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GUIDE TOTREE NAMING PROJECT IN MAGADI TOWNSHIP

PREPARED BY: JOHN OTIENO WALAMBRA

SUBMITTED TO: Mr. L M KIEMA

17/9/2007.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project would not have been a success without the help of the
following people: Mr. L M Kiema, Bob Mumbe, Antony Mbuthia, P Shani,
Karanja E G, Nelson and the entire Magadi Soda employees who in one
way or the other contributed to completion of this project. May God
bless them all. I would also like to give special dedication to
almighty God for giving me the wisdom and Knowledge that would be
able to create an impact to the environment.

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TABLE OF CONTEN

Content Pages
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………4
2. Problem statement...…………………………………………………………………...4
3. Objective of the project and description of study area………………………………...5
4. Magadi Soda Environmental Policy…………………………………………………...6
5. Important of trees to our environment…………………………………………………7
6. Rules for nomenclature………………………………………………………………...7
7. Identified trees to be tagged……………………………………………………………8
 Terminalia catappa………………………………………………………….... 8
 Euphorbia tirucalli……………………………………………………………..9
 Mangifera indica................................................................................................10
 Ziziphus mauritiana ...........................................................................................11
 Azadirachta indica .............................................................................................12
 Pulmeria alba ....................................................................................................13.
 Agave sisalana....................................................................................................14
 Aloe vera ...........................................................................................................15.
 Agave Americana.............................................................................................. 16
 Prosopis juliflora...............................................................................................17.
 Acacia tortilis.................................................................................................... 18
 Euphorbia milli..................................................................................................19
 Opuntia cochenillifera………………………………………………………...20
 Cassia spectabilis……………………………………………………………...21
 Cantharathus roseus…………………………………………………………..22
 Lantana camara……………………………………………………………….23
 Duranta variegate……………………………………………………………..24
 Nerium oleander………………………………………………………….........25
 Leucaena leucosephala……………………………………………………… .26
 Delonix regia………………………………………………………………… 27.
 Phenix reclinata………………………………………………………………. 28
 Codiaem variegatum………………………………………………………….. 29.
 Trachycarpus…………………………………………………………………. .30.
 Bougainvillea spectabilis……………………………………………………….31
 Cocos nusifera……………………………………………………………….. .32
 Citrus limon…………………………………………………………………….33
 Thevetia peruviana……………………………………………………………..34
 Jatropha curcas………………………………………………………………....35.
 Tamarindus indica……………………………………………………………....36
 Syzygium cordatum...............................................................................................37
 .Acacia nilotica……………………………………………………………….. ..38
 Sansevieria intermedia…………………………………………………………..39
 Sporobolus spicatus……………………………………………………………..40
 Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum……………………………………………………41
8. Design of the tag…………………………………………………………………………42
9. Appendix…………………………………………………………………………………43
10. Conclusion and references……………………………………………………………. …44
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INTRODUCTION

Names are essential for communication. This is just as true for plant life as it is for animals. Most of
the commonly woody plants have been given so called common names, in some cases,
unfortunately, more than one. The duplication of different common names for the same plant is a
particular serious problem as one move from one section of the country to another .We in Magadi
are not excluded from this problem, you might find one plant given different common names by
different community members or even by people from the same community.

Duplication of names is not only an individual plant problem, but the magnitude of the problem
increase when entirely different plants are dubbed with the same name. To a tourist in a foreign
country, local names are even more troublesome. Common names, however, can be quiet
satisfactory to a lay-man, if an attempt is made to standardize them.

Although common names are important, considerable confusion exists due to duplication of names.
To avoid confusion associated with common names, botanical or scientific names have been given
to plants, one to each kind and shared by no other plant. A scientific name for plant is universal.

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Magadi Soda Company is found within ecological zone 4 and 5; it is characterized by rugged
topography, poor acidic soils and erratic rainfall. Despite this, all effort has been put in place to
ensure that the place is attractive and green through tree planting initiatives. Wangari Mathai Park
and Patterson Park are best example where exotic plants have been introduced.

The main problem is that vegetation of this area has not been fully described; a lot of important
species have been left out in the description. Naming of trees and grasses would ease the difficulty
of describing vegetation of this area, it would also create awareness to the people and they will be in
a better position to understand and care for their environment.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

1. To name most of the plants that are strategically placed e.g. those that are near tarmac
road, offices, recreational places, parks and residential areas.

2. To help students and the community at large know their environment better.

3. To make Magadi Township more attractive to visitors/tourists.

4. For easy identification and description of trees in Magadi

DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA

Magadi Soda environment has a unique setting due to its unusual geological and geographical
nature which attracts many visitors, students and tourists. It lies in the Great Rift Valley, about
115km south west of Nairobi at an altitude of 605 m [2000 feet] above sea level. The average
rainfall each year is around 500 mm, about half falling between March and May. Temperatures
range from 29C to 41C, giving a high evaporation rate of 3,500 mm per year.

The main vegetation type consists of bush land, bush and wooden grassland reverine vegetation,
grass land, semi-desert bush land and scrub. The bush grassland is dominated by Acacia tortilis and
salvadora persica with under story of grass patches comprising sporobolus species. The plain
Magadi and Kajiado central have Acacia tortilis, Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia melifera, Acacia
nubica and Commifora africana as the main species in the bush land. Along the Ewaso Ngiro River
are patches of riverine vegetation comprising of ficus sycomorous. Grass includes Eragrostis
tenuifolia, Bothriohdloa insculpta, cenchrus ciliaris, chloris rhoxburgiana, pennisetum mezianum,
eragrostis dactylon and sporobolus marginatus.

Tree naming project covered the whole of Magadi Township. It started in the main administration
offices, all the way to the residential area and it ended in areas heading to the water plant.

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MAGADI SODA ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY

Demonstrated over the years, Magadi’s commitment to environmental protection and continuous
improvement and sustainability has been the driving force of its environmental policy.

As a manufacturing company, Magadi recognizes that its activities have an impact on the
environment; so it constantly strives to be a good neighbor within the localities in which it operates,
having the greatest respect for all of the assets and amenities of each community.

Over the last six years Magadi Soda has completed a variety of independent and in house
environmental studies .It has specialized dedicated to assessing every aspect of it’s production to
ensure that any negative effect on the environment are kept to the minimum practicable

Projects both large and small to improve environment effectiveness are a regular feature of
Magadi’s capital and revenue expenditure programs and they work closely with all the regulatory
bodies to monitor and improve their standards of performance.

Magadi Soda Company has been recognized as a good corporate citizen by the organizers of COYA
awards in the last four consecutive years.

It’s standards for best environmental practice are visible, robust, sustainable and subject to
continuous monitoring.

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IMPORTANCE OF TREES TO OUR ENVIRONMENTT

Since the beginning, trees have furnished us with food and many cultural necessities as shelter,
medicines, clothing, tools, heat in the winter and cool shade in the summer. Their beauty adds
seasonal character to the landscape and a serene refuge from the demand of daily living.

Trees helps supply oxygen and refresh the air by utilizing carbon dioxide produced when we exhale
and burn fossil fuel. Trees also reduce noise pollution, acts as wind buffer and absorb dust and other
air pollutants. Trees are the essential link in the food chain of life; they capture sunlight and convert
it into energy.

While it is impossible to put a price tag on their natural gifts, we know that trees have a measurable
effect on then monetary value of a landscape. In fact, a resent study has shown that up to 20% of a
property value lies within its landscape.

Clearly, trees are an important asset, and as with any asset, it is advantageous to ensure that it
continues to appreciate.

RULES FOR NOMENCLATURE

Definitive rules for writing the common names of plants do not exist. The first letter of each part of
the common name should be capitalized. An exception is when the common name is misleading and
suggests that a tree or shrub is falsely related to a group of woody plants. I such cases, this part of
the name is sometimes separated by a hyphen and the latter part is nit capitalized:

e.g. Russian - olive

Russian – olive is not related to the olive family.

Scientific/botanical names should be made of two words and both are Latinized [binomial
nomenclature]. The first is the generic name, which is always capitalized. The second is the specific
name which is not capitalized. Both words are either italicized or underlined:

e.g. Mangifera indica


[Genus] [Species]

The above is a scientific name for Mango tree.

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IDENTIFIED TREES/PLANTS TO BE NAMED

1. Species name - Terminalia catappa


Family name – combretaceae
. Common name – Tropical Almond
Swahili – Mkungu
.

Description – Tropical Almond tree is sparsely distributed in Magadi Township. Found mostly in
Patterson Park and residential areas, it is a colorful tree with a characteristic pagoda shape. It sends
out a single stem from the top center, when the single stem reaches a good height, it sends out
several horizontal branches. This fast growing tree grows well in wide range of soils but it does best
in sandy soil.
The leaves form a rosette and are found only at the end of branch. During dry season, the leaves
turn in to autumn color of red, copper or gold. The tree usually shed all its leaves twice a year in
January-February and July- August. The tree first drops its leaves when it reaches 3-4 years.
The green almond shaped fruit turns red to purple when ripe; seeds are dispersed by water. The
smooth outer skin covers an inner layer of corky fibers which surround the nut.

Uses – The nuts are edible, taste like almond and are eaten, although the flesh is troublesome to
separate from the hard stone. Oil extracted from the dried nuts is edible and used for cooking. Its
timber is widely used for making posts. Tannin and black dye can be extracted from the bark, leaves
and fruits. In Magadi, it has widely been used to provide colorful environment and for shade.
Various parts of the tree have also been proven to have medicinal effect

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2. Species name – Euphorbia tirucalli
Family name – Euphobiaceae
Common name – Milk Bush

Description – Euphorbia tirucalli is found almost in every homestead where it has been used for
fencing. It is a deciduous, succulent, cactus – like milky tree, devoid of spines, to 10m tall, the
branches often arranged in pseudo whorls. Leaves are small, early deciduous, alternate, 1-2.5cm
long, 3-4mm broad, acute, yellow head, stalks at the end of twigs.
It tolerates drought and poor soils. Milk Bush is reported to tolerate annual precipitation of 2.5-
40dm and estimated to tolerate annual temperature of 21C to28C and pH of 6-6.5.
The latex contain 53.8-97.9% water and soluble. The whole plant is reported to have 74% citric
acid with some malonic and succinic acid.
It is propagated vegetatively by the use of cuttings.

Uses – Probably most familiar as a tropical and subtropical ornamental, it has recently been
discovered that it is a potential cure for cancer. This plant makes a good living fence post
especially in ASAL areas.
The latex is toxic; In Africa the tree is used as a mosquito repellant. Cereals boiled with the latex
are used as an avicide to kill birds. Aqueous wood extract are antibiotic against Staphylococcus
aureus. Wood from it can be used as rafters; toy making and the charcoal derived there from can
be used as gunpowder.

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3. Species name – Mangifera indica
Family name - Anacardiaceae
Common name - Mango
Swahili - Muembe

Description - Mango trees are sparsely distributed in Magadi. It is a tree that is propagated from
seeds. Native to Asia cultivated in practically all tropical and sub tropical regions [Wagner et al,
1999].It is evergreen ranging from 10-40m when fully mature. Crown is large and spreading, leaves
leathery, oblong-lanceolate, 5-32cm long, 1.5-10cm wide, glabrous, margins usually 1-8cm long.
Sepal 2-5m long, the tips is curved. Fruit is asymmetrical, green with yellow spots or yellowish
green to yellowish orange, at maturity some times with purple or red blush. Fruit is also 5-15cm
long, 6-8cm thick, mesocarp orange, thick and juicy. It is usually dispersed by human, birds, water
and birds.
Mango is commonly cultivated in homestead and through accidental planting from discarded seeds.
More trees of this species are more adventive since seedlings grows freely, often naturalize in dry
areas and along roads and trails as a shade.

Use – The tree can produce good timber. Mango fruit is edible and is eaten raw cooked or make
juices. It is an ornamental tree that provides good shed.

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4. Species name – Ziziphus mauritiana
Family – Rhamnaceae
Common name – Indian Jujube
Swahili - Mkunazi

Description –Found scattered in Magadi Township especially on road sides, it is a tropical tree
growing unto 30 feet or more. It has spikes on the stem and branches. Leaves are dark green with
almost white, undersurface. The flowers are yellowish and born in clusters. They are hermaphrodite
[both male and female flowers are in one tree] and mainly pollinated by insects. Indian Jujube is
propagated by seeds and can grow in a variety of soils, but it mostly prefers neutral and alkaline
soils.

Uses – This plant produces edible fruits which are round and1-1.5 inch in diameter; each fruit has
one rounded knobby seed. Indian Jujube seems effective against cancer as it contain betulinic acid
which is a growth inhibitor of cancer cells

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5. Species name – Azadirachta indica
Family name – Meliaceae
Swahili name – Mwarubaini
Common name - Neem

Description - Neem tree is among the most abundant tree species ion Magadi Soda environment. It
is found on road sides, outside offices and in homesteads. Wangari Mathae Park is basically made of
neem tree. Evergreen tree growing up to 15m high, deciduous, gray colored bark, inside is yellow
and foliated, coarsely fibrous, no oduor, powerfully bitter and less astringent than the outer coarser
bark.
The juice from the bark mainly contain tannic and mangosic acid. It grows in disturbed natural
vegetation and in gardens. Propagation is by seed.

Uses – Antiseptic used in ulcers and eczema, skin diseases and in rheumatism. The oil obtained
from the fruit is used for burning, that from the bark is used medically and as antihelmintic. An
ointment for destroying lice is made from the pulp and is also used for scald head and other skin
diseases

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6. Species name – Pulmeria alba.
Family name – Apocynaceae
Common name – White Frangipani

Description - Pulmeria alba is found in sports club areas. It is well known for it’s intensively,
fragrant, lovely spiral-shaped blooms which appear at branch tips June through November. It is
deciduous and leaves clusters only at the tip of the rough, blunt, sausage-like thick, grey-green
branch
Branches are upright and rather crowded on the trunk forming a vase or umbrella shape with age.
They are usually sturdy unless they are mechanically hit or disturbed.
The leaves are pinnate, flowers white with pleasant fragrant and the fruit is hard, elongated and
brown in color.
The plant is propagated by cuttings. It is drought resistant, tolerates moderate salt and thrives well
in alkaline soils.

Uses – Mainly ornamental

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7. Species name – Agave sisalana
Family name - Agaveceae
Common name - Mkonge

Description – It is common plant in Magadi, has been broadly used as ornamental around offices
and homestead. Agave sisalana is succulent plant which is cultivated for their fibers that are
extracted from the leaves. These fibers are named sisal. Agave can be up to 6 feet tall and 8 feet
wide. Leaves are large and lanceolate with thick points, sharp tips and generally smooth surfaces.
Foliage is blue-green, and forms basal rosette. Each leaf can be up to 5 feet long.
This plant produces flowers with long spikes that can reach 20 feet and that bear many urceolate
yellow- green flowers. It takes agave about 7-8 years to bloom. It likes well drained and alkaline
soils, propagated by seeds or by offset division. More over, this plant produces bulb on the spikes
after flowering.

Uses – It produces fibre used for making mats and ropes. The long spikes are used as a building
material.

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8. Species name – Aloe vera.
Family name- Liliaceae
.

Description – Found in homesteads and around offices, it is a perennial succulent plant belonging
to lily family. It is well known herbal medicine with multiple names, such as “First Aid Miracle
plant”, “The Burn plant” etc.
The active substances of Aloe vera are found in leaves which are composed of the juices and gel-
like substances. The active substances are polysaccharides, amino acids, vitamins, minerals,
enzymes, yellow sap and glycosides etc. Pulp of Aloe vera is composed of 96% water and 4%
polysaccharide and other substances.

Uses – In general, Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with the following properties: Anti-microbial
activity, Healing activity, It helps the body in sloughing off dead tissues and stimulates the growth
of new cells with little scar formation e.g. in burns, astringent effect [cosmetic], anti inflammatory
effect e.g. in bee sting.
It treats first and second degree burns, acne, dandruff and allergy lesions.
Aloe vera can be used on skin as body lotion in its natural state without processing it [press the leaf
to get the sap lotion].

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9. Species name – Agave americana
Family name – Agaveceae
Common name - Century plant
-

Description – It looks like Agave sisalana but the different is that it has a yellowish stripe at the
margin. It is found planted near homesteads, on road sides and outside offices. The leaves of the
plant are in basal rosette, 5 feet long, nearly 10 inches wide, curved or flexed at the tip, margin
toothed but not horny. Pollination is believed to be effected by bats or moths.
The heart of the plant is very rich in saccharine matter and can be eaten when backed. Sweat and
nutritious but rather fibrous.

Uses – Fresh juice is use to regulate the action of bowel and kidneys, and is considered very
valuable for dyspepsia and diseases of the bladder. Women in other parts of the world use its juice
and the decoction to promote menstruation.

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10. Species name – Prosopis juliflora
Family name – Leguminosae
. Common name – Velvet Mesquite/Mathenge
Swahili - Kikwajukwaju

Description - It is the most dominant plant species in Magadi soda environment. It is found almost
in every homestead where it has grown as fence or ornamental. Mesquite is evergreen shrub or tree
up to 15m high. Bark is thick, rough, greenish- grey in young and turns into fissurated and scaly in
the old age. It is very sensitive to cold weather and on contrary, very heat resistant. It is drought
tolerant and its proven to extract water table 15m deep. It tolerate salinity and alkalinity,
propagation is by seeds

Uses – Produces a lot of biomass that acts as feed for livestock. The pods are very nutritious and
rich in protein. This tree is widely used in ASAL for revegatation.

N/B In other places e.g. Baringo district, this tree is viewed as a menace as it has colonized all the
ground and suppressed other plant species. It also contain some toxicity, has deepest known roots
that makes it difficult to eradicate.

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11. Species name – Acacia tortilis
Family name – Leguminosae
Sub family - Mimosoideae

-
Description – It is a medium umbrella shaped tree 4-5m tall, often with several trunks, reduced to a
small wiry shrub less than 1m tall under extreme arid conditions. Two types of thorns abound [1]
long, straight, and white, and [2] small, hooked and brownish. Leaves up to 2.2cm long with 4-10
pairs of pinnae, each with around 15 pairs of minute leaflets. Flowers white, aromatic, in small
clusters. Pods are flat and coiled into a spring array. It thrives well in sub-tropical to tropical dry
desert. The tree favors alkaline soils and can tolerate hot, arid climate with temperature as high as
50C. It thrives where rainfall is up to 1000mm.however; it is also extremely drought resistant and
can survive in climate less than 100mm annual rainfall with long erratic dry seasons. Propagation is
mainly by seeds

Uses –The branches can be used as firewood. Thorny branches are used to erect temporary cages
and pens especially to nomadic pastoralists. Bark produces tannin. Roots used as spear shaft. This
tree is mostly recommended for reclaiming dry lands.

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12. Species name – Euphorbia milli
Family name – Euphorbiaceae
Common name – Jerusalem thorn.

Description - Jerusalem thorn is found in the main administration block and in sports club. It is a
symbolic reminder of the suffering Jesus endured to redeem his people constant reminder of the
promises Christ made to Christians around the world. This thick stemmed plant can grow in deserts,
it is a beautiful ornamental plant which has densely thorns and it resembles the thorn Jesus Christ
had during his crusification.

Uses – Mainly ornamental

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13. Species name – Opuntia cochenillifera
Family name - Cactaceae
Common name - Cactus

Description - Cactus are spiny succulent with photosynthetic stems. The leaves are
alternate, generally extremely reduced or absent, they are also waxy to reduce transpiration
rate. The flowers are mostly bisexual

Uses - ornamental

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14. Species name – Cassia spectabilis
Family – Fabacea.
Common name - Cassia

Description - Found in sports club. It is a medium to large tree that reaches about 60 feet in height,
but often much smaller the pinnately compound leaflets have fuzzy undersides and are three inches
long. The bright yellow flowers are 1.5 inches long, but appear in dense raceme up to two feet long.
The cylindrical seeds pods which follow are 12 inches long. Propagated by seeds

Uses – Used for timber production, ornamental and is highly recommended for buffer strips.

15. Species name – Cantharathus roseus.


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Family name – Apocynaceae.
Common name - Periwinkle

Description – It is found in many homesteads where it has been cultivated as ornamental


plant. It is a fleshy perennial growing to 80cm high. It has glossy, dark green, oval leaves
and flowers summer long. It is common in tropical regions. Mostly propagated
vegetatively.

Uses – It is used as medicine for treating wasp sting with the juice from the leaves. It is
also broadly used as ornamental.

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16. Species name – Lantana camara
Family name - Verbenaceae
Common name – Yellow Sage

Description – It is grown as a garden annual plant reaching 12-18 inches tall; in tropics it grows
even taller than this height. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 1-5 inches long and 1-2 inches wide, with
very small rounded teeth, somewhat rough and hairy. Leaves are aromatic when crushed. Flowers
are born in dense clusters 1-2 inches across the axils near the top of the stem. Each flower is tubular
with 4 lobes flaring to about ¼ inch, initially yellow or pink gradually changing to orange and deep
red. Often, the different colored flowers are present on the same cluster. Fruit is fleshy, greenish-
blue to black, and berry- like with each containing one seed.

Uses - Ornamental

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17. Species name – Duranta variegata
Family name - Verbenaceae

Description – Grown as a fence in sports club and around the church. It is an ornamental plant,
evergreen shrub priding and reaches 25 feet tall. In summer, it produces blue tubular flowers
followed by wonderfully contrasting orange-yellow berries. This variegated form has creamy-
yellow margin around the one inch long serrated leaves. In mild climates this plant can be in flower
nearly year round with flowers and fruits appearing at the same time. The fruits are very attractive
to butterfly, attractive fruits and the foliage have saponin that is poisonous to humans

Uses – Widely used for fencing [Ornamental].

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18. Species name – Nerium oleander
Family name – Apocynaceae
Common name – Pink Beauty

Description - It is evenly distributed all over Magadi, especially in homesteads. It is a flower shrub
with cluster of pink flowers at branch terminals. This Oleander is pretty hardy; it has been seen to
survive in very high temperature ranges. Although they can be killed to the ground, they all respout
in the winter. It is advisable to prune it in early winter to control size and form. It can reach 6-20
inches tall. Drought and salt resistant and does good in coastal belt. Propagated by seeds or
vegatativly.

Uses – Ornamental.

N/B All parts of the plant are poisonous.

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19. Species name – Leucaena leucocephala
Family name – Leguminosae/fabaceae
Sub family – Mimosoideae

Description - Arborescent deciduous small tree or shrub, to 20m tall, fast- growing;
trunk 10-25cm in diameter, forming dense stand; where crowded, slender trunks are
formed with short bushy tuft at crown, spreading if singly grown. Leaves evergreen,
alternate, 10-25cm long, bipinnate with 3-10 pairs of pinnae. Flowers are numerous,
axillary on long stalks, white, in dense global head. Fruit pods with raised border, flat,
thin, becoming dark brown and hard. Seeds copiously produced 15-30 per pod, oval and
flattish.

Uses – Protein reach fodder crop for cattle, leaves used as mulch, nitrogen fixation, seed
are softened to make jewelry for tourists, firewood, shade etc.

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20. Species name – Delonix regia
Family name – Fabaceae/Leguminosae
Common name – Flame tree

Description - Found in Waangari Maathai Park, Patterson Park and in sports club areas. It is a tree
of medium size, deciduous, broad- crowned ornamental and of rapid growth. Leaves mostly 30-
60cm long with 10-20 pairs of pinnae, these about 10cm long. Flowers are racemes near branch tips,
are brilliant red, the uppermost petal streaked with yellow or and white; pods are woody, up to 50cm
long, flattened, straight, dark reddish brown turning black. Seeds are oblong, grey with pale
margins. Like prosopis juliflora, it can form dense canopies that exclude native species. Propagation
is by seeds.

Uses – Same as that of Leucaena leucocephala.

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21. Species name – Phoenix reclinata
Family name – Arecaceae/Palmae
Genera – Phoenix

Description – A desirable suckering fan palm that can tolerate some degree of cold weather. It can
be transplanted. It is easy to maintain and can grow up to a height of 20 feet. Leaves are pinnate,
trunk rough with pines on petiole.

Uses – Variable but mostly grown as ornamental.

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22. Species name – Codiaem variegatum
Family name- Euphorbiaceae

Description - A Shrub or tree, monoecious. Leaves alternate, simple, and petioled. Blade
with entire margin, sometimes lobed, sometimes undulate, cultivated ones are
variegated[mixed color on leaves] or spotted .Inflorescence is a raceme, axillary in upper
leaves to sub terminal, usually unisexual, penduculate, bracteate, bract with multiple
flowers when staminate, single flower when pistilate. Flowers are symmetrical and
pediccelled. Fruits are glubose capsules, while seeds obvoid. Propagation is by seeds or
cuttings.

Uses – ornamental.

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23. Genus name – Trachycarpus
Family name – Palmae/Arecaceae
Common name – Fan Palm

Descriptions – Trachycarpus is a genus of 8 species of palm tree. They are fan palms
[Arecaceae tribe corypheae], leaves with a bare petiole terminating in a rounded fan of
numerous leaflets. The leaf base produces persistent fibers that often give the trunk a
characteristic hairy appearance. All species are dioecious, with male and female flowers
produced on separate plants although female plants will sometimes produce male
flowers, allowing occasional self pollination.

Uses – Almost same as that of cocos nusifera .

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24. Species name – Bougainvillea spectabilis
Family name - Nyctaginaceae

Description - Found in sports club. It is a shrub, woody perennial vine, stem with stout spines.
Leaves alternate, simple, ovate to somewhat elliptic. Flowers in axillary clusters of threes, each
flower with a purple, red, pink or orange bract beneath. Calyx tubular with 5 lobes, 2cm long, tube
the same color as bract. Fruit is an achene, elongated and has one seed.
It thrives well in ASAL lowland. Propagated by cuttings or seeds.

Uses – Ornamental plant. It also has some medicinal values.

25. Species name – Cocos nusifera


Family name – Arecaceae/Palmae
Swahili – Mnazi

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Description – It is a palm to 27m or tall, bearing crown of large pinnate leaves. Trunk stout 30-
45cm diameter. Straight or slightly curved, rising from a swollen base surrounded by mass of roots.
Rarely branched, marked with rings of leaf scars. Leaves 2-6m long, leaflets 0.6-1m long, narrow
and tapering. Fruit is ovoid, 15-30cm long, containing single seed; exorcarp is a thick fiber, husk,
enclosing a hard, bony endocarp or shell. Adhering inside wall of endocarp is thick albuminous
endosperm, the coconut flesh. Cavity of endosperm is filled in unripe fruit with watery fluid, and
only partially filled when ripe. This tree favors coastal belt.

Uses –It provides food to man. The fronds are used for thatching and the trunk can be used to make
floating boats. Coconut shell and fibers can be used as firewood. Coconut oil is also obtained from
this fruit. Palm wine [mnazi] which is a local brew especially at the coast is tapped from young
coconuts
This plant also has medicinal values; it is reported to be used as antihelmintic, antiseptic and as a
remedy for tumors.

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26. Species name – Citrus limon
Family name - Rutaceae

Description – Found in Magadi junior school, it is a tree reaching 3-6m in height and usually has
sharp thorns on the twigs. The alternate leaves, reddish when young, become dark-green above,
light-green below. Are oblong elliptic or long-ovate. Fruit is oval with a nipple-like protuberance at
the apex, the peel is either yellow or green, and it is aromatic. Pulp is pale yellow, 8-10 segments,
juicy and acidic. Some species of these genera are smooth and is white inside.

Uses – Lemon is used as food [served as garnish on meat, fish, hot tea or quizzed for the flavorful
juice].Used to make drinks such as soda and lemon juice. Lemon peel oil is used in furniture
polishing, detergent, soap and shampoo making. Produces good wood which is fine-grained,
compact and easy to work with
Lemon juice also has some medicinal values [antiscorbutic]

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27. Species name – Thevetia peruviana
Family name – Apocynaceae

Description – It grows in to a tree or shrub, leaves are liner-lanceolate, acute or subobtuse, acute at
the base, dark-green somewhat glossy above, Pale-beneath. Petioled very short [3mm], blade 8-
14cm long, less than 1cm wide. It prefers fertile, well drained soils, but can survive on most soils.
Can be invasive on dryer sites. Propagated by seeds.

N/B All parts of the plant are very poisonous, especially the sap and the oily seed. Sap can make
one go blind when it enters the eye. It is therefore discouraged to plant this tree near homestead
where children can be easily poisoned.

Uses – Widely cultivated as an ornamental tree.

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28. Species name – Jatropha curcas
Family name - Euphorbiaceae

Description – Jatropha or Physic nut is a bush or small tree [up to5m height] .This plant is planted
as live fence all over the world as it is not browsed by animals. It has thick glorious branchlets. The
tree has straight trunk and grey or reddish bark, masked by large white patches. Have green leaves
with a length and width of 6-15cm, with5-7 shallow lobes. Leaves are arranged alternately. The
branches contain whitish latex, which causes brown steins and are difficult to remove.
Normally, five roots are formed from the seeds; one tap root and four lateral roots. Plants from
cuttings forms only lateral roots. Inflorescent are formed terminally on branches. The plant is a
monoecious and flowers are unisexual. Pollination is by insects. Fruit is indehiscent, a drupe, fleshy,
yellow or red or brown, to 25mm long and 20mm wide. After pollination, a trilocular ellipsoidal
fruit is formed. The exorcarp remains fleshy until the seed are mature. The seeds are black and in
the average 18mm long and 10mmwide.Seed weighs about 727g.Lifespan of jatropha is more than
50years.

Uses Jatropha is a valuable multi-purpose crop used to alleviate soil degradation, deforestation,
desertification, produces bio-fuel, soap making and climate protection. Currently, Magadi Soda has
an on-going Jatropha project in Kajiado

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29. Species name – Tamarindus indica
Family name - Fabaceae
Swahili - Mkwaju

Description – Found in Patterson Park, it is a slow-growing tree, long-lived and growing up to


80m The leaves are normally evergreen but may be shed briefly in very dry seasons. It’s pods may
be brown or grayish-brown. Grows best in alluvial soils and is propagated by seed

Uses – Fruits used for souring milk in some communities.

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30. Species name – Syzigium cordatumi
Family name - Myrtaceae
Swahili – Mzambarao

Description – It is an evergreen tree growing up to 15m high. Leaves are elliptic to circular, bluish-
green on top and paller below. Fruits are oval berries, red to dark purple when ripe.

Uses – fruits are fleshy and are eaten by young kids, trunk provides building materials, dye is
obtained from the bark.

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31. Species name – Acacia nilotica
Family name – Leguminosae
Sub family - Mimosoidea

Description – It’s a tree growing up to 20 m high with dense spherical crown; stem and branches
are usually very dark in colour. This tree has thin straight light gray spines. Leaves are bipinnate
with 3-6 pairs of pennulae and 10-30 pairs of leaflets. Pods are strongly constricted, hairy white-
gray and thick. It’s propagated by seed.

Uses- it produces wood used for construction; its pods and leaves provides feed for livestock. .

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32. Species name – Sansevieria intermedia
Family name - Agaveceae

Description - Mostly planted as ornamental, it has variegated leaves that originate from the base.
Propagated vegetatively.

Uses- provide fibre and are also used as and ornamental in homesteads.

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33. Species name – Sporobolus spicatus
Family name – Poaceae/Graminae

Description – This is the most abundant grass species in Magadi Soda environment. It is a
perennial grass which is highly stoloniferous. Has elongated and branched internodes. Culm is 20-
70cm long. Inflorescence is a panicle, linear 2-20cm long, prefers soil with high alkalinity/salty

Uses – Has high grazing value and checks soil erosion.

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34. Species name – Dactyloctenium aegyptiacum
Family name – Poaceae/Graminae
Common name – Button Grass

Description – It is common in open grassland and in Patterson Park. Monocot with slender leaves
which have parallel venation. Leaves have liqule at the junction of lamina and leaf sheath. Culm is
round in shape and possesses nodes and internodes. Inflorescence has radiating spikes, rachis
extends beyond the spikes. Spikes are in two rows along side of rachis.

Uses – Provides animal feeds and checking soil erosion.

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DESIGHN OF THE TAG

Two classes of trees were identified:

1. Woody plants
2. Herbaceous plants

Woody plants will be tagged with wooden bar nailed at appropriate height on tree trunk, facing
direction that will be easily seen.

Herbaceous plants have weak stems; they will therefore have a T shaped tag that will be put near the
plant base
N/B All nomenclature rules must be followed.

The tag should contain species name, family name and one use of the species.

e.g. Tag for woody plant.


60 cm

Species name – Mangifera indica


Family name – Anacardiaceae 20 cm
Use - Fruit.

Tag for herbaceous plants

60 cm

Species name – Aloe vera


Family name – Liliaceae
Use – Ornamental, medicinal 20 cm

1m

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APPENDIX

ASAL – Abbreviation for Arid and Semi Arid lands.


Apex – Uppermost part of a leaf, it can be pointed or acute or assume any other shape.
Basal rosette – Leaves originating from the base.
Bract – Sterile outer structure of a flower used to protect young flowers.
Culm – Stem of grasses, it is mostly cylindrical and hollow.
Calyx – Also called sepal, it is the outer part of a flower after bracts.
Deciduous – Plants that shades their leaves during dry seasons to reduce transpiration rate.
Exocarp – Forms the outer covering of the fruit.
Endorcarp – Innermost part of the fruit, it mostly surrounds the seed.
Hermaphrodite – Plants that have male and female flowers on the same tree.
Internodes – Space in between the nodes.
Inflorescence – Part of aerial shoot of the plant that carries flower.
Latex – Thick liquid substance that comes from the leaves or stem when they are sqiuzed.
Leaf blade – Outer circumference of the leaf, it can be smooth or rough.
Lamina – Leaf surface, usually flat.
Mesocarp – Middle part of a fruit, it is mostly fleshy/juicy.
Monocots – Plants that has one cotyledon, Parallel venation, one pair of embryonic leaf and have
linear shaped leaves e.g. grasses.
Nodes – Are points of leaf attachment, indicated by the leaf scar.
Pseudowhorl – Having more than two leaves on a node.
Petiole – Part of the leaf that connects it to the stem.
Propagation – Method of establishing a plant, it can be vegetative or by use or seed.
Petal – Brightly colored part of the flower, it protects the inner parts and also assists in insect
pollination.
Pods – Fruits of leguminous plants.
Raceme – Type of inflorescence where flowers are attached through a pedicel stalk to a rachis.
Pinnate – Compound leaf where leaves are not attached directly to the branch but are attached to a
sub-branch.
Species – It is one of the taxonomic hierarchies where plants interbreed successfully to produce
fertile descendants.
Stolonoferous – Plants whose stem are not aerial but creeps on the ground.
Sessile – Plants whose leaves are attached directly to the stem without having petiole.
Succulent – Plants that are fleshy with stored water.
Spikes – Type of inflorescence in which flowers are attached to the rachis.
Transpiration – Loss of water by plants through leaves.
Terrestrial – Plants growing on land.

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CONCLUSION

Successful completion of this project will change the face of Magadi environment in to a more
tourist attractive site. Besides seeing attractive scenery, lake, local people in their attire and water
birds, visitors will also be in a position to see different indigenous and exotic trees and their
botanical names. Students will have an opportunity to learn and know their environment better. In
general, tree naming coupled with tree planting is one way of enhancing environmental awareness.

Although the number of names to learn may seem overwhelming, it is very important that people
should know the correct scientific and common names of plant in order to communicate properly.

PRINCIPAL REFERENCES

1. Wee Yeow Chin“A guide to medicinal plant”, Singapore science centre, 1992.

2. Dal ziel, J M. 1937. The useful plants of west tropical Africa.

3. Burkart A .1943. Las leguminosas Argentina.

4. BOSTID.1979. Tropical legume:Ressouces for the future.National Academy of Sciences,


Washington, D.C.

5. Natural Resources Conservation Service Technical Guide.

6. A guide to tropical trees and shrubs.

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