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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

LYSISTRATA’S ACTIONS IN STOPPING THE WAR


AS SEEN IN ARISTOPHANES’ LYSISTRATA DRAMA SCRIPT

A THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education

By
Ester Palupi Nan Utami
Student Number: 041214033

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM


DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2011

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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

LYSISTRATA’S ACTIONS IN STOPPING THE WAR


AS SEEN IN ARISTOPHANES’ LYSISTRATA DRAMA SCRIPT

A THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education

By
Ester Palupi Nan Utami
Student Number: 041214033

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM


DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
YOGYAKARTA
2011

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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

A Thesis on

LYSISTRATA’S ACTIONS IN STOPPING THE WAR


AS SEEN IN ARISTOPHANES’ LYSISTRATA DRAMA SCRIPT

Prepared and presented by:


Ester Palupi Nan Utami
Student Number: 041214033

Approved by

Date
Dr. Antonius Herujiyanto, M.A. July 27, 2011
Major Sponsor

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A Thesis on

LYSISTRATA’S ACTIONS IN STOPPING THE WAR


AS SEEN IN ARISTOPHANES’ LYSISTRATA DRAMA SCRIPT

By
Ester Palupi Nan Utami
Student Number: 041214033

Defended before the Board of Examiners


on July 29, 2011
and Declared Acceptable

Board of Examiners

Chairperson : C. Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. ___________________

Secretary : Made Frida Yulia, S.Pd., M.Pd. ___________________

Member : Dr. Ant. Herujiyanto, M.A. ___________________

Member : C. Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. ___________________

Member : Christina Kristiyani, S.Pd., M.Pd. ___________________

Yogyakarta, July 29, 2011


Faculty of Teachers Training and Education
Sanata Dharma University
Dean,

Drs. Tarsisius Sarkim, M.Ed., Ph.D.

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STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work

or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the

bibliography, as a scientific paper should.

Yogyakarta, July 27 2011


The Writer

Ester Palupi Nan Utami


Student Number: 041214033

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We learn from yesterday


We live for today
We prepare, pray, and hope for tomorrow

(Anonymous)

This Thesis is dedicated to :


My beloved family

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LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH


UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS

Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dhatma :

Nama : Ester Palupi Nan Utami


Nomor Mahasiswa : 041214033

Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan


Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul :

LYSISTRATA’S ACTIONS IN STOPPING THE WAR


AS SEEN IN ARISTOPHANES’
LYSISTRATA DRAMA SCRIPT

Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan
kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan,
mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan
data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau
media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dan saya
maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya
sebagai penulis.

Demikian pernyataan ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya.

Dibuat di Yogyakarta
Pada tanggal 29 Juli 2011

Yang menyatakan

(Ester Palupi Nan Utami)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I thank God and Mother Mary, who be on my side. They give me

great blessing and show me the best way I should follow.

I realize that many people have given their help in finishing this thesis.

Now, I would like to express my gratitude for their guidance and support in

finishing this thesis.

My special gratitude is addressed to my beloved family, especially my

mother, Margareta Siti Suparjilah, and my father Robertus Budiharjo, my

great supporters. I thank them for their patience and for supporting me to finish

this thesis.

Next, I would like to convey my appreciation to Drs. Antonius

Herujiyanto, M.A., Ph.D. as my sponsor. I thank him for his guidance,

suggestions and corrections in helping me to complete this thesis.

My deepest thank is also for Elin, and Sigit, for the discussions and

sugestions. I am deeply thank to them for their willingness to spend their time to

guide me in finishing this thesis.

My big gratefulness is also addressed to my best friends, Dita, Maya,

Dian, Retno, and Rini for supporting me. My friends in PBI ’04 are also

meaningful during my time in Sanata Dharma. I would like to thank to my

beloved brother Warih and all my family for their prayer. I also thank to Mas

Willy and his family for giving a big support and love in my sadness and

happiness time.

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I would also give my biggest appreciation to all the lecturers of PBI and to

the secretariat staffs of PBI, Mbak Tari and Mbak Danik. I would not have

realized my dream without their guidance.

The last, I would like to thank everyone who has not been mentioned here

for everything they have given me. May God Bless Them All.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ..................................................................................................... i

APPROVAL PAGES .......................................................................................... ii

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ................................................... iv

PAGE OF DEDICATION................................................................................... v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................ vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................... ix

ABSTRACT........................................................................................................ xii

ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................ xiii

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study .......................................................... 1

B. Aims of the Study .................................................................... 4

C. Problem Formulation ................................................................ 4

D. Definition of Terms................................................................... 5

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Review of Related Theories ........................................................ 8

1. Theory of Character and Characterization ............................ 8

a. Theory of Character........................................................... 8

b. Theory of Characterization ............................................... 10

2. Theory of Feminism.............................................................. 12

a. Feminism Movement......................................................... 14

1. Liberal Feminism ........................................................... 14

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2. Radical Feminism............................................................ 15

3. Marxian Feminism …………………………………...... 15

4. Socialist Feminism ……………………………………. 16

B. Theoretical Framework………………………………………… 16

C. Context of Lysistrata …………………………………………… 17

1. Aristophanes ……………………………………………. . 17

2. Lysistrata ………………………………………………… 18

CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY

A. Subject Matter ............................................................................. 19

B. Approach ..................................................................................... 20

C. Data Collection ………………………………………………… 20

D. Procedures ................................................................................... 22

CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS

A. Character Analysis of Lysistrata ................................................ 23

1. Lysistrata has a beautiful and fine figure .............................. 24

2. Lysistrata is a wise and smart................................................ 24

3. Lysistrata is kind person........................................................ 27

4. Lysistrata is a brave person ................................................... 28

5. Lysistrata is a responsible woman ....................................... 30

B. How Lysistrata stopped the war between Athena and Sparta .... 30

1. The type of feminism represented by Lysistrata .................. 30

2. How is Lysistrata stop the war ………………….... ............ 32

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS, SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

A. Conclusions ................................................................................. 39

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B. Suggestions and Recommendation ............................................. 40

1. Suggestions for Future Researchers ........................................ 40

2. Suggestion for Using Literature in Teaching English............. 41

REFERENCES.................................................................................................. 43

APPENDICES

A. Lesson Plan for Teaching Drama ................................................. 45

B. Materials ...................................................................................... 47

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ABSTRACT

Utami, Ester Palupi Nan. 2010. Lysistrata’s Actions in Stopping the War as
Seen in Aristophanes’s LYSISTRATA Drama Script. Yogyakarta:
Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training
and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

This study deals with Aristophanes’s drama, entitle Lysistrata. Lysistrata


is the main character in this drama. Lysistrata is a hero for her country, Greece.
There is a war between the two major cities in Greece, namely Athena and Sparta.
Lysistrata managed to unite her country, Greece.
This study focuses on analyzing how Lysistrata stops the war and shows
to the public that a woman has an ability and a big role in a family life. This study
also analyzes the characters of Lysistrata. Therefore, there are two problems to
solve. They are (1). “How is Lysistrata portrayed in the play?” (2) “How does
Lysistrata stop the war between Athena and Sparta?”
The theories and approach that are used in this study are theories of
character and characterization also theory and approach of feminism. Theory of
character and characterization is used to analyze the first problem. Theory and
approach of feminism is used to analyze how Lysistrata stops the war and show to
the public that a woman has an ability and a big role in a family life.
The results of the study show that, first, Lysistrata is a smart person, wise,
kind, brave and responsible person. Second, Lysistrata manages to stop the war,
by inviting all wives and mothers of Athena and Sparta to strike on doing their
family chores. They live together in Akropolis without men for a while.
Aristophanes’ Lysistrata is a good drama. It is recommended for the future
researchers to analyze Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, because this drama has some
aspects, which can be analyzed. The researcher may analyze on the psychological
aspect of Lysistrata. It is also suggested for English teachers to use Aristophanes’
Lysistrata as the material to teach a drama class.

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ABSTRAK

Utami, Ester Palupi Nan. 2010. Peran Lysistrata dalam menghentikan perang
Dalam Teks Drama LYSISTRATA Karya ARISTOPHANES . Yogyakarta:
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan
Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Studi ini membahas sebuah karya besar Aristophanes, Lysistrata.


Lysistrata adalah tokoh utama dalam drama tersebut. Lysistrata adalah seorang
pahlawan bagi bangsa Yunani. Ia berhasil menyatukan dua negara bagian Yunani
yang sedang berperang, Athena dan Sparta.
Studi ini menitik beratkan permasalahan bagaimana Lysistrata
menghentikan perang yang sedang terjadi dan menunjukan kepada masyarakat
umum bahwa wanita memiliki kemampuan serta peran besar dalam hidup
berkeluarga. Maka dari itu dalam studi ini terdapat dua permasalahan yang akan
dibahas, pertama bagaimana kepribadian Lysistrata yang digambarkan dalam
drama. Yang kedua bagaimana cara Lysistrata menghentikan perang.
Teori dan metode pendekatan masalah yang dipakai adalah teori karakter
dan karakteristik juga teori feminisme sedangkan pendekatannya secara feminis.
Teori karakter dan karakteristik digunakan dalam menganalisa permasalahan yang
pertama. Teori dan pendekatan feminisme digunakan dalam menganalisa
bagaimana Lysistrata menghentikan perang dan menunjukan kepada masyarakat
umum bahwa wanita memiliki kemampuan serta peran besar dalam hidup
berkeluarga.
Dari analisa tersebut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa Lysistrata adalah seorang
wanita yang cerdas, bijaksana, baik hati, pemberani, serta bertanggung jawab.
Kedua, Lysistrata berhasil menghentikan perang dengan mengundang seluruh
wanita-wanita Athena dan Sparta untuk meninggalkan rumah mereka dan hidup
bersama tanpa suami serta anak-anak mereka di suatu tempat bernama Akropolis.
Drama Lysistrata sangat memiliki banyak aspek untuk dapat dianalisa, ini
sangat bagus untuk penelitian selanjutnya. Drama ini juga dapat dipergunakan
untuk mengajar bahasa Inggris dalam kelas drama.

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the introduction of the whole study. This chapter is

divided into four parts. It starts with the background of study, which discusses my

reason of choosing this topic. The second part of this chapter is the problem

formulation that contains three questions that I would like to discuss. The

purposes of the study are stated in the objectives of the study as the third part of

this chapter. The fourth part is the definition of terms.

A. Background of The Study

The number of population in the world is growing rapidly today. From

year to year, the numbers of mother give birth their babies is increase. The

number of people will increase, but the place may not be larger. The IDB

(International Data Base) estimates that the total of citizens in the world about

6.952.939.682 in this year (2011). It shows that a lot woman give birth everyday.

This condition happened since long time ago.

The position of women was weak. In the traditional society, they only

helped their husbands at home. They cooked meals in the kitchen, gave birth

many times, raised the children and deals with the household activities. It also

happenned in our society. Javanese people said, “Wong wedok kuwi konco

wingking” (women can only do activities that related with household). Women

are weak, different from men who are strong and powerful.

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This condition is always written in many newspaper, books, poems, novels

even in a song. In Indonesia, we have a song, the title is Sabda Alam written by

Ismail Marzuki, which describes the position of women.

“Diciptakan alam pria dan wanita

dua makhluk dalam asuhan dewata

Ditakdirkan bahwa pria berkuasa

adapun wanita lemah lembut manja”

“Man and women are created by nature, they are in God’s taking care. It is

predestination that man are in authority, and the woman are weak.”

This song is an example how is weak women position in men’s view.

Psychically women and men are different. However, in fact women are a needed

for men. Men are nothing without women. Especially in the family life, the role of

women is very important. They can be a stockholding for their family. Women

organized the whole aspect in the family life, they are a smart people.

Today, women realize their ability and their role in this life. Therefore,

there is women emancipation. Women emancipation need long process and it

depends from the society. On the other side, many people still cannot accept

women emancipation. As a woman, I feel that women emancipation is very

important to show that truly women have a power, ability and role in this life.

Actually, woman emancipation has been begun since long time ago. In

Indonesia we have R.A. Kartini as a hero who struggle the women. In Athens, we

have Lysistrata also as a heroine in a war between Athena and Sparta.


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In this study, I bring this case by seeing feminism in Lysistrata Drama

Script. The primary data of this study is taken from the Aristophanes’ Lysistrata

written by Dudley Fits in 1954. Why do I choose this script drama as my study?

First of all, I am interesting in this story, because this story is famous drama and

have good story. Beside that the story also has strong character. It is seen in

Lysistrata character. It is also expressed by her, she says that:

“Only we, women can save Greece!” (act 16, scene prologue ).

Her expression, above truly show that she believes women have a power, ability

and power in this life. Second, I live in Javanese culture, which believes that

woman is under the men. This script drama also shows women’s problem in daily

life, and women’s love, that is my other reason.

This story tells about a woman, Lysistrata. She was a smart and wise

person. When a war between Athena and Sparta happened in her country, she was

very sad. She looked that women and child in her country suffered of that

condition. They could not gather with their family, because their husband went to

the war. The children could not gather with their father, because of war,

sometimes men were die in the war. Lysistrata began to think how to end the war.

Therefore, she invited some women from that country, Athena and Sparta, to

gather in high meeting. In the meeting, they tried to solve the war.
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B. Aims of The Study

The aim of the study is to see how a woman may make use of her

important role within her family to stop the war as seen in Lysistrata, the main

character of Aristophanes’ Lysistrata.

C. Problem Formulation

In order to achieve the aim of the study above, I put two problems that

formulated as follows:

1. How is Lysistrata portrayed in the play?

2. How does Lysistrata stop the war between Athena and Sparta?

To answer the problem formulation above, I would employ two theories.

The first one is character and characterization, and the second one is theory of

post Feminism. I also employ feminism approach.

I hope this thesis will contribute a better view about feminism for the

readers, especially for women in Indonesia. By this way, they realize that they

have an important role in this life, especially in their family. Besides that, it is to

know that truly women have a power and ability.


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D. Definition of Term

In this study, I would like use three different terms and I define those

terms briefly, so that it will be not confusing.

1. The first term is Character. Hornby’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s

Dictionary states that, character is (a person, a community, or a race,

etc) or moral nature, mental nature, mental or moral qualities that make

one person different from others. In this script drama, the character is

the behavior of Lysistrata. Abrams in his book A Glossary of Literary

Terms defines:

“Characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work,

which is interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and

disposed qualities that are expressed in what they say ‘the dialogue’

and by what they do ‘the action’ “ (1980: 20)

Abram said that characters are the representation of human beings.

These characters inherit human characteristics. They are presented

through their speeches and actions and not depending on the narration

of the author only.

Hornby’s Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary states, “Character is (a

person, a community, or a race, etc different from others” (1974: 140)


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Characterization according to Baldick in his Criticism and Literary

Theory (34), characterization is the representation of aperson in a

dramatic or narrative work with the use of direct method of attribution

to the character so that the reader can infer or deduce the qualities from

the character’s appearance, action, or speech.

2. The second term is Feminism. Terrey’s Encyclopedia Feminism says,

“In brief, feminism can be described as a belief and a commitment to

equal rights and opportunities for women” (1989:139). The term of

feminism is originated from the Latin femina (=woman) which meant,

having the qualities of females.

Charlotte Bunch defines that “feminism is transformational politics

since everything affects women, every issue is women’s issue” (Tuttle,

1986:107)

Noah Webster in his book, Webster New Twentieth Century

Dictionary says that

“Feminism is :

1). The theory that women should have political, economic, and social

rights equal to men.

2). The movement to win such right for women” (1972: 674).

Maggie Humm, in her book, The Dictionary of Feminism Theory says

that feminism is a term used by cultural and essentialist feminist to

describe the ideology of female superiority (1995 : 93).


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Hornby’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary states that, feminism

is the belief and aim that women should have the same rights and

opportunities as men. (2005:565)


PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter deals with two main parts. First is review of related theories,

which consist of theory of character and characterization, theory of feminism and

post feminism. Second is theoretical framework which explains the contribution

of the theories in this study in solving the problem as stated in problem

formulation in chapter I.

A. Review of Related Theories

In this study, I am going to analyze Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Drama Script,

especially the feminism side of the drama script. In analyzing the drama script,

this study refers to some theories that support the analysis. Below are the theories

used as the foundation of the discussion later.

1. Theory of Character and Characterization

Instead of using feminism approach, this study use other theories to

support my analysis. They are theory of character and theory of characterization.

a. Theory of Character

Abrams proposes character can be classified into protagonist and antagonist

(128). The protagonist is the central figure of a story and usually referred to the

main character of the story. Whereas, antagonist creates conflicts or barriers that

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the protagonist must overcome. Antagonist is not always human; it can be

circumstances, situation that creates conflict.

Talking about the character, we will imagine that it is about the psychical

appearance, but in fact, character is not just a matter of psychical appearance.

Character also includes the personality and behavior that reveals the figure. Foster

gives two kinds of character, they are flat and round character.

1. Flat character

Flat character is a static character that develops in a single idea or quantity

(1978: 21). There is no detail description of the character in a novel. It is call flat

because we see only one side of the character.

2. Round Character

Round character is dynamic and complex in temperament (1978: 21).

Round character is not just static but it is dynamic and always changes, therefore

it makes her/his character is unpredictable or hard to guess by the reader, as the

result, round character is rather than difficult to be described.

Henkle divide the character into “major” and “minor” character (1977: 89)

1. Major character

This is the most important and complex character in a novel. He or she can be

identified as such trough the complexity of his or her characterization, the

attention given to him or her is the personal intensity that seems to transmit.

2. Minor character

Minor characters are those who perform more limited functions. Their

responses to the experiences are less complex and less interesting.


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b. Theory of Characterization

Sometimes when we read a story, the author does not give direct the

description of the character. If that is the case, we can perceive traits of character

like what Murphy Says in his book. “There are nine ways of how an author may

reveal the character’s personalities and traits to the reader” (1972:276). They are:

1. Personal description

The author describes the characters appearances and clothes directly.

2. Character as seen by another

The author uses another character’s eyes and opinions to describe a character.

3. Speech

What a character says can give the readers some clues to his/her character.

4. Past lives

The author lets the reader to learn something about a person’s life by giving clues

through directing comment on the character, person’s thought, his conversation or

through the medium of another person.

5. Conversation of others

The conversation of other people and the things they say about the character can

be a clue to the person’s characteristic.

6. Reactions

The author helps the reader to recognize a person’s characters by describing how

the person reacts to various situation and events.

7. Direct comment

The author gives a comment on a person’s characteristic directly.


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8. Thoughts

The author can give his readers a direct knowledge of what a person is thinking

about.

9. Mannerism

The author can tell his reader about the character’s characteristics from the

character’s mannerism, habits, and idiosyncrasies.

The study also refers to the Abrams theory, Abrams says in his book

entitled A Glossary of Literary Terms, that there are two kinds of character

portrayal namely telling and showing method. Telling is also called as a direct

method while showing is an indirect method or dramatic method. In the direct

method, the author himself intervenes authoritatively in order to describe and

often to evaluate the motives and dispositional qualities of the characters. In the

direct method, the author merely presents his characters talking and acting, and

leaves the readers to infer what motives and disposition behind on what they say

and do (1981: 21)

Koesnosoebroto says, “A character must be believable or convincing”

(1988:67). Furthermore, he says, “A character must be consistent in his or her

behaviour, clearly motivated and creadible”. What it means by consistent in his or

her behaviour is that a character can change only by a strong reason. For instance,

when somebody is depressed in his poverty, he can simply change to be a thief or

the like. A character should also have clear motivations whenever he or she

changes in mind. The reason has to be acceptable. Then, lastly, characters must be

credible. It should be lifelike and realistic.


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Thus, from the theory above, I try to find out the major characteristic of

Lysistrata from the dialogues or speech.

2. Theory of Feminism

John Stuart Mill one of the English philosophers says that feminism is

indulged though a kind of education system in society (1981:6). He also believes

that any efforts to divided human into two groups, women and men, and the effort

to differentiate them in social role are the effect of an organized political act.

“From the first time, women are born and grown bring some believe that they

have a good morality, better then men. Women do not have their own hope. They

have to be obedience person and being sacrifice for others. They always being

thought to give all her live for others and deny themselves. Women only permit to

have sense or feeling” Mill (1971:148). Arief Budiman in his book, Pembagian

Kerja Secara Seksual says that,

“Banyak orang percaya bahwa wanita sudah sewajarnya hidup di

lingkungan rumah tangga. Tugas ini adalah tugas yang diberikan alam

kepada mereka: melahirkan dan membesarkan anak-anak di dalam

lingkungan rumah tangga.” (1981: 3)

(Many people believe that women have to stay at home. It is given by nature for

them, their job is only to give birth and raised the children in the house)

Even in economic and social position, woman are weak. This situation

also occurred in England around 1725 as R.W. Emerson says, in his English

Traits, “The right of the husband to sell his wife has been retained down to our
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times” (Freeman, 1984 : 520). Even though there is women emancipation and

women’s right in economic and social position, still women have a bad condition

in it. We can also see in fields and mines, manufactories and shops, on markets

and roads as well as in workshops and in their homes, women are busy, assisting

their men or replacing them in their absence or after their death, or contributing by

their own labor to the family income. But owing to the fact that most industrial

activities are carried out in the house of chances of female employment than are

bigger. Women are admitted to a number of trades, such as woolen and linen

weaving, braiding, tailoring, fur-dressing and tanning, baking, leather-cutting and

armorial embroidery, and many other profession.

Women have no right to protest about their condition. Women are taboo to

express their real feeling. It will be happiness to accept their condition. This

opinion also expressed by Mrs. Graves :

“A good woman has no desire to rule, where she feels to be her duty, as it is as
higher pleasure ‘to love, honor and obey’; and she submits with cheerful
acquiescence to that order in the conjugal relation which God and nature have
established. Woman feels she is not for command, and she finds her truest
happiness in submitting to those who wield a rightful scepter in justice, mercy and
love.” (Freeman, 1984: 521)

Feminism is an effort to escape themselves from any exploitation from the

society. It is also express by Maggie Humm in her book, The Dictionary of

Feminism Theory says that Feminism is a term used by cultural and essentialist

feminists to describe the ideology of female superiority (1995 : 93). It is to show

that, women have power and ability in life.


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Feminism is a woman movement aroused as an aware effort to escape

themselves from any oppression, discrimination, and exploitation in societies and

to dismiss them in their life.

a. Feminism Movement

Concerning to the development on feminism theories cause different

various point of view. Basically, there are four kinds of feminism, namely Liberal

feminism, Radical feminism, Socialist feminism, and Marxian feminism. All the

sources below are taken from Ratna Megawangi’s Perkembangan Teori

Feminisme Masa Kini dan Mendatang serta Kaitannya dengan Pemikiran Islam

(1996: 211-229)

1. Liberal Feminism

It is that all people created with the same rights and chances to struggle for

their lives. Therefore, liberal feminism assumes that naturally there are no

differences between men and women so that women should have their right

equaled with men’s. However, it focuses on the changes of rules and laws that

supposed to survive the patriarchy system. On the other hand, Liberal Feminism

regards the conventional family universal concept in which a husband is in charge

of family earning and security ensuring. This case, according to liberal feminism,

is not ensuring individual freedom concept to be self-manage and to decide one’s

own life. This conventional family concept makes women depend on men. (1996:

212).
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Basically women stick tightly to traditional values that from their

incapable and irrational attitude and of course this causes the woman underdog in

the society. Thus people consider that industrialization and modernization are the

best ways to enhance woman status. (1996: 213)

2. Radical Feminism

Radical feminism theory developed rapidly in the United States in the

course of year 1960’s and 1970’s. The basis of this theory correspondes to

philosophy of socialist feminist theory, but the radical theory focuses mostly on

the existence of the family institution and patriarchy system. Patriarchy is such

masculinity ideology. According to radical feminism patriarchy is a system in

which men considered to have superior power and economic privilege. Radical

feminism tends to abhor men and let women to be autonomous, in fact even

without men in their lives.

3. Marxian Feminism

Classic Marxism bears a solid tradition to study anything related to family

affairs, private property, and nation. It absolutely rejects the concepts that suppose

biological aspect is the basic way of which genders differentiated. Husbands are

bourgeois while wives are proletariats that are always under oppression. In this

occasion, women are supposed to be free from such patriarchy capitalistic

authority only by launching woman revolution movement. Woman emancipation

is effective when a woman takes part in production and stops handling household
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affairs. Woman emancipation should be through industrialization and there is less

time for them to do some household affairs (1996: 228).

4. Socialist Feminist

According to socialist feminist, living in such capitalistic society is not the

primary reason causing woman retardation, either in any capitalistic states or

socialized woman states are still under patriarchy system (1996: 228-229).

Socialist feminist is a feminism movement that adopt praxis Marxism theory,

process of makinf awareness. It helps women aware of their position that are no in

fortuned class (1996: 228-229).

B. Theoretical Framework

This study is about how Lysistrata stops the war between Athena and

Sparta as seen in Aristophanes’s Lysistrata Drama Script. Therefore, the theory of

character and characterization and theories of feminism are used to answer the

problem formulation.

The theory of character and characterization is used to answer the first

question in the problem formulation about how Lysistrata is portrayed in the play.

The types of character stated by Foster and Henkle help to classify the character.

This study uses Murphy’s theory, character and characterization to find out the

characterization of Lysistrata. Therefore, we can find out what kind of personality

that the character has. From the nine principles stated in chapter 2, which are

personal description, character as seen by another, speech, past life, conversation


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of others, direct comment, thoughts, and mannerism. From those nine principles,

there are only speech, conversation of others and direct comment to be devices in

analyzing the characteristics of Lysistrata in the play.

The theory of feminism is used to give clearer description about feminism.

It also will be applied to answer the second question in the problem formulation.

The theories of feminism taken from Maggie Humm as stated in his book, The

Dictionary of Feminism Theory. Another theory of feminism are going to be used

to discuss the way Lysistrata tries to survive live without the men to stop the war

and show to them that a woman have a big important role in a family life.

Feminism approach involves various theories of feminism to explain the

women’s live in the daily live and women’s role in the family live.

C. Context of Lysistrata

The setting of Lysistrata is in Greece in the 410 BC. I would like to give a

brief history based on the Aristophanes and Lysistrata’s point of view, from socio

culture, political and economic side.

1. Aristophanes

Aristophanes wrote this play in the condition where women are

underestimated by men. At that time Greece is divided into two local areas, they

were Athena and Sparta. The background of those countries was very different.

Athena was more modern country than Sparta. They had good knowledge

therefore Athena have some scientist like Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, etc. It was
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different from Sparta. Sparta was a military country. They concentrate to their

country’s security.

From economic side, Athena was more prosperous than Sparta.

Democracy was effective in Athena than Sparta.

2. Lysistrata

As stated above, Aristophanes wrote the drama in the condition where men

had an authority. At that time, the women were not allowed to express their

thought and their voices deliberately. Through this drama, Lysistrata as the main

character tried to show that women have power in order to prove that they have

the same right. They also tried to prove that a woman also has her own power to

express her feeling.

It is not the time for women to be underestimated by men. It is the time

for women to realize that they have rise their dignity by showing their power.

Therefore, women should struggle against the domination of men.


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CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter consists of three parts. The first part is subject matter, in this

part I would like to give brief explanation about the script drama. The second part

I would discuss the approach in this study. Then the last part is procedures that

explain all the steps on the analyzing of this script drama.

A. SUBJECT MATTER

In this thesis, I choose Lysistrata drama script. The original novel was

written by Aristophanes at 410 BC. This drama script is an English translation,

published in 1954 by Harcourt, Brace & Co, NY as the first edition. The English

version is translated by Dudley Fitts.

The content of this story is about women in Greece. There are a war

between Athena and Sparta. Women and children are very sad, they cannot gather

with their family completely. Their husbands/ father leave them and go to the war.

Lysistrata is an Athenian her husband is a commissioner. She thinks only

women can save Greece, she has an idea to end the war. One day, Lysistrata

invites some people to her house. The people are women who have high position

in Greece. Lysistrata conveys her idea to end the war. Her idea is all of the women

in Greece leave their house and live in a mass calls Akropolis.

By knowing the condition, all of the men in Greece are very angry. They

lose their wife, and feel lonely. No one at home, they do the household alone

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without helping from their wife. They are very sad when they come from the war.

Men protest to Lysistrata about this condition, they want their wife come back to

home. Finally, men and women make an appointment. Women will go back to

home if men end the war. Moreover, they create peace together in the family life.

From this moment, it raises a Lysistrata as a hero for Greece, their country.

B. APPROACH

In analyzing the problem formulation as mentioned in chapter one, I use

the feminism approach based on the feminism theory that I would employ. This is

because I would like to analyze the women’s live and role in the family. I also

employ the theory character and characterization of Abram’s theory, to know the

character of Lysistrata.

C. Data Collection

In order to complete the study, the study needed a lot of thought as well as

reference books and notes. There are various sources that the study used in

analyzing the adaptation of the main character and his characterization. The

sources are basically divided into two parts. They are primary source and

secondary sources. The explanation of each kind of source will be given as

follow:

1. Primary source

The primary source is the source that becomes the basis of the study’s

analysis about the character and the characterization of Lysistrata, the main
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character of the drama. The primary source used in this study is the drama script,

Lysistrata, written by Aristrophanes.

2. Secondary Sources

The secondary sources are the sources that become the supporting sources

in giving information in the study’s analysis. Firstly, the study used some

feminism books such as The Dictionary of Feminism Theory by Maggie Humm,

Pembagian Kerja Secara Seksual, written by Arief Budiman, also the book from

Ratna Megawangi, the title is Perkembangan Teori Feminisme Masa Kini dan

Mendatang serta Kaitannya dengan Pemikiran Islam. The writer used some

literary books such as A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature written by

Wilfred L. Guerin, et al., An Introduction in English Poetry and the English Novel

for Overseas Students, written by Murphy and A Course Glossary of

Contemporary-Literary Theory written by Jeremy Hawthorn.

Besides those books above, there are many other psychological and

literary books and Internet sources that support the analysis in this study. The

complete information about all of the books and Internet sites that are used can be

found in the bibliography of the thesis.


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D. PROCEDURES

Conducting this study, there are some steps I have done. First, I read the

script drama at all to know the whole story.

Second, I reread the story and pay more attention to the Lysistrata

character and the other characters that help her to do her idea.

Third, I collected the theories about character and characterization and

feminism. I found some books like Abram’s A Glossary of Literary Terms and

some books about feminism.

Fourth, I also tried to find about Aristophanes’ Lysistrata drama script

from the internet. It aims to know further the character of actor.

After all, I started my analysis in chapter four by answering the problem

formulation as stated in chapter one.


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CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS

This chapter presents the analysis of the drama script of Aristophanes’

Lysistrata. The first section of this chapter deals with the analysis of Lysistrata

portrayed in the play. The second section deals with the analysis how Lysistrata

stops the war between Athena and Sparta.

A. Character Analysis of Lysistrata in Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Drama script

This part describes Lysistrata’s personality in the drama script. There are

some ways in showing Lysistrata’s personality. In this study, Lysistrata’s

personality is analyzed by the use theory of character, whereas Murphy’s theory

of characterization is used to analyze Lysistrata’s personality traits.

Foster said that, character is divided into two kinds, flat character and

round character. Based on the story, character of Lysistrata is round. In the round

character, the character is just not static but it is dynamic and always changes

(Foster, 1978:21). Lysistrata’s character is also unpredictable. Lysistrata has an

idea to end the war, she invites women to discuss the problem. The women agree

that they have to live together in Akropolis and Lysistrata will responsible to their

life. In the Akropolis they live without their husband and children, so sometimes

they miss them.

Because of the condition, some of them try to go back to their house. Lysistrata is

very angry when she knows some women’s behavior. At the end of scene 2,

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Lysistrata knows how hard they are. They live without their family, but they must

keep the struggle to end the war. The situation below shows the changes of

Lysistrata’s character. Therefore, Lysistrata can be classified into round and

dynamic character.

In order to clarify Lysistrata’s personality traits the writer use theory of

characterization. Lysistrata’s personality traits can be explain as follow:

1. Lysistrata has a beautiful face and fine figure

Lysistrata is the hero in the play. She is the major character in this story.

Lysistrata is around thirty years old. In the story, her figure is a woman who has

good character, wise person, smart person, and beautiful woman. When we watch

the play, the first impression of Lysistrata is a perfect woman.

Her beauty is shown in her physical appearance nevertheless sometimes

she doesn’t care about her appearance.

“Never mind my face, kalonike, the way we women behave!


Really, I don’t blame the men for what they say about us (act 4,
scene prologue).”

She also has a good smile on his face. Myrrhine said,


“Sorry to be late, Lysistrata. Oh, come, don’t scow! so. Say
something! You’re sweeter if you just smile…” (act 43, scene
prologue).

2. Lysistrata is a wise and smart woman

Lysistrata is known as someone who was always tolerant to others

condition. She is very sad when she looks women’s condition in Athena. They
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always feel lonely in their daily life. Therefore, Lysistrata thinks how to solve the

problem.

“What I have in mind is even more demanding”


“Worn down or not, it comes to this. Only we women can save
Greece!” (act 8 & 16, scene prologue).

What is Lysistrata said, show that she is a wise and smart people. By her

smartness, she tries to solve the problem in her country. Lysistrata thinks that it is

very important for all people in Greece. She wants a change in her country,

therefore Lysistrata invites all of women in Greece to fight together for their

country. Before they begin their struggle, Lysistrata invites some women from

Athena and Sparta, they are Kalonike, Myrrhine (Athena) and Lampito (Sparta),

to discuss what is the solution for their problem.

Lampito :” Which one of you called this high meeting, and why?”
Lampito :” Well, then, tell us: What’s up?”
Myrrhine : “ Yes, darling, what is on your mind, after all?” (act
60,62,& 63, scene prologue)

Lysistrata has strong character in this story. She has a big influence for

others because of her intelligence. When she has an opinion, she always gives the

strong reason for her opinion.

”It’s your husband. Fathers of your children. Doesn’t it bother you


that they’re always far from you with the Army? I’ll stake my life,
not one of you has a man in the house this minute.” (act 66, scene
prologue).

“ And not the ghost of a lover to be found! Don’t you miss them??
From the very day the war began- those Milesians! I could skin
them alive! I’ve not seen so much, even, as one of those leather
consolation prizes. But there! What’s important is : if I’ve found a
way to end the war, are you with me?” (act 70, scene prologue).
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From those dialogues above, Lysistrata gives the reason that the women in

Greece, including herself feel bother because of the war, they always far from

their husbands and sons. Everyday, their husbands and sons left them in the house

and they go to the war, and the women only do their household work, keep their

children. It is very bothering. Therefore, they should struggle to get the better

condition. All of them agree with Lysistrata that they should struggle together.

Myrrhine :” I should say so! Even if I have to pawn my best dress


and drink up the proceeds.” (act 71, scene prologue)
Kalonike :” Me, too! Even if they split me right up the middle,
flounder.” ( act 72, scene prologue).
Lampito :” I’m surely with you. I’d crawl up Taygetos on my
knees if that’d bring peace. “ (act 73, scene prologue).

As a smart woman, Lysistrata was always brave to take a risk in her

decision. Sometimes, her opinion is very controversial and not acceptable by

others. However, Lysistrata does not afraid to face it.

Lysistrata :” All right, then; here it is: women! Sisters! If we really


want our men to make peace, we must be ready to give up – “ (act
72, scene prologue).
Myrrhine :” Give up what? Quick, tell us!” ( act 75, scene
prologue)
Lysistrata :”But will you?” (act 76, scene prologue).
Myrrhine:” We will, even if it kills us!” (act 77, scene prologue).
Lysistrata :” Then we must give up going to bed with our men.”
(act 78, scene prologue).
Myrrhine :” I couldn’t. No! let the war go on.” (act 80, scene
prologue).

From the text above, it is shown that the women cannot accept her

opinion. It is difficult and so hard for them to do Lysistrata’s idea. They do not

know the way Lysistrata thinks. All of them refuse Lysistrata’s idea.
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Lysistrata always has a good idea to explain her opinion to others. In this

condition, she explains that they have ability to do it, she promises that everything

will be in good condition. When Kalonike asks to her,

“ But if – oh dear! – if we give up what you tell us to, will there be


any peace?” (act 89, scene prologue).

Lysistrata answers clearly, yes it is and she believes that it is the only one way to

end the war. Lysistrata is a woman who always has a firm attitude when she takes

a decision. When she says something, it will be never changing. It is clear that

Lysistrata has a strong character in Athenian’s life. She has a big influence in their

life. All the people appreciate her because of her wisdom.

3. Lysistrata is kind person

Lysistrata is a kind person. She always helps others, and thinks all the

women’s condition in Greece.

“It’s your husbands. Fathers of your children. Doesn’t it bother you


that they’re always far from you with the Army? I’ll stake my life,
not one of you has man in the house this minute.” (act 66, scene
prologue).

“And not the ghost of a lover to be found! Don’t you miss them??
From the very day the war began, those Milesians! I could skin
them alive! I’ve not seen so much, even, as one of those leather
consolation prizes. But there! What’s important is: if I’ve found a
way to end war, are you with me?”(act 70, scene prologue)

Lysistrata loves to her country, Greece. Therefore, she keeps her fighting

to end the war between Athena and Sparta. She creates a peace atmosphere for all

the people in Greece. After she holds the high meeting in Akropolis, she asks

some women to take the Akropolis. Some of them take the Cidatel, she assembles
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the women in those places. When they live together in that place, Lysistrata

always gives spirit to other women.

“You girls, listen to me! I know it’s hard for you to live without the
loved one. But do you also imagine your husband’s night? Just
stick it out! A little patience, that’s all, and our battle’s won…..”
(act 371, scene 2).

“Let’s not be downhearted, girls. Back to our places! the God has
spoken. How can we possibly fail him?” ( act 378, scene 2).

It shows that Lysistrata is always tolerant to women’s condition. Sometimes she

cheers them up in a difficult situation, the women are happy because of her

kindness. Lysistrata and other women optimist they can pass this condition

together. They should face this problem to get their wining.

4. Lysistrtata is a brave person

As a strong woman, Lysistrata always brave to face the entire problem in

her life. It is also shown when she makes a decision to live without men for a

moment. She explains to the other women that they should brave face the problem

together. All of men in Greece are very angry when they hear about Lysistrata’s

decisions. They try to burn the Akropolis, because they know that all of the

women live there. They want their wife, and family comes back to their house.

However, Lysistrata does not afraid in this condition. She faces it together with

other women.

“If he touches me, I swear by Artemis there’ll be one cart of money


burned from the public payroll tomorrow!”
“Forward, indeed! By the Goddesses, what’s the sense in that?
They’re up against four companies of women armed from top to
bottom”
(act 222 & 230,scene 1).
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“Glad to. Ever since this war began, we women have been
watching you men, agreeing with you, keeping our thoughts to
ourselves. That doesn’t mean we were happy: we weren’t, for we
saw how things were going; but we’d listen to you at dinner
arguing this way and that……” (act 273, scene 1).

From the conversation above shows, that Lysistrata does not afraid face the

problem. She believes that she is true, and it is the only one way to end the

problem in Greece. Therefore, she fights their condition. From her struggle,

Lysistrata shows that she is a strong person, when she faces a problem she always

keep her struggle. Lysistrata is able to live without the men for a moment, she

lives together with other women in Akropolis. It means that she is a strong woman

and a brave person in her live.

Commisioner :”Very well. My first question is this: why did you


lock the gates of the Akropolis?”
Lysistrata:”Why? To keep the money, of course. No money, no
war.”
Commisioner:”You think that money’s the cause of war?”
Lysistrata:”I do. Money lead us all into the temptation, and also the
trigger of this war! if only no money to fund that stupid Peisandros
project, there will be no war!” (act 242, 243, 244, 245, scene 1).

In the conversation above shows, that Lysistrata protests the war to commissioner.

She gives the reason to commissioner, why she does this protest.

“And then, instead of the love that every woman needs, we have
only our single beds, where we can dream of our husbands off with
the Army. Bad enough for wives! But what about our girls, getting
older every day, and no kisses?” (act 308, scene 1).

Lysistrata is never shy to show her feeling. From the statement above, we know

that she tells about her feeling to the commissioner, Lysistrata wants they know

about women’s feeling. She explains how they are sad when their husband goes to

the war. Lysistrata always brave in struggling women’s right.


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5. Lysistrata is a responsible woman

Lysistrata has an idea, that all of women live in the mass. As long as they

live in Akropolis, she leads all of the women. She gives safety for them, so all the

people feel comfort life in Akropolis. It shows that Lysistrata is a responsible

woman, she responsibles to the women’s life there.

When some of women try to go back their house, Lysistrata is very angry.

“ The behaviour of these women! Idiot! I can’t stand with their


temperament, …..”
“Why bring God into it? __ No, it’s just as I say. I can’t manage
them any longer: they’ve gone man-crazy, they’re all trying to get
out……(act 338 & 346, scene 2).

From the dialogue above, it shows that Lysistrata feels disappointed to the

women’s behavior. She feels that their life in Akropolis is her responsibility.

Therefore, she should manage their life.

B. How Lysistrata stopped the war between Athena and Sparta

This part is discussing how Lysistrata stops the war between Athena and

Sparta, also the type of feminism represented by Lysistrata in Aristophanes’s

Lysistrata.

1. The Type of Feminism Represented by Lysistrata in Aristophanes’s

Lysistrata

In the story, the society at that time is the concept of patriarchal family.

Patriarchy is a rule in society that sees men is the one to hold the power of the

house and the whole family, and the women is the subordinate, as portrayed in
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Aristophanes’s Lysistrata. In the drama, the women are supposed to be a good

mother and only do the household work.

There are many aspects in determining feminism. In this study, it would

like to focus on what Lysistrata does to stop the war, which indicates of feminism.

In this story, the main character, Lysistrata, shows that she is brave in making a

decision. At that time, there was a war between Athena and Sparta. Athena is

bigger than Sparta, however they have the same power. Sparta is a military nation

and Athena is a democracy nation. They never have good relationship each of

other, this condition is the caused of war.

Man had important role in their life at that time. In a family, if they had a

child man, they have to understand about military. Every family in those countries

has to send their family member to the war, and the women just stay at home to do

their household work. Lysistrata starts her big change by asking the women in

Greece to get out from their house, and live together without men in Akropolis.

Lysistrata :” All right, then; here it is: women! Sisters! If we really


want our men to make peace, we must be ready to give up – “ (act
72, scene prologue).
Myrrhine :” Give up what? Quick, tell us!” ( act 75, scene
prologue)
Lysistrata :”But will you?” (act 76, scene prologue).
Myrrhine:” We will, even if it kills us!” (act 77, scene prologue).
Lysistrata :” Then we must give up going to bed with our men.”
(act 78, scene prologue).
Myrrhine :” I couldn’t. No! let the war go on.” (act 80, scene
prologue).

At the first time, the women do not agree with Lysistrata’s decision. Then she

explains to them that it is the only one way to making peace in Greece. Lysistrata

proves that she and the other women can live without man and makes they realize
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that a woman have an important role in a family. Her thought is also radical

thought, she thinks that a woman can stand by herself without a man’s help. As

stated in review of the related theory that radical feminism patriarchy is a system

in which men considered to have superior power and economic privilege where

women are managed under male’s power.

From the evidence and the characteristic of radical feminism presents

above, it can be concluded that the type of feminism represents by Lysistrata in

Aristophanes’ Lysistrata is radical feminism.

2. How is Lysistrata stop the war

All of women in Greece are very sad because of the war condition.

Everyday they feel loneliness, without their husbands even their children.

Lysistrata is an Athenian, she is a smart woman and wise. As a woman she knows

that their work in a house is hard, and she realizes that women are managed under

male’s power. However, in other side Lysistrata realizes that a woman has

important role in a family. She knows that without woman in the family life, a

family cannot go on well. Here, this study would analyze how the women in

Greece use their important role in the family to stop the war by live without men

for a while.

Lysistrata invites Athenian’s women and Sparta’s women in a Public

Square in Athens. They discuss together to get the best solution for their country.

Lysistrata has an idea, her idea is all of the women in Athens and Sparta leave

their house and live together in Akropolis.


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“ Leave that to me. I know how to make them listen”


“The Akropolis? Darling, we’re taking over the Akropolis today!
That’s the older women’s job. All the rest………” (act , scene 1)

Lysistrata asks the women to leave their house and live together without their

family in Akropolis. All of the women are very shock when they heard about that.

They do not agree with Lysistrata’s idea, they do not able to live without their

family. However, Lysistrata tells to them that it is the only one way to end the

war.

Humm explains in her book The Dictionary of The Feminist Theory that

actually there are three areas of freedom which are described in feminism,

political, economic, and sexual. Sexual freedom is not the most important aspect.

It can be seen when Lysistrata and the other women leave their husband and live

together without men. By doing this way, Lysistrata and the others women show

that, women are not weak.

Lysistrata’s decision makes all of men in Athens and Sparta is very angry.

They don’t like it, so that, they have a plan to burn the Akropolis. The

commissioner asks them to attack the Akropolis, and take their wife.

“ Very well. My first question is this, why did you lock the gates of
the Akropolis?” (act 242, scene 1)
“ And what will you do?” (act 246, scene 1)

The commissioner is very angry to Lysistrata. He does not like her

decision. Lysistrata tries to explain what the aim is. She explains that it is the best

way for them, to end the war. Lysistrata asks the men to leave the war and back to

their family.
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“Glad to. Ever since this war began, we women have been
watching you men, agreeing with you, keeping our thoughts to ourselves.
That doesn’t mean we were happy: we weren’t, for we saw how things
were going; but we did listen to you at dinner arguing this way and
that…..” (act 273, scene 1).

It shows that, women want the husbands back to their house and live

together in a peace atmosphere. However, men think that what they do is for

National security.

Lysistrata understands why they are very angry in this condition. She realizes that

without women in a house, the men cannot do everything, including go to the war.

They should finish the household work because there is no his wife. Lysistrata

thinks that woman, as a stick holder is very needed by man in their life. This

condition is defended by Lysistrata to attack the men.

“And then, instead of the love that every woman need, we have
only you single beds, where we can dream of our husbands off
with the Army. Bad enough for wives! But what our girls, getting
older everyday, and older, and no kisses?” (act, 308, scene 1).

Leave their house and live together in Akropolis is the best way, even

though it is also hard for them live without their family. Sometimes they feel miss

their house and want to meet their husband and family. Some of them feel

hopeless when face this problem.

“I was afraid that my pains might begin here in the Akropolis; and
I wanted to drop my chick into it, just as the dear doves do”
“But I can’t stay here in the Akropolis! Last night I dreamed of the
snake.”
“And those horrible owls, the noise they make! I can’t get a bit of
sleep; I’m scared to death!” (act 367, 369 & 370, scene 2).
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Lysistrata knows it is hard for them to pass this condition. As a brave and

strong woman, Lysistrata gives the spirit to them. It shows that she is stronger

than men are. It can be seen from the conversation below

“You girls, listen to me! I know it’s hard for you to live without
the loved one. But do you also imagine your husband’s nights? Just
stick it out! A little patience, that’s all, and our battle’s won. I have
heard on Oracle……” (act 371, scene 2).

Actually, the women in Akropolis are not weak woman. They are afraid of

the myth only, which is stated in previous conversation. They are strong in facing

all the problem in their house. They should work hard in their house to finish

household work and take care their children, in other side they never get

appreciate from their husband. They never complain about it to their husband.

“Glad to. Ever since this war began, we women have been
watching you men, agreeing with you, keeping our thoughts to
ourselves. That doesn’t mean we were happy: we weren’t, for we
saw how things were going; but we’d listen to you at dinner
arguing this way and that……” (act 273, scene 1).

They become stronger because of Lysistrata who brings them free from

male domination. Lysistrata believes that, they need just a little time to finish their

way, and, it is true. The men in Greece feel lonely and sad staying at home.

“But be quick about it! Lord, what’s life without wife? Can’t eat.
Can’t sleep. Every time I go home, the place is so empty, so
insufferably sad….” (act 424, scene 3).

The struggle of Lysistrata and all of the women is success. Some of men in

Greece feel so bother in their life. They live without wife, they also should finish

the household work at home. Start from this point, men realize that a woman have
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an important role in the life especially in a family. They need a wife in their

house. They need a woman in their life.

“Now, it’s better. I miss your staring at me. What a dust, to change
your beautiful eyes into monstrous!” (act 556, scene 4).

Through her struggle, Lysistrata also shows that women have a power to

face the problem in life. Linda Brannon explains in her book Gender;

Psychological Perspective that women are more as the opposition of men in a

number of ways. They are passive, dependent, pure, refined and delicate.

Meanwhile men are active, independent and strong.

After doing this way, Lysistrata and the other women are more

independent in their life. They can show that their position in a family is very

important. Not only do the household works but also their existence in a family

bring different atmosphere. Kynesias in scene 3 tells that his life without woman

is nothing. In the house, he feels empty he cannot sleep and eat. It also happens

for the other men in Greece. They are lonely in home. They should get up in the

morning for cooking, and keeping the children. It is very hard for them to do it

only by their own. Therefore, the men are very angry to the women, because they

do not stay at home. The most important thing is they can not go to the war

because of this condition.

It is also another point from Lysistrata, she wants to make them very busy

at home. Therefore, they do not have enough time to go to the war. The

commissioner is very angry to Lysistrata, because of her, he does not have

constable in the war.


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“Where’s my constable? Constable, arrest that woman, and tie her


hands behind her”
“Well constable? You’re not afraid. I suppose? Garb her, two of
you, around the middle.” (act 221 & 223, scene 1)

From the dialogue above, the men try to protest the condition. They want their

wives back to their house for them and the children.

Lysistrata said that they would go back to their house when the war ends.

Through this way Lysistrata also asks to the men that they should give more

appreciation for their wife at home.

“that’s fair enough, jus as what I’ve been thinking. This strategy
will work that way and resulted in reconciliation. Now, where is
the reconciliation? Go, some of you bring her here. And now,
women, lead the Spartan delegates to me: not roughly or
insultingly, as our men handle them, but gently, politely, as ladies
should. Take them by hand, or by anything else if they won’t give
you their hands.
Stand here please!. Now, all of you, listen to me.
I’m only a woman, I know, but I’ve a mind, and I think not a bad
one. I owe it to my father and to listening to the local politicians.
So much for that. Now, gentleman, since I have you here, I intend
to give you a scolding. We are all Greece…..” (act 529, scene 5)

From the long speech from Lysistrata we know that, Lysistrata to be a facilitator

between Athena and Sparta. She wants a changing in her country. Lysistrata and

the other women want to a peaceful in their country also in their family.

“ Why are we fighting each other? With all this history of favors
given and taken, what stands in the way of making peace?”(act
601, scene 5)

Finally all of them, the people from Athens and Sparta, are agree that the war is

over.

“Let’s get it over with.” (act 620, scene 5)


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Lysistrata succeeds in creating a peaceful atmosphere in her country. She also

brings happiness to the family in Greece, because the women go back to their

house after the reconciliation.

Lysistrata act her role as a great woman and she is the heroine of her

country, Greece. Lysistrata tries hard to make a better life in Greece.


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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION, SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter is divided into two sections. The first is about the conclusion

of the study. Conclusion concerns the answer to the formulated problem after I

have finished the analyzes. The second section presents some suggestions for the

next researchers and teaching English through literature.

A. Conclusion

Before I conclude, I would like to remind the reader the problem

formulated. They are:

1. How is Lysistrata portrayed in the play?

2. How does Lysistrata stop the war between Athena and Sparta?

After reading and analyzing the drama script, I come to the conclusion that the

main character, Lysistrata is a great woman. She rises as a hero for the women in

Greece. Lysistrata is a beautiful woman, wise and smart. Besides that, she is also

kind person and a responsible woman.

The war between Athena and Sparta was stopped by Lysistrata and all

mothers of Athena and Sparta through making the use of the fact, that women

have a big influence in life and have an important role in their family life. First,

Lysistrata and all mothers of Athena and Sparta left their home, left their children

and the haouse chores behind for a while. They live without men for a while.

Second, they move to stay in a place, which is called Akropolis.

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As a result all men from Athena and Sparta get angry. Lysistrata and the

women promise to return home if the men stop their fighting to each other.

Finally, the men agree and the war between Athena and Sparta ended.

B. Suggestion and Recommendation

This section is divided into two parts, the suggestions for future researches

and suggestion for English Teachers.

1. Suggestion for Future Researchers

Lysistrata is a good drama. There are some aspects that can be analyzed.

Analyzing the female characters is only one aspect in this drama.

It is recommended that the future researches analyze the other aspects of

this drama. They may the background why Lysistrata wants to stop the war using

psychological approach.

2. Suggestion for English Teachers

There are some instruments as a media in teaching language, in this case

English. One of them is a drama script. Aristophanes’ Lysistrata can be used as an

instrument in teaching English.

The writer applies the Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Drama Script to teach

Drama. Drama is one of the subjects that the students have to face in learning

English in a university and some senior high school as an extracurricular activity.


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In order to reach the goal, the teacher should facilitate the students with many

kinds of drama to give them opportunities to know the knowledge of drama.

There are many activities that can be done in drama class. It can be

integrated with speaking skills, like role-play. In this study, the activity that is

employed is performing the drama.

2.1. Performing the Drama

In this activity, the teacher assigns the students to play drama that are

taken from the drama script. They have to improve the character’s behavior and

action based on the situation in the exercise. In conducting this activity, the

teacher divides the students into some groups. Then, they are asked to prepare the

conversation.

The lesson plan and materials are attached in the appendix. Below are the

procedures of teaching drama class by performing drama using Aristophanes’

Lysistrata Drama Script:

a. The teacher selects the situation texts from the drama script.

b. The teacher divides the students into groups.

c. The teacher distributes the text to each group ( one group get one scene )

d. The teacher explains the instruction of the play.

e. The teacher gives times to each group to identify the intrinsic aspects and

prepare a dialogue or a conversation based on what they have.


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f. The teacher asks each group to practice the dialogues or the conversation

in their groups

g. The teacher asks each group to perform the dialogue or the conversation in

front of the class.


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REFERENCES

Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
1981.

Barry, P. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Second


Ed. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 2002.

Budiman, A. Pembagian Kerja Secara Seksual, Sebuah Pembaharuan Sosiologis


Tentang Peran Wanita di dalam Masyarakat. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia, 1981.

Deck, and Barbara. The Women’s Movement. New York: Harper and Row, 1975.

Fakih, M. Menggeser Konsepsi Gender dan Transformasi Sosial. Yogyakarta:


Pustaka Pelajar, 1996.

Freeman, J. Women A Feminist Perspective. London Mayfield Publishing Company;


1984.

Hornby, A.S. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1995.

Humm, M. The Dictionary of Feminism Theory. London, 1995.

Kennedy, X. J. and Dana, G. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction. Poetry, and


Drama. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Inc. 1999

Murphy, M.J. Understanding Unseens: An Introduction in English Poetry and the


English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.,
1972.

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44

Megawangi, R. Perkembangan Teori Masa Kini dan Mendatang serta Kaitannya


dengan Pemikiran Islam. Dalam membincang Feminisme Diskursus Gender
Perspektif Islam. Surabaya, 1996.

Rohrberger, M., and Woods, S. H. Jr. Reading and Writing about Literature.
Oklahoma State University: Random house. 1971.

Anonymous. Literarure Guide. 2006. 30 October 2009


(http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/Constance_Briscoe).
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APPENDICES
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45

THE LESSON PLAN OF TEACHING DRAMA

USING LYSISTRATA DRAMA SCRIPT

Subject : Drama
Topic : Lysistrata
Level of students : 4th semester of English Language Education Study Program
Time allocation : 2 x 50’
Materials : Lysistrata Drama Script

A. Basic Competence
1. Students are expected to identify the intrinsic aspect of drama.
2. Students are expected to play the role of the character.
3. Students are expected to perform in front of the class.

B. Achievement Indicators
1. Students are able to identify the intrinsic aspect of drama.
2. Students are able to play the role of the character.
3. Students are able to perform in front of the class.

C. Teaching Learning Activity


a. The teacher selects the texts from the drama script.
b. The teacher divides the students into groups.
c. The teacher distributes the text to each group ( one group get one scene )
d. The teacher explains the instruction of the play.
e. The teacher gives times to each group to identify the intrinsic aspects and
prepare a dialogue or a conversation based on what they have.
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46

f. The teacher asks each group to practice the dialogues or the conversation in
their groups
g. The teacher asks each group to perform the drama in front of the class.
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Material for drama class

Sources: taken from Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Drama Script


Scene: 2

Read the drama script below, and act the drama! After prepare your
performance!

337. Re-enter Lysistrata and her lieutenants


338. Lysistrata : “The behavior of these women! Idiot! I can’t stand with their
temperament, as if they are having a horn. “
339. Stratyllis :”What in the worl do you mean?”
340. Lysistrata :”Exactly what I say.”
341. Stratyllis :”What dreadful thing has happened? Come, tell us: we’re all your
friends.”
342. Lysistrata :”It isn’t easy to say it; yet, God knows, we can’t hush it up.”
343. Stratyllis :”Well, then? Out with it!”
344. Lysistrata :”To put it bluntly, we’re dying to get laid.
345. Koryphaios (w) :”Almighty God”
346. Lysistrata :”Why bring God into it? No, it’s just as I say. I can’t manage them
any longer: they’ve gone man crazy, they ‘re all trying to get out.
Why, look: one of them was sneaking out the back door over there by
Pan’s cave; another was sliding down the walls with rope and tackle;
another was climbing abroad a sparrow, ready to take off for their
nearest brothel. I dragged her back by the hair! They’re all finding
some reason to leave. Look there! There goes another one. Just a
minute, you! Where are you off to so fast?”
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347. Woman C :”I’ve got to get home. I’ve a lot of Milesian wool, and the worms are
spoiling it.”
348. Lysistrata :”Oh bother you and your worms! Get back inside!
349. Woman C :” I’ll be back right away, I swear I will. I just want to get it sretched
out on my bed.”
350. Lysistrata :”You’ll do no such thing. You’ll stay right here.”
351. Woman C :” And my wool? You want it ruined?”
352. Lysistrata :” Yes, for all I care.
353. Woman A :”oh dear! My lovely new flax from Amorgos. I left it at home, all
uncarded!
354. Lysistrata :”I say no. if you, why not all the other women as well?”
355. Woman D :” Sweet goddesses. Intercessor for women in childbirth! Stay, I pray
thee, oh stay here. Shall I pollute a scared spot?”
356. Lysistrata :” And what’s the matter with you?”
357. Woman D :” I’m having a baby, any minute now.”
358. Lysistrata :”But you weren’t pregnant yesterday.”
359. Woman D :” Well, I am today. Let me go home for a midwife. Lysistrata there’s
not much time.”
360. Lysistrata :” I never heard such a nonsense! What’s that bulgig under your
cloak?”
361. Woman D :” Alittle baby boy.”
362. Lysistrata :”It’s certainly isn’t. it’s something hollow, like basin. What the
helmet of Athens?
363. Woman D :”Well I am! So there!
364. Lysistrata :”Then why the helmet?
365. Woman D :” I was afraid that my pains might begin here in the Akropolis, and I
wanted to drop my chick into it, just as the dear doves do.”
366. Lysistrata :” Lies! Evasions! But at least one thing’s clear; you can’t leave the
palce before your purification.”
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367. Woman D :”But I can’t stay here in the Akropolis! Last night I dreamed of the
snake.”
368. Woman B :”and those horrilble owls, the noise they make I can’t get a bit of
sleep. I’m scared to death.”
369. Lysistrata :” “You girls, listen to me! I know it’s hard for you to live without the
loved one. But do you also imagine your husband’s night? Just stick it
out! A little patience, that’s all, and our battle’s won. I have heard an
oracle. Should you lie hear it?”
370. Woman A :” An oracle? Yes, tell us.
371. Lysistrata :” here is what it says; when the outcast repress and avoid their hot
desire, zeus will perfect what they’ve begun and set the lower higher.
372. Woman A :” Does that mean we’ll be on top?
373. Lysistrata :” but when the outcast shall fallout and take the enemies, bait , a
curse must mark their hour of doubt, eternally seal their freedom.”
374.Woman B:”I swear, that oracle’s all too clear.”
375. Woman C :” oh the dear gods!”
376: Lysistrata :”Let’s not be downhearted, girls. Back to our places! the God has
spoken. How can we possibly fail him?”