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full-length papers, which are registered

and paid before May 30, 2015.

by August 15, 2015.

Draft Proceedings

July 6 - 9, 2015

CZECH REPUBLIC

www.emacademy.org

www.piers.org

1562 Final Version of PIERS Proceedings will be available on www.piers.org

Calculation of the Transition from Far to Near Field

Konstantin Meyl

Faculty of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Furtwangen University, Germany

Abstract— Continuing the contribution about “wireless power transmission by scalar waves”,

presented in Moscow 2012, the paper from Stockholm 2013 goes deeper, explaining the diÆerent

types and properties of waves described by the wave equation. Starting with the wave description

of Maxwell an extended version of the Laplace equation is derived, expanding the standard

derivations of the near field, showing how to influence the zone, where the longitudinal wave parts

occur. We come to the conclusion that the near field zone is enlarging, if the longitudinal parts

of a wave or the antenna voltage are accelerated. This relationship is essential for the wireless

transmission of energy. In addition this exciting new result could be tested experimentally. The

simple experiment has been demonstrated at PIERS 2013 in Stockholm. Only by changing the

antenna design, it was shown how both, the speed of propagation and the near field are enlarging

proportional to each other. In all practical applications as discussed in PIERS Proceedings 2012,

the extended near field is the key of success. This paper contents the calculation of the transition

from near field to far field of an antenna, resp. from field vortex propagation, as a so called scalar

wave, to an electromagnetic wave.

The wave equation as it has been derived from the field equations according to Maxwell and

presented at PIERS, will be the starting-point [1, 2]. For the case of a wave propagation in air

or in vacuum, if no electric conductivity is present (æ = 0 and div E = 0), the fundamental field

equation is reduced to the two parts: the description of the electromagnetic wave and the potential

vortex as a damping term:

@2E 1 @E

c2 · ¢E = 2

+ 2 with the relaxation time constant: ø2 = r/c (1)

@t ø @t

Now a solution of this partial diÆerential equation is sought. This only succeeds for a very

particular course of spatial and temporal field.

If a wave for a field perturbation rolls up to a vortex, which has been worked out as a model

concept [3], then the field oscillation continues to run with c, the speed of light, but this time in

circles. With this consideration the relation between the angular velocity resp. the time constants

and the radius of the circular vortex has been described (ø2 = r/c), based on the distribution of

the field of a dipole in the so called near field zone.

2. CALCULATION

In the case of a perturbation this wave rolls up to a vortex, with

• the vortex radius r,

PIERS Draft Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, July 6–9, 2015 1563

• the angular velocity ! = 1/ø2 = c/r

• v(x(t)) = dx/dt is the non-accelerated velocity of propagation of a vortex as a longitudinal

wave in direction of the E-field: ¢E = @ 2 E/@ 2 x2 .

• v(x(t)) points in the x-direction radially to the outside. For the time derivation of the field

vector E(x(t)) is valid:

• @E/@t = (@E/@x) · (dx/dt) = v · @E/@x and

• @ 2 E/@t2 = v 2 · (@ 2 E/@x2 ); (@x2 /@t2 = 0, since not accelerated)

Thus the field Equation (1), defined in space and time, can be converted into an equation

determined in v and x:

c2 · @ 2 E/@x2 = v 2 · (@ 2 E/@x2 ) + v · (c/r) · @E/@x (2)

Finally we use the mentioned property of the e-function, which for first and second derivation

again turns into itself, by choosing the approach of an exponential damping with e°x/r .

@E/@2x = °(1/r) · E and @ 2 E/@x2 = (1/r2 ) · E (3)

There remains a quadratic equation to determine the velocity v:

c2 = v 2 ° v · c resp. : v 2 ° v · c ° c2 = 0 (5)

From the two solutions of the quadratic equation only the one with positive velocity should be

considered: p p

v = c/2 ± c2 /4 + c2 and v/c = (1 + 5)/2 = 1.618 (6)

and that would be 1.618 times the speed of light. If we subtract 1 from this value or form the

reciprocal value, then in both cases the factor © = 0.618 results, which is called the Golden

Proportion:

c/v = © = 0.618 according to that is: 1 + © = 1.618 = 1/© = 1/0.618 (7)

Behind this mathematically won result is hiding a deeper physical meaning. Obviously nothing

can hinder a longitudinal wave and its vortices to be slower or faster than just with v = 1.618 · c [4].

3. INTERPRETATION OF THE CALCULATED RESULT

Let us take the case that v = c, for which there exist calculations in some textbooks [5]. As a

result gets out that the longitudinal parts decrease very quickly and already can be neglected after

∏/2º. Thus the interpretation of the near-field zone of an antenna says that within one sixth of

the wavelength most of the vortices have decayed.

For larger velocities, as Tesla has produced already 100 years ago, the stability of the vortices

increases. From a high-frequency technical viewpoint this is the domain of the antenna noise, the

domain of instable oscillating noise vortices.

This domain stretches from c ∑ v to v ∑ 1.618 · c, the boundary case, where a spontaneous

conversion of the wave into the vortex is possible. The Golden Proportion describes the stability

limit, where the field vortices after they have been formed, don’t decay anymore. From this velocity

on the antenna resp. radiation source hasn’t got a limited near-field zone anymore, since that now

reaches to infinity. Only from this distinct velocity on I give the field vortices the name “neutrino”.

This is possible and acceptable, as all well known properties of an oszillating neutrino are covered.

Whereas traditional antennas, which should emit electromagnetic waves, are optimized for signals

with the speed of light, do scalar wave antennas have their optimum degree of eÆectiveness in the

Golden Proportion. Thereby the goal of an emission of oscillating ring-like vortices is pursued.

Vortices, which with a velocity of propagation of v ∏ 1.618 · c remain stable and make possible a

spatially unlimited transmission of energy and information by scalar waves.

1564 Final Version of PIERS Proceedings will be available on www.piers.org

Table 1: In the ideal case at 1.618 times the speed of light at the stability limit, the natural and spontaneous

conversion from vortex to wave and vice versa occurs. Scalar wave antennas have their optimum degree of

eÆectiveness in the Golden Proportion.

v=c within ∏/2º near-field zone

v < 1.618 · c only later noise

v = 1.618 · c stability limit direct conversion

v > 1.618 · c stable, no decay neutrino radiation

The velocity of propagation v is calculated from the product of wavelength times frequency:

v = ∏ · f . If the frequency of a transmitter is prescribed, then the geometry of the transmitting

antenna decides on the degree of eÆectiveness of the antenna and on how many parts of transverse

waves are emitted in relation to longitudinal waves. In the case of a broadcast antenna usually ∏

or ∏/2 is chosen. For a scalar wave however the optimum is reached with:

With that the electrical problem becomes a geometrical one, if it concerns the use of scalar waves.

Crucial is the antenna geometry, and the Golden Proportion provides the necessary constructional

instruction. Were the buildings in antiquity, which were constructed according to the Golden

Proportion, technical facilities for scalar waves? Did the builders have physically explainable and

mathematically provable guidelines [6]?

The neutrino physicists proceed from the assumption that their particles are on the way with a

speed somewhat less than the speed of light c. This contradicts the observation according to which

black holes should represent strong sources of neutrinos, which are black only for the reason that no

particle radiation is able to escape them, which is on the way with c or even slower. If a black hole

does hurl neutrino radiation into space, than that must be considerably faster than c, as normal

neutrino physicists still by no means can imagine it today.

But the neutrino radiation only can be detected after it has been slowed down to a value, which

is smaller than c. The “measurement” of a rest mass could be a classical measurement error. As

long as a neutrino on the way to us still is faster than the light, the average of its mass is generally

zero. The eÆective value of the mass of a neutrino is however considerable. Only it is able to give

account for the sought-for dark matter, as far as it must exist in the today supposed form anyway.

The Tesla radiation, that the discoverer Nikola Tesla already in own experiments had found

out, is faster than light [7]. Since this Tesla radiation according to the description is identical with

the neutrino radiation, since it so to say forms a subset, I will call neutrino radiation all the scalar

waves, which are faster than 1,618 times the speed of light. This stretches from the weak radiation

amplitude

[mm]

time [s]

= longitudinal wave = transverse wave

PIERS Draft Proceedings, Prague, Czech Republic, July 6–9, 2015 1565

at low frequencies up to the strong neutrino radiation of cosmic origin. But the hardness of the

radiation does not only increase with the frequency, it in particular increases with the velocity.

Longitudinal waves are propagating in the direction of a field pointer which is oscillating. As a

consequence the speed is oscillating as well and never constant. Thus there is no limitation to the

speed of light.

From other areas, for instance from flow dynamics or for body sound is generally known that

both wave parts exist, the longitudinal and transverse parts. In the case of a propagation through

the earth, like for an earthquake, both parts are received and utilized. Because their propagation

is diÆerently fast, the faster oscillations arrive first and that are the longitudinal ones. From the

time delay with which the transverse waves arrive at the measurement station, the distance to

the epicenter of the quake is determined by means of the diÆerent velocity of propagation. For

geophysicists this tool is part of everyday knowledge.

Obviously all particles, propagating as a longitudinal wave, move quicker than the transverse

wave part, produced by the same antenna at the same time.

REFERENCES

1. Meyl, K., “Wireless power transmission by scalar waves,” PIERS Proceedings, 664–668,

Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012.

2. Meyl, K., “Wireless power transmission by enlarging the near field,” PIERS Proceedings, 1735–

1739, Stockholm, August 12–15, 2013.

3. Meyl, K., Potential Vortex, Vol. 1–4, INDEL Verlag, www.meyl.eu, 2012.

4. Whittaker, E. T., “On the partial diÆerential equations of mathematical physics,” Mathema-

tische Annalen, Vol. 57., 333–355, 1903.

5. Zinke, B., “Lehrbuch der Hochfrequenztechnik, 3rd Edition, 335, 1. Band, Springer-Verlag,

1986.

6. Meyl, K., “Broadcasting of the Gods, 1st Edition, INDEL Verlag, www.meyl.eu, 2014.

7. Tesla, N., “Art of transmitting electrical energy through the natural mediums,” US-Patent

No. 787,412, 1905.

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