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CHAPTER 4 : CALCULATION OF GASEOUS AND

PARTICULATE EMISSIONS

1 Calculation :

1.1 The Final reported test results of the gaseous emissions are derived through the
following steps

1.1.1 The exhaust gas mass flow rate GEXH or V' and V"EXH shall determined (see
paragraph 4.2 of chapter 3) for each mode.

1.1.2 When applying GEXH the measured concentrations are converted to a wet basis
according to paragraph 1.1.2.1 below, if not already measured on wet basis.

1.1.2.1 Exhaust gas concentration measured on a dry basis are converted to a wet basis,
which represents the condition in the exhaust , according to following
relationship:

1.1.2.1.1 In case of C.I. engines:

ppm(wet basis )= ppm(dry basis)* (1-1.85 GFUEL/GAIR)

where :

GFUEL is the fuel flow (kg/h)

GAIR is the air flow (kg/h) …..(dry air)

1.1.2.1.2 In the case of NG Engines:

ppm(wet basis ) = ppm (dry basis) * (1-3.15GFUEL/GAIR)

where:

GFUEL is the fuel flow (kg/h)

GAIR is the air flow (kg/h)

1.1.2.1.3 In the case of LPG fueled Engines:

ppm(wet basis ) = ppm (dry basis) * (1-2.40GFUEL/GAIR)

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where:

GFUEL is the fuel flow (kg/h)

GAIR is the air flow (kg/h) ….. (dry air)

1.1.2.2 The NOx concentration shall be corrected for humidity according to


paragraph below for C.I. engines, CNG engines and LPG engines

NOx Correction factor :

The value of the oxides of nitrogen shall be multiplied by the following


humidity correction factor.

1
1 + A(7 H − 75) + B * 1.8(T − 302)
where:
G
A = 0.044 FUEL − 0.0038
G AIR

G FUEL
B = −0.116 + 0.0053
G AIR

T= temperature of the air in K

GFUEL
GAIR = Fuel air ratio (dry air basis)

H = humidity of the inlet air in grams of water per kilogram of dry air in
which :
H = (6.211 * Ra * Pd) / ( Pa – (Pd * Ra * 10-2))

Where

Ra = Relative humidity of the ambient air expressed in %

Pd=Saturation vapour pressure at ambient temperature expressed in kPa

Pa = Atmospheric pressure expressed in kPa

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1.1.2.3 The pollutant mass flow (gm/hr) for each mode shall be calculated as follows
(Only C.I. engines )

(1) NOx mass = 0.001587 * NOxconc * GEXH


(2) COmass = 0.000966 * COconc * GEXH
(3) HCmass = 0.000478 * HCconc * GEXH

or:
(1) NOx mass = 0.00205 * NOx conc* V'EXH
(2) NOx mass = 0.00205 * NOx conc * V" EXH
(3) CO mass = 0.00125 * CO conc * V'EXH
(4) HCmass = 0.000618 * HCconc * V"EXH

1.1.2.4 The pollutant mass flow (gm/hr) for NG engine and for mode,assuming the
density of exhaust gas equal to 1.249 kg/m3, shall be calculated as follows:

(1) NOx mass = 0.001641 * NOx concW * GEXH


(2) CO mass = 0.001001 * CO concW * GEXH
(3) HC mass = 0.000563 * HC concW * GEXH
or
(1) NOx mass = 0.00205 * NOx concD* V'EXH
(2) COx mass = 0.00125 * CO concD * V'EXH
(3) HC mass = 0.000703 * HcconcD * V'EXH

For HC (CH 3.76), the concentration shall be expressed in carbon


equivalent (i.e. equivalent propane * 3).

1.1.2.5 The pollutant mass flow (gm/hr) for LPG- fuelled engine and for mode, shall be
calculated as follows:

(1) NOx mass = 0.001587 * NOx conc * GEXH


(2) CO mass = 0.000966 * CO conc * GEXH
(3) HC mass = 0.000505 * HC conc * GEXH

Or:

(1) NOx mass = 0.00205 * NOx conc* V'EXH


(2) NOx mass = 0.00205 * NOx conc * V" EXH
(3) CO mass = 0.00125 * CO conc * V'EXH
(4) HC mass = 0.000653 * HCconc * V"EXH

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1.1.2.6 The emission shall be calculated in the following way :

=
∑ NOx mass . i * WFi
∑ (P − P )* WFi
NO x
i aux , i

CO =
∑ CO * WFi mass .i

∑ (P − P )* WF
i aux ,i i

HC =
∑ HC * WFi mass .i

∑ (P − P )* WF
i aux ,i i

where:
Pi are measured values.

1.1.2.7 The weighting factors used in the above calculation are according to the
following table:

1.1.2.7.1 For Automotive Engines (13 – Mode Cycle)

Mode Number Weighting Factor(WF)


1 0.25/3
2 0.08
3 0.08
4 0.08
5 0.08
6 0.25
7 0.25/3
8 0.10
9 0.02
10 0.02
11 0.02
12 0.02
13 0.25/3

1.1.2.7.2 For Agricultural Tractor Engines (8 – Mode Cycle) and construction


equipment vehicles (variable speed).

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Mode Engine Speed Percent Load Weighting Factor
Number
1 Rated 100 0.15
2 Rated 75 0.15
3 Rated 50 0.15
4 Rated 10 0.1
5 Intermediate 100 0.1
6 Intermediate 75 0.1
7 Intermediate 50 0.1
8 Idle --- 0.15

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1.1.2.7.3 For Construction Equipment Vehicle (Constant Speed) Engines (5 – Mode
Cycle)

Mode Engine Speed Percent Load Weighting Factor


Number
1 Rated 100 0.05
2 Rated 75 0.25
3 Rated 50 0.30
4 Rated 25 0.30
5 Rated 10 0.10

1.1.3 The particulate emissions are calculated in the following way. The
generalequations in this paragraph apply to both full-flow- dilution and
partial-flow dilutionsystems:

PTmass
PT =
∑ (Pi − Paux,i )* WFi
where :

WF = as in paragraph 1.1.2.5 above

1.1.3.1 The particulate mass flow rate (gm/hr) is calculated as follows :

Pf * G EDF
PTmass =
M SAM * 1000

or:

Pf * V EDF
PTmass =
VSAM * 1000

1.1.3.2 GEDF, V"EDF, MSAM and VSAM over the test cycle are determined by
summation of the average values of the individual modes :

∋EDF = ΣG EDF,i * WFi

6"EDF = Σ V"EDF,i * WFi

MSAM= ΣM SAM,i

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VSAM=ΣV SAM,i

1.1.3.3 The effective wieghting factor WFE for each mode is calculated in the
following way:

M SAM ,i * G EDF
WFE ,i =
M SAM * G EDF , i

M SAM ,i * V " EDF


WFE ,i =
VSAM I * V "EDF i

Or:

The value of the effective weighting factors must be within + 0.003 of the
weighting factors listed in paragraph 1.1.2.7.

1.1.3.4 The final reported test results of the particulate emission are derived
through the following steps, when using the full-flow –dilution system (Chapter
5, system 2).

1.1.3.4.1 The diluted exhaust gas volume flow rate V"TOT over all modes is
determined

V"TOT,i corresponds to V"EDF,i in the general equations in paragraph


1.1.3.2.

1.1.3.4.2 When using single –dilution system ,MSAM is the mass through the
sampling filters(GF 1 in Chapter 5,system 2).

1.1.3.4.3 When using a double dilution system, MSAM is the mass through the
sampling filters(GF 1 in Chapter 5, system 2) minus the mass of the
secondary dilution air(GF 2 in Chapter 5,system 2)

1.1.4 The final reported test results of the particulate emission shall be derive
through the following steps ,when using the partial-flow-dilution-system
(Chapter 5, System 3).Since various types of dilution rate control may
be used ,different calculation methods for GEDF or V"EDF apply.All
calculations are based upon the average values of the individual modes
during the sampling period.

1.1.4.1 Fractional Sampling Type with Isokinetic Probe

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GEDF,i = GEXH,i*qi
Or:
V"EDF,i=V"EXH,i *qi
G DIL ,i + (G EXH ,i * r )
qi =
G EXH ,i * r

Or:
V " DIL,i +(V " EXH ,i *r )
qi =
V " EXH ,i *r

where 'r' corresponds to the ratio of the cross sectional areas of the isokinetic
probe and the exhaust pipe :
Ap
r=
AT

1.1.4.2 Fractional sampling type with CO2 or NOx Measurement

GEDF,i = GEXH,i * qi
Or:
V"EDF, i = V"EXH,i * qi

Conc E,i-Conc A,i


qi = Conc D,i – Conc A, i

Where :

ConcE = concentration of the raw exhaust

ConcU = Concentration of the diluted exhaust


ConcA= concentration of the dilution air

Concentrations measured on dry basis are converted to a wet basis according to


paragraph 1.1.2.1

1.1.4.3 Total Sampling type with CO2 measurement and Carbon Balance Method
206 * G FUEL ,i
G EDF ,i =
CO2 D ,i − CO2 A,i
(C.I. engines)
Or:

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195 * G FUEL ,i
G EDF ,i =
CO2 D ,i − CO2 A,i

(LPG Fuelled engines)

Or:

171 * G FUEL ,i
G EDF ,i =
CO2 D ,i − CO2 A,i
(NG Fuelled engines)

where :

CO2D = CO2 concentration of the diluted exhaust gases


CO2A = CO2 concentration of the dilution air

(Concentration is vol % on wet basis)

The equations are based upon the carbon balance assumption (carbon atoms
supplied to the engine are emitted as CO2) and derived through the following
steps ;

GEDF,i = GEXH,i * qi

206 * G FUEL ,i
qi =
G EXH ,i * (CO2 D ,i − CO2 A,i )

1.1.4.4 Total Sampling Type with Mass Flow Control

GEDF,i = GEXH,i * qi

GTOT ,i
qi =
(GTOT ,i − G DIL ,i )

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