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SINGLE PHASE INVERTER USING PULSE

WIDTH MODULATION

PROJECT SYNOPSIS
OF MAJOR PROJECT

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT

15BEL1019 Shubham Gupta


15BEL1037 Abhishek Saini
15BEL1104 Abhishek Thakur
15BEL1105 Rishabh Raj
15BEL1106 Biplov Ghosh

Department of Electrical Engineering


University Institute of Engineering
Chandigarh University, Gharuan, Mohali, Punjab, India-143001
August, 2018
INTRODUCTION

A power inverter, or inverter, is an electronic device or circuitry that changes direct


current (DC) into alternating current (AC).
The main objective of this project is the design, simulation and testing of a single-
phase inverter for educational purposes. In order to achieve this, the first step is the
analysis of the device, with a full regard into topologies, modulation and
components. The project follows all the steps necessary to design a real device.

When it comes to transform a source of Direct Current into an Alternating Current,


the amplitude of output and input do not need to be the same. The most widespread
converters are the voltage inverters, also called power-reducers, as the output voltage
is lower than the input.
Sometimes combined with boost converters, inverters are used in a wide range of
applications, as injection of energy to the grid on renewable energies, isolated
generation or electric drives.

An example for this is electricity generation with solar cells. When sun light reaches
a cell, electrons are released. Applying an electric field, they can be taken out and
result in a DC current. In order to put this electricity on the grid, an inverter is needed.
Another example is an AC device connected to a battery as power source. Given that
direct connection is not possible, an inverter is required as an intermediate device.

This project has as major aim the design of a single-phase inverter for educational
purposes. The main distinctive feature is the digital implementation of the PWM
modulation.
Since the first Arduino board was developed on 2005, there has been a turning point
on the programming world, especially between non-specialised users. With an
intuitive software and a wide amount of applications, it is a highly recommended
option for the first approach to digital programming for students. For those reasons,
this project has the aim to apply this tool to ease the PWM implementation on a
single-phase inverter, substituting analogical circuitry.

Although nowadays it is possible to find integrated circuits with single – phase


inverters, in order to reinforce the educational approach, the circuit will be designed
and built piece by piece. Thus, it is easier to understand and visualize all the
components required, as well as to check the waveforms obtained on the internal
elements.
To achieve those aims, a first complete theoretical analysis will be made, including
its applications and basic elements. Afterwards, the specific characteristics of the
desired inverter will be defined, allowing the computation and selection of the
components required.
A fundamental part of the work relies on the programming of the PWM signal. For
this reason, an insight into the possibilities provided by the microcontroller will be
made. Some options for codes will be developed and the optimal for the application
will be selected.
Feasibility Study

Our project is feasible in many ways such as


1. We trying to generate signals via LabVIEW in order to remove usage of
function generator. Using LabVIEW, we can generate any random signals as
in modern era different types of noises in power supply due to power
electronic devices occurs which causes changes in waveshape. In order to
study different changes in properties of waveforms, signal generation via
LabVIEW is a better place.
2. The device which we might use in place of NI DAQ is Arduino/TIVA board
as DAQ in order to make our project cost effective
3. . We are trying to develop a Class D power amplifier-based H bridge inverter
circuit viz. is more efficient.
4. The Mosfets which we are using has high frequency switching capability and
high voltage which can be used to generate output power for high frequency.
Methodology

1. We are using LabVIEW for the generation of PWM signal, as this will include
our instrumentation and control engineering knowledge and reduces the use
of external peripheral devices like (Function generator for generating different
signals).
2. Now as our PWM signal is generated it needs to be come out of our laptop
in the outside world so we need to use a DAQ device known as Data
Acquisition device. But it is a high costing device and currently not available
to us so we use ARDUINO for carrying the output coming from LabVIEW in
digital form. To do this there is a readily available program called LIFA BASE
( LabVIEW interfacing with Arduino ) is used to proceed our operation
further.
3. Now a unity follower is connected Between Arduino and Mosfet driver to
compensate loading effect.
4. Then Mosfets drivers (Ir2110) is used here to control the switching operations
of our H-Bridge inverter Mosfets.
5. The connection of 4 Mosfets in the form of H-Bridge according to the circuit
diagram helps in generating the sinusoidal signal at the output.
6. Finally, a LC filter is used to remove any harmonic content present in the
output waveform.
COMPONENTS USED
Software:
1. NI LabView 2016
2. MATLAB 2015
3. Arduino IDE
4. Proteus 8.7

Hardware:
1. Mosfet Driver IC IR2110: The IR2110 is a high voltage, high speed power MOSFET and
IGBT driver with independent high and low side referenced output channels. Proprietary
HVIC and latch immune CMOS technologies enable ruggedized monolithic construction.
Logic inputs are compatible with standard CMOS or LSTTL outputs. The output drivers
feature a high pulse current buffer stage designed for minimum driver cross-conduction.
Propagation delays are matched to simplify use in high frequency applications. The floating
channel can be used to drive an N-channel power MOSFET or IGBT in the high side
configuration which operates up to 500 volts.

Fig.1 Mosfet Driver IC IR2110


2. Capacitors: A capacitor is a passive two terminal electrical component that stores potential
energy in an electrical field. The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance. While some
capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a
capacitor in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance
to a circuit. It is measured in Farad.

Fig. 2 Capacitors
3. Resistors: A resistor is a passive two terminal electrical component that implements
electrical resistances as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce
current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate
transmission lines among other uses. Its unit is ohms.

Fig.3 Resistors
4. Inductor: An inductor also called coil, choke or reactor is a passive two-terminal element
that stores energy in a magnetic field. Its unit is Henry

5. Mosfet: The metal oxide field semiconductor field effect transistor is a type of field effect
transistor, most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon. It has an
insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device. This ability to
change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or
switching electronic signals.

Fig.4 Mosfet IRF540N


6. Diodes 1N4007: The diode is from the family of popular 1A general purpose silicon
rectifier diodes commonly used in AC adapters for common household applications.
Its blocking voltage varies from 50 volts to 1000 volts.

7. IC 741: The IC 741 operational amplifier looks like a small chip. The IC 741 has eight
pins. The most significant pins are 2,3 and 6, where pin2 and pin3 denote inverting and
non-inverting terminals and pin 6 denotes output voltage.
Fig. 5 Op-amp 741
8. Digital Storage Oscilloscope: A Digital Storage Oscilloscope is a Oscilloscope which
stores and analyses the signal digitally rather than using analog techniques. It is now the
most common type of oscilloscope in use because of the advance trigger, Storage, Display
and Measurement features which it typically provides.

Fig. 6 Agilent 2-Channel DSO


9. Arduino UNO: The Arduino UNO is a Microcontroller board based on the ATmega328.
It has 14 Digital input/output pin(of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs,
a 16MHz ceramic Resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset
button.

Fig. 7 Arduino Uno