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8 .

M , Problems 361

Improving Liquid crystal displays, arid other products, such as various optoelectronic
.
components cosmetics arid "hot " and "cnlri" mirrors for architectural and amomelive
* 9
windows.

8.14 Problems Waveguides


.
ft L Vrow the reflectance and iransnuttaiH- e formulas Ut 4.fi) m ITIK . -
fij
—-
Computer Experiment iTWf. Reproduce the results and graphs of Figures 8.0 -R.4.5.
8.4 ( omputer fixpi' iinietu —Surface iHasnum Resomukv.. Reproduce the result '; ar. d graphs of
.
Figures 8.5 4 -8. "i 7, .
-
8.4 Working with theelectric andniafiMlicftddsii£ro9$ annegative index slab givenbyGqa > .i i. 11 .
.
and fi ftji, derive the reflection mid Transmission Eesix >nscs of ihe slab guvn in ( fl,( xS).

. . .-
.
S .> Cvniputor i -jipi nmeru — t rfi' ctLens , study the sensimitv of iln perfect ten?, pniptm io Mir
^
- * -
deviation from Hie ideal values of c - t and p - pn and IO tin* presents nf losses b>
* ..
repmdming the remits and graphs of Figures S fi S and fi.ti l Von wit need to implement-
- Wavp guides arc used to transfer cicrtrormigucTic power efficiently from one pm nr in
space to anuther. Sortie common guiding structures are shown in the figure below,
.
the fOMipiir ithxnal algorithm listed on page i : 2 *l. these include the typical coaxial cable, the two wire and miclrnstrip transmission Lines,
liMllmv conducting wavegiudci;, and optical fibers.
.
K ii Compi/ for ExperturafU
.
8.7 1
Aniuefbcttim Cocvingw Reproduce ihr results and graphs rtl figures
.
In practice tlic* choice of structure is dictated b \ : (a) the desired operating frequent:)
hand, (bl the amount of pi over in he transferred, and (cl the amount of transmission
iS.7 Computer t vvluu’ tti OtmltlirrciumtilDfefa lrir Jtfirrots. Reproduce tin* results and graphs
'
Josses that can he tolerated.
ol' Figures 8.8.2 & KKI. .
H.s .
Derive iln* neutralized SIKTS law s givenin Jit - 1«.I c?.iu>. Moreover derive the firewater nujde
-
expressions given Lit l qs.18.11.4) arid (8,11.5). x
8.1 Compuw / Experiment Brewstet unities. Study the variety nt possible llmvsier angles and r-t
resubs .sntl graphs Fsamplu 8.11. 1. a L^~,J
'
O
reproduce
8.10 ( onipwcrr txjwrutmk
The
v .'uflifa r Hovfrimettt
) :.
til
.
Si / rtctiues Reproduce dm results and graphs
tVrtev
lint;
. irr inieiusiriji Ecctimgulai
dickerric
wavcyuuk
ul Figure B. J 3.1 8J3.Z
* - . coaxial line line waveguide

fig. q.O. I ' typical waxcgrjitlinj; structures .


.
Coaxial cables are widely used tn conned K 1‘ components Ihcir operation is practi' '

col fur frequencies below .1 (Jllz. Above that the losses are too excessive, for example,
-
Ihi attenuation might he 4 dB per lOil m at 100 MHz, but 10 dB/ IOOm at I uTTz and
.10 du/100 m at 10 GHz. I hcir power rating is typically of the urdcr of one kilowatt at
'
.
.
100 MHz but only 20(1 SV at 2 GHz, being limited primarily because of the heating uf
'

the coaxial conductors and of the dielectric between the conductors (dielectric voltage
breakdown is usually a sernndiiFy luclur.) However, special shmi length coaxial cables
do exist that operate in the ill GHz range .
.
Another issue is die single-mode operation of the line At higher frequencies, in order
to prevent higher modes from being launched, the diameters of the coaxial conductors
must be reduced, diminishing the amount of power that can be transmitted.
Two-wlrc lines are nut used at microwave frequencies because they arc not shielded
.
and can radiate One typical use ts for connecting indonr antennas to TV sets. Microstrip
it ties arc uW widely in microwave integrated circuits.
9.1 , Longitudinal Transverse Decompositions '
Mil Mi 4

9. Waveguides

Jtwtaugular waveguides are used routinely to tnuisfer large Amounts of mkrowave


.
power at frequencies greater than H ( 11 /.. S:or example: ai 3 CiFz, lho Ininsmillt'd power
.
where e tt denote the permittivities oJ the medium in which the fields propagate, for
example, the medium between the coaxial concilia ors Lii a coaxial cable, or the medium
might l > r one megawatt and die attenuation unl > 4 dH/ lOU in . within the hollow rectangular waveguide. This medium is assumed to be lossless for
Optical fibers opera I c air optical ar.tl infrared frequencies. allowing a vcr> wide band - notv .
. . -^
width Their losses are very low , typically 0 dB/kni. I he transmitted power is of the Wu note that i z = .
I ft x i 0, 7. Ey ft, i. • V , t , - ft and that /. x / « ami
order ul milliwatts . 7. x V r L ,- are Transverse while V / x E , 1s longitudinal , indeed , wr have:

ix Ey ~7 > { ktix i y Ey ) = y i\ x F. v
Dr 1 l ongitudinal I runsverse Decompositions V j x Lr - ( x c .v -
+ y dv 't x ( x F.x r y Ey I - % { dxEy & yEx )
in a waveguiding system, wc are looking for solutions nf Maxwell's equal Ions that are Using these properties and equating longitudinal and transverse parts in the two
propagating along the guiding direction ( the / direction ) and are confined m the near sides ol Lq . {9.1 A ) we obtain the equivalent Set of Maxwell equations:
y

vicinity « f the guiding structure, lints , ihc elrrtr. e and magnetic fields are assumed iti
luivc the form: Vj £/ X z jfizxEr iwpH )
VJWJ, x & - jfi i x Hj = JU' CEJ
'

.
, , y ) e- tW fa
L u , > r, z, t ) = lit\
Hfx, A O - n { K , y ) 6iil l - i
y ,
,
^ <9. i . n
V } x t\ ( i jaif / 7 fJx 0

Vr • F.r
-
VT x H ) J <oc z Et = 0
-m
.
— .
(ft 1.5)

*=
0
where fi :s the propagation wavenumber along the guide direction. I he corresponding Vj Hr - mb 0
wavdeuglh, called tlu: guide tomwkngth., is denoted by A , - 2fjr / / l. , Depending oil whether both, one, or none of the longitudinal components are zero,
1 he precise relationship between <u and ft depends on the type ol waveguiding K ruc - -
.
turc and the partienhu propagating mode. Kw iusc the fields are confined In the trans-
we may classify the solutions as iransverse electric and magnetir I J JiMJ, transverse dec '

.
verse directions ( the x v directions, I they cannot be uniform (except in very simple trie CTE ), transverse magnetic < TMl, or hybrid:
structures ) and will have a nun trivial dependence on the transverse coordinates X and
y Next, we derive the equations for the phasor amplitudes F.[ xty ) and H [ x , y ) .
\ Ec - f ), llf - 0, I M modes
1
Ls = 0 , / / *
-^I 0.
Because of the preferential role played bx the guiding direction i , it proves con 0, TEorH modes
Wtticnl to decompose Maxwell’s equations into components I hat or** longitudinal , that Es -t 0, 11? TM or li modes
is, along the z -direclion , and components that an: transverse, along the X, y directions, E7 / 0, H? 0. hybrid or HF or Kll modes
11ms, we decompose:
In the case of IEM modes, tvliich are the dummant inodes in two conductor Trans - -
- ..
E(.x, y} = xfsix, y j y E lx y i r zE* ( atty ) - E j (x, y) zE lx y )
^ . -1.2)
(ft
mission lines such as ihc coaxial cubic the fields are purely transverse and the solution
,

-
ol hj. 19.1 f> i reduces- to an equivalent two dimensional electrostatic problem , hr will
IL .I I I V I I'ISI.- .
lmi;;ir lillr Jl
- discuss ihis case later on .
In all other cases, cil least one of the longitudinal lit'lds f.A , Sl 7 is non zero It is I hen - .
In ? similar fashion we may decompose ihe gmliedl uperamr possible m express the transverse field compnuetus Ey H ( Hi terms of the longitudinal .
ones , F. Xl U 7 ,
7 x ? v + y iv - . -i- z S> - V < - z c, - V / (9. I . D
Frirmitig the rmss- jiroduct of the second of equations (9 1.3) with 7 and using the
j
-
- -
BAC C MJ vector identity , i x (z x Ur ) ifz • J / j- j - Hriz • * ) ~ Hr . and slmiJarJy - .
wheR We made the replacement d ? • jfi liecuust oi the assumed z depejidence. in -
* - zx ( Vff /r x z ) - Vr /f 7l we obtain:
troducing these decompositions Into the source - free Maxwell 's equations we have:
VrIIy - j w e f . x ffj
V x£ - -jlopH (V y jfii ) x < r i- i I .. ) -
'

- - jwp I Hr * > Hz ) Thus, the firsi two of (ft.1.5) may he thought of as a linear system of two equations
V xH
V •F= 0
— j toe E
>
IV
Vj-
y - jfi i ) X I. ffj -t- z H £ ) = jo I c ( Ey 1
- ' iF, -0
jfii ) { Er )
/. F. y )

-
(9 1.4)
in the two unknowns z \ Ej and Hr . thar is,

LX Ej - W p H? j7 XV y L?
19.1.ill
V •H - 0 •: Vr j(li ) - ( Hr z Hv ) = 0
§ (tic zx IT - fihr ~ ,
./ V Hr
4.1 , Longitudinal Transverse Decompositions 365 Wifi 9. Waveguides

J lie solution of this system Is; where the medium impedance is q = so dial qtc - p and ijr - 1ft. Vie Hole the
propeilies
'
:
t x £f -
jfi
- JF ix 7 f
7 - .
ll) 1.7) HTTHTU = ȣ , ^^ iti -
(Skl.D)
H; -
Vff/,
k:
where we defined the so- called Cdff <VJ uwvi?nirm£vr A ,- by; Because ficuu ~
\1 - cop / ro-, wc can write also:
'

,-
A: =
i
- /! -
to ~
cJ
,.
, -p -
i

k 2 - (ft ( cutoff wavenumber ) (Skl. )« H er . 'JlA' - 'Jv I - “



I
n
»
i

ft « 2
(y.i.i-n

\ - ^
M
Jl
rite quantity A to / c = co . e / 7 is the wavenumber a uniform plane wave would fit 2
L
have in the propagation medium L. JJ.
’ tVilh rliese definitions, wv may rewrite -q. 9.1.71 follows: l ( JS
Although Ap stands for the difference dr ' e / j - 0 , it turns out that the boundary
conditions for each waveguide type force A;- to take on certain value , which can be
*
positive, neKcitive., or aero, and characterise the pro|»uguliiig modes For example, m a . 7 x. Lr ~ - Jfi (z x V y E 1 ntt? t i l ? )
k? *
-
did eel ric waveguide A is pnsinvr inside the guide ami negative outside it - in a hollow
cnnduciitijt waveguide kj takes on curtain quantized positive values: in a I F.M line, A 2
is 7 fio. Some related definitions are the cutoff /ivtftfcmy and the tufo/ jf u'rTVcJcnpfri
_
H, - J AP;’ { q- z x V - f ^ V W,J
l
ju
. . (Ski .IS)

defined as fallows: Using the rnstdl 2 x fz x LYl - £ j , wi- solve fur £7 and // r :

iVf - ckr » A,- -


Ar '
(rufoJY frequency and wavelength) .
(9.1 9) ET .Arifi '! V / £, - H i f i y
^ s Hx)
Oraiisversf fields) (9.1.1 b)
We can then express /i' 111 terms of u* and n \ -, or w in terms of /( and our . raking JP I
x V y LV )
Hr = 7.
the positive square roots of fiq, (9.1 Sk wc have: . tflH
An alternative anti useful way of writing these equations is ro form the following
I
/1 - - yuv ’ - tOf
a» .
i l l - , and to =

'
vatf
, .
- fl -c,2
.. (9.1.10) linear combinations, which are cqimiilenl to l.q, (9.1.6):
C c \ MV

Often, 1-2]. I J.1.10) is expressed in terms of the wavelengths A -


‘ ,
Ac - J?i/ A , ami Af - Inffi . It follows from k - - A ‘ -»- fv that
(
L! rr : k = 2TTC / IW, Hr -
• . ix £r = /? VrH,
9 rM
(9.1 J 7)

A Hi H u t1 xz - i V r £,
j
I 1 /<
A- A? Aj ^ ^
r
i)
. 1 - -n
A ; 19.1.Ill
So lor we onh used the first twn of Maxwell's equations '9, 1 j) anti expressed Hi , H ; .
Note that A is related to the Free-spare wavelength A<i
\
2TTC J / a> - c / f by the
A;
inVenus of .
Using 1.9 1.16), It is easily slimvn that ihe left -hand sides ol' line
^
(
remaining four of Kqs. (9.1 .5) lake the forms:
refraciive index of the dielectric man rial A = An/ fl - .
lr is convenient al this poinl to introduce the ircrrr.r 'cr.ic frHpedanrejr lor rhe IK arid . V .i / ): ,r + ja' U /. Hz - ' k
1

TM modes by Ihe dclinthoDs; ?


^ r X // j - ItOLikt =
"*‘! i
C
f
( V?L , \ k; LA
M» 9
** . W
nrr
fi

^ fi< ' 9 n/ -
f uc ro
01' and IM Impedances) (9.1 12 Vj m, £r
.

ki Vf
( £, + k } Ex )

v , n, aw , ,
.
P MHi + kill )
9.1 . I ongitudinal -Tr
^ nsverse Decompositions M 7 -, 9. Waveguides

where Vf :s the two-dimensional Lupiaaan operator: Vi

V ? = 7 / ' Vr . d? + a* .«
(9.1 1 )

and svc used llir vectorial idenrilies Vr x Vf £z - 0, Vr x x Vt It ,. ) - / and


Vj \z x VrH ,[I = 0.
:i follows ihar in order to satisfy al! of the lasr four of Maxwell 's equations ( 9.1 .5), ii
is ' '
.
necessary Unit the longitudinal fields L ,. t *, ,v i , i / vi .v y ) satisfy the two dimensional
Helmholtz equations: l:i £. 9.1.1 Lytlndi iral rnnrdinare.v

V f F z + kp£ y -0 Hie Helmholtz et|iuUtous 19.1.19) now read:


( Iklmhailz equanons ) .
(9.1 19)
. t k*JIx - 0
m
V ? If ,

I r : L.
These equations an* to he solved subject to the appropriate faiumfary r<»idr( r<m.v lor
I c
pep
f i .
k f E/ - 0
.
each waveguide type. Onre. ihc fields Hz , U are known , the transvenw fields fir Mi art*
P'
(9.1.231

-
-
computed from lq , < 9.1 . 16 : , resulting in a complete solution of Maxwell's equations lur
.
the guiding structure I D get the full x y , z , t dcixnideEice of rhe propagating fields, tire
'

above solutions must be inultipiled by the fartma eHl' r


1
p dp
JL
M?) I
Pl w
Z-\U
- - lijllr 0

I he cross scrtions ol practical wttveguiding systems haw curlier cartesian ru cylin


drical symmetry, such ,.i >y the rectangular waveguide or the coaxial cable Below , uv .
- Noting that z / p tp <uid z x
—, p we obtain:
I
summarize the lorm of the above solutions in Ihc two types ul ronrdinate syslems. z V i Wv - fp \, crHv- 1 - f -

Cartesian Coardinates The decomposition of a transverse vector is £7


coordinates version oi f 9.l.l <9 are:
~ P Iri - ^ 4- Mu- cylindrical 1

.
file cartesian component version of F.qs. (9.1 16) and (9.1 . 1 !Ji LS straightforward. vising
the identity 7 x V -
y d x f h x dyH ,,, we obtain tor the longitudinal components:
L(' “ T ) Tf
l
C 7 } /f , = - £jft ( c ,Hz
*
1
n-mP *
> £*)
id t -*• ki
'
+ klcEz - 0
^ .-
(9.1 21)

f
£.f —— -
Tp
K\ p
.
( dijtF jt + rj7fc"pHz ) 11+ =
I

liq, (9,1.16) heroines for the transverse components:


J ot curlier coordinate system, the equations Lor H7 may lx obtained from those of
-
£ r by a M CAIIKI ( tuitliiy transformation, that is, making Ihc substitutions:

E* - .w { dxF-t + t ) n dyH ,\
«?L
Hy & i ? JL
. n \{
r i U .2 J > L — H % H - -L , L M - c [ duality transformation) ( 9.1 . 251
- JV

I
Ondtih ) " y - T, (V /
ki ' ' t} m
CiEr )
These imply that q
See. IH.2.
9 1 and qJL
— 97} . - Duality is tliscussed in greater detail in

Cylindrica! Coordinates
Ihc relationship between cartesian and cylindrical conrdinates is shown m l ift 9.1.1. . 9.2 Power Transfer and Attenuation
- vve have x - pcos <p and >' = p sin v. The Transverse
1 rum the triangle in the figure ,
gradient and I apluce operator arc in cylindrical coord males: ^ Wirh the held solutions al hand , one van determine the amount of power transmitted
along the guide, as well as Ihc transmission losses. I hc total power Carried by the lu - kls

V - dp - l -11w
p
L'

*.
1
<>
L

p '
V i*
p
. = -PJ P L
H) .
p- dif>?
f >
(! .1.221
along the guide direction is obtained by integrating the /. romp<itu nt oi the Lnynting
vector nxcr the muts-secitonal area nf the guide:
-
9.2. Power Transfer And Attenuation 3 GO 170 9. Waveguides

Second, the magnetic In Ids on the conductor surfaces are deicmiinKl and the corre-
-
sponding induced surface curn nis are calculated by J.. - ri x H. where n is itic outward
^.11
i
where T , - RKI C X H ) i 1
normal to the conductor .
Third, the ohmic losses per unit conductor area are calculated bs Lq. ( 2.S 7). Fissure .
If is easily verified that only ihc transverse components of the fields contribute in
.
9.2 1 shows such an infinitesimal conductor urea dA - did?., where dl along the
the power flow , that is , Tx can be written in the form:
cross sectional periphery of the conductor. Applying tq.( 2.8 7) to this area, we have: .
', -
I
- fh' d, X H j .
'3 . ) L (9.2 2) dP \ai <
dA
i

It (9.2.6)
For naveguidcs wiih conducting walls, the transmission losses, are tine primarily to
obniir losses m (ul the ccndurtors and fb) ibe dielectric medium filling the space between
where ilx is the surface resistance of die conductor given by Kip (2.8. 1), -
.
the conductors and in which rhe fields propagate In dielectric waveguides, the losses _ „n . rue
are due to absorption and standing b\ imperfect tons. R
*
f toff
V 2o \ 2tr
i
oA '
« = \J-dp2 IT - skin depth
(
<9.2.7)
The transmission losses can he quantified by replacing the propagation wavenumber
Iwrcgralinp, liq* (9 - 2.(ij around the periphery of the conduct or gives the power loss per
i‘i l>y ils complox - valued version /ft- /f -,/rt , where a ir> the Attenuation < onstant. I lie
/ -ilepi ndenn of all the held components ts replaced by: .
unit xlenglh due in that conductor Adding similar twins for all the other conductors
gives the total power loss per unit z length:
-Jfa .. . Q ‘Jfe
_ p- nr.p Jfi£ ( 9.2.3 )
Q * Q

The quantily tv is the stun ul the attenuation constants arising from the various loss .
(9.2 8)

.
mechanisms For example, If Of,/ anti rt, ate the attenuations due to the ohmic losses tn
lhe dielecirli and in ilie conducting walls, llien
F. y
«4 + iX,- .
( 9.2 4)
ri
Che ohmic losses in the dielectric can be characterized either hy its loss tangent, \ — dl
say tanfl, nr by its conductbiiy <Tif - the two being related by o ,t - tut lanrf More . \
<tz

generally,ihc effective dielectric constant of rhe medium may hie e a negative imaginary1 .
par: c > that Includes both conductive and polarization losses, t ( o * i = c j j with .
LI - flan 1< .
Ihcn the corresponding complex - \ alued wavenumber fic is obtained by
the replacement: Vv
Z *
ft = \ a It# . ^
/1 = '(u- fjeUO) - kj .
llg 9.2.1 Conductor surface absorbs power from ihc piuiNigaUng lii kls .
For weakly lossy dielectrics icr F\ we may make the approximation: where ( a and Ct , indicate the peripheries r>f the conductors Finally , the cor res ponding .
attenuation cnefflcicnl is calculated from F.<| (2.G.22 ): .
fl ,- - - jCt )

k; = - Jat2pej = Py i - )-
fx - fiCr
ttJ ar >
ej

«r -
pJ\ j5S . ( conductor losses) 19.2.91
2P{
Resulting inihr AllcnuaOoit constant, after setting pc *
l /r und ftrtw - y I - wi / to-
liquations (9.2,1) (9.2.9) provide a a\ stematic methodnlogy by which to calculate the
'2 , " 22 fl.—
tu fje
tan rl

--
a1 Ian 6
= (dielectric losses) (9.2.S)
transmitted power and attcnualinn losses In waveguides. We will apply it to several
.
examples later on. I q (9.2.91 applies also ro the dielectric losses sn that in general P
fi 2 c -i I -
arises from nvt> parts, une due to the dielectric and one due ro the conducting walls,

The cimdurlcjr losses ai r mtire complicated m calculate In practice, the fullcAviug . u' _ FJzi + P£aiui _
.
approximate procedure is adequate First, the helds are determined un the assumption nr -
f

2 Pr
I NS

2 Pr
i rtt. (attenuation constant ) (9.2.10)
rhai the conductors arc perfect.
.
4.3 TEM, TE, and TM modes 371 372 9. Waveguides

Kq. ihi .2 .II tor rtj can also be derived duality from liq (9.2.ldj by appiylBg it sepa - .
.
rately to the TK and TM modes We recall from Lq. f 1.9.0) that the losses per unil vol -
Hj —
I
7. X iiy f !u. n
ume in a dielectric medium, arising from bcitii a i ondnnhin and polarization curmir ,
.
./r i - J - jwD, are given by .
M:
F

where rfy is lhe transverse Impedance of the particular mode lype, dial is, rj, r ? m- d,•.%#
:
= rRc
]
= - cut / |r - E*
. .
in till: TEM, L'li and I*W casps.
dv Because of Fq. < 4.3,11, the power llotv per unit i. ru.ss -sevi inrud area dcscribrd by the
Pny iiLiiig vector T , of Lq, (9.2.2) takes the simple form in all direr cases;
Integral Lust nvei Itfcc cross -sectional areaof the guide qh es the dielectric loss per unit
waveguide length li.e., z-lengtlp,
I 1
. T t r i r, x
.
Ps - - lErl1 = |' 113.3.2)
- nr
J> did =
I
2
trLf
J, i E - ds
rm modes
Applying Ltus to he IF case, we find ,

,
J dkl = rt BCi
,

* js |a r f S - -
- it .iff
.
j\ Ey \ dS
lr : l'F.M m rules. both J ., and
H vanish, and the fields are fully transverse. One can srl
Fv - /1£ = t> in Maxwell equations* (4.1. 3 ), or equivalently in (9 M6), or in (4.1.171,
I mm ans point view , one obtains rhocondition ft;' - d, nr w - /fr. fur example, if
.
c2
Re i J:j X H , ) •7 dS
I
f IErl* /
J.s
ii’
2 L Ii:/|2 <f.V the right hand sides ni ! i|. if).1.17) vanish, the consistency of the system requires that
.
'

.
q tt - rjru which by vhhtc ui Ftp ( J 1J.H.i implies ro /Sc. if also implies !bal q r? rw

„ , ~ CM _ _
“Vi
must belli be equal to the medium impedance f ?. Tims, the electric and magnetic fields

"" FT
'

^
saLisifV:

File TM i isc .
is a bit hitin: involved Ifclog Fq. (fill 3.11 from Problem SKll we find. ,
afte > using the result, - ft;' - q - pt , '
.
idM =
^ dej IJ s \t \
.

cv
|FJ *
dS =

2
*
P-
I^ vi/ l 2
.
| fS -
! l I.V

( * §) [,W '
These are Lhe same as in the case of a uni form plane wave, eveepl here the fields
ate not uniform and may have a mm-nlvial x , v iluiK ndenre. The idcctrie li^ld Jsv ^
detertnined from lhe rest uJ NfaxwcLl's equations fy.1,51, which read:
-
Vrx 0
.
Pf
J
-!7 J 'J .I.Sf ^
lErl *- **
2/
i f ?!
J.v ftT Te I ^
2ft;- J .v
lf iK
L
V r - fcr - 0
'
<!) 3.U

r These are recognized us the field equations uf an eque ulent hvo-diinerLsinnai eft'e - .
:
Pdlil i^' V + is -
tO {K ( trostmic problem. Once this electrostatic solution is round / •,• the magnetic held
rVj
2Pj .
is euiastrucred Irmn l-q Hl.3.3 j, Jhe Uine- VeiryiiuR piopagating lieids wjJ! hr irri \ eji by

2 ftr .
F.q. (9.1.1 ? i ' ll rv* — /tr, (For backward nuk ing fields, replay* f$ by - /T i .
We explore this electrostatic puim of view further in Sc- r. llw ! and discuss the cases
.9.3 TFM, TE, and TM modes
the Poytlting vectnr T £ of Fq. (f).2.2l will l>c :
.
of the coaxial, two win*, and strip IL LCS. Because of the reintiniiship between L\ ami Hi ,

The general solution described by Eqs. (9,1.1 til and 1,9.1. 1 hi is a hybrid sohiLimi with iitm-
/.eto Lf and U ? rotnponcnls. I Icrc, wc look a I lhe specialized forms of these equations
in rhe cases id ITM. l l a n d TM modes.
'
T > = j Rc ( fT x l l y I. 7 = ~

IEr|2 - rylffrP ! 4.3. ryl

One commonproperly ol all three types ul' modes is that the transverse Jidds i : j , Hr
are related to each other in the same way as izi the ease of uniform plane waves propagat -
ing in r.hc / - dlructtrm that Is, they ure periiendiiular lu each other then cross -product ,

poinls in ( he / - dlrcctirm, and they smtisfy:


9.3. TEM , TE , and TM modes 373
'
17 A -
9 Waveguides

TE modes
II modes are charactcr./ cd by the amdilions F,r - 0 and H ? i I ). Ii follows from Ihe V j F, + k$ E, - 0
.
.second of Eos. {9.1 171 that fc'j is completely determined irnm Hj rb &tis, Fr = n viHr / z . . t'r
Jfi
- r VTfe*

The held H y is determined. from the second of (9,1,161. Thus, all field somponeni * K (TM modes 1 (!U.10 i
lor l li modes are obtained from ihc equations:

1 kjH, = 0
Hr -— rj
L
i. x Er

Again the1 relationship of f.y and H , is identical to that of uniform plane waves
jfi
Ur
k >V H ' ' <TE modes! (9.3.6 > - .
propagating in the z direition bul the WP impedance is now ijr .M The Foynting vector -
.-. HI x i
takes the form:
nr JJ
, = ,I RC ( ET x 11 } l \iiy \2 - ,
- 9' r M p. VrfriJ
. T • > - (9,3.1 II
The relationship of and H > is identical to ih ii ol u n i l 01 in plane wavr s propagating In tsi h

.
- .
in the / direction except the wave impedance- is replaced hy r? ir: Tin Poymiiig vector
of Eq ( 9.2 .:|
. -
' then takes 1 lie form: 9.4 Rectangular Waveguides

y , -- .I Re ( £T x UT\ - i
1
Cy r I
. H yd Ur I"
I ,Jl* fi!- WTHJ* (9.3.7 )
Next , we discuss in detail the case of a rectangular hollow waveguide with conducting
.
walls, as shown L11 Fig. 9.4 .1 VVilhmil loss of generality, we may assume that ihc lengths
}
2 r) n: j
2 fc
.
ri h of ihc inner sices satisfy b *1. I he guide is Typically filled with air bur miy other .
The cartesian coordinate version of F.q. (9.3 6) is: . dielectric material c. p may be assumed.

ici + £ ; > !!* + k p h 0 y*

Hx - J11*U
kl
Ex = i J n H y , F.v
Slv A t

--
— —
rfj
kt
, H%
jfi ,
VyiU
j fiU Bj
- A
b
a
r .r 1

x
And , the cylindrical coordinate version:
w a *. eguidc.

m
J ig. 0.4.1 K »* i lamgular
1 d J
P ?P
+
p* W - k*l h
r * 0 The simplest and dominant propagation mode is I he so called TF.|< j mode and de- -
-
mi the A coordinate ( of ih < * longest sided Therefore . we begin hy looking

t b - Ec
F# =
i
jfi Mb , if
4
F4. - nu Hp
jfi I
- ' p CH £
E: c
*
. — .
(9.3 9)
pends only
for solutions of Eq. (9.3,8) that depend only on v. in this case, the Helmholtz equation
reduces tn:

c H ,K X ) + kill? ( x ) = 0
where we used Hr X z = (p U p - f> ( )> i - - <$> Up 1 pH ,.
^ ^
Hie most R^ ncTal solution is a linear combination of cost , x and sink , x. Hoe ever.,
TM modes only the f < jrmer will s. alisfy tin * bound ary conditions . Therefore, tin M > luiLrm ts: -
TM modes have .
Hz - 0 ajid F.z 7 0 ll tnllows from ihc first of Eqs. (9.1 .17) Lhat H ,* is fiz (x} = H, . cosk , v . (1U. li
completely determined from Fi , that is. H, x F > . j1]L* Jield F.1 is determined
=
from Mie first of (9.1 . 16), so t h a t all field components lor TM modes are obtained I r n m where / hi is a ( complex-valued ) cunstanr . IJetauftc there Ls no y ^ dcpeiidence, il follows
.
from Lq . ( 9.3.KI that &vI 1r = U and hence / / t > and Ex 0- Tt alsi > folltiw.s rluiT:
-
the Pillow!nit equations, which are dual lu Ihc I E equations ( 9.3.6):

!b t x ) = - Tjfik y Z y f f r = ~ -jfi (
. } . a
kt ) / i , sinl:cj£ = A-r~ / /. , sink , .v - U , smk . x
: |‘
.
9.4 Rectangular Waveguides 375 A 70 9. Waveguides

I hen , the corresponding electric held will be:

Lyix )= - f? jr
k
.
. Jf isinJyx = F. sinkrX
>

.v
w here we defined the oonslanrs:

.,
7
(9.4.2?
tig. <1.4 .2 Elocirii field ins.- Ut a irctangul ;ir waveguide.

E» = O n Hi - On JO
«
rMer' Wo
n P.5 Higher TL and TM modes
where we used . I n summary, Lite non- zero held components are; To construct higher modes, we look for solutions of 'die Helmholtz cquarton that are
/ jJf rfeu/
factorable in their x and y dependence:

//* (*) - / / tii usk , x H ? 1 x , v. z f J = .


Ho cos k x t? W {
Hz ( x , y ) - F ( x )( H y )
-
HY < x ) H 1 sinfcc* 5 H* ( x , y , z. I ) - HL sink, * (9.4.3) I hen Eq. i. >>. !.# ? becomes:
£* ( xi = FaSinkyx .
iivr l.\ . y 7, f ) fc,i sin kfx eJW* -w5 / ‘

F' jirt G" ( y )


/ '
< x i G i y ) f / ( x ) G" i y 1 1 klFix ) G i y ) - 0 >
Fix )
‘ (
-1 k ;
<7 < y )
-0 < 9.5. 1 )
Assuming perfecLh conducting walls, rJie boundary condition require rival there be
*
no tftngenlfal electric field at anj of die wall sides, ltocausc the electric field is in I he Because these must be valid 1in < dL v, y fiuside the guide). the F - and ms must
V’direrTton. it is normal to the top and bottom sides. But i ? is parallel tn the left and he ciinstants, independent uf x ami y. Thus, we write
right sides. On the left side, x - D, liy [ x\ vanishes because sink , A dues. On the righl
F' ( X ) G" ( y )
side, x it, the bnundurv condition requires:
Fix )
- - k;X * G ( yj = -k i or

F.r ( r? ) - IVi sin fccd - 0 -=> sLnk . tJ =0 F" (x ) * k* F { x ) o , G" ty ) + .G ( y > 0 fcJ 19.5.21
liils requires lhat kr < j be an inlegra! multiple uf 7T: where the consumls k ‘. and k y are consiiaincd fr< itn Lq. (!).;>.1) lu satisfy:
m
kca = HTT = kv -
/
a
( 9.4 .4 ) ky - fc • kj,
~ .
( 9.5 3)

These are the so-called TF.IKJ .


modes The correspondiug ciilott frequency roc - 1 k The most general solutions of 19.5.21 that wilI satis Fv the TF. boundary conditions are
.
ki

fr t v v / 2 n and wavelenglh At. = 2 rr / ky - c t f e are: cos kxx and cos k y y. I bus, the longitudinal magnetic field vs ill be:

<x\
rwir
if
.
f
t’W
2o *
K
20
/?
.
< TF., , i> modes! (9.4. 5 ?
• H ,( x , y )
It then follows from I he rest of the equal ions < 9. i
H 1 cos kKx cos kv ) • NUrnw modes )
.BJ tlial :
( 9.5 .4 ?

The dominant mode is ihe one with the lowest cutoff frequency or riie longest cutoff
wavelength, that is, the mode Tl, having n - 1 fi has: . 1 IX ix, y ) - 111 sin X.xXcosIcy.v iK (x, y ) Fi cos kKx sin kyy
k,
7T
a
, u id
iOy
CTT
a

C
A.. « 2 (7 j ,
I.TF: r mode) (9.4 '9 . H y 1 x, y )
'

H 2 cos k x x sin k . y Ey ( x , y ? _
F> sin k j,x cos k r y
( 9 ,5.5 )

Fig. 9.4 .2 depicts the electric field iylx ) = .


F sink , .* = £ 1 sin 1 TT.V / (2 ) of this mode
<
where we defined the constants;

.. = m
as a fund ion of x . Hi H0 , / / r r - tto
k?

Ei = Ondh jO
( i'

M ;
kv
k:
Ha E , O n j o
(
ft
'

o
I
*- Ho
9.5. Higher TE and TM modes 377 37« 9. Waveguides

I Ke boundary conditions are that Ly vanish nn the right wall , x - a, and that Ex 9.6 Operating Bandwidth
vanish on the top wall , y b , that Es,- Ml waveguiding systems arc operated hi a frequents range that ensures ili il only the , .
L y a , y ) = L\t y sin k s a nis kyy 0, F.x ( x , b 1 £y ¥ cos kxX sin J;, b - IJ lowest mode can propagate. Tf several modes rail propagate simultaneously. one has '

no rotund over which modes will actually lx* carrying the transmitred signal . 1 Ins may '

The conditions require that k *£t and k . bbc integral multiples of n: cause undue amounts of dispersion , distortion , and erratic operation.
A mode with cutoff frequency u.\. will propagate only ii its frequency is cu <ot ,
'

kjeci - nn , kyb IITTT fc* «


/ ITT
a
ky
nirr |
.
(11 i5 .fi i ur A < A < . If -
< to,., the wave will attenuate exponentially along the guide direction.
Hus fallows from the < u , \f relationship (S). 1 . 10 ): '

.
These correspond u> the TF.Nrn model; Thus, theculoff wavenumbers of these modes 1
rt > - - an T

- \jk\. 1 ki- lake nn the quantized v alues: nr = i fi2t r * &: c


II to .
m , the wavenumber fi is real -valued and the wave ,Jdl propagate. Hut if
niudcsj ft),3.7) M < ftv , fa becomes imaginary , say , fa joe , and the wave will attenuate in the z -
direr lion, wilh a penetration depth fi l nr: -
The cutoff frequencies / rl r?I - ( tv .’ wTT - ricc / 2TT and wavelengths Amp - effnm are: - Jfa
e = ty
tnm ~ c \ A ,pi|
— 1
(5 >.3Ji I If i he frequency to i.s greater than the cutoff frequencies of several modes, then all
'

=
i

V( ) * ts)‘ of these modes can propagate. Conversely, if to is ess rlUm all cutoff frequencies, thru
nunc of rhe modes can propagate.
I lie TT ; , modes arc similar to the IT.n . modes, but with x and a replaced by v anil
^^
11 we arrange the cutoff frequencies in increasing order, civi < a ? rz < w i < • • • . .
b. I lie family of I M in rate's can also be eonstrurtpd in a similar fashion from Eq. (0.3-10 ). .
then In ensure single mode operation the frequency must|>e restricted to the inlerva .
,

As.sunung E , ( \ , i - l : { x ) ( H y ) t we obtain the same equations (9.5 2) Because V.A .. .


(o - i < m < so thai only Hie lowest mode will propagate. This interval defines Uie
is parallel to all walls, wc must now clioose the solutions sinkx and slnteyy Thus rhe . , opmrfmq Twndu ft/i uf llie guide
^ .
longitiidtnal electric fields is: Theseremarks apply In ail uaveguicluig systems, not just hollow- conducting wave
.
guides For example, in coaxial cables the lowest mode is the TKM mode having no cutoff
\:.z ( A* , y ) - in sin ky .x sin kyy iTM •; m tuodesi CSI5.9) frequency , u \| - y. However, TMand I M modes with non - z«rn cutoff frequencies du
'

j exist and place an upper limit cm the usable bandwidth of the VIA! mode , Similarly , in
,

-
I In resl < ji the field components ran be worked nut from F.q. (9. i . I b) and one finds optical libers the lowest mode has no cutoff , and tin single mode bandwidth i > rletet -
,

that they are given by the same expressions as 19.5.51, except now the constants are mined In the next cutoff frequency.
determined in terms of £,»: In rechuigular waveguides , ihc smallest cutoff frequencies arp f\ - c / 2 a , /' . n =
.
eta - 2 /\0 , and fan - ci .' b Because we assumed that b a. it fallows that always
'
„ -
tpk
r. - = - kTV fm faij . II b a / 2 , then i / a 1 / 2 b and therefore, fai , so rhat the two lowest
=-
ki
" Eft , '~
;
in
cutoff frequencies arc fan and fj ?. .
H l = - tint
J
- L2 :
j i l' ky 1
a\kc q
Ej> . Hi =
l
rjv .v
Li J wk 1 /, /,
'

r
u\kL n <1
On rhe other hand , if f * * 2 < b a , then fa\
,
/‘>o and the two smallest frequencies
are f - t and fan (except when h rt. in which case fan - fw and ihc smallest frequencies
are fa n and f a.) The two cases t' > u .‘ I! and h u f 2 arc depicted in Fig. 9.G. I .
.
where \w used qrw ~ q /ir / w The boundary conditions on E.v, iy are rhe same as It is evident from this figure that in order to achieve the widest possible usable
before, and In addition , wc must require that Fr vanish on all walls. bandwidth lor ihc TEm mode , the guim * dimensions must satisfy b £ a / 2 so thal I hi*
These conditions imply that kXlk ,. will be given by Fq. i 9 ..i .m, except borh n and m bandwidth is the interval |/ Cl 2/e!, where - fa , - e / 2a . In terms of I he wavelength
must be non - zero (othorwise F\. £ would vanish identically Thus, rlie cntol'T frequencies
and Wavelengths are die samp as In Eq. ( 9.5.8). ^ .
A LIF the operating bandwidthbecomes: 0.5 a / A i I , or , a \ ± 2 a .
We will see later tluit the total amount ol irausiniiLcd power in this mode is propor
Waveguide modes can he excited by in &urrinp, small probes ai the beginning oF the
.
waveguide The prnbirs are chosen ro generate an electric Field that resemibles the held
nntud to the rnxss-seelional area of the guide, a h Thus, if m addition to having the .
of the desired mode. MuipJii law - .- -
for waveguide! sidles fhai “ U ii uadi can propBgdIC il villi." .
- .
9.7. Povvt r Tran.sler Energy Density, and Croup Velocity i7! > .
9 Waveguides

- iMixluidiii


r* where

/ tt / 2 )
fin
• Ijjtt A||
• Jfi - - nviffi - -jo
(0

ott.
H« . (9.7 2) .
* .
bamlv iiltli The Poyntlng vector is obtained from the general result of I M - <9.3.71: '

m *. n )
- i
(rt/2 i i
/ h y> / 11 = 7 J
|fc'ol * slir fc, x
T» FyiX " = "

An An AJP Ziliis 2 »1II

tig. 9.6,1 Opr rating Iwiruiiv.tlih ui uviangular waveguides.


I'hc transmuted power is obtained by integrating
nf tile guide;
-
m or ihe cross sectional urea

widc & t bandwidth we id so require to have the- maximum power transmitted, die dimen P , h
— ! .12 sin kex dxdy
.
• *
(

sion h must hi- v.hoxi-n to he us large as possible, that is. b a ! 2 MOST practice! guides 2 iJv >-
follow these siue proportions,
If there is a "nmonicar guide, it will haw b = QI 2 md be operaled ail a frequency . -
Noting tht definite integral .
that lies in the middle uf rhe operaring band f that is. J
Tlx .

/ = 1.5/1= .7S
’ (J
C
- .n
(9.6
f sin - k , xdx - |
J iI
sin-
.
( -— ) t /.v -
a
2 <9J.3)
und using J? »i qtofftc = r? -‘ \ I - we obtain:
fable lists some standard air - filled rectangular waveguides with their naming
. .
ilesip iuiUmis, inner side dimensions a b in inches* eutoit frequencies in GHz, minimum
and msLxiiniitn recommendedoperating frequencies in ui k, power rulings, und attenua- (V
2
tions in dB/m (the power ratings anci attenuations are representatls e over each operating Pi = T
d7
t‘ a \ ’ ab - -
4i)
IKel-nbvil
\ co-
( transmit led power ) ( 9.7,4)
. ' L
1

band ) \\ e have chosen one example from each microwave band.


r- name a b ff - J lmr.
~"
fmix biird p a
Ure may also calculate the distribution nf clerhnomagnclit energy airing the guide, as
measured by rite time-averaged energy density. I he energy densities nf rhe electric and
-
W lt 510 i.lfl 2 >5. LIE 1.45 2.20 1 9 MW 0.007 magnetic fields are:

- ..
l..U 2.7 \ rur 0.(119

-
WR 28 : J.W -I '
2M ZJOO 3.95 S
WR l ! ' 1.39 0.795 3.71 4.0 4 - 7.0 ': C 0.9 MW 0.1)43
-
WIt :Id
-
WR H2
0.9( 1
02322
0.40
0.311
6.30
9.49
«.2U
11.9ft
12.50
1 8,00
X
Ku
250 kW .
I) 110
140 kW j 0.176
- - ;R !( :
r


< £ 'i )
|
'
+m

-
WR 42
WR 28
ii. 12
0.2«
u.17
0.1 l
14.05
21.08
17.00
26.40
20.70
40.00
K
ka
Su kVi
27 kW
0,370
0.583 Wm
-
WR 15
WR - 10
0,14
0.10
« 0,074
0.05
39.87
59.01
49.SU
7.14W
75.80
112.00
V
W
7.5 kW
'3.5 k \V
1.32
2.74 liiscrnng the expressions for the fields, we find:

.
I able 9.6.1 Chaj i<iersstirs »l snitu >tajKl:ircl ulr -lilled reel; nguLar waveguides
1
. I
iri£i»H sinJ k , x Wm ' ii ( li / 1 f slir k< x - |H ,.| ' cos‘ f x)
^ 4

Because these quantities represent the energy per unit volume, if we inlegrate them
over the cross-seeliunal urea of die guide, we will obtain the energy distributions per
9.7 Power Transfer , Energy Density , and Group Velocity .
unit 2 length Using the integral ( 9.7.T ) and an Identical one for the cosine case, we find;

Next, we calculate the rime averaged power iransmiticrt in the 11, mode We also calcu- . 1 JoI nv (x, y) dxdy = J[« IJHI 74 c Eul
late the merg) density nf the fields and determine the velocity by which electromagnetic IV' =
Jn i
41 sinp Kxttxdy \ c \ Lullab
W
energy Hows down tile guide and show that it is equal to the group velocity. We recall
that ilie non- zero field componenls arc: M '
IV 117
p

4
1
fj ( / / 1 p sinJ k x { 1 „
H | ' cus" k . x )dxdv
H 'n ( H 1[ H . } i ‘ I erb

Hy lx) Hueosfcv.v , Hv ( x ) - H \ sin kt x fi j i.v)


'
F.t\ s i n x 19.7.11
9.8. Power Attenuation 381 382 9. Waveguides

AlLhcmgh these expressions look diffcrenr, they are actually equal. W', Hf *n . in- Jli *- Lkld expressions t9.-i.Jl were denveu assuming the boundary conditions lor
deed , using the property fi - f k } \ 1 =- [ fi 2 k f d t k j k - < k (. - and illc relation- period 1} conducting wall surfaces. The induced surface currents on I he inner walls of
-
ships between tin constants fn ( 9.7 . 11, wr find : tile waveguide « UT given by . / = h x H. where the unit vector n is - X and + y mi the
lefl/ right and bullom /top nails, res|K*Ctivdy.
.
« t ff i' + = wfi / ji, i itkr,
1

-

= u\u..\ 1
W2 I hc. surface currents and tangential magnetic fields arc shown in Fig . ' 1 ,8.1 . In par -
ticular, on the buiiom and tup walls , we have:
The etpJaJiiy of I hi* dedne' and cciuy.ru Ur energies Is a general propcrl ) id wavi gui -
ding systems. Wc also encountered it in See . 2,3 lor uniform plane waves. The total
energy density per unit length will he:
-
+H
-
H .
At

vi Jx*
r K- ; H , - 2w - :
4*
|Eol ah ( 9.7 . 5 )

h
! Av !
* * *k
Arc ording to the general relationship between flux, density, and transport vulucity
given in Lq. 1 l .fi . 2 ) , the energy transport velodly will be the ratio vyn - P / VV ' , Using
'
, TA
—„ it
-i
.V
Lqs . 19.7 .4 } and ( 9.7 . 5 ) and noting that 1 . ijr - 1 / Jif - c. we find:
Jig. 9.8. 1 CUNWUN • in waveguide walls

VVU *
Pi
w ~ l'
\
I
1 - 4-
CO
( energy iransporl velocity ) (9.7.t> >
Js »y yU
• -y x lx /A + ?. l f A \ - ± \. -?. ffx * x Hc ) - •„ ( /. H , sink <- x * x ffit cos k x ) £

Tins is equal to die group velcu. ity of tlic propagating mode lor any dispersion ,

relationship between u' and /< , the group and phase velocities are defined by Similarly , on the left and righr walls:

iitv «1 J, - +X xH - +x x i x l / , -r 7. f i r i ~
y If , - ”
y H , i C u± k t x
,
vr
dp • Vph - ~a
fi
IjjrtHjp and phase velocities ) ( 9.7. 7 }
At x = 9 and x = a , this gives iy ( - / / ti ) yH« , J ims, the magnitudes of the
For uiufrura plane waves and TEM transmission lines, we have a1 = pc , so that vRl surface currents are on the four walls:
vPh - v . For a rectangular waveguide, we have to - - an! - fizc : . Taking dilTen ntials of -
both sides , we find 2 wd (Q - 2 c‘ pdfi , which gives: Jjr - UAiV nl. K- cos
/
,
*
k , x i- | H || sin2 k> .vp "
( left and riyhi walls)
nop and bottom walls )

where we used
-
v -
do}
clfi
fit 2
W v1-
• c\
*

to

Lq . (9.1 . 10) . thus , the energy trahspor l velocity ir> equal to the group
19.7 .81
The power loss per unit ? - length
around itie four wails , lhar 1s ,
I
is

i -
ublaincrl from Fq . il).2.Hl by integrating yT|-

'
,
velocity, vvn .
= V g f We note thui v;u- Jtfc 2 f w f ,' v|A. nr
= - - KI ' ' -
l wn
2. Ja
\J \ dy
J .
=r VfirVpi , 19.7.9 J K, |Jiff ,, - cos J
kt x i \ H [ I’’ sin2 kt x ) dx H - R , j
.fi>
H
^ dy
The energy nr group velocity satislies vv ^ c,’-.liereas Sfp:
e c. Lnfurmation u <uis
mission down the guide is by the group velocity and , consistent with the theory of
rdaliv ity. it is less than c.
i

= H4 ( W | t I / / ,!- ) + «^[«*1^ =
V
' . \n ,\- * — U /„!- )
Using |/ /| ‘
= lln' / q ’ from Sec. 9.7 *nd . = < i L T i l ’ / q- which
follows from f.q . ( 9.4.21, we obtain :
9.8 Power Attenuation
In rlus section , we calculate the ultenualum coeffieietu due to the ohmic losses of the
conducting walls following the procedure outlined in Sec . 9.2 . The Josses due to the
lu“ if ,- 1 ( 1
2 b ft >?
tr ro 0-
filling dietedrir can be detcrmlmxl from i :q. ( 9.2. 5 ). The atienualion cunslaiil compuled from Hqs. IM .LMH and (9.7-4):
^
9.8. Power Attenuation -HK 5 , :i.S4 .
9 Waveguides

.
I lit' i utoff lrwjui'm;y of the n :Lf mode is f : - r / 2<i - :t . 71 CITz. Ik maximum operating
bandwidth is tin interval [ / . if ,- ' - | ). / 1, 7.12 ) GHz. and the recommended interval LS
1
' '
.
2
KstilM |4 .( i l, 7.01*1 GHz
- .
; 2 n-
p IIRW
2P i
'
*)
2 } 1 /ioHflfc J I - - '
4
^ 0 4U

1
Assuming topper walls with cotkduilivily rr 5.fi > 10 S/ m ila* calculated aiienuatitm
O.instfllil iM , from hq. H.8.1 ; is plutled ic: OH/m versus frequency in Pi|L . y.a .2.
'
- ’
.
*n V o>-‘
w hich ,p,i \ es: <U

».< n
- — r • —
Attcun:il u « i Ceefficient
- I fi
Pnwyr Tranwirni i H

hnr,1* - dtli
1+
LV , - Rs
iff ' f
r? a)J
(atwmtmiiort of .
Th . mode ) (9.8.11 6
§ /
I \
j
1 - - ’-
Ci - CUM . * r.
a

This is in units nl ritpers m . Iis value in dlS/ ni is obtained by iXm - For a #.02
* i dA dill

given ratio <y t > , or , increases with decreasing h, rlius the smaller lhc guide dimensions,
the larger the allenuarlnn . This trend is noted in Table 9.G. I .
I he mam tradeoffs in a wavitguidlrig system aie that as the operating frfqueiic /
*
" fl 1 .
3 1 I u
f ' GH*i
o t fl E* tu II 12
J_
ii i 2 •i
1

i f>

/ ' GHz :
ii 7 -
5 !l HI II I *

increases, the dimensions of the guide must decrease in order lo main lain ihe nperat
mg baud < / 'l 2 ft , but then die attenuation increases and the transmit led power
'
Fig. 9,8.2 Ain nmuion constant and transmilic-d power m » \\H . i >9 waveguide .
decreases as it is proporlional to the guide's, area .
ZJie power tnuismiiiwl / ' ,• is calculated tram Eq. (9.7.41 ass timing maximum breakdown
*
Example 9.8.1: Design a rectangular air filled waveguide tu In * updated -cii GHz, then , re
design it tu he operated ai 10 Gil*. Lhc upei iiini? frequency must be in ihe middle of ciie . - -
voltage of f .r, 1.5 MV / m , which gives ; safety factor of iwo over the dielectric breakdown
til air of .1 MV/ iri, | he power in mcgasvaii wiles is plum'd in Fig. 9.S.2 .
operating band. Calculate the guide dinieiLsiunt, v he atienuaiichu runstan i in iJR / m and
the maximum trans mined power assuming the maximum cleeirii fir Id is one half < > f ihe - Bisause of thi - I wtor y i ro '
the denominator of ;‘ ni 2 in
and the numerator of P ; ,
dideetrir si length of aii . \ssumc coitjwr svalts wUheonducthit r / >.8 > 1( V s/ m.
^
' .
the iHei motion constat!I hi o lines \ riy large tLein I In eilloff hrqui iu;y. while i lie power Is
alniust /.eni. A physical explanation uf this behaMur is given In dm next sectfun. u
-
Solution ;
/ •
It i is in lhc mitliJIe of the ui >erating band,
- ft./ > L . rt. -Svilving for d , « e linrl
'
/. -
x J / , , wlu re /1 c , 2 ii , ihen

o, 7.Vx .ifi GH / cm
9 ,9 Re I lection Model of Waveguide Propagation
- 0.7{ K
"

1
(
- t . ii cm An mtuiiive model for die TF.m mode can be derived by considering a 11 polarized
tor maximum pawei transfer, we rifqiiin * b ail If .lj cm . I5f < ;mse <c - L 5 mr 'Vc - .. uniform plane wave propagating m fhe z direction bi oblicpieiy bouncing back and forth
-
- .
have tu , < u 2 / i * Jlieri Fq, (9 S 1) gives
f
..
O fj.57 dB / m, Ihe dlekririe sirtngth of m . between tile left and right walls of the waveguide, us shown in l'ig, 9.9.1 .
-
is 5 MV/m. rims, the masinium allovvt:;J i lix. i. ric held in ihe guide Is - 1.5 MV / m. Then, 11 ( is The angle oF indtlenee , then the incident and rcllerted (from the Mghl wall )
'

'
. .
Tq (9.7 41 gives pr - I.12 MW\ wavevet lm .s will be:

. -
At 10 Gil /., KM ( ause /‘ is duubled The guidi iJimcnsiotis are halved, a = 2.25 and b - 1.1115 k - xfcy + i kx - xk cos + zk sin 0
- -
cm . Because rt , depends on f like / * , ii will increase b ) a lucloi of v' 2. Then , the factor
-
Ktib will jnciease by a faclnr uf I? v 2 I hus, ihe aUenuaimn will increase m the value
'
k xkx -
r zk ? - xk cos 0 i iksin 0
.
Of . - fi ftfi / • 2\ 1 - 0.10-1 dlS/ m. Recousc the area trfi is reduced by a facior nl lour , so
will tlw power. P ; = 1.12 / 4 n.2 H Mb 28 U k\\\ - The electric and magnclic fields will be the sum ul an incident and a reflected ennv
[ lie ascs aw consistent wiib ihe values quoted
n soils ol these iwci i
- in lab: rr .
tt.K 1 for the ponent nf the form:
-
C b& nd :md X band wmciiuidcs, U'R I “ 9 , iDd W 11 90. -
Example 9,8.2: ' it t J 9 ivai -i-yuMc Consider ihe C band ' 'iR - IS 'j air lilkd waveguide whose
-
.
z
E
- yE
I
,e- - y E\e- *
Jk r J ' r
-• > ’
l
' i y i' e^\r , ^ J
- EL -
i luiraCleriSlics were h «sled in Table 9.8. 1 . 11 s inner dimensions are (i - 1.59 ar. il f ?

9.795 niches , ur, equisaknily , u 4.048Wami 9 - 2.919 ? cm.


af 'l
- //
r?
k x T| < - k x / ."i
-
.
9.9 Reflection Model of Waveguide Propagaiinn 383 38.fi 9. Waveguides

tj
o.'flilont ph -.
The boundary condition i >n tin. nghr wall requires a\nk\ d - 0, wtiich gjvK* rise to
.
r- * S MMHIS
'
ihc Same condHfcon us <9.4.- H, that is fc . a = JITT

n I his model clarifies also the meaning of the group velocity , I tie plane wave is bounc-
' '

> - -L <

ing left and right with the speed of light c. Hnwewr. the eouipuncnt of this velocity in
r :v* -
the z -diretliun will he vy CHUI ft. this is equal to the group velocity , indeed it fullcnvs
"
fiCzL
T>
.
from l .q . ( 9.9 3) that :
i
vz - t sin 0 - c ?
v» " < 9.9.5)
i x X T q . (9.9 31 implies also that al re - Uf . we have sin 0 0, or i> - 0, Hint . the wave
. , ( is
« zr a is bouncing left and right at tiomiul incidence, creating u. standing w- uve, and does not
-T
propagate towards the / -direction. Thus, the iransmftted power Is vi. ru and fills also
J ig. 9.9. 1 EUikcctlon rr.mJi - l :>| l Em moile. implies, ihrrmgh Lc|. (9.2.9), that a , will he iniinitr.
*

causing the wave lu zoom through guide almost al the speed of light.
.
On tlv oilier hand, Lor vert large frequencies, w » fiv tiie angle 0 will ' end in 90",

w here the electric hold was taken to be polarized in the y direct ion . These field expres-
I In * phase velocity can also he understood geometrically. Indeed, we observe in the
sions become component wise: - rightmost illustration ot the above figure that the planes of constant phase are moving
Ey - iLtii -V" +
obliquely with the speed ol light r . From the indicated triangle at points I , 2,3, we sec that
the efferthe speed in the / direction of the ronimim phase points will be vPh = cf sm t ?
H -, - n — I
sin 0 ( F. i
.
(9.9 1 )
so I hat I'piiVjjr - t .
Higher MI and TM modes can also he given similar got unetric inlet pi eta lions In mins
] ,A of plane waves propagating by bouncing off lhe waveguide walls
H? - n cos 0 (£ e |
fkk
* - E\ e>kxX ) *’ £

Tiie boundary condiroui rm the left waJJ. x - 0, requires that + L\ 0. We may writc* 9.10 Resonant Cavities
therefore, Ft F ,=
'
Jtv, Then, the above expressions simplify into: Cavity resonators are metallic enclosures ihat can trap electromagnetic fields. The
4- EB sin kx\ c -/ t. Z boundary conditions on the cavity walls force the fields loexisl only at certain quantized
resonant frequencies. I or iiiglily conduct jng walls, tiie resonances arc extremely sharp,
-
1
,
sin d / 1 sin Jcvx e ik : /
1'1.9 ,2 )
having a very tiigh ( ) of the order of 19,000.
n .
Because of their high O cavities can be used not only to efficiently store rkclru

,
= - cos OEv cos fcn. e , \
k y
magnetic energy at microwave frequencies, but also to act as precise oscillators and to
perform pm Jse frequency measurements .
rj
J ig. 9.10.1 shows a rectangular unity with / length equal lo / formed by replacing
.
fhe.se arc i den I Lea I to F:q < 9.4.3) provided we identify /? with ky and fc with kK , us . the sending and receiving ends nf a waveguide by metallic walls. \ forward moving wave -
.
shown in fig 9,9.1. It follows from the wavevecror mangle in the figure that the angle will bounce back and forth from these walls, resulting in a standing-wave pattern along
of incidence 0 w i l l be given by cos f ? = \ k f k A\ . k , or. the /-direc tion .
lop
ros ( ) =. —
to
, sin <7 " c2
= V1 w
<‘
( 9.9.3) •hr

//
-
-"I - right

The rot in of lhe rrausversccoinponuils, - ¥.yfUs. is the transverse impedance, v hich


-.
is recognized to be rj 7 t indeed , wv hove:
-
0 rt =- <9.9.41 .
Fig. 9.10 1 Rcc- tangular iiy n -.mmutoi (anU induced wall mrrenls for ilu TE - -
inodt .l
.
9 ,10 Resonant Cavities 387 388 9. Waveguides

because Llit: langentUd components of the electric field must vanish at the end walls, where vie used the following definite Integrals (valid because kc = wr / ci. fi pn ' l ) :
these walls must coincide with zero crossings of ihe standing wave, or put differently, an

.
-
integral multiple ul halF waveleiiglhx must hi dung the / -direction , thar is, I - p\ J 2
pnlfi ur fl = prill , where p 1s a nun zero integer. For I UP same reason , the standing
{

C SUV k . Klix r rosJ


Jit
kfXdx
-.
p r!
Jo
sin -p / iiv. -
f
JIJ
{
COST fi /. d y. -
l
(9.10.51

wave patterns along the transverse directions require a - t ?\ . x ; 2 and b , vf 2 , or


t n\ - .
The ohmic losses arc calculated from I q i!).2 .(d, integrated us er all si \ eas ily sides.
.
k - hflt .' rt and kv - mirth. I hns all throe cartesian components of the wave vector
'

The surface currents induced on the walls are related to the 'aidgenlial in iRnriie fields .
are quantized, and therefore, so is the frequency of the wave a ? = C-, ki ki + ft 2 : by is n * Hun. The directions of these rurrcrUs are shown in J ig . 9.10. 1 . Specifically,
-
wi* Qnd for tilt currents nm the six sides:
1 / / [ sin - ftz (left v right )
O
' lllDI’,' i resonant J requenr lesl < 9.10.1 ) • <

.
J, 2
- 11;j cos kKx sod ft7 \ J -
tf sin k . x cos fi / hop & bottom )
Such modes are designated as TF.HI nr or '[ Af fT r,. For simplicity , we consider the case .. W; sin k< x- - ( front & bock)
.
flinty . Fqs . (yf 3 ( j) also describe backward - moving waves if one replaces ft by - ft whtt h . i he power hiss can be computed by integrating ihe loss y.T uni! conductor urea .
also changes die sign of r7 :i; = r}(v fit:. Starting vvilh a linear combination of forward
and backward waves in the 1 lin mode, we obtain the field components: . .
Fq. (*J 2 G ), over the six wall sides, or doubling the answer for the left, top, and front
sides. Using the mtegi' nls <9.10.51, wi; find:
J J 7 U, 4 ) - [ inzwikiJt ( AP. ~ Be ** } ,
1

HtiX' Zi - jH , //i ~
^ (9.10 2) .
I
z *' .' v.vilK IJ^ dA t iHo + n ; /" ‘ H: f (ft. m.oj

.
£, (*, 7.\ = •
- *
- /ie Min kcX { 1e ~' * t Be1 *) ,
'
- * £n r} H «
l
--1 RM H 2b * a { 2b + l )
J
-
where to, - rkc . By requiring that £ v U. z ) have / -dependence nf the form sm /lz tlie
coefficients A , 8 must be t hosen as A - ii = j/ 2. fhen , Fq. (9.10.2) specializes into:
. where we substituted U j ~ It follows that the
^-factor will be:
If a»fj Cg + fi 2 ) yah! )
J l? t X , A - cos k , x sin ft /. , O = < U Pi„„ 2 Rx k }l { 2h -a) l fi* a { 2 b + f)

Ni„ i „, inude wr have


ft p n / l and ky -
ITTT 43 . Using F.q. 19.2.7 ) to replace
HU, 7. ) 111 sin M' cus fix , = j— Ha ( 9.10 3) . For rhe
in terms nf die skin depth o , we find :
'

(O
ty [ x. /. ) - - jii, sin ktx sin fiz , = Wr n i h
•I
!
Ti

"a -
"

4
I /-
As expected, the vanishing of fc'yU, /. ) on the fronl / back walls, z - fJ and 7 1. and - Q 5 it
E9.IQL7)
on the left /right walls, x ft and x - u , requires the quantization conditions: ft pr\ • i - a 1

and k ,- n n? a , I he Q of the ivsoiiuior can he calculated from Its definition:


Ihe lowest resonant frequency corresponds to /1 -p I. For a cubic cavity, a -
. J ta
shere if is the loial rime-averaged energy stored within the cavity volume and
Q - to

^ is
lf
’ . clo . I - h -.1 rhe Q and the lowest resonant frequency arc :
ii CTTV'2
-
o» c
the total power loss due to the wall ohmic losses ( plus other losses such ns dielectric
0 «? im
ti
t Kll '2 TT a -J l
(iJ -10.8)
.
,

losses, if present .) The ratio A t v - ' If is usually identified ns the 3 dH v\ idih of the
resonance centered at frequency to. Therefore, we may w rite C> co / Jto.
- For an air -lllled cubic cavity wjfli < ) 3 nm, we find f\ n = 7.07 ( ill /., r) = 7.86 x 10 '
cm . and ( J - 12724. As in waveguides, cavities can be exc ited by inserting small probes
Ii is easily veiilied that the electric and mayneiic energies aie equal , therefore, II that generalo fields resembling a particular mode .
may hr calculated by integrating the elertrir energy density over the cavity volume:

, = l 4i fhoi c [ Ey ( x , z )\,1 tixtjlyd7 = ic|£oH I fizdxtiyd /. 9 ,11 Dieh’ c i ric Slab Waveguides

-
W 2W siir k , x cos '

2 )u Jm Ju

> 7f „!2 e ki /*
- -s d /f, i ;
i ,
ti7 b / l -
i
- v ( tv
,
r 2
( aW )
.
A dielectric slab waveguide is ,. i planar dielectric sheet or TILIJJ him of some tliickness,
tt > r B say 2 u , as shown in fig. ft. 11 l - Wave propagation in the / -direction is by total internal
-
*3.11 . Die It* Uric Slab Waveguides 38* 390 9. Waveguides

x » and exist effectively within a skin depth distance l / ocs- from the slab. Setting k . i k:
and kd - , t!cp> . 19.11 . ' ) become m ibis new notation:

k; - ft 1 k ;. - jX* - ft ~
(9.11 .3 »
; af . - fcjnjj ft 1
= ft '
~ Httj
Similarly, Fqs. (U .11.2 ) ft’ad:

i £; Hz ( \ ) * k; 1x I - 0 for |,vI i £4
(9.11 .4 )
c jJ / Mx J Per- f - < -V .I = 0 for U! £ fl
fig. 9. M . i Dielectric slab waveguide . 1 hr two solutions sin and cos fc, x inside till* guide give rise lei the so called even -
and odd 11: modes irefeiriiig ic* I he evenness in oddness of the resulting electric Held .)
for the even modes, the solutions of Jxjs, i!k ) I . I .i nave Hie form:
refUH'tcmi hum Ihf lull and right walls CII the slab. _Suc;i waveguides provide simple
'

models for the onntininj; mechanism ol waves propagating in op Lira I fibers. W|Sink: x , If - rt < x < n
The propagating fields art confined primarily inside I lie slab, however, the1, also ffx (
*> H if x it (9.J 1.5)
exist as evanescent waves outside it , decaying exponentially with disunite from the slab,
.
fig 9.11 . 1 shows a typical electric hi * Id pattern as a function of x.
Il .ie"'* , if x -- -<i
For simp Hefty, we assume that I he media to the lefi and right of the stall ore the -
The corresponding x componenrs Jfx are obtained by applying 111. (9.3.8 ) using ihc
same. To guarantee total internal reflection , the dielectric constants inside* and outside appropriate value for k 2 , linn is. k ; , - <x 2. outside and k; k 2 inside :
- ,=
I he slab must satisfy c tj, ami similarly fm ihc* refractive indices rt| > n?, . . ,
Wo only consider if modes and look rot solutions that depend only on ihc .v co - -Jft
Tk?2ixHt ( x =
Jft
Hi COS k t X .) if -*l a
-
ordinate, The cutoff wavenumber kf appearmj* in the Helmholtz equation tor H , ( x i
depends on the dielectric constant of the propagation medium , k ;- uv ji ft 2 There -
.
fore k 2 takes itilierem sallies inside and outside the guide:
^ . H* (x ) = —tt7,dxHzlx ) - Wi- H e -«..v .
jft jft
* if ' x a (9.11 .6)
jft Jft
- •tr2- *- \Y
L - f f y I .V !
'
if K -a
fcJl = toJCij/o = ft 1 <o- Cafioitf - ft '
- ft 2 (inside)

kj > -
- lu Czpo - ft? = - ft - = fcftfl • ;? -: ft ( outside )
< 9.1 1.1 ) ibe electric fields Lire Eyix ) -
qftHvfXl , where qjr. - cop, i / ft is the some inside
and on i side the slab. Thus. I he electric field bits the form:
where ku - (0 / Co is ihc t'roe -spacc wavenumber. We note that ro, ft are ihc same inside
and outside the guide. I Ills follows from matching the tangential fields Lit all times ( Ei cosktx f if -u x < <4

and all points 7 along Ihc slab walls. The corresponding Helmholtz equations in the £>- (* ) = E2emMt* , if x zLi (even TF. modus) 19.11.7)
regions inside and outside The guide are: If X £4

E- jifJaUI + ItJiJfrfx ) - ft for \k <a where v. v- dpfltie\ l I he const LUUS:


( 9.11.2.1
{ Hzix} > -U
i ) for |x| i «
E>
jft
0 TJRLIT , F' i = -~
jft
rjn H v (9.1 L .HJ
inside i he slab , ihc solid ions are sink 1 .v imd cosk - ix , and rmisidc si nk x and
* ; . .- X,- £*f or ,
-
cos k . -j X , or equlvaleiilJy c ^ . In order for the waves to remain confhied m the near The boundary conditions stale thal ihc langcntial components of the magnetic and
f;,. , are continuous across the dielectric interfaces at x = n
-
\ icinlT \ of the slab, the quantity k, : iimst be imaginary, for if it is real , the fields would electric fields, rhat is,
and x - a. Similarly, the normal components of ihc magnetic field
propagate at Large v distances from the .slab < rbey would correspond to the rays refracted unit
From the inside into the outside.) therefore also Ilx must be cominuous. Recause and On. the same in
rt wo set k : - .
, the sohiiiniis outside v ill be e T"‘* . if «, is positive , then only both media, iht* continuity of Ey fuliows from the contlimity of Hx . Ihc continuity uf -
the solurlon e K Y is physically acceptable to the tight of the slab* A a , ami onl \ v He ar x - a and x = -< t implies that:
to the left , x if . Thus , the* fields attenuate exponentially with the iransvmc distance
^
9.1 I . Diclectiic Slab W a v e g u i d e s 391 392 9. Waveguides

.
*
.
We Hole that rhe i.aLirclric fields L > ( x ) given Ln Eqs. ( 9.11.7 mid (9.1 L .15 ) are even nr
'
/ / i sin k , a -H > e tt. d and H ] $infc, «i - Hjfl er .j
( 9.11.91 odd function;: of .v for I hie Iwo families of modes. Expressing /: • <inri Y j in terms of EI (

.
Similarly the continuity of tlx implies (idler canceling a fa* lor < if
— Jfi t : ' -
we summarize I hi forms uJ the electric fields in tile two cases:

2 l L i cos k , x , tf ? <?
, fl 1 cusJt. ii = — 11 < e it , J
Lind k a=-
II i cos\ H e l t , 4l
(9.1 l . l 0| ~n v 7 ,
k ,: w, £*- U J = '
Ei cos k < clti ‘ ’ ' if “
x u I even 111 modes ) (9.11 . 19 )

.
F.qs. (! ). 11 , fj;i and t 9. Jl IOi imply:
.
EicnsAcrae if x -a
Hi - J / j - sinker - limiv, > i
cos k it (9.11. 11 ) Ei sinfc 4 x , if -.a x s tf
* '*-*' . if x > «
kc
Ev ( x)

, smkiite -
— - E Siuk de *- . if X -tf (odd IE modes! (9.11.20)
E '
Similarly, we find for the electric field constants:
| . 1 H ull

fi > Lt - E fl"^, cos ^4 n = 1 C« J


^ sink . (9. J 1.12) .
( IS ci i ( he operat my.frequency .» , Lqs. 19.1 I .31 and 19.11 . 1.5 .1 or (9.11.1 8) pruvide I hnce
ci
| | tf
equal inns in Lhe Ihive unknowns
.
(9.11 3) to eliminate /1:
ki . rt , , / i . In solve them, we add the two equal inns
The consistency of the last equations in . 9.1 1 . 11\ or ( 9.1 1.12) requires rh it : .
Cusk . tf -
:* L
sink, tf => j at ,. - fec ran kt- u ( 9.1 1.1 .31 Ui; K
-
tie
rHi - r ( «T fri )
Cr . (9.11 .21)

Par the tfdd I i- modes, we have for Ihr solutions of Hq. (911.4 j:
Next , we discuss die numerical solutions of these equations. Defining the dimen -
Hi cosfccX' , if a < x < tf sionless quantities i ? - keu and v - we mu \ rewrite iiqs (9.1 1.13), (9.11.18), and .
(9.11 .21) m Hie equivalent forms:
tf * ( X > - JfjU"** * it X > r? -
(9 11.14)

the f t , V .
if x <; tf
v - u tan if cot ? 7

-
I he resulting electric field is: V tf
I even modes) , (odd modes ) 19.1 1.22 )
V 2 + ira - /1- v - u? - R -
EisinkfX . if -J
.
F yixh- E?e if x > tf lndd Il;. modes ) (9.11 . 15 ) where R is ( he normalized Jrequenry variable:
Ei*"* , if x ** tf
tort I n fit 2 rr it
flic boundary conditions imply in this case: «’. 0
A14 = t*0
HA ,\
19.11 .22 )

* = Hi - / / ie“ racnsk.- ti - - tfi <?‘ ' . ll . lCd ,


u tr - rt
^ f 'V al I he slab aod - cj/ f , the lice-spuce
T
// • sinkca (M where iV 1 is the numcnad a/ nprfjJ
wavclenylh.
-
and, for tin clceiric fo ld constants: Because the Functions tann and ootu have many branches, there nmy be sevtrail
.
possible solulion pairs u v for each salne of K Those solutions are obtained at ( he .
- -FiCL^ "
inlcrse* lions of the cones v = tuantr and v - went 77 willi ( he liivli of radius -
- = - EH - Ei *
F2 ?
rt
* sink, a ' ?
raskr <i ( 9.11.17)
.
that is v - ir' - .
R . HR 9.11 . 2 shows Ihr solutions for various values of ( he radius K
corresponding in s arums values of a » .
lhe consistency l i f t he last equal inn i squires: Ii is evident from lhe figure that for small enough W , that is, 0 R < TT / 2 there is .
iinJv one solutKHn and IT is even.1 1 or TT / 2 ? R < TT there arv two soluticnis, one even " .
- -k, cotk ^flj (9.11 18). and one odd . lor TT <. < 5 / i / 2 . there arc three sciUuiims, iwo even and one odd . and
‘ . .
fnr in uplkill f . hrj . iLa «. suijil nxiilf cOisditirwi rr Ads 2 iririV - i A -
2 109 ivhcw . J IS IIJO nffl f.iri ias
1
9.11, Dielectric Slab Waveguides .593 .194 9. Waveguides

r *w
-) ( 1 2
i
3
i
4 5
sin tr cos I rnTT / 2 }- ' os u sin * m n j i i
i -4kJ liinfH mrr / 2) - —
cos u cos i mTT f ? i * sin li sin i rn n 2 )

i
=
* even riuxtc* .
Therefore to find the Jttlh modi , whether even or odd we must find the unique
1

ilit \ , o * odd modes solution of the following system In Ihe u -range R ,l t < u < K T! ;:
J i
(

\ >

r -«,. : f hi h i
' '
v - u tan ( u ff » >
iM V
- ( mill mode) 19 -1 J .29)

[ tM f lHi: A t l
, VJ + U = R
!
J
:
1
i ' If one had an approximate solnttun u , v for I he mih mode, one amid refine IT by usn IJ :
, A 1 111 iT! \I ; Newton's method, which converges ven fast provided il is close 1 o I he rn «: solution, fust
v
0 n i2 n 3TT/2 2 rr 5TT/ 2 * <T such an approximate solution , accurate to within one percent of [he true soliiriojj* was
given hi Lolspe'tcn|93DL Without going imo the detailed justification of this method ,

fig. 9.11 .2 lived md odd . TL: modes id different Irequem ies, the approximation i .s as follows;

u tt m 4 ,
TV 1 m ) u 1 ml TV; ; m ) */; ( i n 1 . w IJ . i Af |9.11 ,30)
so on. In general, there will he \f
falls in the inteival:
- 1 snlmLons alternating between even and odd
, , it li!
where U \ [ mi. re . are approximate solutions near and U\r from the ruled! Jtm, and
.st pii
\v\ On I , viM. rti ) arc weighting factors:

—*
Af 77
H <
I. Af 1 I -ITT
'

Given a value of ff , we determine Af as lhal integer satisfying lq 9.11 -124 ) or , Af s


}

.<
PJt .24)
.
,
U ! /?? ) - v M 2R{ R
'

R
- Rm 1 I
. n? (m) a
rr

2 R
R m
-f I
-
1 R > Tr < M .
1 that is, the largest integer less Than 2K / 7T: T V1 ( m) - 1 K - R m ) i\ ;„ ) ,
e\ p ( ' ?
W£ <m I - 1 - n i t m ) <9.11.3 0
I - vIn
1
I =
( TTIAl
W -- M ?) ( maximum mode number ) (9.11.23)
JfT
23 ros f l / 4
,'
' < >
This solution serves as the starting point to Newion's iteration fur solving ihe equa -
-
be M 1 solutions indexed hv JA ft, ] ,.. . , M , which will correspond
l lien , there ml I - tion l: ( u ) t >, where f ! 11 ; is defined by
to even modes if rn is even and to udd modes tf m is odd 1 he Af 1 1 branches of tan if . '

-
and cot u being intersected b> the ft circle are those con mined in ihe u -runges: utan ( w Rm ) v = utan ( u Rm ) s. J? J u 19.1132)
A? .Ml u< Rm . 1 m - 0, I Af (9.11 219. Newton 's iteration is:

where for i - 1 2 ... , At, do;


, 1
F( u ) (9. U .33 )
u - u -(-r. \
_Rm m
Wit
2 j
m - ft , l M (9.11 . 27)

Tvhcre C m I is the derivative i '


1 u 1 , correct
< J 14
,

lo ojxlei O if .1:
IT in is even the if - range <9.1 l .. ' fii defines a brant h of tan n.. and if m is odd , a branch
of rot tf We can combine the even and odd rases of \ X\, I D. I l .22 ) into u single ease In
noting the Identity:
'

vr _ If R1 (9.11 .34 )
w v t/

u.
lan if F?? is wen Ihe solution steps defined in Eqs. ( W .11.29H9.11.34) have been implemented m the
tan ( it - /?,„ ) - 19.11 .28.1 MA'ILAB fuuction db lab . r . with usage:
- cot u if m is odd
This follows from the ii'igonomeiric identity:
[ u , vr « rr] - dslab (R hit ) : . - 1 : aiinle :1M1.H.I rwvviiuQfdN r- '-i jidlilciim il? b
9,11. Dielectric Slab Waveguides 39S :59 f . 9. Waveguides

where A , is the desired number of Newluu iterations ( y.ll STj, err is the value of!• ( « i
-
at the end uF I he ilerahi.ms, and u, vare ILLC ( Af s l ,i dimensional vectors ol' stdutUHls,
The nniuber nt iterations LS l >niI < ; I!LV very small, Nn 2 j , - •. .
The ciimri frequencies f* :< ru in ' r Fx i\ e note that as the mode numbrr t? r increases,
"

ilni quantity «* dn rwises and 1 Lie i IfTctnc skin depth I oc. tiuiviiscs, can ^ uitg chu fu'lds
The related MATL4JJfunction dgu de . m uses dr Tab to calculate ihc solution param -
^ . MU l side tin* slab tn > > t* LI *SK cotilined. I hr rlcCll ii liiddpHtlvrns at .
* iIsri SIKHUI in die figure
eters /1, £*- , (*« r gi \ eit ihc frequency f • the hall fcength a , and the refractive indices rr|. » > - fimrtiDUK ui v ,
of die slab, It has usage: .
I hr ;ippnJSirn:itL'J-JS emir , err , is found In be I . SM 5 \ l ( i : using null three Wwtou i!er:i
I he , kc , itc , fc , firrj
LILJII ic e{ 1 , a, , ni , n 2 , Mi11 dlr ln - lrruc slab .. :i! '
'
- . .
dons. I suig twn one nmI no 11 hr Lutspeuh apptuximaUtKiI iterations would icsult Jn ihe

.
I i i

errors 2J81 l 0 ' , 4.029 to 1 , dud QuQSS,


* -
where f is hi CiHz, 7 in cm, and fi ,kCt flc m cm"1 . The quantity f\ is the vector of
ihc M 1 njiufC FrpCiHWirics dcJined b> lhe branch edges Itm - IHTT J , that is, /{,„ =
-. Ihc Iinvest nciur/en* cuicnlT frequency Is ft - SdiBOS Cfri.:- , implying dint there will b* a
-
1

. -
' '

single solutiofl i f f is in tfie interval n - < f\ , for example, ii { 5 till /., ihe solution Is
'

-
co.i rv.A'Vty = 2 irfm £tKA. / Ci) = mtr / 2, or ,
- -
ft L . > ti49 rad /eni, Ay I .3020 rad / rm, and rv
^-
I .1 &29 nepers/ cm.
mc „ _ Fnc frequency range over which I he re are drily four solutions is [ ? !i .FlK (lfi , T 3.1 i i in CH /., - -- '

t he meaning of / ,«
t: • It!A i j
if > lhal there arc in + I propagating modes for each
m - n , 1, . - , A / (9.11,35)

t hi ihe
where the tipper liknil is If j .
\ s'cjwir that the function dguide assumes iriieruallj that c» - lift Gil / cm and tlUTeforc ,

ilu- calculnii'd valors Inr k , mtxK would tie slighilx different if a mnre preciw value nl' c:.
-
.
interval fm / < -
! is uved. sutlt ;is 2HJJ7:*24 *H ill \ npftndix A, ProMcm 4.1 I studies ihr scr -siiivity oJ ih <
'
. -
.
KxampJe ft l 1.1: / ifeTecfrii VJat Hov ivnarfe. Ileii - rmlne i hr- ptmfViigaLing I M modes of n diciet tin
^
slali of haLHeiiglh fl - il - J cm al frniueJMy / ' • .3(1 fil Iz Ihe n Iraruse indices of Ihe slab .
'
-
sidutiuns to snui . I changes of iIn parameters / . a , i ,, , n ; , n . n

and the siuToUticliiij: dlelvCIric are rt| l and rij - I . - In Terms nf die ray pic lure of ihe propagating wave, the angles of total inieiaal
I'dJectitm are qitaiitized according, t < j ihe values nf ihe ]>icjpagatioti wai emnnber ft for
Sflhitlun: I hc solution isotiiaincd hj ihc M.M I .M! call :
the vniious modes .
-- - -
f - . .- .
10 ; a Q . 5 t rtl Ji n 2 1; Kit 3 ; If we denote b> k i - fetiRi the wavemmkher wlriiiii the slab, then the wavenumber*
( be , kc at fc eer J dr*riile{f , a , rtl , n2 , Mi t ) . -
ft kc are thez and .v-compniients k :,t kx o i k j with an angle of incidence (T 'The vectorial
I In* frrqacikiy radius is H - 5.4414, wtdrti gives 2 H ; TT ~ i.4 C:-ii , and I hc:l i:l i ITI * A/ '
'

. - I.
relalLotiships are the same as tlio.se m Tig. fl.'l.l.) i hus, wc have: .
the frunlttug HoJiiuons, depicted in Fig . 3 .^ ait a *, fallows:
ft - Jr i sin iJ = fcn » i sin (?
7
.
IT Mmies ini* fi - o.44 r
.
Fli'dric Fi* •
11 i •
fcc k|cos 0 - kn n cos 0i
( EU 1.361

i
'
Tlic value of ft lor each inode will generate a corresponding value tor 0 . The al -
i

/ fp
\
i
.
teimation wavcuumhci « .. miiside the siab ran also lie espiesseti m teritis of the ltdal
A* infwiud reflection angles:
W, T \
-
.
L
r- \ jfl - - Hnd - k ' Vffi sin ~

2 Since Ihc critical angle Is sin <?, n -> tu \ , we may also express rt , as:
i

i\ f - k „ni \ siir 0 - sir. Oi HUL:t 7)


•i
-L :
ti I £ 1 I h G S
± :u
i 2 4

r.vamplE! 9-11.2: Tor tike r xwmple 9.1 l l . we eakutan*


'
. (i..! R 32 and -
- i 2,5fifi 4 rad / rm,
'

-
The rriiical and total iniemal re J lection iingles of the foui nmdes are round to he;
I ig. 9.1 l .'.l Th mcMlrs mid mrrespondirig f lfceUl patterns .
'

-
1
0r - asm 30"
/ 7? U V ft kr nc u
0
1
1. T748
2,t7J5P
5.2777
.
4 / W3
I 2.2« 3«
1M071
2 (1497 .
; ,s .
10.5 551
.
O.OOOO
» 5207 b tifiOi .
0 - asiei ( £ |
\ KI
'
!
.
( 77.8375* BS IjNSO0* 51,5100 . 36.060^
^ )

' ,9105
1 i.7 M 7 9 . b:3.> ') 7.R21 U 7.5fi 75 17.1205
ds are
:t S.u 7n . j I .95 MJ -
7 31171 10.1SW5 | 3,91157 ; 25.9ROSj
As required, all jjreatgr than
^. D
-
9 12. Asymmetric Dielectfle Slab 3» 7 m 9. Waveguides

9.12 Asym me trie Dielectric Slab whir]) combine in define the aliuwed range nl $ ini The guided modes;
Jhe thrcc-Jayei osyjnimtnr dielectric slab waveguide shown m rig . !). 12. l is ;i ! < pieal
component m integrated optics applications 1912-933].
V cl tin dielerrrtc Him Hr of thickness I n h deposited on a dielectric substrate n 4 .
Above the liJm is a dielectric rover or da riding ? i , , stw h ,i:s air To achieve propagation . where the lower limit /1 - A; rr ., defines the rutnff frequencies, see L:q. ‘. 9.12 ,13.1. '

b \ tntai internal relleclion within the Him. w e assume trial the reiracthe indices satisfy

obtained when
-.
ftf > nx ?i rti The case of the symineirir dielectric slab of die previous sec!ion Ls
• n ,. 7 r. modes
We consider the TF. modes lu st . Assuming only v - depvnrirnce lor the I I * component, it
unis! satisfy rhe Eldmliult / equalums in the three tvgiuns:
LX snhstTiLU - film d kting . tCisu
^
f \ 0, l vli tt
.
'

> 'V th

r
1 0; IT; -i H 1\) 0 . .x > a
intfffciaLed nptics. f v
/
/ compomtiu tvt -vj
'
1 - « J) ix ? - 0, s - i7
j
cladding ii .
j;mUftl e&i '
cost Ay-tr v
siiv( Ar -r.i c. n - - 1
The soli 11 ions deriving expnnomially in rhe substrate ami cover, can be ivrillcn in
. ,

liJm
Wlwlrali:
^« 5
iiahi
tbi - following form , which automatically satisfies rhe continuity conditions uC the two
boundaries .v - m:

.

- n 0 n
t" A
Hi sin 'Ay .v - tf> ) , M a
H £ i* ) - Hi silKfcrU -e <£ h° LH.- I . T I /I
.V a (ft. l 2 .dl
.
l- ijj- y 12.1 Three layer Msymmesrtc dielectric slab u ;m:f gride, / / I sin U . ?- i ( ji ) e T , 5 AC > / ’
.
x < -a

Til this section , we briclly discuss the properties til * be I I mid TM propagation modes. where 0 is a parameter to he determined. The remaining two cmiipowenifi, H , and h ,.. '

Lei k , - to , ft ] I M - Ol ' di - 2 rtf ICr,


'
2i7 / A (i be the free space wavenumber at tile - nrc obtained by applying Fq . ( ft.3,8), ilia! is,
operating trequency or f in II /.. I bc \ , f. dependcrK i* of lhe Lie- Ids is issumed In be '
. te ..
the usual Tf we orient the Coordinate axes us shown hi iln above figure:, then
ihe decay constants « v , and a , within Lhe substrate usid elarlding must bn pusitixe
H , ~ - . ~. d\ H , .
k; Ex - ^ re f} n~
top

that the fields ditenuate cxpunentiaUy with x within both the Substrate and cladding , ,
This gives in ihe three regions:
hence, the corresponding transverse wavenumbers XVLII bc ./ 4X , arid ja, . On the other
hand , the mailsvcrsexvavenuiiiber Ly xvH bin the film will be real -valued . These quantities
satisfy ihe rcLdiuns five assume ( j - iti , in uLl ihref media ): -j — U cos i k f X
\ i ( fi i , \ x\ < a

kf k n j - p
,
kitnj - ,' ; ) -J —8 I I sin ( Jfei r7 i </i l it •
» . .-
i t ilt r '
x>a ID . 12.3 )

-^
#"
^x ^
\ j i

-j f—i / / i sin (i;


«; F =t- kj + af nj - ) ( 1 * rt ) = Jli j( rtf til| .12.I I
^rt - <p ) x -IT
. ~ I (ft (> <

it ;. - fl - - kii « p A:.- ntj - kji I uf - nJ 15 Lf, i n . - nJ i Shire we assumed ( Isa! p - f j u in all three regions, rhe ccmtinulty’ of ii across die *

where we defined rhe as 'mmerrv pnmuiefer Ik


^ ditions:
=
buLindam -s x - a Implies the same fur the I f x componriits , resulting 1u the two con -

,]
&= x
n-f - n\
'
( ft .12.21
—K co^ iki a

£ =
« '
< r
\
1
sinUyp -i ( f> ) MlLlt; if t </ j 1
V
-if {ft J 2.fi )
Note that A -
> n f > n. . Because kt , « Vl rvt- are assumed to
II since we assumed t i { 1
cos { kt a - if > i
:
siru. fcfU - 4> ) ( an 'lLfp - fft ) 7fc ,
be real, it follmvs that /1 must satisfy the inequalities, /3 £. . . 71 . , fj ± L|, 7 iA , and ± '
,
fc/ LX',
y.12 . Asymmetric Dielectric Slab m •KJO 9. Waveguides

Since LIK: aigmiuinr jf the Tan eul is iuiique up in an integral multiple of ir , we may Kora given operating Irequeucy / , the value oJ R '
is fixed . VIE allowed propagating
Invert the two langenls as follows^ without loss of generality: modes must ratisfy Rm R , or ,

kra - </ ? - arcian + inn I


•> nr 77 ^
i
arctant \Vf } R = m
2N - arc l an ( v 5)
77

This fixes the maximum mode index ,M to he


k { u - < f> - arrtati
2R arcian ( v £ )
-
kfO
I _
w hich result in the characteristic equation of the slab and the solution lor <£:

arc lun
1
- surra n
2
«c (9 -12.7»
A( = floor

Thus , there are \ M


7T

modes labeJed by m = U, 1
I I)
( maximum

M . In ihe symmetric rase,


IL mode Index ) <9,12.1 1)

d = 0, and (9.12. M ) reduces to F.q. (9, 11.2!> .i of


ihe previuus sec lion. I he corresponding
cutoff frequencies are obtained by setting:
4> = i- ttlTT tUTtail (9.12,8 »
I
- / 71 TT -
.. .
ivheiv the Integer t v 0, I , 2 , . corresponds to the #»th mode. liq, 19.12
three equations (9.12.11 pwi. de Emir equations in rhe four unknowns
> .71 and the
rta oqj . .
W "a

Cty \
„nf
2 ...
* fm '
277 e3 . ^. .
arcian f \ tfr
( ». I 2J 5 )
n\
-
Lisin g t) ic r. rig Idcn til ies tan T? j (? . ) = i nin 0 a luri (? ) / >. J ta n 0 ; tan * > and I on •' 0 ! =
* Co V / "
tan ( d + tfurI , Ltis. (‘ /. 12.7.1 and (9.12 .d ) may also be written in The following forms:
which can be written more simply as f\r = f R ,r. : R , m - U , J W , where f ru / Ai>
'
.
ran ( 2 £ - ? i - .
kf ( Of ,; _+ « A I
kf acns
lan { 2<f>\
-
kt ( <V “ Ofjt )
k :r + cL- itv
(9.12 9) - . l or each ol the M i I propagating modes one ran calculate the corresponding angle of
.
total internal reflection of Ihe equivalent r n model ljy identifying Ly with the transverse
I he form of Lq (9 . - 12.7) is preferred .
feu the uumiTiraJ solution Tn tills end , we introduce -
propagation wavenumber, that is, k , tar?/ cos 0 , as shown in Fig. 9.12 .2.
i
_
he cllmensiOEiless variables:

. - T7 M
- tn - >
_
—a vnr - m
; ctllddiiiki tlK
k . tci\! n} rri -
.
. 2
R = yxj f t1f , 77
to (9.12 10) . film
u - kf < i , v - orjfl iv .
ex - u
tl

Then , I qs, (9.12 .71 and < 9.12 . 1 ) can he written in the normalized forms:

u
l
2
P 7 J 77 I
1
2
arc lun
C : Lucian subsume na
U£ + v' -- R~
(9.12.11 J
.
J ig 9.12.J Riiy pnipagalum rrmilcl.
w --v * - R2 S
I lie characteristic equation 19.12, 7) can he gi \ en a nice in;crpretation in terms of the
i t - , Ihe piopuga ( iOEi
Once these arc solved |Y>r the three unkstun ns M , v, w , or k < , cv s \ .
ray model :92 >|. Ihe field of ( he npj'oing iiq al a point A at \ x , s ) Is propniiiimai , up
-
(

constant or equivalently, the effecti c itwfcx / qi fltk . i can be nbtaineri from: - to a constant amplitude, to
g tk( Xg jfiy. - -
0 u* .
&-
^ ki,nj - kf ^ "" fc . P l
^
.
11
(9.12.12 ) SlmiiarL. , the held of Ihe upgoing ray al ihe pomi B al >' x , z / ) should h

111. I 2.1 (5)


lb determine the number of propiigarlng modes and the range of the mode index
/ 71, we ser v
.
-
- „
mode Then , u /? , and w Rm > 6 , and we obtain; - _
0 in rhe characteristic equation (9.12.11 ) lo find the radius KJn of the with
Hut if we follow rhe ray starling ar A alcmg the zigzag parli AC CS * .S7f , Uw ray
will have traveled a total veriicaJ roumllrtp distance of 4u anti will bas e suffered lwo

Rf
1
„ = - ? M7r 4- i arctan ( \ V> ) , m - 0, 1, 2 (9.12.13) total internal refk*ctimi phase shii t.s fli points C and denoted by 2 </ /< and 7i/'v We
'
.
9, 12. Asymmetric Diele < trie Slab 401 102 9 . Waveguide
*
m all ihiii i Jtn- reflectioncocfftrieuts have the form p e for total mtcrual reflection,
as given Icir example b ) l c; ( 7 .S3). Thus , the Held at point B would be
'
Universal ctuxii* curves for TE iJiiirti F -.

This must match 19.12. 1 til and therefore the extra accumulated phase 4 kf n 2 tft * - 2 p
must be equal to ;i multiple uf 277, that is,
i I
4 kf a - - 2Ip, 277 jIT => k ( a «= , mrr 4- <pT *
^
\s seen from liq. ( 7- 821h lhe phase terms art: exactly those appearing in Eq. ( 9.12 .7):

tan ip .
*
- .

*r
tan ip -
*
» tf > c arrran (;) ipt - arcuui
te) 6 0
A similar interpretation can he L . en tm the TM modes. .
p *
H is common m the literature to represent th** diararreristic equation (9.12.11) by
- 6 *=
6= 1
in
means of a u m l'i' rstil niriite ain |927| defined in terms :?1 the follmving scaled variable:
^ i> 1 2 3 4 6 fi 7 a 9 10 11
J?
V / - fcgn;
* nf

h- (0.12.1 “)
ft - o( - 7iJ
which ranges over the standardised interval ;) s h i 1 . so cbiit
* .
fig 9.1 2.3 I MrersaJ mode corves.

u = ft v 1 - h, v - R :b, w —R \ b+S 19.12.18.1 where p is a parameter tn he determined. I hen. the E . component is: >

Them Eq. 19.12. 1 J ) takes the universal form in terms of the variables b R : . P
-J —ii cos [ kfx I- 4> ) • X < <1
tf
2 ft v' J - b - ntn + arctan
V1
; ?
-b a arcran
h
V 1 -b
6
) ( 0.12.19) : /5
— L \ simi'/ u- t <p ) c- n
*a -
1 1
lx ai
x a 19.12.21 )

It is depicted in Fig. 0.12.3 with one hranch for each value of m - 0, L 2 arid for -j - L i sin ( ti , ij p 1 <? ,Tj ‘ v “ x -a
the three asymmetry parameter values A = 0.1 , Id. *

A vertical line drawn at each value of ft determines the values oi k for the propagating The boundary conditions require the continuity ol the normal component of dis -
modes. Similar cun cs can be developed for I M modes. See Example 9.12 . 1 lor a concrete
'

placement field Dx = clix across the interfaces at . * a , which is equivalent in the


example that Includes hoth TE and IM modes. '

continuity of the tangential held / / > because JJV - £ • /) r .vr - cL , ro / /l D t o / ft Thus, • .


* *
the boundary conditions at x - • *? require;
TM modes
Tile TN' modes are obtained by solving Eqs. 19.3. 10) In each region und applying rlie 7 roRik’ffl + ip )
Kf
L
- rti‘ - sintfcju - M - Urn ( kfU - p ) - Pc 7
kf
:

lioundai' v coudilmus. Assuming x dependence only , v. e must sol \ e in cad) region: (9J 2.22 )
p ) - p -, -Xv
(
cosikftl - p ) = ~ sin ( kfd p\ tan ( Jfc / rt
(
di + kj ) £ / II . Lx - Jfi .
i itv -— »7 iu
J:\
* tJrsi
P
roc
Hf
where '.'. e defined ilu ranos:
-
Ct
* *f
The snhiriou Inr F y i \ } is gtvim b) ?. similar expression as Eq. ( 9.12 . 4 ):
_ it
. -
f ’- i sin ( kf \ p) , x| a
<t
f . t r,
t P, ‘r n%; (9.12 ,23 )

E/ U - Li miikf i i f - p )e rt, iy
- nt
x z n ( 9.12 .291
' £ \ isii\ ( kfa - p ) en' l x x -a

it isuiM»||> iluiMHud ti\ Ihe- v . tiiblu T.


ii
9.12. Asymmetric Dielectric 'Slab 403 404 9 , Waveguides

Jnvet 11 r ; u. I he tangents We obtain; which can he written more simply ;is f R ’ R , til o, 1 - ^
N , where / cv / A (i - «

The corresponding angles or lulal Minima 1 relleeHon in ihc equivalent ray niudel an
kfQ f
4> - arcian + / 7iTT obtained l >y sieving k ( kn^ f cm 0. -
Because \ f > 1 , we ubsetvc thai the maximum mode index M and the cutofj Ire -

k { CA - f > ( - arcuui (*t ) ^


quetwies h will satisfy the following inequalities ( nr the IT. and I'M cases;

A / tut Ma » l m.i t /m . i *4 <9.rjJO)


These give the chiiracicristlc equation of the slab and tfr.

«;) Numerical Solutfons

kt a - l
: mrr i 2
I (
arcian j \
t
^
l
1 + - Cretan GK12.2. i > Next we look at the numerical solutions of tqs. 0M 2.27.I. The T1: case is also included
by selling / x .
pc = 1 A simple and effective iterative method for suhing such char
-
-
,( ,cirHarclan ( ?) -
acteristic equations was given in kef . |9 <i3] by replacing v , n in tenns of u , lei Fin )
<t> *
i
2
nm »
j

2
an Tin p
'
(9,12.25) denote I he right hand side of Ivq ( 9.12.27 ): .
. . t
- I urcran \ p, jl -
and as m Eq. (9.12 9), we can write:
K)
lam 2 fc/ al

in terms of the normalized variables


MPytts f /yftj ,
kf - PsPifXyfitc
tan ( it/? )

w, v, iv , K . we have:
kj i
Ur , JW *
PsP< t t* ( Xc
)
(9J 2.26)
P( w > -
2
rrt ?? '>

The problem then becomes that yf Uncling ihe Fixed point solutions u
method suggested in Ih f.|9fi3] is to use the Iteraimn;
^ i }
arrtaii

- T ( wi . I he

u„ , i ^ F ( u„ j , n = (1 , 1, 2 , , , .
I
u- -2 / n IT -2 arciim arcian
K) initialized at M, = H . 1 his simple iteration does converges in many eases, but falls in

ollicrs. We liavc found that a simple modification that invokes the introduction of a
u + v2 - R -
~ (0.12 - 271
r <. 1 , enables the ctomergence of even Ihe most
--
“ relaxation'’ parameter r sin li that 0
w e- R 8 .
difficult cases The modified ileration has the form:

The number of propagating Hindi's and the range of the mode index m , arc again u„ , i r F (»» ) + tl
*
r) w„
determined by setting v - 0, it - Rw , and w Rm\ 6
, ' '

Explicitly , llie iteration starts with the initial values:


/2 MI - -I mm + -I aiTtan ( p Vd ) . ( m - 0, 1 , 2 , , .. Uit R, = 0, WQ -R \ S (9.12.311
Tin allowed propagating modes must satisfy R , or ,
i
..
1

and proceeds Iteratively , for n = 0, 1 , 2, ., until two successive un values become closer
I
- ri777 r
!
- - aietan j / '
? .\ Ykl .R
S ->
" m -2 R - arctan ( p, v'Vi J - in each other than some specified error tolerance* say tol , such as to! l < r < :
!l
-
n
w hich fixes the maximum inode index M to be: 9M | ?
i
2
WITR +
2) ' ' arc an (*'::) l
! + (1 - r ) u„
- arc I an ( p,- v , j ) if .
< coT I lien exit, else continue
\f - JJoor
! 1R
) ( maximum i M inode index ) (D.12.281 ( 9.12 .3 i
;r
v„ , i - *- ^
\R w i
The i M r I ) inndes; arc again labeled by
frequencies are obtained by selling:
m = 0, I

1 l
M . The coiTcsponding eutotT
WHi
- V « -Vi '7,-
Hie M VfLAB function dqu -ideJ . m implemcnls tiie method and has usage:
2 T7f ,*iq . .f ,n - 7 tun + ( nrcfan ( p, \ (5 )
. . . . n .n f n r ,rToderf

J
?
Rin y1. Tlrf Tts2 =>
27? < t . -> ;
(9.12.29) [ be kf , as , ac ftn Hit ) d <i u ? , \ t o l):
fit - , n y - 71 s
Co x 1
9- 12. Asymmetric Dielectric Slil? . 405 -106 9. Waveguides

where ihi - inputs and outputs have the folicming meaning}!: .


KxJimplii 0.12 1: lor rumpatixm purfwm* WC consicUT the mime benchmark trample dis -
^
.
missed in |963| L-cfliststiug ill < silicon film of thickness nf 1 jm» willi rtf - 5.5 , an oxide
cl — half wklih uf slab in units of the free -space wavelength V
* .. substrata with ?? . .- .
i .43 , and air cover with OPEILTI|* L% avelenj;ili ,V l.5 j j/m. Ttir -
rcrructise indites of substrate Jilm, ami dad ding i rtf > rrA >
* nt I Irillowm# M. VTUB code jjeneraros linih rli? IT, and TH modes, tclth ihc numvrii al outputs
mode * TE ' nr " TO 1
ILSIINI in th ' iallies belcm.
*
,.
r ,
vdiLNalinn |hariimeli r ( dcliLuii ? O Sj
-.-
nr

tol error tolerance ( default to! - 1U 1 1 * -


rtf 3.S; ns l + S; nol; 'A oxidr subs- trace- | silicon fill | air cover

propagation wavenumbers i n units or ta = 2IT / AA


la
*- 1.55; a
<i * a / la0;
ft 5 ; . K jrirs <il nicrons
-
ti ha If thickness in units ol ? a0
Lran&vmu wavenumber *! inside stall in units of fcn

** s , «r decay wave-numbers Ln substrate and cladding iri units nf k --


r 0.3;
lOl lc - lCl;
ft default value r fl. j fa Is
- * Lir cpn^erqe for the TL ondes

I rr CuLolt rwiucnriitt m units nf f


•V „ munbrrof iterations it lakes to converge towirhin to I . .,as..ar.. ,, - 1 -- <
[bo kr
['ho , SO As
ac fn X itj
in Mi *
dgii1dej(a ,ns iif , nc. , rre r
4 toT) ;

. ^. , . ' . .
4

hjj idol( a n nf nc ‘ In ' r Tnl ) ; * Ti nudes


nodes
Ih'

.
Internal?} rhe function de termin es M From Lq i !U 2. L 4i or (9.1.* 281 and rakulutes . .
. } . -
fi ki . ct , AV / rr. as ( Af I I ; -climmsitmfll column vw tars rejm'- senriny, tlic Af + i modes.
! u clarify die computations, die essential part nf rhe code Is lisied below : rn kf k .
< j eti /Jtfi | ct , . 0%
.
J 434 746.. 6727. 3.1137 .
---kOtns*^a - flfA
tl 3.2866 U 6247 78.92
kO 3 rpi [ % lad
. -
2* jri / fc J < -
L in rli£ iissuTif'd L»II « ti
- 3 232788
,
U
U| i -
2 fiSf14 .1.0742 6,2679 67.47 iTT modv.s.
R
d
-*2
Cnf^-
Z
A
sqrt (
BcAgj /
2 n A )•
nsA ?);
,
s tu v) circle radius, note k0;n
r; a & ymnctry pa dnetr- r-
2 tfpi ( a / laO) >
3
2*872310
j .
. k / n.: -
.
2.0601)
2,6364
2.4794
1.7 86
*
2.6926
2,073 ?»
L .652 7 -
O.S 112
6.7545
ib.15
11 . n
, .
i1 s trripi ( nudu 11h ‘ ) ’t roHv. can also be enterfrt -
I i IOTWT cast
4 L 451672 3.1K 46 0.6756 11.9878 24.51

uls <’
1; PL - -:
i
m fifku ..
kf kr
r
|is - nfffcl /nW ; PC nlA 2/ncA 2 ;
n 3.4 115507 0.750 » 3J09K :5.2r Ci.*i . 6.1028 77.46

w
V
-
-
.<
flctn ' C 2 m
{Q :ND ' ;
.
A ?. jiiCpr
'

* , •' t (d|) Vj /p 3 > ;


( 1 highest endr index
.
% vectxir c f trtu- K iml ires i 3
H
3.1541*11
2.6688H2
L .
«6.5244
1.51651
2.2642
2.96If .
2.8011
2.2407
LI733
2.9915
2,4745
J .374 *;
6.3461
0.5804
«.« 127
64.32
19.69
32.20
I IM in>iies >

4 1 ,0760
u S * flnrs(H+l,l ; > S ini rial \ i t itprar. jan variables u , v ft-
v -- <
7Pro9 H»l 11; . . .
!% u v w arc -
vp r tors
The j? rfcu
.
11mn is itie cffeviive phase index ol ihe modes. The default value of |he
w

NU -
R *sqrtCrf Ortes(MLJ , 1) !

J;
>
% nunhre of iterarioiii
icJuuiuu piirametex f - «.5 tlkl IHJL V cifk in this ruse ami roused !1m TE itcVdiiun to
dJwcjiv and ilu* .smaller s ulue r «. 1 « as choM ri. The number of iter Li ions IVCH; -‘V :
for TF and \ r 66 for 7 tr, i hr HR apples ISITC rcimpuu d by the iniInning enmmund.
*
-j“

-
. ,
whil ? 1
uiKn -
% Ahi lo loop rrpeaLs till COrtrvfcrgnnce

ra (m*pi / 2 • 3 SBfl i3 rv . /tO / 2 i aran pc^w . /:i ) / 2 i ( 1 r ) *u ;


II noTTtimeiM- u) tol , break ; end
<* < >
rj p.- acos f k I /nf) ‘ 180/p i : % degrees

hit NfM l; We rmie rltai all Tilt angle- s arc jut-mri than iIn* critical anp.k-s conifjitrivd by:
a - uaevs ;

-
1

v - sqrt fi 2 -
rr -
s rcCR ^d -* v r* 2);
^
<^
^ . t )s ai'isin 24.4r . Of arvsSn -
if S1i> KHM , break ; end .
safeguard aga' nsi possift ' fi uivergance
end * There ai » hve LL nindes iind four TM one?*. The flfrb T 7 mode i.s wry iceakly tioond ru ihe
ki
as
-
-
y / (U) * «) ;
% kf in units of kQ , i .c . , kt / kO - u / fScO ^u) substrate sietc hecaust * iii. decay [mrameirn is ver > small, its cuioff frequency LS VITV
near the opemiin freqiteiicy t - <: 0 - 5 ,, and ii * HR angle, very dose to the crUirol angle.
^
. - fc/ CkO*a) ;
jc
Willi rcfcftTicc to the inrqualiry ( O.l /yfji, n so happened that m ibis example / ' f«lls in ihe
bp « iqrcfnfA; . kf ." kry; X IJCLJ in units of hO . i n. , heta /kO . . ^ .
Rn
- -- n*p 3 / 2 at4m(pL*sqrr (i1) > / 2; cutuff radius
n for n tl
fl>/lau
. t>:idr

-
range f4 rr < f f+ JAfl tnrl therefore, the fiflll IM flUMtu / j.m IS nul excited, LiuI / 5 Jt Is
Tlic convei grncc can he wrlfiietl fur till nwxfies at once hy romputiriR 1 He vecinr error noi m
.
fn
thri
Rif / R.;
-
<JCOS ( f /l! * ) ;
% uitmff I requeueie & in uniis <if f
^ angles of total internal r ^ lIaction
oI iliecharaiicTisIlc cqiisiijcm;, tli n is,
4.12. Asymmetric Dielectric Slab 407 IOS 9. Waveguides

V -~
Err
IpngthCb ) -!; n
«wmifkfllk 2 *pi '1a * -- OW
«* 2jrt /
;
Jlanfp i jas ./ kf) / 2 dtan(pc * 4i _ . /kf > / Z) ; 9.13 Problems
'
.
O.l An airiilJeiJ l, j cmx 'l i m wasejpridc is uj>rrated ai fre unny ;iai lies in l he middle «f ils
.
1 Ins error i.- of Elbe cirrlcr of l|ie iSSlUiircl toicrancr , indeed, vie tave Err
'
2.M- J • LfJ for . * ^
rill mode hand* Determine Ellis operating frequency in till / ind calculate rJie in iximum . .
IT - and her - -
! 1 it lh lorTM, Hr luiie dial the ciuarvtIly Hf p 2*pi1Pfli repieseriis the power m wans ihat cari he transmitted wlihuut causing didti ir : c breakdown of air. The
variable u in our milts, indeed, u - k / a ik ( fc iJfenfl - ( Jfcf k i Ttr (fl / A i. . . diclocfrit strength of all is .1 MV . m _
.
htiiHlty;Fin 3.1-' -4 dLspItq s the 11. ;in:t I'M sritnttons on the universal modi* eur es, see e.g,
'

- 0.2 !r is desired in design mi .4 / filled rectangular waveguide suc h that - ai ii operaves wily in The
.^
Fq t .UMUi . r JLi : mode with the widrsi possible bar.dwklih, Ib.i ii run transmit the maximum possible
power. and ‘cl ihr operating frequent y is : z GMz and ii lies us ihi* rmtidlr ui the operating
Kind. What are the dimensions of the guide in tin7
9.3 An air - liUod u‘i ti.utgn.iiai waveguide is used to transfer power in a radar antenna. Ike guide
-
must meet tin' following spi dlifaiioris; The IMI Unvesi modes an* Tfci and TE. . The op
ciratlUg frequency is S GHz arid iuil.xl Ire exactly halfway between live iiitotf IrrmuoiUlrs ul
. .
These IWn rnndcs. Ihr mdEllnurn cLeciric - held Vrtlhhi Ibe flUidr; may nnl exceed, by a safely
margin or . 5, the breakdown field of air I M\ /m.

a. IhitemUiie ihe smallest dimensions .


lor .such a w iveguldr , ii the transmitted power
IS required lo lx I MU. 1

b. Whiit
.
. . .
die Ihc dinirr sicms tt fr II the Ir insTiurted (Kiivei is rixjUlTCxl tn be makiniuuLY
ivhit is dial maNfinuru power in Mu i

0-4 Ii is desired u> design an air filferl rectangular waveguide opw iiiiig ai 1 CM /., whose group .

vdex in LS!) <:. U hat al e the dimensions a , fr of the guide (in cui) il it B UISM required lo carry
maxiirmIII power and have Ihe widest possible hiindiriLlllV WllBI : s the ClIInfT iicquvm y of
.
Ihe guide in (iTi / arid the operating bandwidth?
'
9.5 Slum ihcfrdlowing relationship hei ween guide wavelength and gnmp vekK -iiy ni HII arbitrary
iUr-klhxl waveguide: c,\ , whem \*i - 2TTffi ;IIU1 A la the Jm spiu e waveh’ngt]!
Moreover, show that (he \ and. A . an* related u» ihe cuitiJi is-anekiigih \ , by:
j
'
- .

. '
-
big. 3.1 / 4 I nis wsa] mode curv * TE (solid lines/fiJh d circles), T \{ ( dallied lines ,-'cqien ciriles).
.v = ii + ML
! 1

FixanipJe A si'cond, more difficult, example imm|WiH| has ihepuratncierK An -


>
: ,d IViermine .
ihe four Irnvcsf iiKwies :hai ran piYVjiagaie In a V Tt rTi 1-) and a R -9H wavegonii’-
CiiRlniJatc the cutoff Imiuencies (in (JIU) and cuiofT waveLnngihs (m f ini oj these modes.
. . JTJH '

.
d - ( f 5 pm. iif - 3,3 ns - 3.25K i;r 1
. - . .
\ n air- lilted ivR iK) v avpguidc ts operated u 4 GHz. C'olailale ihe maximum power that
.
!) “
1 he- same MAI I \ R ende applies here , but we used the del aulT value # - il .T , which enri
' '

car br imruunincd wiihoui eausin® dMet/ UTc hieakdown ni air. Cjlcularo the aiteuuaiion
verges in fl and 10 iterations reaper lively fai ihr It and T.Vf modes , ttnly OJW ( M ( U If ixniHtam in dB/m due lo wall uliiuic losses, .\ssume cnpMJr ’ valis. .
iUld Olie W, mode ari * SUP|K ?rled Wirli jwiTiuncti'Ts given in llir table iieUnv. the eriticai I IR
. . .
3.fl A neiangular ’ vjiveguide has sides r , (i such ihat b d/ 2 URTCrmint: ?lie cutnff wa \i length
.ingles air in Lilli example:
.
X, of this guide. Shins’ dial the o|MTaliiig wivekitgiii hand uf ihi lowest mti<fc is n SA . i - .
AiA, . More«.niT, show iliai the alUnvud ratine of the guide wavelength is Ay > A, . !s.
0. arcsLIi
ft - BU.ii3* . f?,- arciin ( ?) - !7.Ci4 :'

.
M 3 I'he -
thin lluxle opeialiqg bandwidth of :»H ail nlLed waveguide ]s required to he 4 ,r trll?.
bai are Tin* dimensions of the guidtV
H.l li CiWlfWTer i; ViWH.,ocof : HK - JoSl IV USVI/ OIWC Reproduce lhe two grdjihs of I !u .
'

mcidk 1
ri r. A. • t' l l .f k f
flf | f f c / fc Uft '

* n. I ] A I M mode is prupngjHed al> >iig II hulltiw rneliiHie svavefitdde ul arbitrary hut luiif mm truss
' '

TM
IE
-^
3 ae B6 | W.I
- 725 I 41.2553
Ufi3 TB4 0.4302 0,2134
15.1001
.
S llH'-l .-
0.6 127
H 7142
«1.77
81.4b
section. Assume pert or r s rniHlm ling walls.

1 lie ciimpuwiinnal errors iri "he i liaructerisiic equation ivwe Frr


'
. ' • 10 11 for
J tii TE,
;.u .
Show |kill live h’ jtix yf componmi sattefu s:
-
and FIT - 1.52 • 1 C' lj lor TM,
* n ' kv < Jt< cuioll wavcnuinher 1 IL .5.11
9. H . Problem 's. 4fW 4 ir> 9. Waveguides

h. 1 isint; tin ? ; hove result , show flnu IUL* energy srlority is equal to the group velocity . a . show that F > is given us the sum of tin* following iwo terms , where the lirs - mu
ifnesviiiN ihc power flensing whlnn the slab, STUI ihe second . the puivrr lt-oi\inm;utsn|: i :-
- -
Hint: I sa ihu identity ; V 7 - ( A,V TB ) VT -\ V 7 /J - A Vj-fi , for scalar .4. /S.
'
.

Hir slab: .
.

9rii! rcirrjfjufw Jlxpiowretjf WfrJcrtrtr Stab Using ilu * MAJLM1 funiriJons dslab and
PrjlPo ( dfcr ~ sinmfcrknslqfe l ]
duuiric, writ* * program ih ; u rcprocliu va alii the results and vjraphs ol l:\ awpks 9.11 . 1 and P |/ j j * ^ uy
9.11,2 . > u; -vrt;
H. I I Show ih;si U tfie speed c »J light t :, is sligJuk changed in c - c -+
.. -
more CXdL! ' iliU' i. Ilu'ii llki solutions oJ J:q fit.I 1,29) fori:fl i\. change min: _
fe g. rvjprc&cuting ;i . .vhne ^
on
i is lIn- auiptlliidi* defined ill F ei 19.1 l.r l.
sol , // ,-
1.
-. . IVlthmil loss nf gemiralily, from mm

_Il t.. .
b Slum that rii *: electric and nuuinetii emerKydemiiu's are given as follows, is here again ,
t
"
; I
— tlT the lirst terms represent trie energy mniained wiihiin the slab, and. the second , the
encigv outside 1 he slab:

(« ;a
iVf JLrt, - = <K . :+ '

L
k
} ) (f ) K-
;JQIFF ‘ * 1 .
sin (, Uc ]cos 1 dtkL- iJ pr. ft n:, Isirr < ufc; i
'

4k , -Ifl ,
-
Fur Example 9 Ll . t , call plate the mracteil values when ir, - Uti mid c - 29.979 4 ‘rib
cm . Compare with Hie values obtained If r . , is replaced live inside the I unctfem dguide .
( 41 / ' ^ tu 1 i / lrtA;. — #<n 4|S- - A -lininUjfc. uitisttfk. i
-
'
iff . U$~ + n is in fak d - .
Ki ~
4kt
t
In .J
Mure gitncrally , considci lIn sensitivity < il the solulinns of l.q. 9.11-1191 In any ol the p;urjm <
eters, n 'o-jd. Cc. . H \ . is nic- li ali'cM t the snlu 1 inn tlnivmigh Hu* value ol K - aroi .f . 1 irr - ?r .
" '
. 1. sing ihr above I'xjiregHluiis ;md hq . ( 9.11 . 131. stuns ihr equally
\ small change m one nr ail of the parameters will induce a small dLangi if K ~ .\R , Show — ^ 1

dial the solulinns an: diaiq;ed to K - K-


n 1 Ju -u 1 Jims, the lorfd flicr y densiry a; W
^ - U - H; ‘, '
n - .JH J, '

.
d F n mi parts|a !vh. stuns 11 iai .
m
' *

1' i- dv - V I
( - -'v )
V r
l *
if

r -t C.' MMJL d « , )
2« cfc?
.
In parlkular lor Hunulumfnus 1 hangi's ui all nr l rur paiiirni'KTs. s-Jsoiv Hun
'

PII [ yfr' k: \ mtc * 1 P


'
|
_!/? - Vt _ln:v Jen 2tJiJuii lua
11"

^
Jji;4
2a
w J ill ni
- rom thr.se rcsnlrs, slime dial the; ritanffes due to a chanp.i' a a - . '« # of the slab ihickites%
fly liiJTi.'Ti-isriaiiQg H(|s. (9.11. 3 j and (9.11 1 HJ \s1ili ri ptt r 10 in. slmvi’ dun
^ .
an - Riven liy .

cr 'r . ( ff - . l$ ) gotK . , l

fc , -r _U\- - kc - 1 a
din 1 4 « rt ,
* it ,
I. ( orubining the resulis c »| parts k' . u . show busily dial
Lt . -r Jnt ; — i\ ; + •

I 1 n, u
Hc _ifj
- fcv * ( Fniff- kbaa
IJ tV rL4 toft ll + i 4 0

9.14 1' iir the dtelriiric slab sejsfjjuidc sinner, ir. Hg. 9.11, 1. dcmnnvirate rliai ihr energy Iran sport , + & CO^CwiJQhfdA fi- , 4

. -
drliiircl by iiqs. (9.11 HI t 9.1 J -1 j >. And show thtil S',,, v , vshm*
' -
vf 'inity ts rqnai to Ihi* group U'liu Uy. SpeiiliraJly ef »Jlsi < h 'r Lb ' • utw nl even Ili mndes . 9. IS Computer EtiH'.rimtmt. . H.yyntaiterric VJiih v..p - rrjnjJi-. Ri:produc < all Ihr results and l ig. 9.12 - 4
' '
^ of Lsamplc 9.11M . MOTCOVIT. make . grapji of l ig. y. L . I that zooms into ihe
^
-
sipararn

-
1

tndisid he lose cm nil .


v *’ !
- ir ''rr h(t "
rftU (9. n.
2)
neigldMirliood of IIM iiftla I li mnde to make a uc dial ii is

-
wire nr FT IS ihe lime averaged power transmitted in the zs1i nation ttmnugli the cross -
SKtloual area defiiwrl by u r: y < i and so ' x < -o . and IV ’ is. the epergy rnniamed
in the vnhhnae defined by the ahm- e area and uniuz -lcngtli. i , c, .
— •

JJr -
- 9 ri .1
r
w
. >
i / .4,x l :: dx If " - H
* Jr| . \ c
- ’ki
- JulifxtAipfcf .Y

Ik- rause < 11 1 he substaursiU amouni of algebra invohed , bu-ak the cali iilntion qs rolUnss: