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The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty


that put an official end to World War I. It
established that Germany was responsible for
the war and thus, was obliged to pay large
amounts of compensation (known as war
reparations). Like many other treaties, it is
named for the place of its signing: the Hall of
Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, in France.

Other provisions included the loss of German


colonies and the loss of German territory.

The treaty of Versailles greatly restricted the


German armed forces.

The economic problems that the payments brought are cited as one of the causes of the end of the
Weimar Republic and the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler, which inevitably led to the outbreak World War
II.

Another provision of the treaty was the creation of the League of Nations, that had the purpose of
arbitrating conflicts between nations before they were solved by war.

Observations:
Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions:
1. What does it look like is happening in this picture based upon the reading?

2. Who did the treaty of Versailles make responsible for the War?

3. Where was the treaty signed?

4. What did the treaty eventually lead to?

5. Name one “provision” in the treaty.


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WWI was a war fought from 1914
to 1918, in which Great Britain,
France, Russia, Belgium, Italy,
Japan, the United States, and
other allies defeated Germany,
Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and
Bulgaria. The cartoon on the left
attempts to explain how alliances
helped to start the war. Each
“person” in the picture represents
a different country.

Before the war, a system of


military alliances made people
feel safe. They formed these
alliances with each other for
protection and guarantee that

other members of the alliance would come to the country's aid if attacked. Although alliances provided protection, the
system also created danger. If war came, the alliance system meant that a number of nations would fight, not only the
two involved in a dispute. There were two major alliances before the war. The first was called the Triple Alliance. The
Triple Alliance was made up of 3 countries, Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary. They all agreed to go to war if
attacked by Russia or any other country. In 1894, France, Russia, and England agreed to call up troops if any nation in
the Triple Alliance tried to attack them. The alliance between France, England, and Russia was called The Triple
Entente.

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences
and with legible handwriting!

1. In this cartoon, what does each person represent?

2. Why did European countries form alliances before WWI?

3. What was the name of the first major alliance of countries and which countries were involved?

4. What was the name of the 2nd major alliance and which countries were involved?

5. Describe what is happening in this picture and how it relates to the two alliances.
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There were two types of causes
for WWI. There were the
M.A.I.N. causes, and then there is
the immediate cause. The
M.A.I.N. causes for WWI were
Militarism, Alliances,
Imperialism, and Nationalism.
These are the long term causes of
the great war that killed many
thousands of people in Europe.
Militarism means that the
countries in Europe were
spending vast amounts of money
to build up their armies and make
them stronger. The A stands for
alliances. There were two major
alliances before the war: The
Triple Entente and the Triple
Alliance. Imperialism means that one country is trying to extend its power over another country. This is the case with
many of the European countries, but in particular Austria Hungary over Serbia. Nationalism means that people in a
country have an extreme love of their country and will do anything to defend it. All of these causes helped to set up a
situation in Europe that was ripe for conflict. Then, in 1914, the Leader of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand was
assassinated by a Serbian. The Austrian/Hungarian leaders used this as an excuse to go to war with Serbia. All the
other alliances started to spring into action when Russia came to the defense of Serbia. The long term causes were the
M.A.I.N. causes while the assassination of the Archduke is considered to be the immediate cause.

Based upon your own opinion, answer these questions in complete sentences
and with legible handwriting!

6. Based upon this reading, who do you think is in this picture?

7. What were the 4 long-term or “MAIN” causes of WWI?

8. What was the immediate cause of WWI?

9. What were the two alliances that helped to cause the Great War?

10. Why did Austria-Hungary say that it was attacking Serbia?


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There were 4 main causes


behind WWI. Each of
these images on the right
represents one of those
causes.

Observations:
Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions:
1. Which of the 4 main causes does the hand holding the globe represent?

2. Which of the 4 main causes does the tank represent?

3. Which of the 4 main causes does the two people shaking hands represent?

4. Which of the 4 main causes does the flag represent?

5. What is the immediate cause of WWI?

6. Do you think better pictures could have been chosen? What should have been chosen?
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WWI was a war fought from 1914 to 1918. The
war came at a time when many countries had just
gone through an industrial revolution. Many new
types of weapons were invented that could do
major damage on enemies and civilian
populations. For the first time in the history of
warfare, tanks & airplanes were used. Airplanes
could drop large bombs on cities and buildings and
do major damage from a far distance. Poison gas
was, for the first time, unleashed upon an enemy
and caused major physical and psychological
damage. Machine guns could easily kill hundreds
of soldiers in a minute. Much of the war was
fought hiding from these weapons in trenches.
Because of the increase in technology, there were
many more casualties in this war than in previous
wars.
Observations:
Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions:
1. According to the text, what kind of weapons do you think could cause such major
damage like this?

2. How important are weapons in a war for victory?

3. What types of weapons do you think were used in WWI that weren’t used in other wars?

4. Why did the soldiers use trenches in WWI

5. Why were there so many deaths during WWI?


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Poison Gas was invented (and
very successfully used) as a
terror weapon meant to instill
confusion and panic among
the enemy prior to an attack.
It was a sort of physiological
weapon with the non-lethal
tearing agents inflicting as
much panic as the dreaded
mustard gas. Sometimes the
tear gas would be sent over
first to get soldiers to remove
their gas masks thereby
making them more vulnerable
to a later attack with one of
the more deadly types.

Observations:
Make a list of what you notice in this graph
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Conclusions:
1. Which country suffered the most injuries/deaths from poisonous gas during WWI?

2. Which country suffered the least?

3. How many injuries did the United States suffer from poisonous gas?

4. Why do you think that poisonous gas was used if it couldn’t cause as many deaths as
guns?

5. Many people were angry when countries started using poisonous gases against each
other. They didn’t complain about guns, but they did with gas. Why?
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The Trench
Trenches were first dug by the
British and French Armies in
Northern France. The aim of
trenches was to act as a barrier
against the rapid advance of the
German army from which a
counter attack could be made.
At first they were quickly and
easily constructed using few
materials other than sandbags
and a shovel.

As it became obvious that the


Trench was not going to be the
short-term barrier it was
originally intended to be,
networks of trenches were
constructed. These trenches
had to ensure the safety of the
soldiers who would live, eat,
sleep and fight there. Often
these trench systems were as
close as 20 metres away from
the enemy who would face
them across No Man’s Land.

Make a list of what you see in this picture.


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Comprehension
1. What do you think would be difficult about living and fighting in trenches?

2. What are 2 advantages of fighting from trenches? What are two disadvantages?

3. Why do you think the area between two armies’ trenches was called no man’s land?

4. Many soldiers spent most of their time throughout the war living in trenches. How might this have been
different than what they thought war would have been like?

5. The bottom of the trench floor was covered in a raised wooden board. Its called the duck “board”.
Make up a quick story about how the flooring got its name.
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The United States did not enter WWI


immediately. In fact, when the war
started, not everyone in the United
States agreed which side was right.
Irish Americans hated England due
to years of persecution in Ireland by
the British. German Americans, of
course, sided with the Axis powers.
One way you can see how countries
relate to each other is through trade.
The graph on the right shows the
amounts of money worth of goods the
United States sold to 3 European
countries over time. Take note that
we ended up joining the side of the
British and French

Observations:
Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions:
1. What happened to our total exports with France?

2. What happened to the total amount we exported to Great Britain over time?

3. What happened to our trading with Germany?

4. Do you think there is a relationship between our trade with Germany, and which side we
entered on when we entered WWI?

5. What else do you notice?


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The Zimmerman Note

The Zimmerman note was a telegram sent from Germany to Mexico.


The purpose of the telegram was to convince Mexico to become an
allie with Germany against the United States. The text of the telegram
is below:

For Your Excellency's personal information and to be handed on to the


Imperial Minister in Mexico

We intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare on the first of February. We


shall try in spite of this to keep the United States neutral. In the event of this
not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of an alliance on the following
basis: Make war together, make peace together, generous financial support,
and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory
in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement detail is left to you.

You will inform the President [of Mexico] of the above most secretly as soon
as the outbreak of war with the United States is certain and add the suggestion
that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and
at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves.

Make a list of what you see in the picture.


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Comprehension
1. What was Germany trying to accomplish with the Zimmerman note?

2. How do you think the Zimmerman telegram affected the way that many people in the United States felt
about Germany?

3. What was one other cause of the United States entering WWI (From your notes on Thursday)

4. Why is the note written with a series of numbers?

5. Do you think the United States misunderstood the Zimmerman note?


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Though Germany had previously promised
President Wilson that it would cease
attacking neutral carriers, on February 1,
1917 Germany departed from its policy of
restraint and began unrestricted
submarine warfare against all ships
destined for Britain. Several American
ships were sunk in February and March of
1917. At about this time, newspapers
published an intercepted telegram from
German Foreign Minister Arthur
Zimmermann to the government of
Mexico, proposing a German-Mexican
alliance. On April 2, President Wilson
asked Congress to declare war on
Germany; Congress complied four days
later.

Observations:
Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions:
1. Do you think the artist who made this illustration liked Germany?

2. Who is the person on the right hand side supposed to represent?

3. Who is the person on the left hand side supposed to represent?

4. Does this picture properly explain what happened with the Zimmerman
telegram?

5. On what date did we enter WWI?


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The 369th Infantry Regiment (or "Harlem


Hellfighters") was the first all-black U.S.
combat unit to be shipped overseas during
WWI. Unfortunately, this distinction was the
result of a violent racial incident in
Spartanburg, South Carolina. The unit’s
unquenchable desire to win justice and avenge a
physical attack on their drum major, Noble
Sissle, ultimately forced the War Department to
send them to Europe. Because there was no
official combat role at this time for America’s
black soldiers, General John J. Pershing
responded to France’s request for troops by
assigning the 369th (and the 93rd Division’s
other regiments) to the French army. The
Germans dubbed the unit the "Hellfighters,"
because in 191 days of duty at the front they
never had any men captured nor ground taken.
Almost one-third of the unit died in combat.
The French government awarded the entire
regiment the Croix de Guerre.

Observations:
Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions:
1. Do you think the artist who made this illustration had a positive or negative
view of the Harlem Hell Fighters?

2. Why do you think the Hell Fighters would fight for the United States during
WWI even if many Americans were racist towards them?

3. What is one thing the Hell Fighters did that was brave or worthy of praise?

4. What was their Unit Number?

5. How many of their men were taken prisoner in 191 days of action?
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After over two years of war, the year 1917 saw
separate tries at a compromise peace put forward by
Austria and by the Pope. These came to nothing,
however. But the entry of the U.S. into the war in
that same year gave opportunity for a fresh approach
to peace by the president Wilson. In a speech to both
houses of Congress in January 1918, he outlined 14
Points as the basis of peace between the warring
countries. The Germans accepted Wilson's terms,
hoping that the moderate tenor of the 14 Points
would let them off lightly in the peace to be
negotiated. It was not easy, however, to bring Britain
and France to the side of moderation as this would
have required certain adjustments to their war aims
that they were unwilling to make (assuring freedom
of the seas in the case of Britain or not forcing severe
payback on the Germans in the case of France).
England and France thought the points were too easy
on Germany.
The resulting Treaty of Versailles, however, went far beyond the moderate proposal of the Fourteen Points and left a
legacy of bitterness and recrimination among the Germans, whose government had signed the Pre-Armistice
Agreement on November 5 on the presumption that the Fourteen Points would largely shape the resulting peace treaty.
Many would say that the harshness of the treaty of Versailles would lead to the bitterness that Germany felt leading
them into WWII.

Observations:
Make a list of what you see in this picture.
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Conclusions:
1. What does it look like is happening in this picture?

2. Did Germany accept or reject Wilson’s idea for the 14 points?

3. Why didn’t France & England like the 14 points?

4. How was the Treaty of Versailles different than Wilson’s 14 points?

5. What did the Treaty of Versailles eventually lead to?


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The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty


that put an official end to World War I. It
established that Germany was responsible for
the war and thus, was obliged to pay large
amounts of compensation (known as war
reparations). Like many other treaties, it is
named for the place of its signing: the Hall of
Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles, in France.

Other provisions included the loss of German


colonies and the loss of German territory.

The treaty of Versailles greatly restricted the


German armed forces.

The economic problems that the payments brought are cited as one of the causes of the end of the
Weimar Republic and the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler, which inevitably led to the outbreak World War
II.

Another provision of the treaty was the creation of the League of Nations, that had the purpose of
arbitrating conflicts between nations before they were solved by war.

Observations:
Make a list of what you see in this picture.
__________________________ ___________________________
__________________________ ___________________________
Conclusions:
1. What does it look like is happening in this picture based upon the reading?

2. Who did the treaty of Versailles make responsible for the War?

3. Where was the treaty signed?

4. What did the treaty eventually lead to?

5. Name one “provision” in the treaty.