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Exam

Name___________________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) In the ONPG and MUG test for fecal coliforms, a sample that is positive for E. coli will be 1)
A) negative for ONPG; non-fluorescent in UV light.
B) positive for ONPG; fluorescent in UV light.
C) negative for ONPG; fluorescent in UV light.
D) positive for ONPG; non-fluorescent in UV light.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)

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Figure 27.1

2) Which step in Figure 27.1 represents the following reaction: amino acid (-NH2 ) NH3 ? 2)
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

3) Adding untreated sewage to a freshwater lake would cause the biochemical oxygen demand to 3)
A) decrease.
B) increase.
C) stay the same.
D) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)

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Figure 27.1

4) Which of the following terms describes step III in Figure 27.1? 4)


A) nitrogen fixation
B) nitrification
C) assimilation
D) denitrification
E) ammonification
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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light
5) 6H2 S + 6CO2 6S0 + glucose 5)
A) takes place under aerobic conditions.
B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.
C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)

6) All of the following organisms are involved in carbon fixation EXCEPT 6)


A) green and purple sulfur bacteria.
B) mycorrhizae.
C) cyanobacteria.
D) algae.
E) lichens.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

7) Which wastewater treatment process produces BOD-containing effluent used for irrigation? 7)
A) secondary sewage treatment
B) primary sewage treatment
C) anaerobic sludge digestion
D) water treatment
E) tertiary sewage treatment
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

8) Which of the following terms describes NO3 - NO2 - N2 O N2 ? 8)


A) nitrogen fixation
B) anaerobic respiration
C) nitrification
D) denitrification
E) ammonification
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 27.2

9) Where are photosynthetic bacteria most likely to be found in Figure 27.2? 9)


A) a B) b C) c D) a and b E) b and c
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

10) Which of the following organisms is using sulfur as a source of energy? 10)
A) Photosynthetic bacteria: H2 S S0
B) Desulfovibrio: SO4 2- H2 S
C) Thiobacillus: H2 S S0
D) Redwood tree: SO4 2- Amino acids
E) Proteus: Amino acids H2 S
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

11) In freshwater lakes and ponds, the majority of photosynthetic microbes are located in the ________ 11)
zone(s).
A) profundal
B) benthic and profundal
C) littoral
D) benthic
E) limnetic
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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12) The product of which process contains the highest BOD? 12)
A) primary sewage treatment
B) tertiary sewage treatment
C) water treatment
D) anaerobic sludge digestion
E) secondary sewage treatment
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

13) Which of the following is NOT a symbiotic pair of organisms? 13)


A) elk and rumen bacteria
B) orchid and mycorrhizae
C) sulfur and Thiobacillus
D) onions and arbuscules
E) bean plant and Rhizobium
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

14) All of the following are habitats for extremophiles EXCEPT 14)
A) 100°C water.
B) a salt-evaporating pond.
C) the Atlantic Ocean.
D) an acid mine wash.
E) inside rock.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

15) Which of the following is required for composting? 15)


A) periodic turning or raking of the compost pile
B) addition of non-biodegradable materials
C) constant anaerobic conditions
D) addition of nitrogen and phosphorus sources
E) addition of thermophilic microbes
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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16) Which one of the following processes in sewage treatment requires bacterial metabolism? 16)
A) sedimentation
B) primary treatment
C) removal of BOD
D) chlorination
E) None of the answers is correct.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

17) For the biogeochemical cycles of the following elements, which does NOT have an atmospheric 17)
cycle?
A) sulfur B) phosphorus C) nitrogen D) carbon
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)

18) Filtration to remove protozoa occurs in 18)


A) secondary sewage treatment.
B) tertiary sewage treatment.
C) anaerobic sludge digestion.
D) water treatment.
E) primary sewage treatment.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

19) Untreated sewage is released into a river. Which of the following statements is FALSE? 19)
A) The untreated sewage decreases the dissolved oxygen.
B) The untreated sewage is a health hazard.
C) The untreated sewage increases the BOD.
D) The untreated sewage kills bacteria.
E) All of the statements are true.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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20) Drinking water supplies are routinely tested for the presence of 20)
A) Vibrio.
B) Giardia.
C) fecal coliforms.
D) fecal viruses.
E) Cryptosporidium.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

21) Which of the following is mismatched? 21)


A) SO4 2- + 10H+ H2 S + 4H2 O Desulfovibrio
B) 6CO2 + 6H2 O C6 H12O6 + 6O2 Clostridium
C) N2 + 6H+ 2NH 3 Beijerinckia
D) CO2 + 4H2 CH4 + 2H2 O Methane-producing bacteria
E) Fe2+ Fe3+ Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 27.1

22) Which term in Figure 27.1 describes step V? 22)


A) ammonification
B) dissimilation
C) denitrification
D) nitrification
E) nitrogen fixation
Answer: E
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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23) Residual chlorine must be maintained in 23)
A) anaerobic sludge digestion.
B) water treatment.
C) primary sewage treatment.
D) secondary sewage treatment.
E) tertiary sewage treatment.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

24) The guano deposited by seabirds is used a source for which of the following fertilizer components? 24)
A) carbonate B) nitrate C) phosphate D) potassium E) sulfate
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

25) Bacteria that emit light can be used as biosensors because they 25)
A) migrate to hazardous chemical.
B) have the lux gene.
C) do not emit light in the presence of a hazardous chemical.
D) have FMN.
E) degrade hazardous chemicals.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

26) In the early 1900s, cities such as Philadelphia reduced the incidence of typhoid fever by 26)
A) requiring residents to boil drinking water.
B) isolating human carriers.
C) filtering municipal drinking water through sand-bed filters.
D) using tertiary water treatment systems.
E) mass vaccination of residents.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 27.1

27) Nitrification is beneficial to farmers. It is represented by which step in Figure 27.1? 27)
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

28) Bioremediation of petroleum 28)


A) takes place under aerobic conditions.
B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.
C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)

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29) Which of the following is an assimilation process? 29)
A) Thiobacillus: H2 S S0
B) Photosynthetic bacteria: H2 S S0
C) Redwood tree: SO4 2- Amino acids
D) Proteus: Amino acids H2 S
E) Desulfovibrio: SO4 2- H2 S
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

30) Sedimentation of sludge occurs in 30)


A) secondary sewage treatment.
B) tertiary sewage treatment.
C) water treatment.
D) primary sewage treatment.
E) anaerobic sludge digestion.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

31) Bacteria can increase the Earth's temperature by 31)


A) providing nutrients for plant growth.
B) generating a great deal of heat in metabolism.
C) producing CH4 , which is a greenhouse gas.
D) oxidizing CH4 .
E) using the greenhouse gas CO2 .
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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32) Which of the following is NOT characteristic of fecal coliforms? 32)
A) lactose-fermenting
B) non-spore forming
C) rod-shaped
D) pathogenic
E) gram-negative
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

33) Which of the following do NOT fix atmospheric nitrogen? 33)


A) mycorrhizae
B) lichens
C) cyanobacteria
D) Frankia
E) Azotobacter
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

34) NH3 NO2 - 34)


A) takes place under aerobic conditions.
B) takes place under anaerobic conditions.
C) The amount of oxygen does not make any difference.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)

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Figure 27.1

35) Which step in Figure 27.1 represents anaerobic respiration? 35)


A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

36) Which wastewater treatment process is responsible for removal of most of the BOD in sewage? 36)
A) tertiary sewage treatment
B) secondary sewage treatment
C) water treatment
D) anaerobic sludge digestion
E) primary sewage treatment
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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Figure 27.2

37) Where are the benthic microbes such as Desulfovibrio and Clostridium most likely to be found in 37)
Figure 27.2?
A) a B) b C) c D) a and b E) b and c
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

38) What stage of sewage treatment produces methane? 38)


A) sludge digestion
B) primary treatment
C) secondary treatment
D) tertiary treatment
E) None of the stages of sewage treatment produce methane.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

39) Zoogloea form flocculent masses in 39)


A) secondary sewage treatment.
B) water treatment.
C) tertiary sewage treatment.
D) anaerobic sludge digestion.
E) primary sewage treatment.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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40) Which of the following requires aerobic conditions? 40)
A) water treatment
B) secondary sewage treatment
C) nitrogen fixation
D) sludge digestion
E) primary sewage treatment
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

41) Aerobic respiration occurs in 41)


A) tertiary sewage treatment.
B) anaerobic sludge digestion.
C) secondary sewage treatment.
D) water treatment.
E) primary sewage treatment.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

42) The release of phosphate-containing detergents into a river would 42)


A) improve the water quality.
B) increase algal growth.
C) kill algae.
D) kill bacteria.
E) None of the answers is correct.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

43) All of the following are used in secondary sewage treatment EXCEPT 43)
A) bulking and floc formation.
B) aeration.
C) activated sludge.
D) anaerobic digestion.
E) trickling filters.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

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44) All of the following are true of mycorrhizae EXCEPT 44)
A) ectomycorrhizae form a mantle over plant roots.
B) an example is the food delicacy truffles.
C) they are fungi that form beneficial relationships with plants.
D) the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae are a type of ectomycorrhizae.
E) they enable plants to absorb soil nutrients.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

45) Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the 45)


A) amount of organic matter present in a water sample.
B) amount of oxygen present in a water sample.
C) amount of undissolved solid matter present in a water sample.
D) number of bacteria present in a water sample.
E) amount of nitrogen in a water sample.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.

46) The dense growth of algae in an algal bloom leads to increased oxygen levels in lakes that enhance 46)
the habitat for fish.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

47) The BOD is a measurement of the amount of bacteria present before and after the sewage treatment 47)
process.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

48) Nitrogen fixation by bacteria occurs only in the root nodules of leguminous plants. 48)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

49) Microorganisms in deep-sea vents and caves serve as autotrophic primary producers in the 49)
absence of sunlight.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

50) Bioremediation involves the use of microbes to degrade or detoxify pollutants. 50)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

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51) In small communities lacking municipal sewage systems, sewage is treated in septic systems or 51)
oxidation ponds.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

52) The bacteriological safety of drinking water is determined by testing water samples for the 52)
presence of human pathogens.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

53) In water treatment, the purpose of flocculation is to remove microbes, such as Giardia and 53)
Cryptosporidium.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

54) The purpose of tertiary sewage treatment is to remove all of the phosphorus, nitrogen, and BOD 54)
left from secondary treatment.
Answer: True False
Explanation:

55) The water from tertiary sewage treatment can be used as drinking water. 55)
Answer: True False
Explanation:

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

56) What is the effect of discharging primary-treated sewage on the BOD and dissolved O2 (DO) of the receiving
body of water? What is the effect of secondary-treated sewage on the BOD and DO?
Answer:

57) Based on your knowledge of extremophiles and endoliths, describe the characteristics you would expect of
microorganisms capable of living on Mars or other non-Earth environments.
Answer:

58) A newspaper headline reported "Algal Bloom Kills Fish." What actually caused fish death, given that the algae
were not toxic? What could have caused the algal bloom?
Answer:

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Answer Key
Testname: C27

1) B
2) C
3) B
4) E
5) B
6) B
7) A
8) D
9) B
10) C
11) E
12) A
13) C
14) C
15) A
16) C
17) B
18) D
19) D
20) C
21) B
22) E
23) B
24) C
25) D
26) C
27) A
28) A
29) C
30) D
31) C
32) D
33) A
34) A
35) B
36) B
37) C
38) A
39) A
40) B
41) C
42) B
43) D
44) D
45) A
46) FALSE
47) FALSE
48) FALSE
49) TRUE
50) TRUE
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Answer Key
Testname: C27

51) TRUE
52) FALSE
53) FALSE
54) TRUE
55) TRUE
56)
57)
58)

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