agincourt, he obtained his first position at the cathedral at St.
Eloi at the age of 19. In 1740 he added a second position at the church of
Nôtre Dame de la Ronde, which he attempted to maintain with the help of
his sister, Marie-Anne-Agathe, who substituted for him. In 1742 he decided
to give up his position and performing on the organ, according to Friedrich
Wilhelm Marpurg, and concentrate on playing the harpsichord. He soon
attained a reputation as one of the premier teachers in Paris, publishing be-
tween 1744 and 1768 four books of music for the instrument. He apparently
all but ceased to compose music after the last was published, living out the
remainder of his life in complete obscurity, even though Jean-Jacques Rous-
seau had asked him to contribute articles on the harpsichord for his diction-
ary. Only about 52 keyboard works, all published in the collections, survive.
These show him to have been indebted to Jean-Philippe Rameau, although
the last collections contain some rather interesting and unique twists on the
use of Alberti bass.

DUPORT, JEAN-PIERRE (27 NOVEMBER 1741, PARIS, TO 31 DE-


CEMBER 1818, BERLIN). French cellist and composer. A student of Mar-
tin Berteau, he made his debut at the Concerts spirituels in Paris in 1761.
Shortly thereafter he joined the orchestra of the Prince de Conti and began to
tour. By 1773 he had been hired by Frederick II as the teacher of the crown
prince of Prussia, as well as being first cellist in the court orchestra. He re-
tained this position until pensioned in 1811. Duport was best known for his
adroit performance technique, particularly his use of the thumb position. His
compositions reflect the standard style of the late 18th century and include
four concertos (three for violin, one for cello), a sinfonia concertante (in
collaboration with Pierre Vachon), 37 sonatas, five duos, and a number of
airs variés. See also JARNOVIĆ, IVAN.

DURÁN, JOSEP (ca. 1730, BARCELONA, TO ca. 1791, BARCE-


LONA). Catalan composer and organist. His early studies were at one of
the conservatories in Naples, where he became immersed in the Neapolitan
style. In 1755 he served as court composer to the Marquéz de los Vélez,
but shortly thereafter he became maestro di capila at the Barcelona ca-
thedral. He is responsible for Antigone, one of the first Spanish language
operas to demonstrate the modern Neapolitan style. His works include two
operas and a large number of sacred works, although he has never been
studied in depth.

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DUŠEK, FRANTIŠEK XAVER • 171

DURANTE, FRANCESCO (31 MARCH 1684, FRATTAMAGGIORE,


NEAR NAPLES, ITALY, TO 13 AUGUST 1755, NAPLES). Italian com-
poser and pedagogue. He began his studies in Naples at the Conservatorio dei
Poveri di Gesù Cristo, continuing at the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio a Porta
Capuana under Alessandro Scarlatti. He succeeded Scarlatti there in 1725, and
in 1742 he became the successor to Nicola Porpora at the Conservatorio di
Santa Maria di Loreto. Although active as a composer, he was mostly known
as a thorough and much-beloved teacher, whose pupils such as Giovanni
Pergolesi, Niccolò Jommelli, and Giovanni Paisiello achieved considerable
fame. Although the bulk of his music is in the Baroque style, some of his later
works from about 1730 on reflect the more lyrical and diatonic style of emerg-
ing Classicism. These include sacred works for a cappella chorus, as well as
seven orchestral quartets (titled concertos), an oratorio (San Antonio di Pa-
dova from 1754), and 22 Masses that blend the older contrapuntal style with
the newer galant textures and structures. See also ANFOSSI, PASQUALE;
ARENA, GIUSEPPE; AVOSSA, GIUSEPPE; BONNO, GIUSEPPE BAT-
TISTA; CIAMPI, VINCENZO LEGRENZO; FENAROLI, FEDELE; FIO-
RILLO, IGNAZIO; GEREMIA, GIUSEPPE; INSANGUINE, GIACOMO
ANTONIO FRANCESCO PAOLO MICHELE; LANG, JOHANN GEORG;
SACCHINI, ANTONIO; TERRADELLAS, DOMINGO MIGUEL BERN-
ABE; ZERAFA, BENIGNO.

DURAZZO, COUNT GIACOMO (27 APRIL 1717, GENOA, ITALY,


TO 15 OCTOBER 1794, PADUA). Italian nobleman and impresario. From
a prominent family, Durazzo received his patent of nobility in 1744 and
thereafter was sent throughout Europe on diplomatic missions. In 1749 he
was posted to the Hapsburg court in Vienna, where he soon obtained royal
patronage and became the director of the French Theatre by 1752. Though
he also functioned as director of the Imperial Theatre, in which capacity he
gathered both Raniero Calzabigi and Christoph Willibald von Gluck into
a circle with the intent of reforming serious opera. In 1761 he left Vienna
due to theatrical disputes, being posted to Venice as ambassador. Durazzo
was an important catalyst in the development of 18th-century opera. See also
KELLY, MICHAEL WILLIAM.

DUŠEK, FRANTIŠEK XAVER (bap. 8 DECEMBER 1731,


CHOTĚBORKY, NEAR JAROMÉŘ, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH RE-
PUBLIC], TO 12 FEBRUARY 1799, PRAGUE). Bohemian composer and
keyboardist. Following early training at the Jesuit Gymnasium at Hradec
Králové under the patronage of Count Johann Carl Sporck, he was sent to

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172 • DUŠEK, JOSEFA [HAMBACHER]

Prague to study under Franz Habermann and subsequently Vienna under


Georg Christoph Wagenseil. In 1770 he returned to Prague where he was
associated with the musical establishments of Counts Pachta and Clam-
Gallas, in addition to making a living teaching and composing. His music
is known for its elaborate structures and short development sections. His
works include 37 symphonies, five serenades, nine concertos (almost all for
fortepiano), four sinfonia concertantes, 37 parthies, 21 trios, 14 keyboard
sonatas for four hands, eight keyboard sonatas, and five songs. Other works,
particularly those for the voice and church, have issues of attribution. He was
married to mezzo-soprano Josefa Dušek. See also MAŠEK, VINCENZ.

DUŠEK, JOSEFA [HAMBACHER] (bap. 6 MARCH 1754, PRAGUE,


TO 8 JANUARY 1824, PRAGUE). Austro-Bohemian singer. Trained by
her husband, František Dušek, she began an extraordinarily successful ca-
reer as a concert singer. Her association with the Mozart family came early
due to close relatives in Salzburg and a family visit in 1766. By 1786 she
was one of the foremost mezzo-sopranos in Europe, touring frequently and
appearing in roles at the Bohemian National Theatre. She was known for her
exceptional musicianship and flexible range.

DUSSEK, JAN LADISLAV [DUŠÍK, VÁCLAV JAN] (12 FEBRU-


ARY 1760, ČÁSLAV, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO
20 MARCH 1812, ST. GERMAIN-EN-LAYE, FRANCE). Bohemian
keyboardist and composer. He received his earliest musical training from
the Jesuit gymnasiums at Jihlava and Kutná hora, and while at the last he
performed as organist at the St. Barbara Church. Taken into the service of a
Captain Männer, Dussek toured Austria’s Belgian provinces, functioning as
organist in Mechelen for a brief span. Thereafter he embarked on a series of
tours, stopping in 1782 in Hamburg, where he may have studied with Carl
Philipp Emanuel Bach. In 1786 he settled in Paris, where he became a fa-
vorite performer of Marie Antoinette. In 1789, however, he suddenly moved
to London, which he made his home for a decade. Upon his return to Paris,
he found a patron in Talleyrand, despite his former royalist connections. He
was known for his handsome features but was considered vain and arrogant.
Notable as one of the best pianists of the period, most of his music reflects
his idiomatic preference. These include several tutors for the instrument.
Works include 34 sonatas for the fortepiano, 15 concertos, 38 violin sonatas,
six harp sonatas (possibly a legacy of an alleged affair with Anne-Marie
Krumpholtz), six canzonetts, three string quartets, a Mass, and three harp
concertos. His music bears Craw numbers. See also DU PUY, EDOUARD;
DUSSEK, KATEŘINA VERONIKA ANNA; MONTGEROULT, HÉLÈNE.

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DUVERNOY, FRÉDÉRIC • 173

DUSSEK [DUSÍKOVA], KATEŘINA VERONIKA ANNA (8 MARCH


1769, ČÁSLAV, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 1833,
LONDON). Bohemian harp player and composer. The daughter of Jan
Ladislav Dussek, she was trained by her father. In 1795 she moved to Lon-
don, where she became a favored performer in salon society. She married a
music publisher, Francesco Cianchettini. Her music is mostly written for her
instrument and includes two concertos, three sonatas, a number of romances,
and several smaller chamber works.

DUTILLIEU, PIERRE (15 MAY 1754, LYONS, FRANCE, TO 28 JUNE


1798, VIENNA). French composer. Following studies in Naples, he worked
as a composer for the Teatro al Fondo there until 1791, when he was offered
an appointment at the Burgtheater in Vienna. His works include five opera
buffas, five ballets, a concerto for violin, six duets for violins, and various
other chamber works. His style is reminiscent of Domenico Cimarosa.

DUVAL [or DUVALL], MADEMOISELLE (ca. 1718, TO AFTER


1778). French composer, singer, and musician. Nothing is known about her
life or education; indeed, no source reveals even her first name. She did,
however, have a successful debut as a composer in 1736 at the age of 18 with
her ballet héroïque Les Génies, ou Les caractères de l’Amour, which she
apparently accompanied at its premiere on the harpsichord. Thereafter she
appeared regularly in smaller roles at the Opéra, apparently being pensioned
around 1770 or so. A review of her opera called it “worthy of Rameau,”
indicating that she may have been seen as a prodigy. The last mention of her
is in 1775 when she is listed as a dancer at the Opéra.

DUVERNOY, FRÉDÉRIC (16 OCTOBER 1765, MONTBÉLARD,


FRANCE, TO 19 JULY 1838, PARIS). French horn player and composer.
Largely self-taught, he first appeared in Paris at the Comédie-Italienne in
1788, the same year as he debuted at the Concerts spirituels. In 1790 he
was second horn at the Opéra-Comique and subsequently performed with
the National Guard ensemble during the French Revolution. By 1801 he
had achieved fame as the best low horn player in Paris, serving the Imperial
Chapel under Napoleon. Although as a composer he wrote several concertos,
trios, duos, and sonatas for his instrument, his fame rests upon a treatise,
Méthode pour le cor, from 1802.

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E
EBERL, ANTON (13 JUNE 1765, VIENNA, TO 11 MARCH 1807,
VIENNA). German composer and keyboardist. Early composition and key-
board lessons were taken with Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Although Eberl
intended to study law at the University of Vienna, family bankruptcy in 1785
forced him to teach piano. In 1795 he accompanied both Mozart’s widow
and sister-in-law Aloysia Lange on a concert tour to Germany, from which
he accepted a post at St. Petersburg the following year. He returned to Vienna
in 1803 at the height of his popularity as a composer of Singspiels but died
of blood poisoning shortly thereafter. His music reflects the late Viennese
style of his teacher and other composers such as Antonio Salieri, being well
crafted and tuneful. Works include eight Singspiels, two cantatas, a chamber
serenata, five symphonies, four fortepiano concertos, a sextet, two quintets,
five quartets, nine trios, seven violin sonatas, two duos, nine keyboard so-
natas, and numerous smaller pieces for the fortepiano.

EBERLE, PATER CASPER (1741, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 1811,


OTTOBEUREN, BAVARIA). German monastic composer. Nothing is
known of his life, save that he was educated at the monastic school at Ot-
tobeuren, entering the Benedictine monastery as a teacher around 1767. His
surviving music includes four settings of the Pange lingua and a Requiem.

EBERLIN, JOHANN ERNST (27 MARCH 1702, JETTINGEN, BA-


VARIA, GERMANY, TO 19 JUNE 1762, SALZBURG). German com-
poser and organist. Eberlin received his earliest musical education at the
Jesuit Gymnasium in Augsburg in 1712, where he was a pupil of Georg Egger
and Balthasar Siberer. He moved to Salzburg in 1721 to attend university, and
in 1727 he was named organist in the main cathedral. By 1749 he had attained
the position of Kapellmeister for Archbishop Schrattenbach, which he held
until his death. In 1754 he was also appointed as a steward of the principal-
ity of Salzburg. Eberlin was known mainly for his sacred music, which was
written for both the main cathedral, the Benedictine-run university, and the
St. Peter’s monastery church. These include over 95 plays and other didactic

175

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176 • EBERLIN, MARIA CAECILIA

music such as the monodrama Sigismundus (1763); 11 oratorios; three op-


eras (set to texts by Pietro Metastasio and probably performed in concert
versions); 58 Masses; 160 settings of the Mass Proper; numerous hymns,
litanies, Psalms, and responsories; 21 German sacred arias; nine Requiems;
as well as three symphonies, nine toccata and fugues, 65 preludes and ver-
setti, and other smaller keyboard works. In addition, he also wrote a composi-
tion treatise titled Fundimena partiturae (1766). Both Leopold Mozart and
Michael Haydn were influenced by Eberlin’s music, in particular his good
grasp of the contrapuntal style. The bulk of his theatre music, however, con-
forms more to the prevailing homophonic Italian style, as do his symphonies,
showing that he adapted to the changing musical tastes of the time. See also
ADLGASSER, ANTON CAJETAN.

EBERLIN, MARIA CAECILIA (17 NOVEMBER 1728, SALZBURG,


AUSTRIA, TO 14 DECEMBER 1766, SALZBURG). Austrian composer
and keyboardist. The daughter of Johann Ernst Eberlin, she received musi-
cal training from her father. In 1751 she married bass singer Joseph Meissner
and belonged to the family circle of Leopold Mozart. Most of her works, in
the style of her father, date from the period between 1750 and her death. Her
use of orchestra demonstrates a considerable ability as a composer, although
her works have not been studied thoroughly. Surviving music includes seven
songs with orchestra, as well as several choral works.

EBERS, CARL FRIEDRICH (25 MARCH 1770, KASSEL, GERMANY,


TO 9 SEPTEMBER 1836, BERLIN). German composer and conductor.
The son of a teacher, he was probably trained by musicians at the local court.
In 1793 he became the musical director of an itinerant troupe that performed
throughout northern Germany, often staying in cities and courts such as
Schwerin, Neustrelitz, and Magdeburg for several years at a time. In 1822 he
retired to Berlin, where he occasionally directed plays and conducted smaller
ensembles. His musical activities have been little studied, so little can be
determined about his musical style, save that in many ways it follows the
North German Singspiel with memorable tunes but with an often dramatic
orchestration. His works include four operas, two concertos, and a sinfonia
concertante, as well as a number of symphonies, cantatas, Lieder, and
smaller chamber works.

ECHEVERRÍA ARAVA, AUGUSTÍN DE (ca. 1730, PROBABLY


ARÁNZAZU, SPAIN, TO 11 JUNE 1792, ARÁNZAZU). Spanish-Basque
monastic composer and organist. As a child he studied with the Franciscan
monks at Aránzazu monastery, entering the priesthood after he finished his

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ECKHARD, JACOB • 177

education. There he taught at the monastic school, sang tenor in the choir,
and performed on the viola in the orchestra. His first works appear in 1756,
at which time he had already taken Holy Orders. His works have been little
studied but include seven Lamentations, two keyboard sonatas, and two vil-
lancicos in the Basque language.

ECK, FRIEDRICH JOHANN (17 MAY 1767, SCHWETZINGEN, GER-


MANY, TO 22 FEBRUARY 1838, PROBABLY NANCY, FRANCE).
German violinist and composer. Following violin lessons with a local court
violinist, he was appointed as a supernumerary member of the Mannheim
orchestra in 1778, later becoming a full member when the court moved to
Munich. There he studied composition with Peter von Winter, later serv-
ing as director of the chamber theatre at court. In 1798 he briefly succeeded
Christian Cannabich as director of instrumental music, but was dismissed
two years later. At that time, he eloped with a countess and settled in France,
where he appears to have given up his career. His music was composed
mainly for his own performance, where his playing was noted for its pure
tone. His works include five violin concertos and two sinfonia concertantes.

ECKARD, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (21 JANUARY 1735, AUGSBURG,


TO 24 JULY 1809, PARIS). German painter, keyboardist, and composer.
The son of a coppersmith, he was trained as an artist, although he conceived
such an interest in the fortepiano that he taught himself to play using Carl
Philipp Emanuel Bach’s Versuch. In 1758 his friend and mentor, keyboard
builder Andreas Stein, persuaded Eckard to accompany him to Paris, where
he took up residence painting miniature portraits. Within a short time, he had
become a staple of the Parisian concert scene, championing the fortepiano
through his own performances and compositions, such as the six sonatas
published as Op. 1 in 1763. Charles Burney noted specifically that he was
a “man of genius and a great master of his instrument,” substantiating local
comments. His style of music evokes that of his model, Bach, and he appears
to have composed exclusively for the fortepiano. Surviving works are eight
sonatas and a set of variations, but he was also known to have composed
fortepiano concertos and fugues.

ECKHARD, JACOB (24 NOVEMBER 1757, ESCHWEGE, GER-


MANY, TO 10 NOVEMBER 1833, CHARLESTON, SOUTH CARO-
LINA, UNITED STATES). German-American composer and organist.
After initial posts as an organist, he joined the Hessian army, arriving in the
United States in 1776. After the Revolutionary War he settled in Richmond,
Virginia, but in 1786 he moved to Charleston, South Carolina, where he

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178 • EDELMANN, JEAN-FRÉDÉRIC [JOHANN FRIEDRICH]

became an important member of the Lutheran congregation there. He com-


posed both anthems and patriotic songs, but his main focus was on hymns,
published in 1794 as the Choralbuch.

EDELMANN, JEAN-FRÉDÉRIC [JOHANN FRIEDRICH] (5 MAY


1749, STRASBOURG, TO 17 JULY 1794, PARIS). French-Alsatian com-
poser, teacher, and government bureaucrat. Edelmann was educated at the
University of Strasbourg in law and music, when in 1774 he moved to Paris
to become a teacher and music arranger. Among his publications were arias
from operas by Christoph Willibald von Gluck, who became a close friend,
and others for voice and keyboard. In 1781 his pastoral opera La bergère des
Alpes was performed with considerable success at the Tuilleries, followed
the next year by a classical work, Arian dans l’isle de Naxos at the Opéra.
In 1789 he joined the French Revolution and was given the post of governor
of the Lower Rhine (Alsace), whereupon he returned to Strasbourg. In 1792
he was celebrated for his revolutionary cantata Chant pour l’Armée du Rhin
in which the tune “La Marseillaise” appeared for the first time. In 1794,
however, he was arrested and sent for trial in Besançon. Acquitted initially,
he was sent to Paris, where another court found him guilty and had him guil-
lotined. Although he wrote a number of songs, as well as three operas and an
oratorio (Esther, 1781, now lost), and though he provided vocal cantatas on
revolutionary subjects, such as the work above and the 1790 Hymn pour la
Fête de la Fédéracion, the bulk of his compositions are instrumental. These
include 30 keyboard sonatas; five concertos for the fortepiano; 12 keyboard
quartets; six trios for flute, violin, and keyboard; and a one-act ballet titled
Feu [Fire]. His music has been cataloged by Benton and uses B numbers. See
also LEMOYNE, GABRIEL.

EDSON, LEWIS, JR. (23 JANUARY 1771, BRIDGEWATER, MASSA-


CHUSETTS, UNITED STATES, TO 23 MAY 1845, MINK HOLLOW,
NEW YORK). American psalmodist. Taught by his father, Lewis Edson
Sr., he was employed as a post rider in 1795 in Cooperstown, New York. In
1801 he had moved to New York City as a music teacher, and in 1815 he was
listed as a manufacturer of nails. He left 20 works, most of which reflect the
simple style of his father.

EDSON, LEWIS, SR. (22 JANUARY 1748, BRIDGEWATER, MAS-


SACHUSETTS, UNITED STATES, TO 1820, MINK HOLLOW, NEW
YORK). American psalmodist. In 1761 he enlisted in the British army, fight-
ing in the French and Indian War. A blacksmith by trade, he sympathized
with the British, which forced him and his family to move to Lanesboro in

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EICHNER, ERNST • 179

1773 and by 1781 on to Cooperstown, New York, where he farmed. Three of


his contrapuntal tunes were often reprinted, and a majority of the 23 others
were printed in 1800 in The Social Harmonist. See also EDSON, LEWIS, JR.

EEDEN, GILLES VAN DEN (ca. 1708, LIÈGE, BELGIUM, TO 17


JUNE 1782, BONN, GERMANY). Flemish organist. His life has been little
studied and therefore little information is known about him, other than he
taught Ludwig van Beethoven thorough bass and organ in his old age and
was replaced in 1781 as court organist by Christian Gottlob Neefe due to ill
health. He appears to have been hired at Bonn around 1727, and there are in-
timations that he was a composer of vocal and organ music, though no works
have apparently survived.

EGUIGUREN Y EZCAREGUI, FERNANDO DE (17 MARCH 1743, EI-


BAR [NOW GIPUZKOA], SPAIN, TO ca. 1800, ARÁNZAZU, SPAIN).
Spanish-Basque monastic composer. Very little is known about his life, the
bulk of which was spent in contemplation in the Aránzazu monastery. He was
ordained in 1760 and probably performed in the monastic choir. His works
include three Masses, a Lamentation, and a substantial number of motets.

EICHNER, ADELHEID MARIA (1 SEPTEMBER 1762, ZWEI-


BRÜCKEN, GERMANY, TO 5 APRIL 1787, POTSDAM, GERMANY).
German singer and composer. The daughter of Ernst Eichner, she probably
received precocious training in musical composition from her father, as well
as voice lessons from a castrato in Mannheim. In 1773 she made her debut
while still a child at Potsdam, eventually becoming a principal singer in the
court opera company in 1782. Her voice was said to have had a range of over
three octaves, though she was often criticized for her stiff and unnatural act-
ing skills. She had a sensitive disposition, the result of a “severe emotional
disturbance” from which she passed away early. As a composer, she was said
to have written numerous works, although only a set of 12 Lieder mit Melo-
dien fürs Klavier survives.

EICHNER, ERNST (15 FEBRUARY 1740, BAD AROLSEN, GER-


MANY, TO 1777, POTSDAM, GERMANY). German bassoonist, violinist,
and composer. The son of a musician, Johann Andreas Eichner (1694–1768),
he studied under his father before becoming Kapellmeister at the court of
Duke Christian IV in Zweibrücken. After his symphonies were published in
Paris, he obtained a position as violinist with the Mannheim orchestra in
1768, winning a prestigious award in Paris in 1772 for his compositions after
tours there and in London. In 1773 he accepted a position in Potsdam with the

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180 • ELIAS, FREI MANUEL DOS SANTOS

musical ensemble of Crown Prince Friedrich (later Friedrich Wilhelm). He


was one of the most significant and progressive composers of the mid-century
German symphony, though he often chose to retain the three-movement
format. His music is known for its colorful and sensitive orchestration. His
music includes 30 symphonies, 18 concertos (mostly for winds), 14 quar-
tets, a quintet, two wind divertimentos, 12 trios for strings, seven sonatas,
six duos, and six keyboard sonatas. His daughter, Adelheid Eichner, was a
singer and composer with a precocious talent.

ELIAS, FREI MANUEL DOS SANTOS (ca. 1740, PORTUGAL, TO ca.


1780, LISBON). Portuguese clerical composer. Nothing is known about his
life or musical training, save that he was a member of the Carmelite monas-
tery in Lisbon around the middle of the 18th century. Only one work, a flute
concerto, has survived. It demonstrates knowledge of the Mannheim style.

ELSNER, JÓZEF ANTONI FRANCISZEK [JOSEF ANTON FRANZ]


(1 JUNE 1769, GRODKÓW, SILESIA [NOW POLAND], TO 18 APRIL
1854, WARSAW). Polish violinist, teacher, and composer. Born into a Ger-
man family, he was trained in Breslau [now Wrocław, Poland] at the Jesuit
Gymnasium as well as the University of Breslau, where he studied medicine
and theology. In 1789 he traveled to Vienna, where he turned toward a career
in music. In 1791 he obtained a post as violinist in Brno, and the following
year he became theatre composer in Lemburg (now L’vov, Ukraine), a post
he held for eight years. In 1799 he settled in Warsaw, where he became a
well-respected teacher whose pupils included Frédéric Chopin. As a com-
poser, much of his music reflects early 19th-century Romanticism, but he
did compose a number of pieces in the Classical style, including three Polish
operas (before 1804), eight symphonies, nine string quartets, three trios, 24
Latin and nine Polish Masses, and a large amount of sacred music.

EMPFINDSAMKEIT. A term also known as the “empfindsamer Stil” stem-


ming from northern Germany, which connotes an aesthetic whereby intimate,
sensitive expression is imbued into music to evoke emotion, especially mel-
ancholy. The term itself derives from a literary movement, at the head of
which were playwright Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and poet Friedrich Gottlob
Klopstock. The style was based upon Italian models but promoted by people
such as Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach as a way of “touching the heart and
move the affections.” Stylistically it incorporates fluid harmony; rhythmic,
thematic, and dynamic contrasts; and the use of contrast between themes or
shorter motives, often with repetition and sequence. Joseph Martin Kraus
describes the difference between Empfindsamkeit and Sturm und Drang as
that between emotions and passion.

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ENVALLSSON, CARL • 181

ENDERLE, JOHANN JOSEPH VON (ca. 1710, PROBABLY BA-


VARIA, TO 1748, NÜRNBERG, GERMANY). German musician. He first
appears in history in 1728 when he was admitted as a stadtpfeifer in the city
of Nürnberg, a post he retained his entire life. His proficiency on oboe, horn,
and bassoon inspired Kapellmeister Johan Agrell to write technically diffi-
cult pieces. He may also have been a composer of works for his instruments.
See also ENDERLE, WILHELM GOTTFRIED.

ENDERLE, WILHELM GOTTFRIED (21 MAY 1722, BAYREUTH,


GERMANY, TO 18 FEBRUARY 1790, DARMSTADT, GERMANY).
German composer and violinist. At the age of 14 he was taken to Nürnberg
to be educated, eventually winding up in Berlin, where he studied under com-
posers of the Berlin School. In 1748 he was appointed by the Archbishop of
Würzburg as a violinist, eventually moving to the court of Hesse-Darmstadt
in 1753 as concertmaster. His music includes eight symphonies, two violin
concertos, six violin duos, 18 flute trios (and one for three flutes), and a trio
sonata. He also wrote three celebratory cantatas for his patrons. His style
is mostly galant although the cantatas employ Baroque compositional tech-
niques. See also ENDERLE, JOHANN JOSEPH VON.

ENGEL, JOHANN JACOB (11 SEPTEMBER 1741, PARCHIM, PRUS-


SIA, GERMANY, TO 28 JUNE 1802, PARCHIM). German aesthetician
and librettist. Following early education at the Rostock Gymnasium, he
attended university at Bützow and Leipzig in law and theology. While at
the latter he became known as an author of Singspiel texts. In 1775 he was
appointed as professor of liberal arts at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Ber-
lin, where he became tutor to the crown prince and a member of the Berlin
School. He was a close friend of Johann Friedrich Reichardt and dedicated
his main aesthetical treatise Über die musikalische Malerey of 1780 to him.
His views on representational tone painting versus musical expression influ-
enced Ludwig van Beethoven.

ENGELMANN, JOHANN CHRISTOPH. See KAFFKA, JOHANN


CHRISTOPH.

ENVALLSSON, CARL (24 OCTOBER 1756, VAXHOLM, SWEDEN,


TO 14 JULY 1806, STOCKHOLM). Swedish librettist and lexicographer.
In 1776 he earned his degree from the University of Uppsala, which allowed
him to become appointed as a secretary in the War College. In 1781 he made
the acquaintance of composer-singer Carl Stenborg, with whom he formed
an often rocky friendship. He was to write 52 librettos for Stenborg’s Swedish
Comic Theatre between 1781 and 1799, many of which were translations or

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182 • EPILOGUE

adaptations in Swedish. In 1802 he published a dictionary of music in Swedish,


the Svenskt Musikaliskt Lexikon, which included some of the first descriptions
of non-Western musics. For this he was appointed a member of the Royal
Swedish Academy of Music. He apparently also wrote music for several songs.

EPILOGUE. A short musical work generally in one act that follows the
production of a larger stage piece, such as an opera or play. The subject mat-
ter is varied, ranging from a commentary on the opera or play itself to comic
relief in the form of a satire or farce, and not infrequently a special panegyric
for a patron or honoree. An example is the Epilogue to Lodoïska by Johann
Christian Friedrich Haeffner, composed in 1794. Such pieces were com-
mon in theatres on the periphery, such as in the new United States, Sweden,
or Russia. This type of work was also known as an afterpiece.

ERNST, FRANZ ANTON [FRANTIŠEK ANTONÍN] (3 DECEMBER


1745, SANKT GEORGENTHAL, BOHEMIA [NOW JIŘETÍN POU
JEDLOVOU, CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 13 JANUARY 1805, GOTHA,
GERMANY). German-Bohemian composer and violinist. A student of
Antonio Lolli, he was appointed in 1778 as the successor of Georg Anton
Benda at the theatre in Gotha. Well known for his brilliant style of playing,
he was also a composer of Singspiels. Little work on him has been done,
however, and his only surviving compositions appear to be a violin concerto
and an organ prelude.

ERRICHELLI, PASQUALE (ca. 1730, NAPLES, TO ca. 1780, SUL-


MONA, ABRUZZI, ITALY). Italian composer and organist. Presumably of
Neapolitan birth, he first appears as a student at the Conservatorio della Pietà
dei Turchini, from which he was appointed as an organist at the Capella del
Tesoro di San Gennero in 1747, eventually being promoted to first organist
there in 1763. In 1753 the premiere of his opera La serva astute in Naples es-
tablished him as a resident composer, and the following year his Issipile was
critically acclaimed as a worthy model of the style of Johann Adolph Hasse.
Despite further successes, however, in 1775 he became maestro di cappella
at the small town of Sulmona in the Abruzzi, where he vanishes from history.
His music includes seven operas, an oratorio, a Mass, a symphony, two trio
sonatas, and around 10 arias or secular cantatas, all in the Neapolitan style.

ERSKINE, THOMAS ALEXANDER, 6th EARL OF KELLIE (1 SEP-


TEMBER 1732, KELLIE CASTLE, FIFE, SCOTLAND, TO 9 OCTO-
BER 1781, BRUSSELS). Scottish composer and violinist. Born into a noble
family of lesser means, he began his studies in Edinburgh with William Mc-

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ESPONA, PADRE MANUEL • 183

Gibbon (1696–1756), a composer and violinist who taught him the Baroque
style. As a member of the Edinburgh Musical Society (under the name Lord
Pittenween), he performed frequently with Francesco Barsanti, whose mu-
sic he studied. In 1752 he traveled to Mannheim, where he became a pupil
of Johann Stamitz and an auxiliary member of the Mannheim orchestra
under the name Fiddler Tam. Returning to London in 1763, he championed
the Mannheim style among English composers, even as he rose high in Free-
mason societies, eventually becoming a grand master. Erskine moved back to
Edinburgh in 1767, where he led a sybaritic lifestyle. He died on his way to
Spa in Belgium, where he intended to take the cure for alcoholism. Erskine’s
music was popular throughout the British realms during the last half of the
18th century, primarily for its use of Mannheim devices and clever orchestra-
tion. His works include 23 minuets, 11 symphonies or overtures, nine trio
sonatas, nine string quartets, several violin duets, a concert aria, a lost ser-
enata, and several pieces of wind music.

ESCHENBURG, JOHANN JOACHIM (7 DECEMBER 1743, HAM-


BURG, TO 27 FEBRUARY 1820, BRAUNSCHWEIG, GERMANY).
German literary figure and amateur composer. A professor at the Carolineum
in Braunschweig, Eschenburg was well known for his compilations of Ger-
man literature, as well as some 14 translations and discussions on music,
including a translation of Charles Burney. He also organized concerts in
Braunschweig and translated French opéra comique for the German stage,
including works by André Ernest Modeste Grétry. His own musical efforts
were small and amateurish, but include 19 Lieder and a motet.

ESCHSTRUTH, HANS ADOLPH FREIHERR VON (28 JANUARY


1756, HOMBERG, NEAR KASSEL, GERMANY, TO 30 APRIL 1792,
KASSEL). German state bureaucrat and composer. Trained under Johann
Vierling in Schmalkalden as a youth, he moved to study law at Rinkeln and
Göttingen, before becoming an administrator in Marburg, where he studied
under Bernhard Hupfeld. He returned to Kassel, where he became a state
administrator and highly regarded salon composer. His music has been little
studied but consists of 12 pieces for Harmoniemusik, 12 keyboard sonatas,
and around 50 Lieder.

ESPONA, PADRE MANUEL (1714, SANT FELIU DE TORELLÓ,


CATALONIA, TO 9 JANUARY 1779, MONTSERRAT, CATALONIA).
Catalan monastic composer and organist. He began attending the Escolania
de Montserrat in 1724 studying music under Vincenç Presiac, and in 1733 he
was ordained and formally entered the Benedictine order at Montserrat. He

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184 • ESTEVES, JOÃO RODRIGUES

remained there his entire life, functioning as the schoolmaster of the Escola-
nia. His music includes four Magnificats and three responsories.

ESTEVES, JOÃO RODRIGUES (ca. 1699, TO 1 NOVEMBER 1755,


LISBON). Portuguese composer of sacred music. Considered one of the
major figures in the early part of the 18th century in Portugal, Esteves was
sent to study in Rome with Giovanni Pitoni in 1719, returning to his home-
land seven years later. In 1729 he was appointed as the musical director at
the Basilica de Santa Maria in Lisbon, as well as continuo instructor at the
Seminário da Patriarcal. It is almost certain that he died during the 1755
earthquake in Lisbon. His surviving music (91 works) includes an eight-voice
Mass, as well as 22 Psalms, eight responsories, two Te Deums, a Miserere
from 1737, and a Magnificat. His musical style adheres closely to the stile
antico, but his later motets demonstrate a good homophonic harmony that
corresponds to the emerging Classical style.

EXIMENO Y PUJADES, ANTONIO (26 SEPTEMBER 1729, VALEN-


CIA, SPAIN, TO 9 JUNE 1808, ROME). Spanish mathematician and music
theorist. After being educated in quadrivial studies at seminary schools he
joined the Jesuit order in 1745, teaching at the Seminario de Nobles de San
Ignacio in Valencia. In 1763 he taught mathematics in Segovia, but in 1767
he left Spain for Rome when the Jesuits were expelled from the country.
There he settled as a secular priest, studying music with Padre Felice Masi.
In 1772 he published his most significant treatise, Dell’origine e delle regole
della musica, which claimed that music ought to be derived from the melody
of spoken language and not mathematics. A controversy over this view led
him to give up writing about music theory, although in 1798 he wrote a de-
scription of Spanish music when he returned briefly to Spain.

EYBLER, JOSEPH LEOPOLD EDLER VON (8 FEBRUARY 1765,


SCHWECHAT, NEAR VIENNA, AUSTRIA, TO 24 JULY 1846, VI-
ENNA). Austrian composer. After early musical studies with his father,
he enrolled at St. Stephen’s in Vienna where he studied composition with
Johann Georg Albrechtsberger. In 1792 he became choir director at the
Carmelite Church, and two years later obtained a position at the Schottenk-
loster. In 1824 he was appointed as court Kapellmeister, retaining that posi-
tion until disabled by a stroke in 1833. As a relative of Joseph Haydn and
close friend of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven, he
was a prominent figure in musical circles during the last part of the 18th and
first quarter of the 19th century. His music is characterized by bold harmonies
and a sense of drama expressed in orchestral color. His works include two

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EYBLER, JOSEPH LEOPOLD EDLER VON • 185

operas, 33 Masses (and three Mass movements), 37 graduals, 34 offertories,


four antiphons, four oratorios, seven Te Deums, 11 hymns, five other sacred
works, 16 Lieder and numerous choral pieces and canons, three symphonies,
six sinfonia concertantes, a clarinet concerto, a divertimento, over 100
dances, a sextet, four quintets, nine quartets, and six sonatas. His music is
known by HV or Hermann numbers.

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12_019_Van_Boer.indb 186 3/13/12 2:27 PM
F
FABRIZI, VINCENZO (1764, NAPLES, TO ca. 1812, ROME). Italian
composer. A student of Giacomo Tritto, he made his debut as an opera
composer at the Carnival in Naples with I tre gobbi rivali in 1783. In 1786 he
became maestro di cappella at the University of Rome, later adding the posi-
tion of director of the Teatro Capranica. During this period he traveled widely
throughout Italy fulfilling commissions, achieving a reputation as an imitator
of Domenico Cimarosa. His works include 15 operas (mostly buffa). His
music has been little studied.

FAGO, LORENZO (13 AUGUST 1704, NAPLES, TO 30 APRIL 1793,


NAPLES). Italian composer and organist. Son of organist Nicola Fago
(1677–1745), he received his early education from his father before entering
the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini. In 1731 he became second organ-
ist at the Naples cathedral; the same year he also became a teacher at the same
conservatory. In 1744 he was promoted to primo maestro, a position he held
the remainder of his life. Little of his music has survived. These include an
oratorio, two arias, a Lesson, a Mass, and four motets, all of which reflect a
conservative, strict style. His son, Pasquale Fago, also became a composer.
See also SCIROLI, GREGORIO; TARCHI, ANGELO.

FAGO, PASQUALE (1740, NAPLES, TO 11 NOVEMBER 1794, MON-


TECORVINO, ITALY). Italian composer and politician, also nicknamed “Il
Tarantino.” The son of Lorenzo Fago, he was educated at the Conservatorio
della Pietà dei Turchini. In 1762 he was appointed organist at the Naples ca-
thedral, succeeding his father in 1766 when his father stepped aside to devote
his time to his post at the conservatory. In 1771 he abandoned music to become
a state bureaucrat with the Kingdom of Naples and the Two Sicilies, holding
advancing posts until 1788, when he became governor of Montecorvino. His
music, little studied, includes three operas, a cantata, an aria, and a duet.

FAJER, FRANCISCO JAVIER GARCÍA (2 DECEMBER 1730, NAL-


DA, LOGROÑO, SPAIN, TO 9 APRIL 1809, ZARAGOZA, SPAIN).
Spanish organist and composer, known as “Lo Spagnoletto.” Trained at the

187

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188 • FALB, PATER REMIGIUS

Colegio de Infantes de la Seo, he was also a choirboy at the Zaragoza cathe-


dral. From there he was sent to Naples to study at the Conservatorio della Pi-
età dei Turchini, after which he was appointed maestro di cappella in Treni.
There he received his nickname. In 1756 he returned to Spain to direct music
at La Seo in Zaragoza. He died during the French siege of the city. Fajer was
a prolific composer primarily of sacred music. His works, often large scale
with a good sense of orchestration, are now beginning to be studied. These
consist of four operas, six oratorios, 86 Masses, 15 Credos, six sequences,
35 antiphons, 11 canticles, 112 responsories, 83 Psalms, five Stabat maters,
24 motets, seven hymns, four cantatas, 42 villancicos, and three settings of
the Seven Last Words.

FALB, PATER REMIGIUS (1714, PROBABLY NEAR MUNICH, TO


20 NOVEMBER 1770, KLOSTER FÜRSTENFELDBRUCK, NEAR
MUNICH). German monastic composer. A member of the Cistercian order,
nothing is known of his life or musical education, save that it was probably
at the monastery where he spent his entire life. He had some connections to
the Bavarian court, for his published music is dedicated to the Elector Maxi-
milian III Joseph of Bavaria. His works, in an often naïve style, have never
been explored, but a set of Masses and a set of six pastoral symphonies were
published in Augsburg around 1755.

FARINELLI. See BROSCHI, CARLO.

FARINELLI, GIUSEPPE. See FINCO, GIUSEPPE FRANCESCO.

FASCETTI, GIOVANNI LORENZO (1712, LUCCA, ITALY, TO 1781,


MILAN). Italian composer. Nothing is known of his parentage or education.
He first appears in Lucca in 1744 as the composer of an opera, and in 1757
he was appointed as maestro di cappella at the church of Santa Maria dei
Miracoli in Milan, a post he held his entire life. His music remains almost
completely unknown, but surviving works consist of two operas, an oratorio
performed in Rome in 1754, a motet, and several Mass movements.

FASCH, CARL FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN (18 NOVEMBER 1736,


ZERBST, GERMANY, TO 3 AUGUST 1800, BERLIN). German com-
poser and keyboardist. Son of Baroque composer Johann Friedrich Fasch
(1688–1758), he was trained by his father on the keyboard and Carl Höckh
on violin. After performing for Franz Benda, he was offered a post as
cembalist at the court of Frederick II in Berlin in 1756. He was promoted
to conductor of the Royal Opera in 1774, and although the new monarch

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FAVI, ANDREA • 189

Friedrich Wilhelm had little use of him, he remained at court until his death.
Of special interest is that Fasch’s home became a gathering place for Berlin
singers and intellectuals beginning in 1789, forming a group that was later to
become legitimized as the Berliner Sing-Akademie. As a composer, he wrote
nine oratorios, 11 cantatas, five Psalms, four Masses, a Requiem, an ode
(the Morgengesang), a symphony, and six keyboard sonatas. His students
include Carl Friedrich Zelter and Johann Rellstab.

FAUVEL, ANDRÉ-JOSEPH (1756, BORDEAUX, FRANCE, TO ca.


1830, PARIS). Also known as “l’ainé” to distinguish him from his brother.
French violinist, violist, composer, and teacher. A pupil of violinist Pierre
Noël Gervais, he began performing in the public concerts in his hometown
by about the age of 20. Shortly thereafter in 1782 he accepted Pierre Rode
as a young pupil, and the two performed frequently up to 1787, when both
moved to Paris. There they appeared with success at the Concerts spirituels.
In 1794, Fauvel became a violist in the Opéra orchestra, a position he retained
until his retirement in 1814. His music has been little studied but consists
of a number of symphonies, a sinfonia concertante, at least a dozen string
quartets, some string trios, and several method books.

FAVART, CHARLES SIMON (13 NOVEMBER 1710, PARIS, TO 12


MAY 1792, PARIS). French librettist. The son of a pastry chef, Favart was
educated at the Lycée Louis le Grand and in 1734 scored his first success
with a vaudeville Les deux jumelles. By 1750 he had become director of the
Opéra Comique in Paris, which he used to promote his style of comic text
featuring rustic characters, often thrown into urban situations. Married to a
successful actress and singer, he became the most successful impresario in
Paris. By 1765, however, his wife was subject to the unwarranted attentions
of Maurice, le comte de Saxe, and although her death prevented things from
getting out of hand, Favart himself was forced to flee to Strasbourg. In later
years he returned to Paris, where he lost his eyesight due to age. As a libret-
tist, he wrote over 150 texts, the most important of which were Annette et Lu-
bin (1743) and Ninette à la cour (1753), all of which became popular through
their settings by Nicolas-Marie Dalayrac and others. He also maintained an
extensive correspondence with Count Giacomo Durazzo in Vienna. See also
NOVERRE, JEAN-GEORGES.

FAVI, ANDREA (1743, FORLI, ITALY, TO 1822, FORLI). Italian


composer. Almost nothing is known about Favi, who spent his entire life
in his hometown of Forli. His early education was probably there, and by
1775 he had become maestro di cappella at the church of Santa Croce, later

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190 • FEDERAL OVERTURE

also directing the municipal orchestra. He was a member of the Accademia


filarmonica in Bologna, establishing a similar conservatory and honorary
music institution in Forli around 1790. His music includes two operas, three
oratorios, a symphony, and numerous smaller sacred works.

FEDERAL OVERTURE. A common instrumental work, generally in one


or two movements, consisting of a potpourri of popular tunes, many with
political implications, that appeared in concert programs in the new United
States of America. The initial work was by Benjamin Carr and premiered in
Philadelphia in 1794. This was replaced by the more commonplace medley
overture, of which it is a subgenre, after around 1800.

FELDMAYR, JOHANN GEORG (17 DECEMBER 1756, PFAFFEN-


HOFEN AN DER ILM, GERMANY, TO 1834, HAMBURG). German
violinist and composer. He was educated at the Indersdorf monastery in mu-
sic before joining the court of Duke Kraft Ernst of Oettingen-Wallerstein as
a violinist in 1780. After an unsuccessful attempt at obtaining a position in
Schwerin, he found further employment at the theatre in Hamburg in 1802,
where he remained his entire life. Feldmayr’s music reflects similarities with
Antonio Rosetti, his colleague at Wallerstein, but has been little studied.
These include two Requiems, two Misereres, an oratorio, an opera, 24
cantatas, 17 sacred arias, two symphonies, four concertos and four sinfonia
concertantes, two serenades, and 22 wind partitas.

FELDPARTHIE. See PARTHIE/PARTITA.

FENAROLI, FEDELE (25 APRIL 1730, LANCIANO, ITALY, TO 1


JANUARY 1818, NAPLES). Italian composer. His earliest education was
at the Conservatorio Santa Maria di Loreto in Naples under Francesco Du-
rante. In 1762 he became assistant maestro di cappella at the conservatory,
later obtaining the full title in 1777. In 1797 he was instrumental in the con-
solidation of the Neapolitan conservatories. His own main contributions were
five textbooks for the education of composers, but his music, little studied, in-
cludes two operas, three oratorios, five Masses, a Requiem, five Lamenta-
tions, 13 Lessons, 28 Psalms/antiphons, and several smaller works for voice.

FEO, FRANCESCO (1691, NAPLES, TO 28 JANUARY 1761, NA-


PLES). Italian composer. Best known as an opera composer, he received
his training at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples. By 1723
he was a well-respected teacher at the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio a Porta
Capuana, where his students included Niccolò Jommelli. In 1739 he moved

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FERRADINI, ANTONIO • 191

to the Conservatorio dei Poversi di Gesù Cristo. From 1743 he functioned


primarily as a church composer in the city. Although the bulk of his operas
reflect Baroque styles and practices, his church music and at least six of the
opera serias were composed according to the emerging Classical Neapolitan
style of Giovanni Pergolesi and others. These late works include six operas,
two serenatas, 14 oratorios, a symphony, three Passions, and nine sacred
dialogues. More importantly, he was one of the major teachers of the first
two generations of Classical period composers in Naples. See also ZERAFA,
BENIGNO.

FERLING, ERIC (ca. 1733, POSSIBLY TILLBERGA, NEAR


VÄSTERÅS, SWEDEN, TO 20 DECEMBER 1808, TURKU [ÅBO],
FINLAND). Swedish violinist and composer. Ferling was hired in 1761 as
an ordinary violinist in the Swedish Hovkapell, but at a salary that was barely
adequate. He began to appear regularly at the public concerts as a soloist,
and in 1767 he was appointed as concertmaster following the dismissal of
Antoine Perichon. His first contract, however, was not awarded until 1774
due to political wrangling. At that time he was also chief copyist of the Royal
Opera, a post he held for over a decade. In 1786 he requested release from
his contract, but it was not until 1790 that he was able to leave Stockholm
to direct the newly established Musikaliska Sällskap in the Finnish town of
Åbo (now Turku). Here he established the first major concert series in Fin-
land that existed up until the town’s occupation by Russian troops in 1806.
Ferling’s compositions include a violin concerto and numerous minuets and
contradances. His performance style was said to be highly virtuoso. His con-
certo bears this out with good range and technical demands on the instrument,
and deft accompaniment.

FERNÁNDEZ, JOAN EXEQUIEL (ca. 1730, LÉON, SPAIN, TO ca.


1810, SANTANDER, SPAIN). Spanish composer and organist. Little is
known of his early life, save that he studied with Ramón Gargallo in Léon,
becoming his assistant and, in 1754, maestro di capilla at the main cathedral.
He remained there until 1794, when he obtained the same position at the ca-
thedral in Santander. His music, consisting largely of sacred works, including
villancicos and at least eight Lamentations, has remained mostly unexplored.

FERRADINI, ANTONIO (ca. 1718, NAPLES, TO 1779, PRAGUE).


Italian-Bohemian composer and organist. Following instruction at one of the
Naples conservatories, he made his debut as an opera composer in 1739,
receiving commissions thereafter from throughout Italy. In 1751 he was em-
ployed briefly in Spain, but in 1757 he moved permanently to Prague, where

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192 • FERRADINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA

he wrote almost exclusively for the church. His music is characterized by a


conservative, sometimes even anachronistic style. It includes 11 operas, an
oratorio, a Mass (and eight Mass movements), four motets, a Stabat mater,
three symphonies, several madrigals, a quartet for three flutes and cellos,
six keyboard sonatas, four cantatas, five sacred arias, and 15 duets. He is no
relation of Giovanni Battista Ferradini.

FERRADINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (ca. 1710, VENICE, TO 25 NO-


VEMBER 1791, MUNICH). Italian composer and oboist. He received his
musical education at the Conservatorio dei Mendicante in Venice before
moving to Munich to complete his studies under Pietro Torri. In 1732 he was
named chamber composer to the Bavarian court, and later in 1737 he had be-
come director of chamber music and successfully premiered his opera Can-
tone in Utica. He moved to Padua in 1755, where he established an academy
of music. By 1790 he had returned to Munich to retire. His music has been
little studied although it attracted the attention of Leopold Mozart. Works
include 14 operas, 76 cantatas, 25 symphonies, 12 duo sonatas, three trio
sonatas, and three divertimentos. He is no relation of Antonio Ferradini.
See also MARIA ANTONIA WALPURGIS, PRINCESS OF SAXONY.

FERRARI, GIACOMO GOTIFREDO (bap. 2 APRIL 1763, ROV-


ERETO, ITALY, TO 2 DECEMBER 1842, LONDON). Italian composer
and keyboardist. After being orphaned as a child, he spent his early years as
an apprentice silk merchant before going to Naples, where he studied under
Giovanni Paisiello and Gaetano Latilla. In 1787 he made his debut in Paris
but fled to London in 1792 to avoid the Revolution. His Complainte de la
reine de France the following year is one of the most important pieces of
antirevolutionary music written. In England he was a successful composer,
theorist, and singing teacher with close ties to George IV. His music, little
studied, includes seven operas, two piano concertos, 20 violin sonatas, six
Italian ariettas, as well as a number of works for harp, violin, and keyboard.

FERREÑAC, RAMÓN (1763, ZARAGOZA, SPAIN, TO 1832, ZARA-


GOZA). Spanish organist and composer. During his early years he func-
tioned as an ordinary musician at the Seo de Zaragoza, where he was trained
in all likelihood. In 1783 he became maestro di capilla at the cathedral in
Huenca but two years later returned to Zaragoza to become organist at the
cathedral of Nuestra Señora del Pilar. Ferreñac can be considered one of the
most important members of the Zaragoza organ school, writing numerous
small works for the instrument that were distributed widely throughout Spain.

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FILS [FILTZ], [JOHANN] ANTON • 193

His music, however, has received little attention, consisting of a number of


sacred works.

FESTA TEATRALE. See AZIONE TEATRALE.

FESTING, MICHAEL CHRISTIAN (29 NOVEMBER 1705, LONDON,


TO 24 JULY 1752, LONDON). English composer and violinist. A student
of Richard Jones and Francesco Geminiani, he became known during his
lifetime as one of the most popular violinists in London. In 1726 he was a
member of the King’s Musick, and in 1742 he directed the public concerts at
Ranleigh Gardens. His most important student was Thomas Arne. As a com-
poser, many of his works reflect Baroque practice, but his later pieces, such as
the odes and a number of the concertos, incorporate galant stylistic elements.
His music consists of three large odes, around 30 songs, 30 concertos, 24 trio
sonatas, 32 duo sonatas, and numerous catches and glees.

FIALA, JOSEF (3 FEBRUARY 1748, LOCHOVICE, BOHEMIA [NOW


CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 31 JULY 1816, DONAUESCHINGEN, GER-
MANY). Bohemian-German composer and oboist. His earliest musical
training was at a local Jesuit school, after which he obtained a post as oboist
for Countess Netolicka in Prague. By 1774 he had been hired at the court of
Oettingen-Wallerstein, later moving in 1777 to Munich to become principal
in the court orchestra of Elector Maximilian Joseph. A year later he joined
the Salzburg court ensemble of Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo, where he
became a close friend of the Mozart family. In 1785 he followed Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart to Vienna to seek his fortune, eventually moving on to
St. Petersburg, but in 1790 he returned to Berlin as a viola da gambist at the
court of Friedrich Wilhelm II. This position was not to his liking, and in 1792
he obtained the post as Kapellmeister for Prince Benedict zu Fürstenberg at
Donaueschingen, where he spent the rest of his life. An active composer as
well as a performer, his style is characterized by well-constructed themes and
adept use of instrumentation within the normal forms of the period. His mu-
sic includes 19 symphonies, 21 concertos (including one for English horn),
30 partitas, 24 quartets, 10 trios, 18 duos, two keyboard sonatas, an Ave
Maria, and other smaller chamber works. His music is known by FWV or
Rheinländer numbers.

FILS [FILTZ], [JOHANN] ANTON (bap. 23 SEPTEMBER 1733, EICH-


STÄTT, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 14 MARCH 1760, MANNHEIM).
German composer and cellist. Son of a court cellist in the small town of

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194 • FINAZZI, FILIPPO

Eichstätt, Fils attended the local Jesuit Gymnasium before enrolling in the
University of Ingolstadt. In 1754 he was appointed as a cellist in the famed
Mannheim orchestra, for whom he composed the bulk of his music, much
of it published in Paris. His brief life ended, according to Christian Daniel
Friedrich Schubart, from ingesting poisonous spiders, which Fils allegedly
claimed tasted like strawberries. Although the causes of his demise may seem
lurid and in fact be apocryphal, there is no doubt that Fils was one of the most
prolific composers of the middle of the century. His works include at least
44 symphonies, 30 concertos (mostly for cello and flute), 28 trio sonatas,
14 trios (mainly for two violins and cello), three violin sonatas and one for
cello, a flute quartet, seven Masses, two litanies, two Magnificats, and two
vespers. Schubart considered him one of the most eloquent composers of the
age, and his music demonstrates a thorough knowledge of the sonata prin-
ciple, careful use of Mannheim effects, and a good sense of lyricism.

FINAZZI, FILIPPO (2 JULY 1705, GORLAGO, ITALY, TO 22 APRIL


1776, LOMBARDEI, GERMANY). German-Italian composer and cas-
trato. Following his debut in 1726 as an opera singer, he performed through-
out the Holy Roman Empire for the next decades, achieving a considerable
reputation for his flexible voice. In 1725 he was elected to the Accademia
filarmonica and in 1743 was invited by the Mingotti troupe to travel with
them throughout Germany, beginning in Linz. While there he began to
achieve a reputation as a composer of opera. In 1746, however, he decided
to give up touring near Hamburg, first being converted to Lutheranism. His
music has been all but forgotten, but includes three operas (and many inser-
tion arias), six symphonies, 12 Lieder, a motet, six cantatas, four oratorios,
and a keyboard sonata.

FINCO, GIUSEPPE FRANCESCO [FARINELLI] (7 MAY 1769, ESTE,


ITALY, TO 12 DECEMBER 1836, TRIESTE, ITALY). Italian composer.
Supported in his musical education as a youth by the castrato Carlo Broschi/
Farinelli, whose name he took, he attended the Conservatorio della Pietà dei
Turchini, studying under Lorenzo Fago. He made his debut at the Teatro
Nuovo in 1795 with the opera buffa L’uomo indolente, beginning a career
as a composer in the style of Domenico Cimarosa throughout Italy. He ob-
tained a post as maestro di cappella at the Teatro Regio in Turin in 1810, later
moving to Venice in 1817 and Trieste in 1819. His 60 operas (mainly buffa)
were considered as rivals to Giaocchino Rossini in Italy. Other works include
five Masses, 11 cantatas, three oratorios, two Te Deums, three piano sona-
tas, and a host of smaller sacred works.

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FIORILLO, IGNAZIO • 195

FIORAVANTI, VALENTINO (11 SEPTEMBER 1764, ROME, TO 16


JUNE 1837, CAPUA, ITALY). Italian composer. After studies in Rome
under Giuseppe Jannacconi, he made his debut in Naples following further
instruction from Domenico Cimarosa and Giovanni Paisiello. By 1800 he
was director of the main theatre in Lisbon, and in 1807 he was acclaimed in
Paris for his opera buffas. Facing rivalry with Giaocchino Rossini, he moved
to Rome in 1816, where he composed almost exclusively sacred works for
the Vatican. Although many of his works reflect early Romanticism and he
was seen as perhaps the most significant opera composer between Cimarosa
and Rossini, his music has been little studied. He wrote 84 operas, as well as
a symphony and smaller vocal works; the bulk of this sacred music remains
to be studied.

FIORENZA, NICOLA (ca. 1700, NAPLES, TO 13 APRIL 1784, NA-


PLES). Italian violinist and composer. His early training was at the Con-
servatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto under Francesco Barbella before he was
offered a post as a violinist at court. He was eventually appointed as concert-
master in 1758, but by that time he had become a director of the conservatory
thanks to a winning lot drawn among the candidates. He was dismissed from
his post in 1762 for abuse of students. His music includes 15 concertos (most
of which reflect the style of Antonio Vivaldi) and nine symphonies. See also
SACCHINI, ANTONIO.

FIORILLO, FREDERIGO (1 JUNE 1755, BRAUNSCHWEIG, GER-


MANY, TO ca. 1825, LONDON). German composer and violinist. A child
prodigy on the violin, he was probably trained by his father, Ignazio Fiorillo.
He obtained his first position in 1777 in St. Petersburg but three years later
toured Poland as a virtuoso before winding up in Riga as a conductor in 1782.
In 1785 he made a debut at the Concerts spirituels in Paris and three years
later moved permanently to London, where he performed frequently with
Johann Peter Salomon. He was a proficient performer on both the mandolin
and violin and later became known primarily as a teacher. His music includes
four violin concertos, 14 sinfonia concertantes, three quintets, 15 string
quartets (and 18 flute quartets), 21 trios, 52 duos, 24 violin sonatas, three
canzonetts, and other smaller works. His main fame rests upon his Op. 3, 36
caprices meant as a pedagogical tool for the violin.

FIORILLO, IGNAZIO (11 MAY 1715, NAPLES, TO 1787, FRITZLAR,


GERMANY). German-Italian composer and violinist. Following studies
with Francesco Durante and Leonardo Leo, he made his debut as an opera

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196 • FIORONI, GIOVANNI [GIAN] ANDREA

composer in 1732 in Trieste, with a further success of his opera Mandane in


Venice three years later leading to commissions throughout Italy. In 1754 he
was appointed as Kapellmeister by the Duke of Braunschweig-Wölfenbüttel,
and success as a composer there led him to become Kapellmeister in Kas-
sel to Duke Friedrich II of Hessen-Kassel. He retired to the small town of
Fritzlar. His works include 56 operas (and six intermezzos), three Masses, a
Requiem, three Te Deums, an oratorio, five symphonies, and six keyboard
sonatas. See also FIORILLO, FREDERIGO.

FIORONI, GIOVANNI [GIAN] ANDREA (1716, PAVIA, TO 19 DE-


CEMBER 1778, MILAN). Italian composer and organist. Fioroni studied
under Leonardo Leo at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini in Naples
before becoming maestro di cappella at the Milan cathedral in 1747. He
succeeded Giovanni Battista Sammartini as maestro di cappella at Santa
Maria della Visitazione in 1775. His pupils included Alessandro Rolla and
Vincenzo Manfredini. His music was well regarded during his lifetime for
its expressive beauty but has been little explored today. It includes an opera,
an oratorio, a Passion, three sacred cantatas, 16 Masses, two Requiems, nu-
merous Mass movements, 42 introits, 31 offertories, 20 antiphons, 50 hymns,
76 Psalms, 64 motets, 23 canticles, 21 sacred songs, six responsories, three
vespers, eight litanies, a symphony, two trios, a keyboard concerto, and six
sonatas. See also SALARI, FRANCESCO; ZUCCHINETTI, GIOVANNI
BERNARDO.

FISCHER, ANTON (bap. 13 JANUARY 1778, RIED, SWABIA, GER-


MANY, TO 1 DECEMBER 1808, VIENNA). German composer and
tenor. Following studies with his elder brother Pater Matthäus Fischer at
Heilig Kreuz, he moved to Vienna to pursue his career as a singer, joining
Emanuel Schickaneder’s Theater auf der Wieden in 1800. By 1806 he was
assistant Kapellmeister to Ignaz von Seyfried, but his early death prevented
a burgeoning career as a composer of the Singspiel. His works include 19
original Singspiels, several popular arrangements of works by André Ernest
Modeste Grétry, two Masses, two cantatas, and several songs, arias, and
fortepiano pieces.

FISCHER, FERDINAND (1723, BEBRA, GERMANY, TO 1805,


BRAUNSCHWEIG, GERMANY). German composer. Little is known of
his education or career, save that he appears to have been appointed as a mu-
sician at the court of the Duke of Braunschweig-Luneberg about 1763, when
a set of six trio sonatas was published. In 1800 he taught theory to Joachim
Nicolaus Eggert (1779–1813), being described as an excellent teacher. His

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FISCHER, MICHAEL GOTTARD • 197

surviving music includes 18 symphonies, nine quartets (six published in


Mannheim), a cantata, a quintet, three trio sonatas, and several keyboard
works.

FISCHER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (1733, FREIBURG, SAXONY,


GERMANY, TO 29 APRIL 1800, LONDON). German oboist and com-
poser. He obtained his earliest education from Alessandro Besozzi in
Warsaw, where he made his debut in the 1750s. By 1760 he had become
employed at the Saxon court in Dresden, where he came to the attention of
Frederick II. The Prussian monarch invited him in 1764 to move to Berlin,
after which he toured Paris and Mannheim. In the former he had a success-
ful debut at the Concerts spirituels. He arrived in London in 1768, where
he eventually became appointed as a chamber musician to Queen Charlotte
along with colleagues Carl Friedrich Abel and Johann Christian Bach.
In 1770 he published his Compleat Tutor for the Hautboy, one of the first
method books for the instruments in English. He was known for his singing
tone and technical ability on his instrument. As a composer, he also enlarged
the repertory, writing 16 oboe concertos (and seven others for flute and bas-
soon), 12 flute sonatas, 18 flute duets, three quartets, three oboe sonatas,
and at least 12 songs.

FISCHER, LUDWIG (18 AUGUST 1745, MAINZ, GERMANY, TO 10


JULY 1825, BERLIN). German bass. Although he began music studies as an
instrumentalist, after 1770 he was educated in Mannheim by Anton Graaff,
following which in 1775 he began teaching at the Jesuit Gymnasium and Mu-
sic Seminar. When the court moved to Munich in 1778, he followed, but by
1780 he and his wife, Barbara Strasser (1758–1825), had found positions at
the new German Opera in Vienna. When this was dissolved in 1783, he went
on tour, first to Paris where he successfully debuted at the Concerts spirituels.
Further touring throughout Europe followed, but it was through the interven-
tion of Johann Friedrich Reichardt in 1789 that he found a permanent posi-
tion in Berlin. He was pensioned in 1815. As seen in his most famous role, that
of Osmin in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail,
he had a remarkable range, extending downward so that even Joseph II stated
that he sang “too low” for a bass. As a composer, he wrote a considerable
number of pieces for voice, but only a set of two songs has survived.

FISCHER, MICHAEL GOTTARD (3 JUNE 1773, ALACH, NEAR


ERFURT, GERMANY, TO 12 JANUARY 1829, ERFURT). German
composer and organist. His early studies were with Johann Christian Kit-
tel, who considered Fischer one of his most important students. When Kittel

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198 • FISCHER, PATER MATTHÄUS [KARL KONRAD]

gave up his post at the Barfüßerkirche, Fischer was appointed his successor
as well as town musical director responsible for public concerts. When Kit-
tel died in 1809, he became his successor once more at the Predigerkirche.
His musical style is more modern than that of Kittel’s other students, most
likely due to his imitation of the style of Abbé Georg Joseph Vogler, who he
considered his model. His counterpoint is also freer, with extensive harmonic
experimentation. His music includes four symphonies, two string quartets,
two concertos, four motets, and four arias. It has, however, been little studied.

FISCHER, PATER MATTHÄUS [KARL KONRAD] (bap. 28 NOVEM-


BER 1763, RIED, SWABIA, GERMANY, TO 5 MAY 1840, AUGS-
BURG, GERMANY). German monastic composer. He became a chorister
at the Augustinian monastery at Heilig Kreuz in 1773 and was ordained in
1788. From 1784 on, he functioned as a teacher and regens chori for the
monastery. In 1810 he moved to Augsburg to become regens chori at the St.
Georg Church, later expanding his duties to two other churches in the city. He
was an active composer, whose works include 23 Masses, several Singspiels,
13 offertories, 11 sacred arias, four hymns, a motet, a Psalm setting, a ves-
per, two cantatas, and three instrumental fugues. He also taught his younger
brother Anton Fischer.

FISCHETTI, DOMENICO (1725, NAPLES, TO ca. 1810, SALZ-


BURG). Italian composer. Son of a popular Baroque opera composer,
Giovanni Fischetti (1692–1743), he attended the Conservatorio di
Sant’Onofrio where he studied under Francesco Durante and Leonardo
Leo. He probably made his debut as a composer with Armindo in 1742,
but by 1753 he had established himself as a composer in Venice, where he
collaborated with Carlo Goldoni. In 1762 he joined the Molinari troupe in
Prague and for the next decade traveled with them and the Bustelli troupe
throughout central Europe. Eventually he was appointed as maestro di cap-
pella but seems to have been unsuccessful. In 1772 he was appointed as
Kapellmeister in Salzburg by Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo but after a
few years was reassigned to training church singers. When Luigi Gatti was
appointed as his successor, he vanished from the musical establishment. His
music has been little studied outside of the operas, of which there are at
least 26 (and numerous additional arias). He wrote at least two oratorios,
as well as numerous Masses and motets.

FISHER, JOHN ABRAHAM (ca. 1744, LONDON OR DUNSTABLE,


TO MAY 1806, DUBLIN, IRELAND). English composer and violinist. At
an early age he attracted the patronage of Lord Trawley, who arranged for his

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FLIES, BERNHARD • 199

debut as a violinist at the King’s Theatre in 1765. Shortly thereafter he was


engaged at Covent Garden and became the director of the orchestra in 1768.
He was also commissioned by other London theatres to write stage music.
He received a doctorate in music from Oxford University in 1777. In 1780
he journeyed to Vienna, marrying the soprano Nancy Storace, but rumors of
abuse forced him to leave Austria in 1784. He then moved to Dublin, where
he lived out the remainder of his life as a teacher. An eccentric performer, he
was known for his technical skill. His works include 13 operas, an oratorio,
an anthem, an ode, seven symphonies, three violin concertos, six violin so-
natas, six duos for two violins, and three volumes of occasional songs and
cantatas.

FLACKTON, WILLIAM (bap. 27 MARCH 1709, CANTERBURY,


ENGLAND, TO 5 JUNE 1798, CANTERBURY). English composer and
organist. He studied under William Raylton beginning in 1716, but by 1725
he had established himself as a bookseller in Kent. In 1735 he became organ-
ist at the church of St. Mary of Charity. During his lifetime he was an assidu-
ous collector of music, particularly for the church. His own works include
numerous songs (with and without orchestral accompaniment), a cantata,
two anthems, 31 hymns, 12 sonatas, six overtures for keyboard, and two
solos for strings.

FLEISCHMANN, [JOHANN] FRIEDRICH [ANTON] (18 JULY 1766,


MARKTHEIDENFELD, NEAR WÜRZBURG, GERMANY, TO 30
NOVEMBER 1798, MEININGEN, GERMANY). German bureaucrat
and composer. Encouraged by his schoolmaster father, he studied music at
the Mannheim Jesuit Gymnasium under Abbé Georg Joseph Volger and
Ignaz Holzbauer before continuing his education in law at the University
of Würzburg. In 1786 he became a private secretary to the state councilor in
Regensburg, later obtaining a similar post in Meiningen at the court of Duke
Georg I of Saxe-Meiningen. He is best known for his Singspiels, of which
he composed two. In addition, he wrote around 12 Lieder, two symphonies,
three piano concertos (and a double concerto for violin and piano), and a
sonata for fortepiano, as well as several Harmoniemusik arrangements of
operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

FLIES, BERNHARD (ca. 1770, BERLIN, TO ca. 1799, BERLIN). Ger-


man amateur composer. Although little is known about his life, he was a phy-
sician who dabbled in music, publishing several songs (including the lullaby
Schlaf mein Prinzchen once attributed to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart) and
small piano works. His style is simple and uncomplicated.

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200 • FODOR, CAREL ANTON [CAROLUS ANTONIUS]

FODOR, CAREL ANTON [CAROLUS ANTONIUS] (12 APRIL 1768,


VENLO, NETHERLANDS, TO 22 FEBRUARY 1846, AMSTERDAM).
Dutch composer and pianist, brother of Josephus Andreas Fodor and Carel
Emanuel Fodor. Born into a musical family, he studied in Mannheim and
Paris before returning to Amsterdam in 1795. There he became one of the
leaders of Dutch musical society, writing works that reflect early 19th-
century Romantic forms. His music includes three symphonies, eight concer-
tos for fortepiano, an opera, numerous songs in Dutch, and a large number
of chamber works.

FODOR, CAREL EMANUEL (31 OCTOBER 1759, VENLO, NETH-


ERLANDS, TO ca. 1799, PARIS). Dutch keyboardist. Brother of Carel
Anton Fodor and Josephus Andreas Fodor, he probably studied in Ger-
many before settling in Paris in 1780. There he became known as a teacher
and performer at the Concerts spirituels. He disappears from history after
several concerts the last year of the century. His surviving music, almost un-
known, consists of a symphony, a set of keyboard concertos, and a number
of fortepiano sonatas.

FODOR, JOSEPHUS ANDREAS (21 JANUARY 1751, VENLO, NETH-


ERLANDS, TO 3 OCTOBER 1828, ST. PETERSBURG). Dutch violinist
and composer. Brother of both Carel Anton Fodor and Carel Emanuel
Fodor, he was sent to Berlin to study with Franz Benda. In 1780 he made his
debut at the Concerts spirituels and thereafter toured as a virtuoso, although
he also taught in Paris beginning in 1787. In 1792 he was given a position at
the Imperial chapel in St. Petersburg, where he remained for the rest of his
life. His music has been little studied but consists of 19 violin concertos, 42
string quartets, 127 duos (mostly two violins), 13 sonatas (12 violin), and
several arrangements.

FOMIN, YEVSTIGNY IPATEYEVICH (16 AUGUST 1761, ST. PE-


TERSBURG, TO 27 APRIL 1800, ST. PETERSBURG). Russian opera
composer. Orphaned at an early age, he was sent by his uncle to the Academy
of the Fine Arts in St. Petersburg, where he was to be trained as an architect.
In 1776, however, he decided to concentrate on music, taking harpsichord
lessons from Matteo Bomi and composition from Hermann Raupach and
Blasius Sartori. Sartori encouraged him to further his education in Italy, and
in 1782 he arrived in Bologna where he became a student of Padre Giovanni
Battista Martini and Stanislao Mattei. Within three years he had been
elected to the prestigious Accademia filarmonica, around the same time as
he returned to St. Petersburg at the request of Catherine II, who wished him

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FORTUNATI, GIAN FRANCESCO • 201

to compose Russian operas. He also taught at the theatre school. His most
famous work was a Russian version of the Orpheus legend, Orfey i Evridika,
produced in 1792. An indication of his dramatic style of musical composition
that includes Russian folk elements can be found in his choruses to the play
Yuropolk i Olega of 1798. He is said to have composed some 30 operas, as
well as a pair of choral concertos in Old Church Slavonic.

FORKEL, JOHANN NIKOLAUS (22 FEBRUARY 1749, MEEDER,


NEAR COBURG, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 20 MARCH 1818,
GÖTTINGEN, GERMANY). German composer, professor, and historian.
His earliest education was in Coburg, following which in 1766 he attended
the Johannischule in Lüneberg. Shortly thereafter he moved to Schwerin to
become assistant conductor of the cathedral choir. Noticed by Duke Fried-
rich of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Forkel was given a stipend to study at Göt-
tingen University beginning in 1769. A year later he was awarded the post
of university organist, receiving his doctorate in 1787. The following year
he published his Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik followed in 1792 by the
Allgemeine Litteratur der Musik, both of which established him as a major
historian-bibliographer of the period.
His correspondence with the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach led him to
create over a period of several decades one of the first biographical studies,
published in 1802 as Über Johann Sebastian Bach: Leben, Kunst und Kunst-
werke as part of an attempt to bring out Bach’s complete works. His scholarly
studies often overshadowed his work as a composer. His musical style tends
to follow the norms of the period, with particular influence of Carl Philipp
Emanuel Bach. Surviving works include 22 Lieder, five keyboard concertos,
seven trio sonatas, four large cantatas or odes, and several sets of variations
and smaller keyboard works. See also BACH, WILHELM FRIEDEMANN.

FORTUNATI, FERDINANDO (1772, PARMA, TO ca. 1812, SANTO


DOMINGO [NOW DOMINCAN REPUBLIC]). German-Italian horn
player and oboist. Probably trained by his father, Gian Francesco Fortu-
nati, he was employed at Berlin in the court orchestra in 1797. In 1801, he
obtained a commission and was placed in charge of military music in the
Republic of Santo Domingo on the Caribbean island of Hispanola, where he
vanishes from history. His music probably consists of marches and pieces for
Harmoniemusik.

FORTUNATI, GIAN FRANCESCO (27 FEBRUARY 1746, PARMA,


ITALY, TO 20 DECEMBER 1821, PARMA). Italian composer. Follow-
ing initial studies under Ottombono Nicolini in Piacenza he was sent off

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202 • FOSSOMBRONI, ANTONIO MARIA

to Bologna in 1767, where he became a pupil of Padre Giovanni Battista


Martini. In 1769 his first operatic success in Parma allowed him to obtain
an appointment at court, and in 1774 he succeeded Tommaso Traetta as
maestro di cappella. His works, little studied, include seven operas, a Mass,
nine Lamentations, seven cantatas, 16 arias, six duets, four sinfonia concer-
tantes, six quartets, and numerous smaller works. See also FORTUNATI,
FERDINANDO; PAËR, FERDINANDO.

FOSSOMBRONI, ANTONIO MARIA (20 MARCH 1750, AREZZO,


ITALY, TO 31 DECEMBER 1782, VIENNA). Italian-Austrian singer and
composer. Born into a family of minor nobility, he studied keyboard and
violin at the school at San Domenico. In 1776 he was forced to flee his fam-
ily’s residence due to gambling debts, moving to Venice where he appeared
under the pseudonym of “Giorgio Crinazzi of Perugia.” Success as a singer
at the Teatro San Cassiano allowed him to move to Trieste in 1778, where
he became the tutor to the children of Count Voinovich as well as a singer
in the local opera house. In 1780 he was briefly in the service of Countess
von Wurembrandt in Graz before moving on to Vienna to become a teacher.
In 1781 he spent several months at Esterháza singing opera under Joseph
Haydn, but a lung ailment forced him to return to Vienna, where he died,
probably of tuberculosis, the following year. His musical compositions have
not been studied, but he published a set of six funeral cantatas for Empress
Maria Theresia in 1781, and a large celebratory cantata was published in
Trieste as well.

FOYTA, ERASMUS (1714, ZLONICE, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH RE-


PUBLIC], TO 14 JUNE 1793, ROUDNICE, BOHEMIA). Bohemian vio-
linist and teacher and brother of Václav Franz Foyta. After brief instruction
in Prague, he found a post as a local music teacher in the town of Roudnice
in the Litoměřice province. He taught his son, Ignác Foyta, violin and prob-
ably composed a few compositions. His music is now completely unknown.
He was succeeded in his position by his son Vilém Foyta (1750–1810), who
also remains largely unstudied.

FOYTA, IGNÁC ŘEHOŘ (2 MARCH 1748, ROUDNICE, BOHEMIA


[NOW CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 20 MARCH 1808, PRAGUE). Bohe-
mian violinist and composer. Son of Erasmus Foyta, he studied with his
father at the local school in Roudnice. By 1770 he was employed alongside
his uncle, Václav Franz Foyta, at the Kreuzkirche in Prague as a violinist.
He relocated to St. Petersburg in 1778, where he played violin and contrabass
in the Imperial Theatre. By 1791, however, he had returned to Prague, where

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FRÄNZL, IGNAZ FRANZ JOSEPH • 203

he remained as a teacher at the Theiner Schule. Foyta has remained almost


completely unstudied, and his music, consisting of symphonies and sacred
works, unknown.

FOYTA, VÁCLAV FRANZ (1712, ZLONICE, BOHEMIA [NOW


CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 1776, PRAGUE). Bohemian violinist and com-
poser. His earliest training was most likely in Prague, where he obtained the
post of Konzertmeister at the Kreuzkirche, probably around 1735. He was
best known for having composed a variety of sacred works, as well as a set
of six symphonies, but this music remains all but unknown.

FRANCHI, CARLO (ca. 1743, NAPLES, TO ca. 1780, PROBABLY


ROME). Italian composer. Biographical information is scarce, but it is as-
sumed that he was trained at one of the conservatories in Naples. In 1765
he had a success there with the opera buffa Le vedova capricciosa, which
ignited a brief career as an opera composer. The bulk of his works, 15 op-
eras (in addition, two sacred works also survive), appear to have been writ-
ten mainly for the Teatro Argentina in Rome. His most famous success was
a collaboration with Pasquale Anfossi in 1771 with the opera Il barone di
Rocca Antica.

FRÄNZL, FERDINAND (24 MAY 1767, SCHWETZINGEN, GER-


MANY, TO 27 OCTOBER 1833, MANNHEIM). German violinist and
composer. The son of violinist Ignaz Fränzl, he was trained in Strasbourg by
Franz Xaver Richter and Ignaz Pleyel before becoming a leader of a violin
section in Munich in 1789. Three years later he obtained a post as Konzert-
meister in Frankfurt am Main, later touring Europe. In 1806 he succeeded
Christian Cannabich as Kapellmeister in Munich, a post he held until his
retirement in 1826. His music has been little studied but seems to conform
to the style of Pleyel. Works include 10 operas, 25 Lieder, a cantata, two
symphonies, nine string quartets, three trios, and numerous smaller cham-
ber pieces.

FRÄNZL, IGNAZ FRANZ JOSEPH (bap. 4 JUNE 1736, MANNHEIM,


TO 3 SEPTEMBER 1811, MANNHEIM). German violinist and composer.
Following studies under Johann Stamitz he became a member of the famed
Mannheim orchestra in 1754. In 1768 he had his debut at the Parisian Con-
certs spirituels, which led to a reputation as a skillful violinist with great
technical ability. In 1773 he was appointed Konzertmeister in Mannheim,
but in 1788 he failed to follow the court to Munich and remained behind as
director of the national theatre. His musical style reflects conscious use of

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204 • FRANZOSINI, BARTOLOMEO

the forms, structures, and devices found in Mannheim. His works include
a Mass, six symphonies, nine ballets, seven violin concertos, four string
quartets, six sonatas, and several other works for violin. He also taught his
son, Ferdinand Fränzl.

FRANZOSINI, BARTOLOMEO (27 FEBRUARY 1768, INTRA, NEAR


LAGO MAGGIORE, ITALY, TO 25 JUNE 1863, INTRA). Italian com-
poser and architect. Born into a prosperous family in Lombardy, he studied
in Milan. In 1793 he obtained the post of organist at San Vittorio Basilica
in Intra, where he remained until he retired in 1839. He was well regarded
throughout the region, often receiving commissions for sacred music from the
Duomo in Milan and other larger churches. Though much of his music was
written after 1800 and conforms to the early style of Romanticism, there exist
at least six symphonies, several Masses, and a Requiem that demonstrate his
Classical training. His music has been cataloged according to Olzer numbers.

FREDERICK [FRIEDRICH] II HOHENZOLLERN, KING OF PRUS-


SIA (24 JANUARY 1712, BERLIN, TO 17 AUGUST 1786, POTSDAM,
PRUSSIA). German monarch, polymath, flautist, and composer, often nick-
named “the Great” or (more familiarly during the period) as “Der alte Fritz.”
Suffering from an abusive father, Frederick sought at every opportunity to
escape the tyranny imposed upon him and his education. Tutored at first by
a French Huguenot governess, he later came under the influence of Jacques
Duhan, who educated him in the world of French literature and philosophy,
as well as that of the ancient classics. In 1730 he attempted to flee to Eng-
land but was captured and forced to watch a good friend, Hans Hermann von
Katte, executed. Although pardoned for his “treason,” he spent the next two
years in internal exile before being granted a home in Rheinsberg. There he
gathered around him a group of musicians and literary figures, all of whom
moved to Berlin when he ascended the throne in 1740. He immediately reor-
ganized the Kapelle and in 1742 established the Royal Opera. Although he
grew more isolated toward the end of his life, he threw himself into numerous
artistic ventures and provided patronage and support to a wide range of musi-
cians, artists, philosophers (such as Voltaire), and men of letters. He provided
the impetus for the establishment of the Berlin School, whose main figures,
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Carl Heinrich and Johann Gottlieb Graun,
Franz and Johann Georg Benda, Johann Friedrich Agricola, and others
dominated North German music with their emphasis upon the empfindsamer
Stil (Empfindsamkeit).
As a musician he studied flute under Johann Joachim Quantz and was
considered a good player, whose slow movements were particularly sensitive

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FREYDT, JOHANN LUDWIG • 205

(but who often disregarded tempos in the faster movements). He also wrote
librettos for Graun and others, as well as entertaining visiting musicians, such
as Johann Sebastian Bach, who wrote the Musical Offering on a gnarly theme
improvised by the King. As a composer, he wrote 121 flute sonatas, as well
as four flute concertos, four symphonies, an overture to Il re pastore, and
a march to celebrate his victory at Hohenfriedberg. Much of his music was
written for soirées at court with himself as the principal performer. See also
ALGAROTTI, COUNT FRANCESCO; ANNA AMALIA, PRINCESS OF
PRUSSIA; FISCHER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN; KOSPOTH, BARON OTTO
CARL ERDMANN VON; ROLLE, JOHANN HEINRICH; SULZER, JO-
HANN GEORG; WILHELMINE, PRINCESS OF PRUSSIA.

FREITHOFF [FREYTHOF], JOHAN HENRIK (1713, KRIS-


TIANSAND, NORWAY, TO 24 JUNE 1767, COPENHAGEN). Nor-
wegian-Danish violinist and composer. In the 1730s he was sent to Italy
to study violin, receiving musical education from Giovanni Battista Sam-
martini in Milan. In 1737 he entered the service of Duke Gian Gastone de
Medici in Florence but decided after five years to return to Norway. On his
way he spent time in Constantinople before turning north. In 1744 he was
appointed as violinist at the court of Christian VI in Copenhagen, becoming
secretary of the chancellery in 1766. His music reflects the galant style and
consists of two trio sonatas, six trios, two violin sonatas, and eight songs
for a Danish play.

FRENCH, JACOB (15 JULY 1754, STOUGHTON, MASSACHU-


SETTS, UNITED STATES, TO MAY 1817, SIMSBURY, CONNECTI-
CUT, UNITED STATES). American psalmodist. Trained at the singing
school of William Billings, he joined the Continental army in 1774. After
his discharge, he moved to Connecticut to make a living as a farmer and
singing teacher. He wrote 173 works, of which a number were published in
two collections, The New American Melody of 1789 and The Pslamodist’s
Companion of 1793.

FREYDT, JOHANN LUDWIG (18 FEBRUARY 1748, ASCHERSLE-


BEN, PRUSSIA, GERMANY, TO 4 JANUARY 1807, NIESKY, SAX-
ONY, GERMANY). German composer and woodwind player. Son of an
officer in the Prussian army, he received musical training at Stassfurt. In
1767 he was a bassoonist in the Royal Footguards in Hannover, joining the
Moravian Church in 1777. He taught at the school in Niesky until his retire-
ment in 1805. He was a prolific composer, whose works include numerous
anthems and sacred songs.

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206 • FRIBERTH [FRIEBERT], [FRANZ] CARL

FRIBERTH [FRIEBERT], [FRANZ] CARL (7 JUNE 1736, WULL-


ERSDORF, LOWER AUSTRIA, TO 5 AUGUST 1812, BADEN, NEAR
VIENNA). Austrian tenor and composer. At an early age he came to the
attention of Prince Esterházy, who sent him in 1759 to Italy to study voice.
Upon his return a few years later, he was employed at the Esterházy court as
a vocalist, eventually extending his talents to writing or revising texts for the
court theatre, which were set by his supervisor, Joseph Haydn (who may also
have been his teacher in music composition). In 1776 he left the position to
become Kapellmeister at the two Jesuit churches and the Minoritetenkirche in
Vienna, a position he occupied until his death. There he devoted himself to the
composition of church music, in addition to instructing pupils such as Maria
Theresia von Paradies. His musical style is similar to Haydn, but his works
have been little explored. These include nine Masses, a Stabat mater, five mo-
tets, a Requiem, three litanies, six canons, three Salve Reginas, and 24 Lieder.

FRICK, PHILIPP JOSEPH (27 MAY 1740, WILLANZHEIM, NEAR


KITZINGEN, GERMANY, TO 15 JUNE 1798, LONDON). German
composer, organist, and glass harmonica virtuoso. Little is known about his
training or early career, but in 1764 he appears as an organist in the Kapelle
of the Margrave of Baden-Baden. Five years later he embarked upon a career
as a soloist on the glass harmonica, invented by Benjamin Franklin. In 1774
he was in Russia, where he was employed as a teacher, but by 1780 he went
to London, where he remained. He wrote three treatises on harmonization of
chords and thorough bass, and his surviving music includes two symphonies,
an oboe concerto, a woodwind partita, three piano trios, two duets, and
smaller works for keyboard, although there is some debate on whether these
works are all by him.

FRIEBERT, [JOHANN] JOSEPH VON (4 DECEMBER 1724, GNA-


DENDORF, LOWER AUSTRIA, TO 6 AUGUST 1799, PASSAU, GER-
MANY). German composer and singer. Trained at the Melk monastery as
a chorister and by his father, a local organist, Friebert arrived in Vienna in
1748, where he studied under Giuseppe Bonno. In 1755 he was offered a po-
sition singing in the Hoftheater, and in 1763 he left to become Kapellmeister
at the cathedral in Passau. As a tenor, he was known for his lyrical voice and
sensitive interpretation. His music has been little studied, but conforms to the
Viennese style with which he was familiar. Works include four Singspiels,
six Italian operas, and a number of smaller church works.

FRIGEL (FRIGELIUS), PEHR (2 SEPTEMBER 1750, KALMAR,


SWEDEN, TO 24 NOVEMBER 1842, STOCKHOLM). Swedish com-
poser and music administrator. Frigel’s earliest musical education in theory

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FUENTES ALCÁCER, PASCUAL • 207

and organ was received at the Kalmar Gymnasium, but in 1770 he came north
to Uppsala, where he attended university, eventually receiving a master’s
degree in 1776. Taking up a government position in the Ministry of Finance
in Stockholm the following year, he also frequently had his compositions per-
formed at the Society Utile dulci. He subsequently studied composition under
Johann Gottlieb Naumann and Joseph Martin Kraus. In 1796 he became
the permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music, function-
ing also as the archivist and head librarian. His symphonies, hybrid crosses
between suites and overtures, were well accepted, even though old-fashioned.
Although his only opera, Zoroastre (1784), did not reach the stage, he fre-
quently contributed incidental music to popular Swedish opera pastiches such
as Äfventryaren (1791) and Eremiten (1798). He also composed one oratorio
and a number of cantatas, songs, and piano works. His style was considered
extremely conservative, although he often scored for large orchestra. He
ceased musical composition in 1815.

FRISCHMUTH, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (25 NOVEMBER 1741,


SCHWABENHAUSEN, NEAR GOTHA, GERMANY, TO 31 JULY
1790, BERLIN). German actor and composer. Little is known of his early
musical education, save that it must have occurred in the city of Gotha, where
he was employed in 1778 as an actor at the theatre. In 1782, after a year or
two performing as a traveling actor, he settled in Berlin, where he became a
popular composer of Singspiels. Little of his music has survived or has been
studied. Only one stage work, Clarisse, exists, as do two cantatas.

FRITZ, GASPARD (18 FEBRUARY 1716, GENEVA, SWITZERLAND,


TO 23 MARCH 1783, GENEVA). Swiss composer and violinist. Son of a
cellist, he received his training in both composition and violin from Giovanni
Battista Somis in Turin. In 1737 he returned to Geneva, where he became
known as the director of a musical society featuring English expatriates and a
well-regarded teacher. Charles Burney noted that he maintained a quality of
performance in a town where music was little practiced. Fritz also published
his music in Paris, gaining a wider audience. His style reflects galant ten-
dencies. His music consists of six symphonies, a violin concerto, six violin
sonatas, and six duos.

FUENTES ALCÁCER, PASCUAL (1721, ALDYA, SPAIN, TO 1768,


VALENCIA, SPAIN). Spanish composer. At the age of 10 he was a cho-
rister at the cathedral in Valencia, where he received his earliest education.
By 1746 he had become a tenor at the cathedral in Albarracín, and in 1757
he was appointed maestro di capilla at Valencia, as well as teaching at the
local music conservatory. Fuentes composed a large amount of sacred music,

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208 • FUGUING TUNES

including six Lamentations and numerous villancicos, but his works have
been little studied.

FUGUING TUNES. See PSALMODY.

FURIÓ, PEDRO (ca. 1705, ALICANTE, SPAIN, TO 1780, OVIEDO,


SPAIN). Spanish singer and composer. Details of his early education are
sketchy, and he first appears in 1734 as a singer at the Colegio San Nicolás
de Bari in Alicante. At the same time he held a post at the cathedral of Santa
María d’Elche, apparently already being ordained at that time. In 1750 he
was appointed as maestro di capilla in Jáen and over the next decade held
posts, often for as little as a year, in Malaga, Valencia, Grenada, and Léon.
In 1767 he was appointed as cantor at Santiago de Compostela, returning
to Léon in 1770 and finally obtaining a post at Oviedo in 1775. His music
consists of a cappella polyphony, usually in the stile antico. In addition to a
book of Masses, he wrote nine Lamentations and a number of motets. See
also LÁZARO, JOAQUÍN.

FURLANETTO, BONAVENTURA (27 MAY 1738, VENICE, TO 6


APRIL 1817, VENICE). Italian composer. Coming from a poor family, he
was largely self-taught, though a Jesuit education brought him close to the
priesthood. In 1762 he composed his first works and soon became known for
his oratorios. In 1768 he was appointed as maestro di cappella at the church
of Santa Maria Visitazione, and six years later was given a temporary post
as second organist at St. Mark’s. In 1794 he was named interim maestro di
cappella there, obtaining the permanent post in 1814. Furlanetto composed
mainly for the Venetian churches in a style that was considered conserva-
tive by his peers. His music includes 39 oratorios, 10 cantatas, 12 Masses
(and many Mass movements), 32 motets, five introits, 34 antiphons, three
Requiems, 65 hymns, 20 Magnificats, and numerous smaller Psalm settings
and hymns.

FURNO, GIOVANNI (1 JANUARY 1748, CAPUA, ITALY, TO 20


JUNE 1837, NAPLES). Italian composer and pedagogue. Following the
completion of his musical studies at the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio a
Porta Capuana in 1772, he was appointed a teacher there three years later. In
1808 he was the composition instructor at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei
Turchini and later at the Real Conservatorio San Pietro a Maiella. A well-
respected pedagogue, his most famous student was Vincenzo Bellini. As a
composer, little of his music has survived; only two operas, a Miserere, and
a symphony, as well as several smaller orchestral works.

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FUSZ, JÁNOS • 209

FUSZ, JÁNOS (16 DECEMBER 1777, TOLNA, HUNGARY, TO 9


MARCH 1819, BUDAPEST). Hungarian composer and pianist. He received
his earliest education in nearby Baja near the city of Kecskemét and earned
a reputation as a local piano teacher there following instruction with Ignác
Végh in 1790. By 1795 he was in Vienna, where his teachers in musical
composition included Johann Georg Albrechtsberger. He then performed
frequently in the city and in Hungary until 1815, when he retired to Budapest.
His music is all but unknown, but his most important composition is an op-
era, Pyramus és Thisbe, performed in the Hungarian capital in 1801.

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G
GABELONE, GASPARO (12 APRIL 1727, NAPLES, TO 22 MARCH
1796, NAPLES). Italian composer. Son of Michele Cabalone, he opted
for respelling his name to avoid confusion between the two. He entered the
Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto, where he studied under Francesco
Durante. In 1757 he was active at the Teatro Nuovo as a composer and con-
ductor, but in 1780 he abandoned opera for sacred music. His works have
been little studied but include three operas, six oratorios, two Masses, a
Requiem, three Passions, 14 fugues, and two symphonies, as well as other
arias and cantatas.

GABLER, JOSEPH (6 JULY 1700, OCHSENHAUSEN, BAVARIA,


GERMANY, TO 8 NOVEMBER 1771, BREGENZ, AUSTRIA). German
master organ builder. The son of a carpenter, he grew up at the Ochsenhau-
sen Benedictine monastery. Having learned his craft, he concentrated on
designing and building organs for monasteries in Weingarten, Ottobeuren,
Ochsenhausen, and elsewhere. His instruments were known for their unusual
stops and registers.

GAELLE, PATER MEINGOSUS (1752, BUCH, NEAR TETTNANG,


BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 1816, MARIA PLAIN, SALZBURG, AUS-
TRIA). German-Austrian monastic composer. In 1771 he became a member
of the Benedictine monastery in Weingarten, where he taught music. His
most famous work, the Singspiel Die Erschaffung von Adam und Eva written
entirely in dialect, was performed in 1796. Following the dissolution of the
monastery Gaelle taught theology at the University of Salzburg.

GAIANI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (20 NOVEMBER 1757, BOLOGNA,


ITALY, TO 13 OCTOBER 1813, BOLOGNA). Italian composer and or-
ganist. A student of Padre Giovanni Battista Martini and Stanislao Mattei,
he was elected to the Accademia filarmonica in 1781. He served as maestro
di cappella in several churches in Bologna, most importantly the church
of Santa Maria della Morte. In 1802 he functioned as harpsichordist at the
Teatro Communale. A composer whose works were considered somewhat

211

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212 • GAIL, SOPHIE

mediocre in invention, he wrote mostly for the church. These include an in-
termezzo, three oratorios, 18 Kyries, 22 Glorias, 12 Credos, eight graduals,
59 Psalms, seven Magnificats, a Dies Irae and a Salve Regina, in addition to
a number of organ works.

GAIL, SOPHIE. See GURRE, EDMÉE SOPHIE.

GALANT. French term used in the 18th century to describe light music with
periodic melodies, homophonic texture, and contrasting themes, often made
up of sequenced motives. The term evokes clarity and naturalness in music
and is often generically used to describe a style that flourished throughout
Europe during the years 1730 to 1760. It is described in the treatises of Jean-
Jacques Rousseau and Johann Georg Sulzer.

GALEAZZI, FRANCESCO (1758, TURIN, ITALY, TO JANUARY


1819, ROME). Italian theorist, violinist, and composer. Following early
training in Turin, he obtained a position as violinist in the Teatro Valle in
Rome, where he remained for 15 years. Afterward, he gained the patronage of
Tommaso Balucanti in Ascoli, where he lived for all but the last years of his
life. He is best known for his three-volume treatise, Elemento teorico-pratici
de musica, which contains one of the few descriptions of the sonata principle
written during the 18th century. He was well regarded as a teacher, but his
own music was relatively sparse, consisting only of a sacred duet, 14 duets
for violins, 12 string trios, and two violin sonatas.

GALIMBERTI, FERDINANDO (ca. 1715, PROBABLY MILAN, TO


AFTER 1751, MILAN). Italian composer and violinist. As with his col-
league Antonio Brioschi, nothing is known about his life or training, save
that he was active in Milan as a composer between the years 1725 to 1751,
when he vanishes from history. One of his published sets of symphonies
indicates that he was Milanese, though this cannot be proven. His students in-
clude Franz Meyer von Schauensee, who studied violin with him from 1740
to 1742. His own music is similar to that of Giovanni Battista Sammartini
and includes 12 symphonies, two violin concertos, a march for brass instru-
ments, five Mass movements, five Psalms, two Magnificats, a Sequence, a
Miserere, a motet, and an offertory. His music has been neglected, however.

GALLARDO, JOSÉ LINO (1773, OCUMARE DEL TUY, VENEZU-


ELA, TO 1837, CARACAS, VENEZUELA). Venezuelan contrabassist,
conductor, and composer. Trained composer of the Chacao School, he com-
posed his first works around 1790. He was able to survive the 1818 massacre

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GALLODIER, LOUIS • 213

and become one of the new nation’s major musical figures during the 19th
century. He was director of the Academia de Música after 1819 and was a
founding member and conductor of the Philharmonic Society before the revo-
lution. Only his later works written after 1800 survive, with the exception of
some smaller church pieces.

GALLASSI, ANTONIO (ca. 1750, ITALY, TO 1792, BRAGA, PORTU-


GAL). Italian composer and organist. Nothing is known of his life or training,
save that he was appointed as musical director in Braga, Portugal, in 1780.
He served the cathedral for the remainder of his life. Although a number of
sacred works survive, his main composition was a popular Te Deum for that
church.

GALLES, PADRE JOSEP (1758, CASTELLTERCOL, CATALONIA,


SPAIN, TO 1836, VIC, CATALONIA, SPAIN). Catalan clerical composer
and organist. Little or nothing is known of his early education or musical
training, save that it may have been at the monastery at Montserrat, where
he was ordained around 1780. At around the same time, he obtained the post
of organist and choirmaster at the cathedral in Vic, which he retained for
the remainder of his life. His music has been little studied, and only several
versos for organ and 23 keyboard sonatas in the style of Domenico Scarlatti
have been published.

GALLICHONE. Also known as the Colascione. An 18th-century, seven-


course lute favored by lautenists during the period, although its ancestry goes
back over a century earlier. Many are pitched in D major.

GALLO, DOMENICO (1730, VENICE, TO ca. 1775, VENICE). Italian


violinist and composer. Little or nothing is known about his life, save that he
was active in the city as a composer of sacred music. An oratorio was com-
missioned for the Scuole pie in 1750, and by 1755 two sets of trio sonatas
had been published in England attributed to Giovanni Pergolesi (movements
of which were used in Igor Stravinsky’s Pulcinella in the 20th century). His
other music consists of several violin concertos, several symphonies (one of
which was published around 1780), 36 other trio sonatas, and several smaller
sacred works.

GALLODIER, LOUIS (1733, TO 6 June 1803, Stockholm). Swedish bal-


letmaster and dancer. A student of Jean-Georges Noverre, Gallodier began
his career as a dancer at the Opéra and occasionally at the opéra comique
in Paris in 1756. He joined the Dulondel troupe shortly thereafter, arriving

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214 • GALUPPI, BALDASSARE

in 1758 as the lead dancer. In 1771 the rest of the troupe was dismissed, but
Gallodier remained behind in Stockholm as balletmaster, a position he held
for over 20 years. In 1795 he retired, though he retained the title until his
death. He was largely responsible for recruiting one of the most innovative
corps de ballet for the Royal Swedish Opera under Gustav III. As a dancer,
he was well known for his fluid and beautiful movements. He introduced the
progressive ballet style of Noverre to the north.

GALUPPI, BALDASSARE (18 OCTOBER 1706, BURANO, VENE-


TIAN REPUBLIC, ITALY, TO 3 JANUARY 1785, VENICE). Italian
composer and violinist. Although largely self-trained as a youth, a cata-
strophic failure of his first opera, Gli amici rivali, at the age of 16 directed
him to receive professional training from Benedetto Marcello and Antonio
Lotti in Venice. By 1729 he had attained a reputation in the city as a facile
and progressive composer of opera, finding employment in various opera
houses as a continuo player. In 1738 he was appointed as the musical direc-
tor of the Ospedale dei Mendicanti, later traveling to London to perform his
operas. By 1745, beginning with La forza d’amore, he started writing comic
operas, and only four years later he began collaborating with Carlo Goldoni
on a series of comic works for the Venetian carnival. Although he continued
to receive a salary from the Mendicante and as assistant maestro di cappella
at St. Mark’s, he concentrated almost exclusively on commissions for various
cities in Europe. In 1762 he was appointed as maestro di coro at St. Mark’s as
well as musical director at the Ospedale degli Incurabili, and two years later
he traveled to St. Petersburg to produce operas at the court of Catherine II,
including Ifigenia in Tauride. Upon his return to Italy in 1768, he turned to-
ward the composition of sacred music. Charles Burney considered Galuppi
an “intelligent and agreeable gentleman,” the most original of all of the Italian
composers met during his journey.
He is one of the earliest composers to develop the ensemble finale, and his
use of colorful orchestration was praised by Burney, among others. His writ-
ing showed a special gift for good melody and knowledge of vocal writing.
He set much of Pietro Mestastasio’s texts to music, and his collaboration
with Goldoni produced popular comic works, such as La Diavolessa (1755),
Il mondo alla roversa and Il mondo della luna (1750), and La Cantarina
(1756), many of which were produced successfully all over Europe. He
also delved into historical opera with Gustavo I (1740, to a serious text by
Goldoni), based upon the figure of Swedish king Gustaf Wasa. In all, Ga-
luppi wrote 90 sonatas for keyboard, seven concertos “à 4,” 106 operas, 27
oratorios, 19 cantatas, several Masses, and a host of smaller sacred works,
some of which were formerly attributed to Antonio Vivaldi and Johann

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GARCIA, JOSÉ MAURÍCIO NUNES • 215

Adolph Hasse. His son, Antonio Galuppi (ca. 1740—1780), was a librettist
who supplied texts for at least four operas composed by his father. See also
ADOLPHATI, ANDREA; LUCHESI, ANDREA LUCA; SALOMONI, GI-
USEPPE, SR.; ZOPPIS, FRANCESCO.

GAMBARINI, ELISABETTA DE (7 SEPTEMBER 1731, LONDON,


TO 9 FEBRUARY 1765, LONDON). English composer, mezzo-soprano,
and keyboardist. Born to an Italian musician resident in London, Carlo
Gambarini, she may have studied under Francesco Geminiani. She earned a
reputation for her singing as leads in three Handel oratorios, including Judas
Maccabeus in 1747. Her most important compositions include two books of
Lessons for the harpsichord published beginning in 1748—a third book also
exists—as well as numerous songs.

GAMBOLD, JOHN, JR. (15 NOVEMBER 1760, LONDON, TO 21


JUNE 1795, BARBY, SAXONY, GERMANY). English-German key-
boardist and composer. Son of a Moravian Church minister, he was sent
for his education at Niesky in 1774. Although he intended to be a theological
scholar, he was appointed as a teacher, dedicating his entire life to that pur-
suit. His music reflects the central German style of this period and consists
of 26 smaller keyboard works, as well as six keyboard sonatas published in
Leipzig in 1788.

GARAY ÁLVAREZ, RAMÓN FERNANDO (1763, AVILES, NEAR


ALICANTE, SPAIN, TO 1823, JÁEN, SPAIN). Spanish composer. Fol-
lowing studies with Juan Andrés de Lombida and Joaquín Lázaro, he became
organist and maestro di músicos at the monastery of San Jerónimo del Retiro.
In 1792 he was maestro di capilla at the cathedral in Jáen. His music, little
studied, consists largely of polychoral sacred works with striking echo ef-
fects, and includes seven Lamentations settings.

GARCIA, JOSÉ MAURÍCIO NUNES (22 SEPTEMBER 1767, RIO DE


JANEIRO, TO 18 APRIL 1830, RIO DE JANEIRO). Brazilian composer
and organist. He received his initial training under a local cleric, Salvador
José, becoming one of the founding members of the Irmandade of St. Cecilia
in 1784. He was ordained a priest in 1792 and became mestre di capella at
the main cathedral in Rio de Janeiro in 1798. When the court of Dom João
VI moved to Brazil to escape the Napoleonic wars, he was immediately ap-
pointed at the court as well, ultimately becoming one of the first native-born
composers to achieve this distinction. During this period of time he was
active as a composer and teacher, but in 1808 his work was undermined by

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216 • GARCÍA DE CARRASQUEDO, JUAN ANTONIO

Marcos António de Fonseca Portugal, who usurped his position. When the
court left to return to Portugal in 1821, Garcia was left without a position and
died in poverty. His musical style was quite eclectic, with an original use of
form and often colorful orchestration. He left over 200 compositions, as well
as a treatise, Compendio de Música, published in 1821. Included are four
operas (including the O trionfo de América from 1809), 19 Masses, three
Requiems, six keyboard fantasies, two symphonies, and a large number of
sacred works. The music is known by Mattos numbers.

GARCÍA DE CARRASQUEDO, JUAN ANTONIO (FEBRUARY, 1734,


ZARAGOZA, SPAIN, TO 12 APRIL 1812, SANTANDER, SPAIN).
Spanish composer. Following studies with Francisco García Fajer, he was
appointed maestro di capilla at the cathedral of Santander; he was ordained
in 1761. His life was mostly uneventful, and his music incorporates both
Spanish elements and strict counterpoint. His music has been little studied
but consists of five Masses, three villancicos, a Requiem, four hymns, four
Psalms, five motets, a responsory, and two Magnificats.

GARCÍA PRADA, MANUEL (ca. 1720, ASTORIES, SPAIN, TO 1759,


SEGOVIA, SPAIN). Spanish composer. Little is known about his life, save
that he was trained at the Colegio Real in Madrid and assumed the post of
maestro di capilla in Segovia in 1752. His music, exclusively sacred, in-
cludes several motets, Masses, and two Lamentations.

GARDI, FRANCESCO (ca. 1760, PROBABLY NEAR MODENA, TO


ca. 1810, VENICE). Probably born in a small village near Modena, he made
his debut as a composer in that city in 1786. The following year he was ap-
pointed to a post with the Ospedale dei Derelitti in Venice, and in 1797 he
became maestro di cappella at the Ospedale dei Mendicanti. His last work
was a cantata for a friend of Napoleon from 1809, and he is presumed to
have died the following year. His works include 26 operas (mainly buffa),
five cantatas, five oratorios, and two symphonies.

GARTH, JOHN (ca. 1721, HARPERLEY, NEAR WITTON-LE-WEAR,


DURHAM COUNTY, ENGLAND, TO 29 MARCH 1810, DARLING-
TON, ENGLAND). English composer and cellist. Little is known about his
life or works, save that he spent much of his career in and around Durham
in central England, where for a time he functioned as organist at a parish
church near Sedgefield. In 1742 he became a freemason, and in 1745 he
organized a series of public concerts in Stockton. By 1772 he had moved to
Durham where he again organized concerts, sometimes in collaboration with

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GASSMANN, FLORIAN LEOPOLD • 217

Charles Avison from nearby Newcastle. He composed about 30 sonatas for


keyboard, six cello concertos, and several trio sonatas, but his best-known
work is The First Fifty Psalms by Benedetto Marcello that he arranged along
with Avison. His music is decidedly old-fashioned, with a nod to Baroque
techniques. The sonatas, however, do demonstrate rudimentary binary form
and are in two movements, fast and a minuet.

GASPARINI, QUIRINO (24 OCTOBER 1721, GANDINO, ITALY, TO


30 SEPTEMBER 1778, TURIN). Italian composer and organist. Following
early study in Bergamo, he arrived in Milan in 1737 to study with Giovanni
Foroni. He then went to Bologna as a student of Padre Giovanni Battista
Martini, being elected to the Accademia filarmonica in 1751. In 1756 he
made his debut as an opera composer in Milan, but three years later he had
moved back to Bergamo to become maestro di cappella at the Basilica di
Santa Maria Maggiore. In 1760 he was appointed to the same post at the ca-
thedral in Turin. The bulk of his music consists of sacred works written in the
prevailing mid-century Classical sacred style. These include two operas, 17
Masses, nine litanies, six antiphons, five Misereres, a Stabat mater (popular
for many years), three Requiems, and 40 sacred hymns and motets, as well as
12 trio sonatas and two concertos. See also DELLA PIETÀ, MICHIELINA.

GAß, PATER FELIX [GEORG ANTON] (8 AUGUST 1715, NEU-


STADT AN DER SEELE, GERMANY, TO 20 FEBRUARY 1752,
FREIBURG IM BREISGAU, GERMANY). German monastic composer
and organist. He entered the Augustinian order as a novice in Münnenstadt in
1733, and by 1737 he was active as an organist in Freiburg im Breisgau. Fol-
lowing his ordination in 1739 he moved to Fribourg in Switzerland in 1740,
returning to Freiburg in 1743. His music has been little studied but includes
12 Masses, 12 offertories, 24 concertos, and 30 sacred arias.

GASSMANN, FLORIAN LEOPOLD (3 MAY 1729, MOSTĔ [BRÜX],


BOHEMIA, TO 21 JANUARY 1774, VIENNA). Austro-Bohemian com-
poser. The son of a goldsmith, Gassmann received his earliest music educa-
tion from a local choirmaster, Jan Vobořil, in violin and keyboard before
attending the Gymnasium at Chomutovĕ. He began his career as a violinist
in Karlový varů before traveling to Italy to study under Padre Giovanni
Battista Martini in Bologna. He made his debut as an opera composer in
Venice during the Carnival season of 1757 with an opera seria, Merope, pro-
duced at the Teatro San Moisè. Thereafter followed a successful career as a
composer of opera in Italy until 1763 when Joseph II called him to Vienna to
write ballets for the court theatre. He was appointed successively as chamber

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218 • GATES, BERNARD

composer and Kapellmeister, and in 1771 he founded the Tonkünstlersozi-


etät, an organization that benefited musicians in Vienna and their progeny.
He composed the opening work, an oratorio, La Bethulia liberata, for the
inaugural concert. He passed away prematurely as the result of an accident he
sustained in Italy. His major protégé was Jan Křtitel Vanhal. Gassmann was
a much beloved and prolific composer, whose works include 21 operas, 10
opera insertions into works of others or pasticcios, two cantatas, the afore-
mentioned oratorio, five Masses, 10 antiphons, 18 Propers, three hymns, two
antiphons, a Requiem, 32 symphonies, six quartets, numerous divertimen-
tos, and two trios for flute, violin, and viola. His musical style was progres-
sive, with interesting and advanced harmony, good contrasting themes, lively
orchestration, and an excellent sense of proportion. His instrumental music is
known by Hill numbers. See also KOŽELUH, JAN ANTONÍN.

GATES, BERNARD (23 APRIL 1686, THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS,


TO 15 NOVEMBER 1773, NORTH ASTON NEAR OXFORD, ENG-
LAND). English bass singer, theorist, and composer. His earliest education
was as a chorister at the Royal Chapel beginning in 1697, and by 1708 he had
been appointed as a Gentleman of the Royal Chapel. In 1711 he became a lay
vicar at Westminster Abbey and in 1740 the director of the choir there. He
retired in 1757. He was a frequent soloist for George Frederick Handel, ap-
pearing mainly in sacred works. He also was an active teacher, whose unusual
solmization method was remarked upon by John Hawkins, among others. He
was a founding member of several important musical societies, but his own
preference for a conservative type of music led him to disassociate himself in
later years. His music includes six anthems and a morning service.

GATTI, LUIGI (11 JUNE 1740, MANTUA, ITALY, TO 1 MARCH


1817, SALZBURG). Italian composer and singer. Gatti received his earliest
musical education in Mantua before being appointed as a tenor at the Santa
Barbara Church there. He was also ordained a priest, but in 1768 he achieved
a success for his opera Alessandro nell’Indie. His large cantata Virgilio
e Manto inaugurated the Teatro Scientifico, and in 1779 he was appointed
assistant director of the church. Connections with Salzburg allowed him to
travel there in 1783 where he obtained the post of Kapellmeister, much to
Leopold Mozart’s chagrin. He remained there the remainder of his life.
His musical style is conventional, focusing mainly upon sacred music. He is
best remembered for his dealings with the Mozart family, although relations
were often uncordial. As a composer, his main period of activity was prior
to around 1805; his compositions include six operas, 12 cantatas (mostly
secular), 20 Masses, 40 offertories, 18 vespers, three litanies, a Requiem,

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GAVINIÉS, PIERRE • 219

three ballets, six miscellaneous sacred hymns and Psalms, three symphonies,
a serenade, three divertimentos, three concertos (two for keyboard and one
for violin), two septets, a sextet, an oboe quintet, two oboe quartets, 10 so-
natas, and two trios. His music has been little explored, no doubt due to the
issues concerning the Mozarts.

GAUMER, JOHANN NEPOMUK (1727, REINSTETTEN, NEAR


OCHSENHAUSEN, BAVARIA, GERMANY, TO 1793, ISNY, ALL-
GÄU, GERMANY). German monastic composer. He entered the St. Georg
Benedictine monastery in 1744, becoming ordained in 1751. He was elevated
to prior of the monastery in Isny shortly before his death. None of his music
has survived, save for a single motet and a set of three fugues published in
Augsburg in 1776.

GAVEAUX, PIERRE (9 OCTOBER 1760, BÉZIERS, FRANCE, TO 5


FEBRUARY 1825, CHARENTON, NEAR PARIS). French composer and
singer. Trained as a chorister at the Béziers cathedral, he also studied organ
under Abbé Conde. About 1780 he performed in Bordeaux as a tenor in the
opera, studying composition under Franz Beck. By 1788 he was performing
throughout Provence, and after a brief time at Montpelier he moved to Paris,
where he became a principal singer at the Théâtre de Monsieur. During the
French Revolution he opened a music shop and wrote patriotic tunes, such
as “Le réveil du peuple,” which caused considerable controversy. In 1795
he began to write operas, becoming a popular composer of comic works. By
the end of his life he had mental problems and retired to an asylum in 1819.
Gaveaux’s tunes include both simple and folklike tunes with colorful orches-
tration. His works, little studied, include 35 operas, seven symphonies, and
six large romances, as well as the usual Recueils.

GAVINIÉS, PIERRE (11 MAY 1728, BORDEAUX, FRANCE, TO 8


SEPTEMBER 1800, PARIS). French violinist and composer. Son of an
important violin maker, he moved to Paris with his father in 1734, where he
studied music from local teachers. In 1741 he made his debut at the Concerts
spirituels in works by his model, Jean-Marie Leclair [L’Aîne]. Within a
few years he was a regular performer there, well known for his technique
and sonorous lower register. Sometime around 1753, however, he was sent to
prison as the result of an illicit affair with a countess, but in 1759 he returned
to the Concerts spirituels, and the following year he had his only opera, the
Intermède Le pretend, performed with considerable success. Between 1773
and 1777 he collaborated with Jean Legros in running the Concerts spirituels,
and by 1785 a pension granted him by a noble family allowed him to live

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220 • GAZZANIGA, GIUSEPPE

comfortably without steady employment. During the Revolution, he was a


member of the orchestra at the Théâtre de la rue de Louvois, and in 1795 he
became the first professor of violin at the newly established Conservatoire.
Though he composed the usual popular songs and Recueils, his main focus
was on works for his instrument, which are characterized by extensive use of
the lower registers. These include three symphonies, eight violin concertos,
two suites, seven violin sonatas (six of which were published as his Op. 1),
six sonatas for two violins, and a harpsichord sonata. He also wrote a series
of études in 1800 for his students.

GAZZANIGA, GIUSEPPE (5 OCTOBER 1743, VERONA, TO 1 FEB-


RUARY 1818, CREMA, ITALY). Italian composer. Although he contem-
plated the priesthood in his youth, he persuaded his father that he wanted a
career in music, attending the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio a Porta Capuana
in Naples, studying under Niccolò Piccinni and Nicola Porpora. He made
his debut as an opera composer in 1765 at the Teatro San Carlo, which led to
commissions throughout Italy. Over the next two decades he traveled widely,
producing operas in central European centers such as Dresden, Prague, and
Vienna. By 1791, however, he returned to Italy to become maestro di cap-
pella at the cathedral in Crema. His works include 51 operas, three oratorios,
two Requiems, a Stabat mater, two Tantum ergos, a symphony, and three
piano concertos. He is best known today for his 1787 opera Il convitato di
pietra, also called Don Giovanni Tenorio, considered a predecessor to the
more known work of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. See also DRAMMA
GIOCOSA.

GEBEL, GEORG, JR. (25 OCTOBER 1709, BRIEG, SAXONY, GER-


MANY [NOW BRZEG, POLAND], TO 24 SEPTEMBER 1753, RU-
DOLSTADT, GERMANY). German composer and organist. The son of a
musician, Georg Gebel, Sr. (1685–1750), he received his early training from
his father in Breslau, entering the Maria Magdalena Gymnasium, where he
became organist in 1729. He also became Kapellmeister at the nearby court
of the Duke of Württemberg-Oels and in 1734 was taken into the service of
Count Heinrich von Brühl in Warsaw. By 1746 he had been called to become
concertmaster at the court of the prince of Schwarzburg at Rudolstadt; he
succeeded to the post of Kapellmeister there in 1750. His early works are
largely in the Baroque polyphonic style, but his compositions after 1740 re-
flect galant practices, making him a transitional figure. His music includes 12
operas, two oratorios, four complete cantata cycles, about 20 symphonies,
six violin concertos, and numerous smaller sacred and chamber works. See
also GEBEL, GEORG SIEGMUND.

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GEHOT, JOSEPH JEAN • 221

GEBEL, GEORG SIEGMUND (ca. 1715, BRESLAU, SAXONY, GER-


MANY [NOW WROCŁAW, POLAND], TO 1775, BRESLAU]. German
organist and composer. The second son of Georg Gebel, Sr. (1685–1750), he
was trained by his father and in 1736 became assistant organist in Breslau.
He moved between different churches in town until 1749, when he became
principal organist at the St. Elisabeth Church. Although he wrote cantatas
and other sacred and organ works, his music appears to have been lost. See
also GEBEL, GEORG, JR.

GEBHARD, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (2 AUGUST 1755, GERMANY,


TO ca. 1799, BARBY, SAXONY, GERMANY[?]). German composer.
Nothing is known of his origins or early education, although it is supposed
he came from a Moravian Church family. In 1777 he attended the school in
Barby in theology, but by 1784 he had become a teacher of music. In 1790 he
left the seminary and all trace of him is lost in 1799; although this most likely
indicates the date of his death, he may also have embarked upon a mission
to lesser-known quarters of the world. Of his music, several piano sonatas
and 42 anthems have survived, showing that he had considerable talent as a
composer.

GEHOT, JOSEPH JEAN (8 APRIL 1756, BRUSSELS, BELGIUM,


TO 1820, PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, UNITED STATES).
Belgian-American violist and composer. Gehot received his musical educa-
tion from Pierre van Maldere and Henri-Jacques de Croes in Brussels,
and it is thought that he performed occasionally in the royal chapel of Prince
Charles of Lorraine before immigrating to England in 1779. The following
year he was elected a member of the Royal Society of Musicians in London,
and for the next 12 years he performed as a violist both at the King’s Theatre
and at the Pantheon, as well as public concert events or Vauxhalls given at
venues such as Ranleigh Gardens. His opera The Maid’s Last Shift was suc-
cessfully performed in 1787, leading to commissions for several additional
works, and in 1784 he published a treatise, The Theory and Practice of Music,
followed by The Complete Instructions for Clarinet in 1790. In September
1792 he arrived in Philadelphia where he appeared at a concert in the New
Theatre with the premiere of a 12-movement symphony titled “A Voyage to
the New World.” As principal violin with the New Theatre, he participated
in the vibrant musical life of the Philadelphia opera houses, and in 1801 he
published his final theoretical work, The Complete Instructions for Every
Musical Instrument. Within a few years he had retired from the musical scene
of the city and died in poverty and neglect at the age of 64. Though virtually
all of his music written for the theatre has been lost, he was able to publish

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222 • GEISLER, CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED

36 string quartets, as well as 24 military pieces and 12 duets for violin and
cello, all of which show that he was a capable and inventive composer. The
style is reminiscent of his teachers and perennial American favorites, such as
Joseph Haydn.

GEISLER, CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED (10 OCTOBER 1730, TÖPPLI-


WODA, SILESIA, GERMANY [NOW CIEPŁOWODY, POLAND], TO
3 JUNE 1810, ZEIST, NETHERLANDS). German composer and organist.
Brother of Johann Christian Geisler, he joined the Moravian Church along
with the rest of his family at an early age. As a youth he demonstrated con-
siderable talent in music, serving in the communities of Neusalz and Herrn-
haag, as well as at Zeist. In 1755 he was briefly organist at the Moravian
Church in London, but he left two years later to become a teacher of organ
at Zeist. His music consists of over 10 anthems, all written in the prevailing
homophonic style.

GEISLER, JOHANN CHRISTIAN (13 MARCH 1729, TÖPPLIWODA,


SILESIA, GERMANY [NOW CIEPŁOWODY, POLAND], TO 14
APRIL 1815, BERTHELSDORF, NEAR HERRNHUT, SAXONY,
GERMANY). German composer. His earliest musical education came from
Moravian Church teachers, who taught him organ and harp. In 1745 he
formed a trombone choir at Gnadenfrei in Silesia, subsequently serving as
music teacher and pastor to a number of congregations throughout Europe.
His first musical compositions date from 1760, and over the course of 45
years he wrote over 300 works, mainly anthems in the homophonic style
but often incorporating larger instrumental ensembles. His brother, Chris-
tian Gottfried Geisler, was also active, and his students include Johannes
Herbst.

GEISLER [GEISSLER], PATER BENEDIKT (1696, DETTELBACH,


GERMANY, TO 1772, TRIEFFENSTER, GERMANY). German monas-
tic composer and organist. Nothing is known of his life, beyond the fact that
he became a Benedictine monk, serving in the monastery at Trieffenster for
all his life. He was a prolific composer of sacred music, some of which is in
the Baroque style and much of which reflects galant tendencies. His works,
almost all unstudied, include 31 Masses, 18 offertories, 12 antiphons, eight
vespers, six litanies, and two Regina coeli settings.

GEMINIANI, FRANCESCO (5 DECEMBER 1687, LUCCA, ITALY,


TO 17 SEPTEMBER 1762, DUBLIN, IRELAND). Also known as Il fu-
ribondo. Italian violinist, theorist, and composer. A student of Alessandro

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GEREMIA, GIUSEPPE • 223

Scarlatti and Carlo Lonati, he spent his early career both as a violin soloist
and occasional composer of opera in rivalry with George Frederick Handel.
By 1730 he had settled permanently in England, where he remained save for
a brief sojourn in Paris in the 1740s. He passed away from the effects of apo-
plexy in Dublin due to misfortunes caused by a recalcitrant student. Although
the bulk of his music reflects Baroque compositional style and practice, he
published a set of concerto grossi (Op. 7) where the concertino consists of a
string quartet rather than the usual trio, thus representing a transitional stage
to the new style. His 1751 Art of Playing the Violin as well as the Guida Har-
monia of the following year are seminal works demonstrating performance
practice of this period.

GEMMINGEN-HORNSTEIN, ERNST VON (11 FEBRUARY 1759,


CELLE, GERMANY, TO 13 MARCH 1811, MANNHEIM). German
amateur composer and nobleman. After his father’s early death, he was taken
to Heilbronn, where he grew up, possibly learning music from local teachers.
In 1777 he attended the University of Göttingen, and by 1781 he was taken on
a grand tour of France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands, following which
he entered the service of Markgraf Carl Alexander von Brandenburg as his
privy councilor and director of chamber music. In 1786 he was in diplomatic
service but returned to Heilbronn to settle into a domestic life. He assembled
one of the largest collections of music in the 18th century, but his own train-
ing is unknown. He did, however, compose four violin concertos and multiple
sets of Lieder. His style is reminiscent of Joseph Haydn.

GENERALI, PIETRO (4 OCTOBER 1773, ROME, TO 8 NOVEMBER


1832, NOVARA, SPAIN). Italian composer originally named Pietro Mer-
candetti. After early education at the Cappella Musicale Liberiana in Rome
under Giovanni Masi and brief study in Naples, he was engaged at the
Congregazione di Santa Cecilia. In 1800 he debuted as an opera composer,
eventually composing 56 works and being known as a rival to Giaocchino
Rossini. While his main works properly belong to the early Romantic period
and are excellent examples of Rossinian bel canto, his early sacred works,
including motets and Masses, reflect a more conservative style of the Nea-
politan School.

GEREMIA, GIUSEPPE (19 NOVEMBER 1732, CATANIA, ITALY,


TO JANUARY 1814, CATANIA). Italian composer and organist. His mu-
sical education was obtained in Naples at the Conservatorio di Santa Maria
di Loreto under Francesco Durante. In 1760 his first work, an oratorio,
was produced with success, and by 1763 he was active at the Teatro Nuovo.

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224 • GERL, FRANZ XAVER

Despite offers of employment from as far away as St. Petersburg, he chose to


return to Catania in 1773 to become maestro di cappella at the main cathe-
dral. His music follows Neapolitan stylistic practices and includes an opera,
15 oratorios, four cantatas, 23 Masses, a Requiem, and many smaller sacred
works. His music has been little studied.

GERL, FRANZ XAVER (30 NOVEMBER 1764, ANDORF, UPPER


AUSTRIA, TO 9 MARCH 1827, MANNHEIM, GERMANY). Austrian
bass singer and composer. He possibly studied music under Leopold Mozart
during his early years in Salzburg about 1777, but he attended university
there in physics. In 1785 he appeared as a bass at Erlangen and in 1787
joined Emanuel Schickaneder as a singer and composer at the Theater auf
der Wieden in Vienna. Over the next decade he contributed portions of music
to the pasticcio Singspiels performed there, as well as performing signature
roles such as Sarastro in Die Zauberflöte by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
In 1802 he was appointed to the company of the German national theatre in
Mannheim. As a singer, he was known for a deep, resonant voice, but his
skill as a composer appears to have been somewhat limited. His known works
include contributions to 14 Singspiels.

GERVAIS, PIERRE NOËL (1746, MANNHEIM, GERMANY, TO


1805, BORDEAUX, FRANCE). French violinist and composer. The son
of a musician in the service of Carl Theodor, the Elector of Mannheim,
he was trained by Ignaz Fränzl and Franz Beck. Settling in Bordeaux, he
became first violinist at the Grand Théâtre there, and in 1784 he traveled to
Paris, where he performed with great success at the Concerts spirituels. He
returned to Bordeaux, however, and remained there his entire career. Little of
his music has survived; only a published set of violin concertos, which show
that he had great technical skill. His most important students were André-
Joseph Fauvel and Pierre Rode.

GESTURE. A term referring to stage acting, in music most frequently in-


volved in opera. During the Baroque, gesture on stage during arias meant
primarily marching to the front of the stage, striking a pose, and holding it with
minimal movement for the length of the piece. A new style of more active pos-
turing and gestures featuring fluid motions developed around 1738, however,
with emotions being communicated by movements of the body and hands.
Treatises on the subject of expression and Empfindsamkeit (here defined as
emotionality) were written by theatre aestheticians such as Luigi Riccoboni
(An Historical and Critical Account of the Theatres in Europe, viz., the Italian,
Spanish, French, English, Dutch, Flemish and German Theatres, in which is

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GHIRETTI, GASPARO • 225

contained a Review of the Manners, Persons and Characters of the Actors;


intermixed with Many Curious Dissertations upon the Drama published in
London in 1741), Denis Diderot, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

GHERARDESCHI, DOMENICO (1733, PISTOIA, ITALY, TO 1800,


PISTOIA). Italian composer and organist. Brother of Filippo Gherardeschi,
he studied music in his hometown. In 1770 he was appointed as maestro di
cappella of the Pistoia cathedral upon the resignation of his brother. His mu-
sic, which conforms to the galant style, has been little studied and consists
mainly of sacred works. See also GHERARDESCHI, GIUSEPPE.

GHERARDESCHI, FILIPPO MARIA (11 OCTOBER 1738, PISTOIA,


ITALY, TO 30 SEPTEMBER 1808, PISA). Italian composer and brother
of Domenico Gherardeschi. He studied under Padre Giovanni Battista
Martini in Bologna in 1756, being elected to the Accademia filarmonica
five years later. In 1763 he was appointed as maestro di cappella in Volterra,
at the same time as he functioned as organist in Pisa. In 1770 he obtained
the post of director at the Pistoia cathedral, later also serving the court of
Leopold of Tuscany in 1783. In 1785 he was appointed maestro di cappella
at the church of Santo Stefano in Pisa. His music is little known, but includes
seven operas, 10 sonatas, a concerto, and numerous sacred works, as well as
a treatise, Elementi per suonare il cembalo.

GHERARDESCHI, GIUSEPPE (3 NOVEMBER 1759, PISTOIA, IT-


ALY, TO 6 AUGUST 1815, PISTOIA). Italian composer and organist.
Son of Domenico Gherardeschi and nephew of Filippo Gherardeschi, he
studied in Naples at the Conservatorio della Pietà dei Turchini under Nicola
Sala. Returning to Pistoia, he was appointed organist at the church of Santa
Maria Ulimità in 1770 after resigning as maestro di cappella of the main ca-
thedral in favor of his brother. In 1800 he returned as maestro di cappella at
the Pistoia cathedral, becoming his brother’s successor. A prolific composer
in the modern church style of the time, he wrote two operas, four cantatas,
an oratorio, 30 Masses, 37 Lamentations, 90 motets, five Te Deums, seven
symphonies, a quintet, six trios, and six violin sonatas, as well as many
smaller chamber and sacred compositions.

GHIRETTI, GASPARO (1747, NAPLES, TO 1827, PARMA, ITALY).


Italian violinist and composer. Following his early education at the Conser-
vatorio della Pietà dei Turchini, he was appointed as chamber musician to the
Duke of Parma. There he composed concertos for his instrument, as well as
chamber works. His most important pupil was Nicolò Pagannini.

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226 • GIAI, FRANCESCO SAVERIO

GIAI, FRANCESCO SAVERIO (27 SEPTEMBER 1729, TURIN, TO 12


AUGUST 1801, TURIN). Italian composer. The son of Giovanni Antonio
Giaj, he attended the Collegium Puerorum Innocentium in Turin. In 1759 he
was sent to Bologna, Rome, and Naples, where he furthered his musical stud-
ies with Padre Giovanni Battista Martini and Francesco de Majo. By 1764
he had become director of the Royal Cappella in Turin, a position he inherited
from his father. His music is characterized by a solid contrapuntal background
and a sense of good orchestration that is equal to the large-scale sacred works
of his time. His surviving music, little studied, includes 11 Masses (and six
Mass movements), three Requiems, 25 Psalms, three Magnificats, two Te
Deums, four litanies, 26 Lessons, and numerous other smaller works.

GIAJ, GIOVANNI ANTONIO (11 JUNE 1690, TURIN, TO 10 SEP-


TEMBER 1764, TURIN). Italian composer and organist. Educated at the
Cappella degli l’Innocenti in Turin, he had his first opera premiered in 1715.
In 1727 he was appointed as maestro di cappella for the city, but he left a
year later for several years in Malta. By 1732 he had returned to his former
position, which he retained the remainder of his life. Although his early
works reflect Baroque practice, many of the later operas are imitative of the
new Neapolitan style, with good lyrical lines and more homophonic accom-
paniment. His works include 15 operas, five Masses (and 11 Mass move-
ments), a Requiem, 15 Psalms, 16 hymns, seven litanies, nine sequences, 36
motets, two cantatas, five symphonies, a violin concerto, and several smaller
keyboard works. See also GIAI, FRANCESCO SAVERIO.

GIANOTTI, PIETRO (ca. 1700, LUCCA, ITALY, TO 9 JUNE 1765,


PARIS). French-Italian composer and contrabassist. Nothing is known about
his early musical education, but in 1728 he appeared in Paris, where he
published his first set of violin sonatas. By 1739 he had become employed
as contrabassist with the Académie royale de musique, as well as taking stu-
dents, such as Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny. In 1749 he began to appear at
the Concerts spirituels as well. In 1759 he published a treatise, Le guide du
compositeur, which is based upon the theory of Jean-Philippe Rameau. A
further treatise on the keyboard remained unpublished until after his death.
Although the bulk of his music, as many as 24 sonatas for the violin, as well
as about 12 trio sonatas, reflect more of a conservative Baroque practice, his
cantata L’école des filles and the quodlibet Les soirées de Limeil, using folk
instruments, show that he was aware of the emerging galant style.

GIARDINI, FELICE (12 APRIL 1712, TURIN, TO 8 JUNE 1796, MOS-


COW). Italian violinist and composer known as Degiardino. Regarded as a
child prodigy, he made his debut as a soloist in Milan at the age of 12. Dur-

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GILLINGHAM, GEORGE • 227

ing the 1750s he toured Europe as a soloist, eventually settling in England. In


1784 he was appointed as theatre director in Naples, but the bankruptcy of the
organization forced him to seek employment outside of Italy. He attempted
to find a post in England in 1793, eventually moving to Moscow as a teacher.
His music, in the Neapolitan style, includes three operas; an oratorio; a sin-
fonia concertante for flute, harp, violin, and orchestra; 12 violin concertos;
36 violin sonatas; 22 trios and 12 trio sonatas; and seven quartets.

GIBELLI, LORENZO (24 NOVEMBER 1718, BOLOGNA, ITALY, TO


5 NOVEMBER 1812, BOLOGNA). Italian bass-baritone and composer. A
student of Padre Giovanni Battista Martini in 1744, he was elected as a
member of the Accademia filarmonica in 1749 and thereafter had a career as
a singer at the Teatro Communale. He also served as maestro di cappella at
the church of San Salvatore. His music has been little studied but consists of
five operas, five oratorios, a cantata, a Mass, an antiphon, and three hymns.
He was best known for his sonorous voice.

GIBERT, PAUL-CÉSAR (1717, VERSAILLES, FRANCE, TO 1787,


PARIS). French composer. Son of a Royal Guard, he was sent to Naples to
study music. By 1750 he had returned to France, settling in Paris as a teacher
of singing. In 1760 his first opéra comique, La fortune du village, followed
the next year by his most important success, Soliman second, at the Théâtre
Italien, for which Charles Simon Favart imported costumes and sets from
Constantinople. In 1766 three of his motets were performed at the Concerts
spirituels, and shortly thereafter a set of singing exercises, Les Solfèges, was
published. Gibert was one of the first to popularize the mêlée des ariettes,
a compendium of salon works taken from his own operas, but his music is
often considered to lack originality. Surviving works include seven operas
and three motets, as well as several sets of arrangements.

GILLET, ALEXANDER (14 AUGUST 1749, GRANBY, CONNECTI-


CUT, UNITED STATES, TO 19 JANUARY 1826, TORRINGTON,
CONNECTICUT). American psalmodist. He graduated from Yale in 1770
and was ordained a Congregational minister in 1773. He served as a pastor
at Wolcott, Connecticut, before moving to Torrington in 1792. His 32 works
were published piecemeal in various collections.

GILLINGHAM, GEORGE (11 DECEMBER 1768, GUDDINGTON,


BEDFORDSHIRE, ENGLAND, TO 1827, NEW YORK). Anglo-Ameri-
can violinist and composer. His earliest position was in Birmingham as a vio-
linist in the local theatre orchestra, but in 1785 he was pointed out by Charles
Burney as having performed in the Handel Centennial Festival. In 1790 he

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228 • GIORDANI, GIUSEPPE

was elected to the Royal Society of Music, and in 1794 he immigrated to the
United States to Philadelphia, where he participated as a director in the Ama-
teur and Professionals concerts. In 1797 he moved to New York to direct the
Greenwich Theatre, performing with his wife and son until 1821. His music
has not survived, but he composed several ballad operas for New York.

GIORDANI, GIUSEPPE (19 DECEMBER 1751, NAPLES, TO 4 JANU-


ARY 1798, FERMO, ITALY). Italian composer, known as Giardinello. His
earliest studies were at the Conservatorio di Santa Maria di Loreto, and by
1774 he was employed at the Naples cathedral as a conductor, with his op-
eras being especially sought after throughout Italy. In 1789 he had a tremen-
dous success at La Scala in Milan, which led to an appointment as maestro di
cappella in Fermo in 1791. His music is characterized by a dramatic content
with close attention to the text. This includes 32 operas, 11 oratorios, three
cantatas, 10 Masses, a Requiem, 85 offertories, 13 Psalms, 14 hymns, five
motets, 27 responsories, seven litanies, three violin and five pianoforte sona-
tas, six trios, and several smaller sacred works.

GIORDANI, TOMMASO (ca. 1730, NAPLES, TO FEBRUARY 1806,


DUBLIN). Italian-English composer. Raised in a musical family that formed
its own opera troupe in 1745, he traveled throughout Europe where he per-
formed as a singer in the company. In 1753 he obtained a post as a singer at
Covent Garden in London, later moving in 1764 to Dublin where he wrote his
first operas (all in English). He returned to compose for the King’s Theatre
in 1770 and then returned to Dublin in 1783 for the remainder of his life. A
prolific composer who adapted readily to the English style, his works were
popular. His music consists of 26 operas (and many insertions), an oratorio,
three incidental music sets, 44 canzonetts, 27 concertos (mostly flute and
violin), five odes/large cantatas, two symphonies, six quintets, 12 quartets,
17 trios, 31 duos, and 33 sonatas, as well as small works and dances. He also
was a prolific composer of the English song.

GIORGI, GIOVANNI (ca. 1690, VENICE, TO JUNE 1762, LISBON).


Italian-Portuguese composer. He possibly received his early training under
Antonio Lotti in Venice, but by 1719 he had become maestro di cappella
at St. John Lateran in Rome. In 1725 he was called to Lisbon to become the
director of music at the Lisbon cathedral. He remained there the rest of his
life, although he occasionally undertook commissions from Italy. His musi-
cal style demonstrates the changeover from Baroque practice to the more
homophonic and lyrical Neapolitan style, although many of his sacred works
also use the stile antico. His music, little studied, consists of 33 Masses, 145

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GIULIANO, GIUSEPPE • 229

graduals, 137 antiphons, 152 offertories, 167 Psalms, 49 hymns, 20 responso-


ries, 162 motets, five sequences, a set of Lamentations, and a set of madrigals.

GIORNOVICHI, GIOVANNI MANE. See JARNOVIĆ, IVAN MANE.

GIROLAMI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1702, VERGEMOLI, NEAR


LUCCA, ITALY, TO 20 JANUARY 1786, CASTELNUOVO, ITALY).
Italian clerical organist and composer. The son of a musical family, he was
ordained a priest in 1724, and in 1763 he became the maestro di cappella at
the cathedral in Castelnuovo. He was pensioned in 1784. His music is all but
unknown, but it consists mostly of sacred works, including several Masses
(and Mass movements), a Requiem, and numerous smaller compositions.

GIULIANI, ANTONIO MARIA (17 AUGUST 1739, RAVENNA, IT-


ALY, TO 21 FEBRUARY 1831, MODENA, ITALY). Italian keyboardist
and composer. Trained at an early age in Modena, he was a member of the
Accademia filarmonica, and in 1773 he became maestro di cappella at the
main cathedral in the city. In 1783 he took on the additional post of in-house
composer at the Teatro, retiring about 1807. His music is all but unknown
outside of a concerto for two mandolins and orchestra. His works, however,
include operas, sacred music, and chamber works.

GIULIANI, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO (ca. 1760, LIVORNO, ITALY,


TO 1818, FLORENCE, ITALY). Italian composer and violinist. A student
of Pietro Nardini, he moved to Florence early in his career, eventually be-
coming the director of the Teatro degli Intrepidi there. He also taught at the
Accademia di Belle Arti as a professor. His musical style is closely modeled
on that of Joseph Haydn and his teacher. His works include an intermezzo,
three ballets, eight notturnos, 10 concertos, two symphonies, four quintets,
45 quartets (many with mandolins), nine trios, 30 duets, and six keyboard
sonatas. His music has been little studied, however.

GIULIANO, GIUSEPPE (ca. 1720, NAPLES, TO ca. 1776, NAPLES).


Italian composer and mandolin player. Almost nothing is known about
him, although he appears to have been a native of Naples and functioned
there as a violinist and mandolin player between 1764 and 1776, when he
disappears from history. Conversely, his music was popular throughout
Europe, being exported to as far away as Sweden. His style is reminiscent
of Empfindsamkeit, with a penchant for Neapolitan lyricism. His works
include several symphonies, two concertos for mandolins, and two man-
dolin sonatas.

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230 • GIULINI, COUNT GIORGIO

GIULINI, COUNT GIORGIO (16 JULY 1714, MILAN, TO 26 DECEM-


BER 1780, MILAN). Italian member of the nobility, statesman, historian,
and amateur composer. As a part of the ruling class, Giulini was educated
in various arts, including music with Giovanni Battista Sammartini. He
became a part of the Milanese council, however, with his musical endeavors
being relegated to local events. His most important work is a history of the
city of Milan, Memorie spettanti alla storia di Milano of 1779, which earned
him the enmity of their Austrian rulers. His music, much in the style of his
teacher, includes several symphonies and chamber works.

GIULINI, JOHANN ANDREAS (bap. 15 OCTOBER 1723, AUGS-


BURG, GERMANY, TO 21 AUGUST 1772, AUGSBURG). German
clerical composer. A student at the Sankt Salvator Jesuit Gymnasium in
Augsburg, he was trained in theology at Schwetzingen before being ordained
a priest in 1749. He returned to Augsburg shortly thereafter, and in 1755 he
became Kapellmeister at the cathedral, a position he retained the remainder
of his life. A well-respected theorist and teacher whose students included
Johann Michael Demmler, he composed in a style that combined Baroque
counterpoint with Classical harmonic and stylistic elements. His most impor-
tant work is the Canticum Zachariae, but he wrote school dramas, a number
of Masses, symphonies, and a large amount of sacred music, most of which
has never been explored.

GIUSSANI, SEVERO (ca. 1715, PROBABLY MILAN, TO ca. 1770, MI-


LAN). Italian tenor and composer. Nothing is known of his training or life,
save that he served as a tenor in the cathedral choir in Milan, as well as in the
opera house. He appears in several lists of the cappella under Gian Andrea
Fioroni up through 1768. His main known works are two sonatas for organ
and harpsichord.

GIUSTINI, LODOVICO (12 DECEMBER 1685, PISTOIA, ITALY, TO


7 FEBRUARY 1743, PISTOIA, ITALY). Italian church composer and
keyboardist. He received his earliest training from his father, Francesco Gius-
tini, who was an organist at a Jesuit church, the Congregazione dello Spirito
Sancto. In 1725 he succeeded his father, later also becoming a teacher at the
Collegio dei Nobili. In 1734 he obtained the additional post of organist at the
main cathedral in Pistoia, the Santa Maria dell’Umilità. The bulk of his music
has been lost, with the exception of a few sacred arias and a published set of
12 Sonate da cimbalo di piano e forte detto volgarmente di martelletti (Op.
1), which are some of the earliest works specifically meant for the fortepiano.
Other music consisted of sacred cantatas and at least one oratorio and set of

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GLASS HARMONICA • 231

Lamentations composed in collaboration with Giovanni Clari. His style is


reminiscent of the early galant, with clear themes and contrasts, although he
still uses the Baroque suite form in the sonatas.

GLACKMAYER, JOHANN CONRAD FRIEDRICH [FREDERICK]


(10 AUGUST 1759, HANNOVER, TO 12 JANUARY 1836, QUÉBEC
CITY, CANADA). German-Canadian composer, performer, and teacher.
Glackmayer was the son of a fife player in a military band, and according to
anecdotal evidence, he exhibited considerable talent as a performer at an early
age. Although destined for a career as a musician at the local court, he left
for Canada, arriving in Trois Rivières in 1777. By 1783 he was resident in
Québec City, where he taught stringed instruments and keyboard; as well, he
ran a business importing both music and instruments from Europe. In 1790 he
inaugurated subscription concerts with a fellow immigrant, Francis Vogeler
(see Franz Heinrich Vogler), and from 1813 until his death he functioned as
an organist at the main church in the city. As a composer, he wrote a number
of compositions in many genres. Newspaper advertisements include mention
of a variety of chamber music and symphonies, but the only music to have
survived are several marches and arrangements of larger works for keyboard.
Glackmayer, however, may be considered the first music teacher of impor-
tance in Canada.

GLASER, JOHANN WENDELIN (1 MAY 1713, OSTHEIM VOR DER


RÖHN, BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG, GERMANY, TO 6 FEBRUARY
1783, WERTHEIM, BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG, GERMANY). German
composer and organist. The son of a cantor, he attended the Gymnasium
at Schleusingen, and subsequently the Latin school in Nürnberg, where he
focused upon music education in preparation for following in his father’s
footsteps. In 1738 he succeeded to the post of cantor at Ostheim, but by 1741
he accepted the post of preceptor and cantor at Langenburg and subsequently
at Wertheim in 1744. His compositions number over 300 cantatas, including
three complete cycles, as well as a treatise titled Praeceptor bene instructus
on the proper singing and instruction of Lutheran chorales.

GLASS HARMONICA. Also known as “the Musical Glasses.” Said to


have been invented by American Benjamin Franklin around 1760, it consists
of a series of graduated glass basins that are fixed to a spindle and sitting in
a metal trough of water. The spindle is rotated by a pedal mechanism. The
sound is produced either by rubbing one’s wet finger along the rims of the
rotating glasses or by a keyboard system. Composers of the 18th century were
often enamored by the ethereal sound; compositions were written by Johann

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232 • GLEE

Adolph Hasse, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Gottlieb Naumann,


and Christoph Willibald von Gluck, among others.

GLEE. Developed in the 17th century, particularly in English or English-


speaking regions, the glee can be defined as a part song for three or four
voices generally performed a cappella. These consist of several short, con-
trasting movements or sections and were meant as chamber music for salons,
clubs, and other organizations. Unlike the catch, the glee is generally an
innocuous poetic text. The most famous organization was the Noblemen and
Gentlemen’s Catch Club of London, which offered an annual prize for the
best glees beginning in 1762. A mixed gender club, the London Glee Club,
was formed in 1787. Composers of glees include Benjamin Cooke, Thomas
Arne, and Philip Hayes.

GLEISMAN, CARL ERIK (1767, STOCKHOLM, TO 9 DECEMBER


1804, STOCKHOLM). Swedish composer and organist. For most of his
career, he was considered an amateur whose main profession was as a secre-
tary at the state fire insurance office. By 1792, however, he had obtained the
post of organist at the St. Clara Church, although several years earlier he had
become a regular at the Palmstedt Literary Circle, where several of his songs,
later published in the Musikaliskt tidsfördrif, were performed. His music is
simple in style, with little harmonic variation and sometimes awkward phras-
ing. Surviving pieces include insertions into the pasticcio opera Eremiten
of 1798, 25 songs (of which 11 were published), and a number of smaller
fortepiano pieces.

GLEISSNER, FRANZ JOHANN (6 APRIL 1761, NEUSTADT AN DER


WALDNAAB, GERMANY, TO 28 SEPTEMBER 1818, MUNICH). Ger-
man composer, singer, contrabass player, and publisher. Trained at the Jesuit
Gymnasium in Amberg, he composed his first work, a Requiem, in 1778. In
1780 he went for further education in Munich, where he was attached to a
military regiment in 1785. He was able to compose for the stage during the
next several years, and in 1791 he became employed by the court orchestra as
a contrabassist. In 1796 he founded a lithographic process for notation, which
he and publisher Johann André used under royal privilege in Offenbach. In
1806 he returned to Munich to become inspector of royal printing. Gleissner
worked with André on the first catalog of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart. He himself was a prolific composer, writing 30 Masses, two Re-
quiems, eight litanies, three vespers, five offertories, 12 other sacred works,
an oratorio, 12 stage works (ballets and Singspiels), 13 symphonies, four

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GLUCK, CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD RITTER VON • 233

quartets, 12 Lieder, 12 flute duets, over 60 works for keyboard, and several
other smaller chamber works.

GLUCK, CHRISTOPH WILLIBALD RITTER VON (2 JULY 1714,


ERASBACH BEI BERCHING, UPPER PALATINATE, GERMANY,
TO 15 NOVEMBER 1787, VIENNA). German composer of international
stature. Although little is known about his youth, Gluck reported that he came
from a musical family; his father, a forester, was adept at various instruments.
In 1731 he attended Prague University studying logic and mathematics be-
fore moving to Italy to study music under Giovanni Battista Sammartini in
Milan. His first opera, Artaserse, was performed there in 1741, followed by
Demetrio in Venice a year later. Thereafter, he composed works throughout
Italy before moving to London in 1746. Despite disparaging remarks by
George Frederick Handel, he achieved some success there, and joined the
Mingotti troupe as their Kapellmeister. He toured with them for several
years until 1750, when he married the daughter of a wealthy Viennese mer-
chant, thus allowing him economic stability. He then began to write operas
for both Prague and Vienna, the latter beginning in 1754 with Le cinesi. In
1756 he was invested as a Knight of the Golden Spur by Pope Benedict XIV,
thus allowing himself to be known by the title Chevalier von Gluck.
By 1758 he had turned toward the opéra comique, beginning with La
fausse esclave. During this period he also became acquainted with the di-
rector of the opera, Count Giacomo Durazzo, choreographers Gasparo
Angiolini and Franz Hilverding, as well as librettist Raniero Calzabigi.
Discussions on the dramatic ballet led to the 1761 premiere of Don Juan,
followed the next year by the opera Orfeo ed Euridice, leading to an impor-
tant work, Alceste, of 1767, which contains a seminal preface describing the
concept of opera reform. In 1774 Gluck was called to Paris around the same
time as he was named hofKapellmeister in Vienna. Here he produced a series
of operas ranging from French revisions of his Viennese works to original
pieces such as Iphigénie en Aulide and Armide. This led to the revival of the
French opera, as well as a controversy when the Théâtre Italien brought Nea-
politan composer Niccolò Piccinni to Paris to foment a rivalry similar to the
Querelle des bouffons two decades earlier. In 1779 Gluck returned to Vienna
following a stroke that occurred during his final opera, Écho et Narcisse. A
German opera, Hunnenschlacht, remained fragmentary, and a further Parisian
commission, Les Danïades, was given over to Gluck’s pupil Antonio Salieri.
Gluck wrote over 50 operas, ranging from opera seria to opéra comique,
as well as numerous additions to pasticcios, at least 40 ballets, ranging from
divertissements to ballets d’action, 12 Lieder, nine symphonies, eight trio

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234 • GNECCO, FRANCESCO

sonatas, four Psalms/sacred works, and a number of miscellaneous works.


Gluck can be considered a seminal figure in the development and reform of
opera in the Classical period. His influence ranged from Italy to Scandinavia
and from Russia to France; moreover, he wrote in virtually all of the styles
of opera of the period, as well as being a major contributor to the develop-
ment of the 18th-century ballet. Of particular note is his ability to orchestrate
his operas, using timbre effectively to create dramatic moments. His works
bear Wq (Wotquenne) numbers. See also EDELMANN, JEAN-FRÉDÉRIC;
KOŽELUH, JAN ANTONÍN; SORKOČEVIĆ, LUKA; TITZ, ANTON
FERDINAND.

GNECCO, FRANCESCO (1769, GENOA, ITALY, TO 1811, MILAN).


Italian violinist and composer. Following studies under Giacomo Costa and
Giuseppe Mariani, he worked for a time as maestro di cappella in Savona
before making his debut in 1792 as a composer of opera with Auretta e Ma-
sullo. A prolific composer of operas, he remained in Milan the remainder of
his life, living off of commissions from throughout Italy. His works include
24 operas, two symphonies, a sextet, two quintets, seven string quartets,
three clarinet trios, and six notturnos.

GOLDBERG, JOHANN GOTTLIEB [THEOPHILUS] (bap. 14


MARCH 1727, DANZIG [NOW GDAŃSK, POLAND], TO 13 APRIL
1756, DRESDEN). German keyboardist and composer. Although little is
known about his early education, his talent for playing the harpsichord at-
tracted the attention of the Russian ambassador to Saxony, Hermann Karl von
Keyserlinck, who took the young child in 1737 to Dresden to be educated.
He was first sent to Johann Sebastian Bach and subsequently this composer’s
son, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, who was resident in the Saxon capital.
In 1745 he left the service of Keyserlinck and in 1751 was given a position
with Count Heinrich von Brühl. He died shortly thereafter from tuberculosis.
Although he was a well-regarded virtuoso on the keyboard, Goldberg’s repu-
tation rests largely upon an apocryphal story by Johann Nikolaus Forkel
regarding a set of variations composed by Johann Sebastian Bach to cure
Keyserlinck’s insomnia. Goldberg, however, began composing at the age of
10, eventually writing a number of cantatas (one of which Bach performed
in 1743), two keyboard concertos, five trio sonatas, a set of 24 polonaises,
and chorale preludes.

GOLDONI, CARLO (25 FEBRUARY 1707, VENICE, TO 6 FEBRU-


ARY 1793, PARIS). Italian librettist of mainly opera buffa. Though he
spent the bulk of his life near Venice writing librettos for comic operas, he

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GÒNIMA, EMMANUEL [MANUEL] • 235

was educated in law and often resorted to making his living as a lawyer. Dur-
ing his lifetime, he wrote a variety of works in all literary genres, but his 80
librettos are often considered the most popular for their accessible language
and good comic timing. These include La buona Figliuola by Giovanni
Paisiello and Il mondo della luna, set by a number of composers including
Joseph Haydn. See also MACCARI, GIACOMO.

GOLLER, PATER MARTIN [JOSEF] (20 FEBRUARY 1764, LAJEN


BEI KLAUSEN, AUSTRIA, TO 1836, INNSBRÜCK, AUSTRIA). Aus-
trian monastic organist and composer. He was trained at the Benedictine
monastery in St. Georgenburg before acting as organist in 1780. He entered
the order around 1785 and in 1800 was regens chori at the Benedictine
monastery in Fiecht until its dissolution in 1806. Thereafter he taught music
in Innsbrück. His music reflects a simple style similar to Michael Haydn,
though much of it was destroyed in the Fiecht monastery fire in the 19th cen-
tury. His works include 15 Masses, two Te Deums, two vespers, 18 graduals
and offertories, 22 Tantum ergos, 18 sacred Lieder, and a concerto for two
clarinets.

GOMES, ANDRÉ DA SILVA (DECEMBER 1752, LISBON, TO 17


JUNE 1844, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL). Portuguese-Brazilian composer.
Following early training in Lisbon, he was taken to Brazil by Fra Manuel da
Ressurreição as a musician for the cathedral of São Paulo, where he was made
mestre di capella in 1774. He served here his entire life, being pensioned in
1823, teaching a generation of composers of the Portuguese colony and later
empire of Brazil, as well as writing music for the Societas Ordem Terceira
do Carmo. Over 130 compositions survive in the cathedral archives in São
Paulo, including Psalms and Masses, but also keyboard works and modhi-
nas. His early style is similar to composers active in Lisbon, such as Davide
Perez, who served as his model.

GOMES DA ROCHA, FRANCISCO (ca. 1746, VILA RICA DE ALBU-


QUERQUE [NOW OURO PRÊTO], BRAZIL, TO 9 FEBRUARY 1808,
VILA RICA). Brazilian composer. Trained at the musical conservatories in
Minas Gerais, he became conductor of the orchestra at São Tomé in 1768,
and in 1800 at the Ordem Terceiro do Como. His surviving works include
four large responsories.

GÒNIMA, EMMANUEL [MANUEL] (1712, LLEIDA, CATALONIA,


TO 26 FEBRUARY 1792, GIRONA, CATALONIA). Catalan composer.
His earliest studies were in Barcelona with Pablo Llina, following which in

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236 • GONZÁLEZ GAITÁN Y ARTENGA, JUAN MANUEL

1733 he sought the post of mestre de capella at the Vic cathedral. Unsuc-
cessful in this application, he eventually won a similar position at the Girona
cathedral in 1733. He remained in this position until his death, although his
major duties were taken over in 1774 by Francesc Juncá i Carol. His works
include numerous villancicos and smaller sacred works such as hymns and
responsories. There are also several Masses, all of which are conservative in
their setting. See also PONS, JOSÉ.

GONZÁLEZ GAITÁN Y ARTENGA, JUAN MANUEL (1710, COR-


DOBA, SPAIN, TO ca. 1785, CORDOBA). Spanish composer and singer.
Trained as a child in the choir of the cathedral in Cordoba, he was appointed
as maestro di capilla in Segovia in 1741, serving there a decade before re-
turning to his hometown to undertake a similar post. He retired in 1780 and
disappears from history. His music includes Masses and motets but has been
little studied.

GORDILLO, PADRE CARLOS (ca. 1710, QUITO, ECUADOR, TO ca.


1757, QUITO). Ecuadorian singer and composer. Raised and educated by
clerics at the main cathedral in Quito, he rose from being a choirboy to being
appointed maestro di capilla in 1743, following the death of Francisco Ha-
ranjo (1690–1742). He succeeded to the post because no other candidate was
available; the church council deemed him marginal. His music seems to have
been limited to motets, but almost all of it was destroyed in the earthquakes
of 1754 and 1757.

GÖRNER, JOHANN GOTTLIEB (bap. 16 APRIL 1697, PENIG, SAX-


ONY, GERMANY, TO 15 FEBRUARY 1778, LEIPZIG). German com-
poser and organist. In 1712 he enrolled in the Thomasschule, where he stud-
ied music under Johann Kuhnau. By 1716 he had become a student at Leipzig
University and held the post of organist at the Paulinerkirche. Shortly before
the arrival of Johann Sebastian Bach, he was appointed as organist at the
Nicolaikirche and the St. Thomas Church, a post he retained for his entire life.
A dispute over directorship of the university collegium musicum with Bach
led to a division of duties into an “old” and “new” ensemble, though it had no
effect on a collegial personal relationship. After Bach’s death Görner failed
to become his friend’s successor, but in 1764 he led the public concert series
in Leipzig for several years. His early works, including some 32 cantatas,
are Baroque in style, but several compositions from his later years—namely,
three symphonies and two keyboard concertos—demonstrate an awareness
of the emerging galant style.

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GOTTSCHED, LUISE ADELGUNDE VICTORIA [NÉE KULMUS] • 237

GOSSEC, FRANÇOIS-JOSEPH (17 JANUARY 1734, VERGINES,


HAINAUT, FRANCE [NOW BELGIUM], TO 16 FEBRUARY 1829,
PASSY, NEAR PARIS). French-Belgian composer. Gossec received his
earliest musical training in a local church under Jean Vanderbelen before
becoming a chorister in Antwerp, where he was trained further by André-
Joseph Blavier. In 1751 he moved to Paris, where he became a pupil of Jean-
Philippe Rameau. He succeeded Rameau as the conductor of the orchestra of
tax official Le Riche de la Poupelinière before accepting an appointment with
the Prince de Condé. In 1760 he produced a Requiem that gained him over-
night fame for its “terrifying” music. His fame as a symphonist and composer
of opera in Paris was matched by his activity as a musical entrepreneur. In
1769 he founded the Concerts des amateurs, in 1773 he helped to reorganize
the Concerts spirituels, and in 1784 he instructed at the École de chant. Dur-
ing the Revolution he was France’s most famous composer, writing a large
number of works for the Directorate, and later when Napoleon rose to power,
he was one of the first teachers at the Conservatoire, a post he held until his
retirement in 1817.
During his long life, he was considered the foremost composer in France,
regardless of political views. His early works show the influence of the Italian
style, but beginning in the 1770s he became a strong supporter of Christoph
Willibald von Gluck. Gifted with a knack for memorable tunes and some-
times awe-inspiring orchestral effects, Gossec seemed to have a gift for dis-
cerning popular music. He was a prolific composer, writing 48 symphonies,
six sinfonia concertantes, 22 operas, four ballets, 12 trio sonatas, six string
quartets and six flute quartets, three Te Deums (including a massive multi-
movement work from 1817), two oratorios, the aforementioned Requiem,
three Masses, numerous smaller sacred works, a wind symphony, and dozens
of Revolutionary hymns, dirges, marches, and cantatas. See also SAINT-
GEORGES, JOSEPH BOULOGNE, LE CHEVALIER DE.

GOTTSCHED, LUISE ADELGUNDE VICTORIA [NÉE KULMUS] (11


APRIL 1713, DANZIG [NOW GDAŃSK, POLAND], TO 26 JUNE 1762,
LEIPZIG). German intellectual, author, musician, and composer. Born into a
prominent family, she studied music locally before moving to Leipzig, where
she met and married university professor and aesthetician Johann Christoph
Gottsched (1700–1766). Although her main occupation was as a playwright
and poet, she did study music under Johann Ludwig Krebs and later laut-
enist Sylvester Leopold Weiss (1687–1750). Known for her defense of her
husband in the Comic War, she supported his efforts to imbue opera with a
moral and pedagogical standard. Her own compositions are sparse; there are
only a few songs and pieces for lute and keyboard.

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238 • GOW, NATHANIEL

GOW, NATHANIEL (25 MAY 1763, INVER, PERTHSHIRE, SCOT-


LAND, TO 19 JANUARY 1831, EDINBURGH). Scottish composer, mu-
sician, and publisher. Son of Neil Gow, he was sent to Edinburgh where he
received violin lessons from Robert Mackintosh. In 1782 he was appointed
as a musician in the Royal Trumpeters, at the same time as he performed as
a cellist for the Alexander McGlashan dance band. Thereafter he was known
for his performance ability, as well as his publication of Scottish tunes in the
six-volume Collection of Strathspey Reels and the four-volume set of Scottish
“slow” tunes. By 1818 his style of music had become old-fashioned, and he
was forced to declare bankruptcy shortly before his death. His music spans
the divide between folk tunes and conventional compositions. For example,
in 1800 he published as series of keyboard fantasies, one of which (Caller
Herring) was based upon market cries of Edinburgh.

GOW, NEIL (1727, INVER, PERTHSHIRE, SCOTLAND, TO 1


MARCH 1807, INVER). Scottish composer and folk violinist. Gow learned
to play the folk fiddle at age 13 by studying under John Cameron, one of
the leading Baroque fiddlers of the period. Although trained as a weaver,
Gow decided to focus on his music, and at age 18 he won a competition that
brought him the patronage of the Duke of Athol. He became one of Scot-
land’s most important composers of reels, many of which were published
during his lifetime and continue to be popular today. He is credited with 87
reels, dances, and Strathspeys.

GRAF, CHRISTIAN ERNST (30 JUNE 1723, RUDOLSTADT,


THURINGIA, TO 17 JULY 1804, THE HAGUE). Also spelled Graaf or
Graff. Dutch-German composer and organist, brother of Friedrich Hart-
mann Graf. Son of the Kapellmeister to the court of the Count of Schwar-
zburg-Rudolstadt, Johann Graf (1684–1750), he was trained by his father as
a violinist and keyboardist, later joining the court orchestra as the former.
In 1748 he left for the Netherlands to seek his fortune, finding employment
as the director of the collegium musicum in the city of Middelburg in 1750.
He elevated the quality of the performances to such an extent that he came
to the attention of the Dutch court. During this period he also published his
first work, the Sei Sinfonie Op. 1. In 1754 he moved to The Hague, where he
was employed by Princess Anna of Hannover, later becoming Kapellmeister
to William V. In 1782 he published his treatise Proeve over de Natuur der
Harmonie, and in 1790 he retired. Charles Burney noted that he was an
educated man who was cheerful and had a gift for teaching. As a composer,
he wrote 62 symphonies, 30 string quartets, 19 trio sonatas, 18 flute quin-
tets, 12 flute quartets, six piano sonatas, six violin sonatas, a host of smaller

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GRÄTZ, JOSEPH • 239

chamber pieces, two oratorios, and around 35 Lieder. His style incorporates
Italianate mannerism common to the Mannheim composers, although his late
works, particularly his oratorio from 1802 Der Tod Jesu is more akin to Jo-
seph Haydn’s late oratorios in his large-scale setting and unusually dramatic
musical language. His Grande Symphonie Hollandaise is a large-scale work
that incorporates a chorus, more an oratorio than a symphony.

GRAF, FRIEDRICH HARTMANN (23 AUGUST 1727, RUDOL-


STADT, GERMANY, TO 19 AUGUST 1795, AUGSBURG, GER-
MANY). German composer and flautist. The son of Kapellmeister Johann
Graf (1684–1750) and brother to Christian Ernst Graf, he joined a military
regiment in 1743, being wounded and interned during the Seven Years’ War.
In 1759 upon his release he moved to Hamburg, and in 1769 he was per-
suaded by his brother to come to The Hague, even though he had formed an
association with Count Bentheim in Steinfurt. In 1772, however, he obtained
the post of musical director at the Protestant church in Augsburg, where he
remained the rest of his life. He was considered one of the foremost compos-
ers of the period, receiving an honorary doctorate from Oxford University in
1789, several years before Joseph Haydn. His music includes two oratorios,
three cantatas, numerous Psalms, two symphonies, seven concertos, 30 flute
quartets (and 12 string quartets), six trio sonatas, six duos, and other miscel-
laneous chamber music.

GRAGNANI, FILIPPO (3 SEPTEMBER 1768, LIVORNO, ITALY,


TO 28 July 1820, LIVORNO). Italian composer. The son of violin-maker
Antonio Gragnani, he received his earliest musical education under Giulio
Lucchesi, a local cantor. Following a mediocre career composing chamber
music in Milan, Gragnani immigrated to Paris in 1810, where he became a
successful composer for the guitar. His works include a symphony, four di-
vertimentos, a sextet, a quartet, two trios, 30 duos, eight sonatas, and many
small works and arrangements for one or more guitars.

GRÄTZ, JOSEPH (2 DECEMBER 1760, VOHLBURG, GERMANY,


TO 17 JULY 1826, MUNICH). German composer and organist. He re-
ceived his early musical education at the monastery of Rohr bei Abendsberg
before attending the Gymnasium in Ingolstadt. There he was employed as an
organist at the Jesuit church. He subsequently became a professor of rhetoric
at Neuberg before deciding to dedicate his life to music. To finish he training,
he traveled to Salzburg, where he became a student of Michael Haydn. In
1788 he was appointed as court keyboardist in Munich. His music has been
little studied but consists of two Singspiels, nine Masses, two litanies, seven

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240 • GRAUN, AUGUST FRIEDRICH

motets, 12 sacred songs, 13 Lieder, five concertos, three sonatas for organ,
and 31 organ versetti. All show the influence of his teacher Haydn.

GRAUN, AUGUST FRIEDRICH (1698/99, WAHRENBRÜCK, BRAN-


DENBURG, GERMANY, TO 5 MAY 1765, MERSEBURG, GER-
MANY). German composer and cantor. The eldest of three brothers who
became professional musicians, he received his earliest training at Grimma,
before obtaining the post of cantor at the cathedral in Merseburg, where he
remained the rest of his life. He had a high reputation as a composer and
musician during his lifetime, even though his relationship with both the town
council and Kapellmeister Johann Theodor Roemhildt was occasionally
rocky. Unfortunately, no compositions by Graun have as yet been identi-
fied, although it is likely that these were mainly sacred works written in a
mid-century style; a Kyrie and Gloria attributed to him are doubtful. See also
GRAUN, CARL HEINRICH; GRAUN, JOHANN GOTTLIEB.

GRAUN, CARL HEINRICH (7 MAY 1704, WAHRENBRÜCK, BRAN-


DENBURG, GERMANY, TO 8 AUGUST 1759, BERLIN). German com-
poser and singer. Born into a family of musicians, Graun was educated at the
Kreuzschule in Dresden in 1714, where he composed his earliest works, sa-
cred compositions, under the tutelage of Johann Zacharias Grundig. In 1718
he matriculated at Leipzig University, where he continued his musical studies
with Emanuel Benisch, Johann Christoph Schmidt, and Christian Pezold. In
1725 he was employed in Braunschweig as a tenor, and it was there that he
composed his earliest opera Polydorus. Further successes led to his coming
to the attention of Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia, into whose musical es-
tablishment at the court in Rheinsburg he was admitted in 1735. He remained
at the Prussian court after it moved to Berlin when the crown prince became
Frederick II, and in 1742 he was appointed Kapellmeister at the opera.
Along with colleagues Johann Joachim Quantz, Carl Philipp Emanuel
Bach, and Franz Benda, as well as his brother Johann Gottlieb Graun, he
was part of the inner intellectual artistic circle that formed around the king,
and during the last decade of his life he was known, along with Johann
Adolph Hasse, as one of the chief opera seria composers of the period. His
inaugural opera for Berlin, Cesare e Cleopatre (1742), can be considered
a seminal work in the composition of the Italian opera in German, and his
Montezuma (1755), to a text by Frederick II, explores an exotic subject un-
usual for the period. The same year he collaborated with poet Carl Ramler
in writing a new type of Passion titled Der Tod Jesu, which only a few years
later Johann Adam Hiller stated was an indispensible piece for any music li-
brary. It remained the quintessential German Easter oratorio on into the 19th

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GRAUPNER, [JOHANN CHRISTIAN] GOTTLIEB • 241

century. The scope of Graun’s compositions has yet to be determined, given


that many compositions, particularly chamber works, bear only his last name.
This leads to inevitable confusion with his brothers’ works, and there remain
issues of proper attribution. He did, however, write 32 operas (mostly opera
seria), six Easter oratorios/cantatas, a Te Deum, six cantatas, seven Masses,
15 German sacred cantatas, 32 songs, three symphonies, seven concertos for
keyboard, 25 trios (mainly two violins or flutes and basso), and numerous
smaller works. The music has been cataloged by Christoph Hewel and is
known by GraunWV numbers, further specified as CHG in the catalog itself.

GRAUN, JOHANN GOTTLIEB (27 OCTOBER 1703, WAHREN-


BRÜCK, BRANDENBURG, GERMANY, TO 28 OCTOBER 1771,
BERLIN). German composer and violinist. The middle brother of three who
became professional musicians, Graun received his earliest education at the
Kreuzschule in Dresden before enrolling in music at Leipzig University. In
1723 he studied with violinist Giuseppe Tartini in Prague before obtain-
ing the post as concertmaster in Merseburg in 1726. In 1728 he relocated
to Arolsen to serve in the court of Prince von Waldeck, before joining the
private orchestra of Crown Prince Frederick (later Frederick II) of Prussia
in Ruppin and Rheinsburg in 1732. There he was concertmaster at the opera
until his death. Along with his brother Carl Heinrich Graun, he was one of
the principal figures in the musical circles of the Berlin court, and although
he concentrated his own efforts toward writing instrumental works, he was
adept at vocal genres as well. Among the latter can be counted an oratorio,
La Passione di Gesù Cristo; several sacred works; six Lieder; and seven Ital-
ian secular cantatas. He was a prolific composer of the former, however, in
many cases defining the emerging North German empfindsamer Stil (Emp-
findsamkeit). He composed no fewer than 54 symphonies, 13 two-movement
overtures, 62 trios (mostly for flutes/violins and basso), 36 sonatas for vio-
lin, four sonatas for flute, and 62 concertos (48 for violin, five for two violins,
three for oboe, two for bassoon, two for violin/viola, and one each for viola
da gamba and viola da gamba/cembalo). A horn concerto in manuscript at
Lund, Sweden, is also probably by him. The scope of his compositions has
yet to be determined, given that many works, particularly chamber music, are
attributed only to “Graun.” The music, along with a detailed discussion of
the attribution problems, has been cataloged by Christoph Hewel (GraunWV
numbers with JGG specified). See also BACH, WILHELM FRIEDEMANN.

GRAUPNER, [JOHANN CHRISTIAN] GOTTLIEB (6 OCTOBER 1767,


VERDEN, NEAR HANNOVER, GERMANY, TO 16 APRIL 1836,
BOSTON). German-American oboist and composer. Son of a military

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242 • GRAVANI, PATER PEREGRINUS

oboist, he also joined the military, where he received his earliest musical train-
ing. In 1788 he was discharged and moved to London, where he performed in
the Salomon concerts. In 1795 he immigrated to Prince Edward Island and then
Charleston, South Carolina, where he performed in public concerts. Hired as
principal oboist for the Federal Street Theatre in Boston in 1797, he opened a
music business in 1800 and was one of the founding members of the Philhar-
monic Society beginning in 1809. Little of his music has survived—only a few
songs, a march, and several smaller works—but in the early part of the 19th
century he published method books for the pianoforte and clarinet.

GRAVANI, PATER PEREGRINUS (13 JANUARY 1732, JARO-


MĔŘICE NAD ROBYNOU, MORAVIA [NOW CZECH REPUBLIC],
TO 18 APRIL 1815, BRNO, CZECH REPUBLIC). Moravian clerical
composer. Little is known of his musical education, save that it must have
been in or around Jaromĕřice, where there was a good Jesuit Gymnasium. In
1762 he became regens chori at the church of St. Jacob in Brno, a position
he retained his entire life. A Premonstratensian monk, he formed a massive
music library, drafting one of the earliest thematic catalogs of its large col-
lection. As a composer, he idolized Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart, whose style he followed closely. His own music has, however,
received little attention. It includes 12 Requiems as well as several hundred
other sacred works.

GRAZIANI, CARLO (ca. 1720, ASTI, ITALY, TO 1787, POTSDAM,


GERMANY). Italian cellist and composer. Little is known of his early life or
training. He made his debut at the Concerts spirituels in 1747, and immedi-
ately he was offered the post of first cellist in the orchestra of La Pouplinière.
When this dissolved he move to London where he appeared frequently as a
soloist in 1764. By 1770 he had been hired as the teacher of Crown Prince
Friedrich Wilhelm in Prussia, retiring in 1773 in favor of Jean-Pierre Du-
port. He was known for his brilliant double stops and rapid passagework.
His compositions include 18 sonatas for cello (published in Paris), as well
as several cello concertos and duos for cello and another string instrument.

GRAZIOLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (6 JULY 1746, BOGLIACO, IT-


ALY, TO 6 FEBRUARY 1828, VENICE). Italian composer. A student of
Ferdinando Bertoni, he was appointed as temporary organist at St. Mark’s
Cathedral in 1770, and by 1785 he had become first organist. He retained this
post for the rest of his life. His music is almost entirely sacred, consisting
of two cantatas, 15 Masses, 50 Mass movements, 13 Marian antiphons, 69

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GRÉNON, LOUIS-CHARLES • 243

Psalms, 50 motets, two litanies, two sinfonia concertantes, and 18 sonatas


for both violin and keyboard.

GREGOR, CHRISTIAN (1 JANUARY 1723, DIRSDORF, SILESIA,


GERMANY [NOW POLAND], TO 6 NOVEMBER 1801, BERTHELS-
DORF, NEAR HERRNHUT, SAXONY, GERMANY). German composer
and church administrator. The son of a peasant farmer, he was baptized into
the Moravian Church in 1740, serving as both pastor and organist. In 1770
he visited Moravian colonies in the United States, returning to Europe where
he was ordained a bishop in 1789. His major accomplishment was to insert
concerted anthems and arias into the church services of the church. As a com-
poser, he wrote well over 400 compositions, including anthems, cantatas,
and arias. He was also responsible for the 1778 Moravian hymnal and 1784
Chorale book. See also HASSE, GEORG FRIEDRICH.

GREINER, JOHANN THEODOR (1740, GRÄFENRODE, THURINGIA,


GERMANY, TO 1797, WORMS, GERMANY). German composer and or-
ganist. Early in his career he moved, along with his violinist father, to Stutt-
gart, where he was a violinist and music publisher. Around 1770 he obtained
the position as city organist in Worms. His music has been little studied but
includes 13 symphonies (12 of which were published in two volumes), five
trios, a serenade, and a sacred song.

GREIS, ANTON (ca. 1750, REGENSBURG, GERMANY, TO 3 MAY


1809, GEISLING, GERMANY). German theologian and composer. Trained
in the local cathedral school in Regensburg, he was prefect of the boy’s choir
there from 1763 to 1769, where his students included Emanuel Schicka-
neder. In 1777 he became pastor at the church in Geisling, where he died
shortly after the city was burned by the French. His music includes a few
sacred compositions, including a Requiem.

GRÉNON, LOUIS-CHARLES (1734, SAINTES, FRANCE, TO 10


JANUARY 1769, SAINTES). French composer. Trained by his father, a
musician, he obtained the post of maître de musique at the cathedral of Puy-
en-Velay in 1754. The following year he began studies in theology at the lo-
cal seminary, eventually being ordained a priest in 1761. In May 1763 he was
appointed to a post in Clermont but left two years later for Saintes, his home-
town, where he stayed until his premature death. His music was considered
solid contrapuntally, though much is only for voices and continuo. His works
include four Masses, 26 hymns, 11 antiphons, a large choral cantata (La voix

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244 • GRENSER, CARL AUGUSTIN

des saints), 25 Psalms, two motets, six symphonies, four Magnificats, two Te
Deums, three Lamentations, and several other smaller works.

GRENSER, CARL AUGUSTIN (11 NOVEMBER 1720, WIEHE,


THURINGIA, TO 4 MAY 1807, DRESDEN). German woodwind maker.
Following apprenticeship in Leipzig beginning in 1733, he moved to Dresden
in 1739, where he became one of the foremost makers of woodwind instru-
ments, especially bassoons, of the entire period. His sons became instrument
makers, and one, Johann Friedrich Grenser, immigrated to Stockholm,
where he became a composer.

GRENSER, JOHANN FRIEDRICH (1758, DRESDEN, TO 17 MARCH


1795, STOCKHOLM). German-Swedish woodwind player and composer.
The son of well-known maker of woodwind instruments, Carl Augustin
Grenser, almost nothing is known about his earliest musical education, save
that it must have included members of the Dresden Hofkapelle, including Jo-
hann Gottlieb Naumann, the Kapellmeister. On 25 July 1775 he performed
as an oboe soloist at the Stockholm public concerts, and shortly thereafter was
offered the position with the Royal Opera orchestra. In 1783 he moved into
the position of principal flautist, and began a secondary career as a composer,
writing music for the concerts, as well as a large amount of chamber works
for societies such as Utile dulci. He was also director of the Harmoniemusik
of Prince Carl, Duke of Södermanland (later Carl XIII), as well.
Grenser was a popular composer, who published his first set of trios for
two flutes and basso in Berlin in 1779. He was also well known among Stock-
holm audiences for his lively folklike overtures to two operas, Masqueraden
and Tillfälle gör tjufven (both 1783), as well as incidental music for plays
produced at the Royal Dramatic Theatre, including Gustav III’s Helmfelt,
Natalia Narishkin and Olof Lannerstierna’s Slädpartiet. He also composed
the ballet Landsby Mölleren, which was a seminal work in the creation of
the Romantic ballet when produced in Copenhagen in 1805 by Antoine
Bournonville, father of choreographer August Bournonville. His other music
includes other ballet pieces, 6 symphonies (including one with a solo post
horn), concertos for every woodwind instrument and horn (all but the clarinet
and oboe are lost), and numerous arrangements for wind band. His musical
style can be described as using folk dances and tunes, but with an adherence
to Mannheim models.

GRENSER, JOHANN HEINRICH WILHELM (5 MARCH 1764, LIP-


PRECHTSRODA, THURINGIA, GERMANY, TO 12 DECEMBER
1813, DRESDEN). German woodwind maker. Apprenticed to his uncle,
Carl Augustin Grenser, beginning in 1779, he eventually took over the busi-

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GRÉTRY, ANDRÉ ERNEST MODESTE • 245

ness in 1794. He was responsible for the invention of a bass clarinet (1793)
and an alto clarinet (1808), both of which eventually replaced the basset horn.

GRESNICK, ANTOINE-FRÉDÉRIC (2 MARCH 1755, LIÈGE, BEL-


GIUM, TO 16 OCTOBER 1799, PARIS). French-Belgian composer. After
studies at the Conservatorio di Sant’Onofrio a Porta Capuana in Naples, he
returned to France, becoming director of the opera in Lyons in 1780. In 1786
he accompanied Gertrude Mara to London but by 1794 had settled in Paris.
In 1799 his opera Le rêve stirred considerable controversy, and rumors that
his death was caused by intrigues related to this opera cannot be discounted.
His music reflects the style of François-Joseph Gossec, being simple and
homophonic. This includes 19 operas, two concertos, a symphony, several
large hymns, and a number of smaller vocal works.

GRÉTRY, ANDRÉ ERNEST MODESTE (8 FEBRUARY 1741, LIÈGE,


BELGIUM, TO 24 SEPTEMBER 1813, MONTMORENCY, FRANCE).
Belgian composer. As a chorister at the church of St. Denis, he became a stu-
dent of Jean-Pantaléon Leclerc (1697–1760), also studying keyboard under
Nicolas Rennekin and harmony under Henri Moreau. In 1752 the arrival of
an Italian opera troupe awakened his interest in theatre music, and follow-
ing the successful performance of a Mass for the Liège cathedral in 1759
he traveled to Rome to attend the College d’Archis. In 1765 his opera La
vendemmatrice was performed in Rome with success, and Grétry decided to
go to Paris to compose French opera. Traveling by way of Geneva, where he
met and befriended Voltaire, he arrived in Paris in 1767, but it took almost
two years before the patronage of Swedish ambassador Gustaf Philip Creutz
brought him into contact with Marmontel. Their first collaboration, Le Hu-
ron, in 1768, brought him instant fame as the foremost composer of opéra
comique. Thereafter, a series of works (Zémire et Azor, 1771; Le caravane
du Caire, 1783; and Richard Coeur-de-lion, 1784) brought him international
fame, allowing him to transition easily in French intellectual society through
the Revolution. In 1797 he was named as an examiner in the newly estab-
lished Conservatoire, receiving the Légion d’honneur. By 1803 he had been
awarded a lifetime pension by Napoleon, which allowed him to live comfort-
ably despite the lack of success of his last operas.
Grétry’s popularity as a composer was the result of a good sense of theatre,
wherein his music, often using simple or rondo forms, is subordinate to the
stage action. His orchestration is often colorful, with unusual instruments
and a good sense of harmony and rhythm. His overtures, for example, often
have vocal interludes built in (Richard Coeur-de-lion) making them part of
the stage action rather than a prelude. He was a prolific composer, writing 68
operas, about 45 romances (songs for voice and keyboard, often with another

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246 • GRÉTRY, LUCILLE

instrument for color), 12 sacred pieces (mostly hymns or antiphons), a Mass,


six Revolutionary odes, a large secular cantata, seven string quartets, seven
symphonies, six sonatas, and a flute concerto. He must be seen as the most
popular French composer of the late 18th century. His daughter Lucille Gré-
try also became a composer. See also SOLIÉ, JEAN-PIERRE.

GRÉTRY, LUCILLE (15 JULY 1772, PARIS, TO MARCH 1790,


PARIS). French composer. The daughter of André Ernest Modeste Grétry,
she received her earliest musical education from her father and Jean-Fran-
çois Tapray. Her earliest work is an opera, Le marriage d’Antonio, which
she produced in 1786 with some success; her contributions were the bass
lines and vocal parts, with orchestration done by her father. A second opera
of her work produced in 1791 received only a single performance. Although
precocious as a composer, she suffered from tuberculosis as well as an un-
happy marriage that left her scant time to fulfill her potential as a composer.

GRILL, FRANZ (1756, PROBABLY VIENNA, TO 18 AUGUST 1793,


ÖDENBURG, AUSTRIA [NOW SOPRON, HUNGARY]). German key-
boardist and composer. Very little is known of his life, though he probably
studied in Vienna under Franz Anton Hoffmeister, who recommended him
as a chamberlain to Ferenc Count Széchényi in Ödenburg. His music, little
studied, consists of 12 string quartets, 18 violin sonatas, and 24 minuets, all
closely modeled on the style of Joseph Haydn.

GRIMM, JOHANN DANIEL (5 OCTOBER 1719, STRALSUND,


POMERANIA, SWEDEN [NOW GERMANY], TO 27 APRIL 1760,
GROß HENNERSDORF, GERMANY). German composer and teacher.
Following early education from local musicians, he joined the Moravian
Church in 1747, teaching at religious schools in Herrnhut and Marienborn.
Among his students was Johann Friedrich Peter. In 1755 he compiled a
chorale book containing around 1000 tunes, arranged according to meter. His
other composition, written in a homophonic style, include 13 string trios, 13
cantatas, and many anthems.

GRONEMAN, JOHANNES ALBERTUS (1711, HAMM, GERMANY,


TO 30 MAY 1778, THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS). Dutch composer
and organist. The son of a military musician, he and his brother Johannes
Fredericus Groneman moved to the Netherlands around 1729 as members
of a military regiment, in which Albertus was an oboist. By 1732 he had
moved to Leiden and began performing as a violinist while insinuating him-
self into high social circles and marrying a wealthy wife. By 1736 he had
become carillon player and organist at The Hague, where he also organized

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GRUBE, BERNHARD ADAM • 247

a concert series known as the Nieuw Vaux-Hall. Although employed at the


main cathedral, he had bouts of mental depression, which led him in 1756 to
be committed to an asylum for the remainder of his life. His music has largely
been lost, but published works include 12 violin sonatas and six trio sonatas.
Several symphonies can also be added to the canon.

GRONEMAN, JOHANNES FREDERICUS (ca. 1708, COLOGNE,


GERMANY, TO 1781, THE HAGUE, NETHERLANDS). Dutch com-
poser and flautist. Unlike his brother Johannes Albertus Groneman, little
is known of his life or activities, since he avoided publicity and led a quiet
existence. He performed in concerts both in The Hague and Amsterdam but
appears not to have been employed in any of the court orchestras. His surviv-
ing music consists of several flute sonatas and a trio sonata written in the
galant style.

GRUA [PIETRAGRUA], CARLO LUIGI (ca. 1700, MILAN, TO 11


APRIL 1773, MANNHEIM). Italian-German composer and father of
Franz Paul Grua. Trained in Milan in the musical traditions of Lombardy,
he first appears in 1734 as Kapellmeister in Mannheim. With the ascension
of Carl Theodor as elector in 1742 and the subsequent reinvigoration of the
Mannheim orchestra a few years later, Grua concentrated almost exclu-
sively on writing sacred music. His style reflects the Italianate Neapolitan and
Lombardic models of his youth. Surviving works include two operas, seven
oratorios, five Masses, a litany, and several smaller sacred works.

GRUA, FRANZ PAUL (1 FEBRUARY 1753, MANNHEIM, TO 5 JULY


1833, MUNICH). German composer and violinist. Son of Carlo Grua, he
received his training from his father and members of the Mannheim orches-
tra, including Ignaz Holzbauer and Ignaz Fränzl. Although he became a
member of the orchestra in 1776, a year later he was sent by Carl Theodor
to study music in Bologna with Padre Giovanni Battista Martini. Upon
his return, he moved with the court to Munich, where he succeeded Andrea
Bernasconi as composer of church music. His musical style reflects the ex-
tensive and colorful orchestration of second-generation Mannheim compos-
ers. Works include 31 Masses, four Requiems, an opera, 29 offertories, four
graduals, three Stabat maters, and 138 smaller sacred works, as well as two
symphonies and four concertos.

GRUBE, BERNHARD ADAM (21 JUNE 1715, WALSCHLEBEN,


GERMANY, TO 20 MARCH 1808, BETHLEHEM, PENNSYLVANIA,
UNITED STATES). German-American composer and singer. Born into a
family of the Moravian Church, he began his career as a teacher at the age

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248 • GRUBER, GEORG WILHELM

of 17 following studies at the University of Jena. In 1748 he immigrated to


Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, to become a missionary to the Delaware (Lenapi)
nation. By 1765 he was pastor at Lititz, Pennsylvania, where he directed the
collegium musicum of the church. He later served in North Carolina, New Jer-
sey, and New England before retiring to a Moravian community. His music
consists of a large number of sacred vocal works, mainly anthems.

GRUBER, GEORG WILHELM (22 SEPTEMBER 1729, NUREM-


BURG, GERMANY, TO 22 SEPTEMBER 1796, NUREMBURG).
German composer, violinist, and organist. Following studies under Carl
Heinrich Dretzel, he embarked upon a concert tour of Germany in 1747, but
with limited success. In 1750 he was a city musician in Nuremburg, and in
1765 he succeeded Johan Agrell as Kapellmeister. His music has been little
studied but conforms to the galant idiom of the time. It consists of a Mass,
a Salve Regina, a Christmas cantata, a large hymn, two keyboard concer-
tos, and eight trio sonatas. See also SCHUBART, CHRISTIAN DANIEL
FRIEDRICH.

GRÜNBERGER, PATER THEODOR [JOHANN PAUL] (25 JUNE


1756, BETTBRUNN, GERMANY, TO 27 JANUARY 1820, MOOS-
BURG, BAVARIA, GERMANY). German monastic composer and organ-
ist. The son of an organist, he was sent to Munich to be educated. In 1777 he
became an novice in the Augustinian monastery there, becoming a priest two
years later. At this time he established his connections with the Thurn und
Taxis court in Regensburg. In 1794 he came into conflict with governmen-
tal authorities for his political views, fleeing to Augsburg to escape prison.
Pardoned by the Elector of Bavaria he returned to Munich, only to leave for
Regensburg in 1803 after the dissolution of the monasteries. There he func-
tioned as a city priest and professor of voice and organ. His music features
his principal instrument, being in style close to Michael Haydn. His works
include six Masses, two German Masses, six organ Masses, and numerous
organ works for the sacred service, as well as two violin sonatas. His music
has been little explored beyond the compositions for organ.

GRUNER, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (ca. 1700, OELSNITZ, GERMANY,


TO 19 AUGUST 1763, GERA, GERMANY). German organist and com-
poser. Little is known of his early life or training, save that in 1727 he was
appointed cantor for the city church in Zwickau. In 1736, he became cantor
and choir director in Gera, where he stayed the remainder of his life. Al-
though his music has been little studied, a number of works for the Lutheran
Church seem to show traits of Empfindsamkeit. His son Nathaniel Gottfried
Gruner became his successor.

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GUALDO, GIOVANNI [JOHN] • 249

GRUNER, NATHANIEL GOTTFRIED (bap. 5 FEBRUARY 1732,


ZWICKAU, GERMANY, TO 2 AUGUST 1792, GERA, GERMANY).
German composer and organist. The son of Johann Gottfried Gruner, he
received his training from his father, eventually becoming his assistant when
the family moved to Gera. In 1764 he was appointed as successor to his father
as cantor and professor at the local Gymnasium. Although little known today,
he was highly regarded during his lifetime, so much so that when his house
burned down, his colleagues Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and Johann Fried-
rich Reichardt arranged a subscription publication of six sonatas to help in
his recovery. His music includes four part songs, five Psalms, two cantatas, a
number of lost motets, seven concertos, 18 sonatas, three quartets, two parti-
tas, and a symphony. He also wrote two divertissement concertants, which
appear to be single-movement concertos for harp or keyboard.

GSPAN, IGNAZ (ca. 1750, GERMANY, TO 13 FEBRUARY 1794, RE-


GENSBURG, GERMANY). German violinist and composer. Nothing is
known about his life and training. He first appears as an actor and musician
with the Berner troupe in Bavaria, which performed Singspiels in Nurem-
berg, Erlangen, and Ansbach. By 1779 he was musical director of the troupe,
but in 1782 he obtained the post as musician at Regensburg for the court of
Thurn und Taxis; later in 1790 he became director of the court theatre. Little
of his music has survived, but this includes the Singspiel Die Magd, die Frau,
a viola concerto, a Tantum ergo, and several smaller pieces.

GSUR, TOBIAS (1726, LOWER AUSTRIA, TO 20 MAY 1794, VI-


ENNA). Austrian composer and bass singer. No information exists about
his early life or origins. In 1750 he was appointed as a singer and musical
director of the Benedictine priory of Schottenkirche in Vienna, a position he
held until 1772. Thereafter he performed as a singer frequently in the city, but
he was apparently regarded as a difficult person. When Florian Gassmann
died, Leopold Hofmann was denied a position as court Kapellmeister due to
the appointment committee’s concern that his vacant position would be oc-
cupied by Gsur, who was considered “unsuitable.” Gsur apparently returned
to his position at the monastery. His music is little explored, but consists of a
Requiem, a Mass, a litany, five graduals, and several Psalms.

GUALDO, GIOVANNI [JOHN] (ca. 1730, VICENZA, ITALY, TO 20


DECEMBER 1772, PHILADELPHIA). Italian-American composer and
impresario. Of noble birth, nothing is known about his musical training,
but Gualdo immigrated to Norfolk, Virginia, from London in 1767, where
he had formerly maintained a shop as a wine merchant. Upon his arrival in
Philadelphia later that year, he advertized himself as a composer and teacher

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250 • GUÉDON DE PRESLE [MADEMOISELLE]

of string instruments and flute, in addition to opening a wine shop. His first
concert on 9 November 1769 included the first known symphony written in
the colonies, as well as both a flute and violin concerto and a trio. Further
concerts were given at the house of a Mr. Davenport or the Assembly Room
over the succeeding years. Francis Hopkinson, however, noted on 17 Au-
gust 1771 that Gualdo had been committed to the ward for insane inmates at
the Pennsylvania hospital. The only compositions to have survived are the Six
Easy Entertainments for 2 treble instruments and basso published in 1771.

GUÉDON DE PRESLE [MADEMOISELLE] (ca. 1720, PARIS, TO


ca. 1754, PARIS). French singer, actress, and composer. Probably born in
the early part of the 18th century in Paris, she was most likely the daugh-
ter of Honoré Claude Guédon de Presle, who himself regularly performed
before court in private concerts and entertainments. During the 1740s and
early 1750s she sang secondary roles at the Théâtre de la Reine in Paris, as
well as performing frequently at private concerts. Her compositions seem
to have been limited to songs, which began to be published in 1729 in The
Hague. Between 1742 and 1747, songs appeared frequently in the Mercure
de France. These works tend to be simple and tuneful, which accounts for
their popularity.

GUÉNIN, MARIE-ALEXANDRE (20 FEBRUARY 1744, MAU-


BERGE, FRANCE, TO 22 JANUARY 1835, ETAMPES, FRANCE).
French composer and violinist. Following early education in the French
provinces, he arrived in Paris in 1760 to study violin with Pierre Gaviniès
and François-Joseph Gossec. In 1773 he made his debut at the concerts
spirituels, after which he became a chamber musician at Versailles to the
French court and served as concertmaster in the orchestra of the Prince de
Condé. In 1783 he was appointed first violin at the Opéra. Although a popu-
lar teacher, his royalist sympathies were not in keeping with the French
Revolution, and in 1789 he disappeared from view. He may have taken a
ship to the West Indies, and then arrived around 1792 in Charleston, South
Carolina. From there he seems to have appeared in Philadelphia and New
York before returning to France about 1795 to teach at the Conservatoire.
He later accepted a position at the École des chants in 1802, from which he
retired to the countryside in 1813.
Guénin was a well-regarded violinist and composer during his lifetime,
displaying a talent on the instrument that served as a model of the French
school of violin playing. As a composer he wrote eight symphonies, three
orchestral trios, three concertos for violin (and viola), six string quartets, nine
trios, nine duos, and a dozen violin sonatas.

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GUGLIELMI, PIETRO ALESSANDRO • 251

GUERINI, FRANCESCO (ca. 1710, NAPLES, TO 1785, LONDON).


Italian composer. Little is known about his early life or training, although it
is likely he attended one of the Neapolitan conservatories. By 1740 he was in
the service of the Prince of Orange in The Hague, moving to London in 1760,
where he established himself as a salon composer. His music, little studied,
consists of 18 trios, 18 violin sonatas, six cello sonatas, 12 keyboard sonatas,
and 18 duos for various instruments.

GUEST, JANE MARY [MRS. MILES] (ca. 1762, BATH, ENGLAND,


TO MARCH 1846, BATH, ENGLAND). English keyboardist and com-
poser. The daughter of a tailor, Guest demonstrated talent in music at around
6 years of age. She was sent to study with Johann Christian Bach, under
whose tutelage she became known in English court circles, giving her first
public performances around 1779. She returned to Bath, where she became
a local musical celebrity, eventually marrying Abraham Miles. She contin-
ued to teach, as well as concertize, eventually becoming the teacher of the
royal princesses in 1804. Her home continued to be a center for musicians
and society until her death. Her works include several piano concertos (lost,
but which she performed under the direction of Venanzio Rauzzini), seven
sonatas for the keyboard (published in 1783), and a series of small works for
keyboard and/or voice.

GUGEL, FRANZ ANTON (1743 TO 1802). German composer. Nothing


has been done on either his life or works, although it appears that he was ac-
tive as a Kapellmeister for the town of Weiltingen. His sons may have been
the horn players Joseph and Heinrich Gugel, and he may have wound up his
career as an administrator for the city of Mainz during the French occupation.
His works include a ballet, 14 symphonies, three quartets, three diverti-
mentos, a cantata, and a cello sonata.

GUGLIELMI, DOMENICO (1713, MASSA, ITALY, TO 1790, MASSA).


Italian organist and composer. Son of Jacopo Guglielmi (1681–1742), he was
instructed by his father. In 1744 he succeeded his father as organist at the
Massa cathedral, becoming maestro di cappella in 1750. His music, consist-
ing entirely of sacred works, has not been researched.

GUGLIELMI, PIETRO ALESSANDRO (9 DECEMBER 1728,


MASSA, ITALY, TO 19 NOVEMBER 1804, ROME). Italian composer.
His earliest studies were with Francesco Durante at the Conservatorio
di Santa Maria di Loreto in Naples, from which he emerged in 1753 as
an opera composer, with his first major success in Turin two years later.

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252 • GUGLIELMI, PIETRO CARLO

By 1762 he had been called to Dresden to direct opera (though not as


Kapellmeister), and in 1768 he moved to London before returning to Italy
in 1772. There he received commissions for his works from around the
country. He made a home in Naples in 1777, but in 1793 he was appointed
as maestro di cappella at St. Peter’s in Rome. Considered one of the most
popular composers principally of opera buffa during his lifetime, he was
known for good lyrical melodies and a progressive sense of harmony. His
works have been little studied, and what research exists focuses mainly
upon his operas (about 100). In addition, he composed nine oratorios,
a Requiem, and nine celebratory cantatas, as well as a considerable
amount of instrumental music. See also GUGLIELMI, PIETRO CARLO;
ISOUARD, NICOLÒ.

GUGLIELMI, PIETRO CARLO (11 JULY 1772, LONDON, TO 28


FEBRUARY 1817, NAPLES). Italian composer. The son of Pietro Ales-
sandro Guglielmi, he also studied music at the Conservatorio di Santa
Maria di Loreto in Naples after initial instruction from his father. By 1794
he was appointed as musical director in Madrid, with the premiere of his
opera Dorval e Virginie in Lisbon the following year. Thereafter he moved
from Naples (1797) to London (1808), before settling in the Guglielmi
home city of Massa, where in 1814 he became maestro di cappella. His
works, like those of his father, have been little studied outside of his 33
operas.

GUILLEMAIN, LOUIS-GABRIEL (5 NOVEMBER 1705, PARIS, TO


1 OCTOBER 1770, CHAVILLE, NEAR PARIS). French violinist and
composer. Raised by Count de Rochechouant, he was sent to Turin to study
with Giovanni Battista Somis. In 1729 he was a violinist at the Académie de
musique in Lyons, later moving to Dijon in 1734. By 1737 he was in Paris as
a court musician. Always in debt and an alcoholic, he died under mysterious
circumstances, allegedly being stabbed 14 times, although this may have been
a cover for suicide. He left behind 24 symphonies, 18 trio sonatas, 30 violin
sonatas, 12 quartets, an opera, 12 caprices, and six duos.

GUPTA, RAMNIDHI. See BABU, NIDHU.

GURRE, EDMÉE SOPHIE [SOPHIE GAIL] (28 AUGUST 1775,


PARIS, TO 24 JULY 1819, PARIS). French singer and composer. She
studied voice with Bernardo Mengozzi in Paris, and thereafter sang in various
salons, where she was known for her sentimentality and good tone. Her music
consists of several sets of songs published in 1790.

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GUSTAV [GUSTAVUS] III OF SWEDEN • 253

GÜRRLICH, JOSEPH AUGUSTIN (1761, MÜNSTERBERG, SILESIA


[NOW ZIĘBICE, POLAND], TO 27 JUNE 1817, BERLIN). German or-
ganist, contrabass player, teacher, and composer. Little is known of his early
education, save that he was probably trained at the Jesuit schools in nearby
Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland). In 1779 he was a teacher at the Catholic
school in Berlin, and in 1784 he became organist at the Hedwigskirche. In
1793, however, he joined the Royal Kapelle as contrabassist, and around
1800 began conducting productions at the Royal Theatre. He became its
musical director in 1811 and Kapellmeister in 1816 shortly before his death.
Gürrlich was well regarded as a composer and teacher, whose students in-
cluded Ludwig Berger. His own works consist of seven operas, several
sacred cantatas, music for the Freemasons, numerous sacred works (mainly
motets), a concertino for glass harmonica, and a number of chamber works.
It has, however, been little studied.

GUSTAV [GUSTAVUS] III OF SWEDEN (24 JANUARY 1746, STOCK-


HOLM, TO 29 MARCH 1792, STOCKHOLM). Swedish monarch and pa-
tron of the arts. The first Swedish-born prince in almost a century, Gustav’s
father was Adolph Frederik of the house of Holstein-Gottorp; his mother,
Louisa Ulrika, was the sister of Frederick II of Prussia. From an early age
he demonstrated an intense interest in both music and drama, and in 1771 he
ascended to the throne of Sweden following the death of his father. The fol-
lowing year he staged an audacious coup d’état, establishing his own power
in a parliamentary government. The same year he ordered the creation of
the Royal Opera, a nationalist venue that would promote Swedish-language
works based both upon French and Swedish historical models. In 1787 he
allowed for the creation of the Royal Dramatic Theatre to promote plays as
well as ballet. Following a war with Russia from 1788 to 1791, he was assas-
sinated at a masked ball by Jakob Anckarström, the subject of which became
the source for operas in the 19th century by Daniel Auber and Giuseppe
Verdi (Un ballo in maschera). Trained in the arts, Gustav personally guided
the development of Gustavian Opera, writing librettos, providing a public
financing scheme, and choosing subject matter. He hired or imported signifi-
cant composers of the period, including Joseph Martin Kraus, Abbé Georg
Vogler, and Johann Gottlieb Naumann, as well as supporting native com-
posers such as Carl Michael Bellman, Carl Stenborg, and Olof Åhlström.
His own musical achievements were limited to a single march composed for
string quartet; he did, however, appear regularly as an actor and director up to
1780. See also MICHELESSI, ABBÉ DOMENICO; UTTINI, FRANCESCO
ANTONIO BALDASSARE.

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254 • GUTIÉRREZ GARCÍA, FRANCISCO ANTONIO

GUTIÉRREZ GARCÍA, FRANCISCO ANTONIO (1762, LÉON,


SPAIN, TO 1828, TOLEDO, SPAIN). Spanish composer. He received
his musical education under José Ramón Gargallo in Léon before becoming
maestro di capilla at the cathedral in Segovia in 1783. By 1793 he was an
organist at La Encarnación in Madrid, and his success there led to the princi-
pal musical post at the cathedral of Toledo in 1799. His music often has large
orchestration but has been little studied. It consists of 14 Lamentations, as
well as a number of Masses and villancicos.

GYROWETZ, ADALBERT [VOJTĚCH MATJÁŠ JÍROVEC] (23


FEBRUARY 1763, ČESKE BUDĚJOVICE, BOHEMIA [NOW CZECH
REPUBLIC], TO 19 MARCH 1850, VIENNA). Austro-Bohemian com-
poser. The son of a local choirmaster, he was sent to Prague to study music
and law. In 1785 he arrived in Vienna, although a year later he left for Italy
in the employ of Prince Ruspoli. For the next six years he traveled throughout
Europe, winning praise for his compositions in Italy and France. By 1791
he had arrived in London, where he was befriended by Joseph Haydn. Re-
turning to Vienna, he eventually became Kapellmeister at the Hoftheater in
1804. Although he was best known during his early career as a composer of
symphonies whose progressive structure, good sense of melody, and interest-
ing orchestration were lauded, his later career after 1800 involved the stage,
for which he composed nationalist works such as Hans Sachs. His music in-
cludes 28 operas, 17 ballets, 11 Masses, two vespers, numerous other shorter
sacred works, around 60 symphonies (of which 40 were published), two
keyboard concertos and three sinfonia concertantes, three flute quartets,
around 60 string quartets, 30 trios, 40 violin sonatas, 47 Lieder, and other
smaller chamber works.

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H
HABERMANN, ANTON [ANTONÍN] (1704, KÖNIGSWART, BO-
HEMIA [NOW CHEB, CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 14 JANUARY 1787,
PRAGUE). Bohemian composer and organist, brother of Carl and František
Habermann. He served as a musician at churches in Prague for most of his
life. Although he composed music, no research has been done on him, so the
type and number of compositions remains uncertain.

HABERMANN, CARL [KAREL] (1712, KÖNIGSWART, BOHEMIA


[NOW CHEB, CZECH REPUBLIC], TO 4 MARCH 1766, PRAGUE).
Bohemian composer and organist. The brother of Anton and František
Habermann, he served as a musician at churches in Prague for most of his
life. Although he composed music, no research has been done on him, so the
type and number of compositions remains uncertain.

HABERMANN, FRANTIŠEK VÁCLAV [FRANZ] (20 SEPTEMBER


1706, KÖNIGSWART, BOHEMIA [NOW CHEB, CZECH REPUB-
LIC], TO 8 APRIL 1783, EGER, BOHEMIA). Bohemian-German com-
poser, brother of Anton and Carl Habermann. Following early musical
education at the Jesuit school in Klatovy, Habermann was sent to complete
his training in Spain and Italy. Following a brief time as organist for various
churches in Prague, in 1731 he entered the service of the Prince of Condé,
whose diplomatic missions took him to Florence. A decade later he returned
to Prague, where he directed choirs in various monastic churches until 1773,
when he accepted the post of cantor at Eger. A versatile and facile composer,
his music displays the flowing lyrical melodies of Bohemian works. Though
it has been little studied, works consist of five oratorios, two stage works
(including a Czech pastoral), 19 Masses, six litanies, a motet, two concertos,
and numerous symphonies.

HABERMANN, FRANZ JOHANN (1750, PRAGUE, TO 1799, EGER,


BOHEMIA). Bohemian-German composer and singer. The son of František
Habermann, he followed his father, from whom he received his musical

255

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256 • HACZEWSKI, ADAM

training, to Eger and became his successor as cantor in 1783. His works are
mostly sacred, but a study of his music still remains to be done.

HACZEWSKI, ADAM (ca. 1750, POLAND, TO ca. 1800, POLAND).


Polish composer, sometimes known a