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# ABSTRACT

Pipes made from carbon stela are generally used for supplying water to the colony of a house or cities.
There occours a lot of pressure changes, head losses , velocity losses, and volume flow rate losses, while
the propagation of fluid.the flow is governed by the Reynold,s nmber to be turbulent or laminar through
the pipes. The turbulency of fluid causes to reduce or increase the effective length. The purpose of this
complex engineering problem was to determine the diameter of the main pipe length which distributes
the water to other branch pipes. Head losses, turbulent and laminar shear stresses , total stresses and
velocity profile during the flowwere also determined. The volume flow rate was considered to be
constant throughout the pipe length to reduce the complexity of problem. The change in diameter
causes the change in velocity and the required power of the pump. The cost of piping material, the cost
of pupmp, cost of electricity was considered to minimize thee diameter of main pipe. MATLAB
SOFTWARE was used to get high accuracy in the results.

INTRODUCTION

The changes in emitter discharge are caused by operating pressure, water temperature, emitter
manufacturing variations, emitter clogging, elevation change, and frictionl losses.(Demiretal 2007,
Vekoroya et al 2011). The assessment of head loss along the pipelines and laterals is an important factor
that affects both the over all cost and hydraulic balance of network(KAMAND 1988).

Head losses are divided into major head losses and minor head losses are due to friction in pipes and
ducts,surface roughness, and piping material. While minor head losses are due to exits and fittings.each
emitter is lateral determines local pressure loss or minor loss which is often expressed as a friction of
the Kinetic head loss. The propagation and flow of fluid is governed by BERNOULLI,S s equation and
HOULAND equation. These equations determine the frictional factor, head losses, pressure and energy
changes during the flow of fluid. Carbon steel is generally used to distribute the water to long distances.
The main purpose of this Complex Engineering Problem was to find the diameter of main pipe with
minimum cost. The head losses and frictional factor and effective length are the parameters which are
additionally determined to converge the results over the given criteria. The Bernoulli and Hoaland
equations are based on Reynolds number, gravity, velocity, and height of flow. All of our pipes are on
ground that's why there is no pressure or flow rate loss due to height of the pipes. Energy dissipation
and Hydraulic resistance always interrupt to real fluid flow. The energy dissipation represented by head
losses in the turbulent flow of real fluid through cylindrical tubes can be calculated by equations
presented in the basic literature of Hydraulics(PERTO 1998).

The COLEBROOK WHITE and VON-KERMON equations are implicit in f and therefore require iterative
method for for determining f. The evaluation of frictional coefficient and diameter of pipe can be
determined by iterations using matlab software.