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# Stress and strain transformations

## Formulae Strains on a rotated plane

𝜀𝜀𝜃𝜃 =
𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 − 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦
2
+
2
cos 𝜃𝜃 +
𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
2
sin 2𝜃𝜃

## Statics 𝛾𝛾 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 − 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦

2
=
2
sin 𝜃𝜃 −
𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
2
cos 2𝜃𝜃

Equilibrium
Direction and magnitude of principal strains
𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
� 𝐹𝐹𝑥𝑥 = 0 , � 𝐹𝐹𝑦𝑦 = 0 , � 𝑀𝑀 = 0 tan 2𝜃𝜃 = tan 2𝜙𝜙 =
𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 − 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦
Stress and Strain
𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 1 2
Direct loading 𝜀𝜀1 , 𝜀𝜀2 = ± ��𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 − 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 � + 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
2
2 2
𝐹𝐹 𝑥𝑥 ∆𝐿𝐿 𝜎𝜎
𝜎𝜎 = , 𝜀𝜀 = �≡ � , 𝐸𝐸 = Stresses on a rotated plane
𝐴𝐴 𝐿𝐿 𝐿𝐿 𝜀𝜀
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 + 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 − 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦
𝜎𝜎𝑛𝑛 = + cos2 𝜃𝜃 + 𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 sin 2𝜃𝜃
𝐹𝐹 𝑥𝑥 ∆𝐿𝐿 𝜏𝜏
𝜏𝜏 = , 𝛾𝛾 = �≡ � , 𝐺𝐺 = 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 − 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦
𝐴𝐴 𝐿𝐿 𝐿𝐿 𝛾𝛾 𝜏𝜏𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 = − sin 2𝜃𝜃 + 𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 cos 2𝜃𝜃
2
Poisson's ratio 𝛾𝛾 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 − 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
𝜀𝜀𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟𝑟 = sin 𝜃𝜃 − cos 2𝜃𝜃
𝜈𝜈 = 2 2 2
𝜀𝜀𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴
Direction and magnitude of principal stresses
Biaxial Stress-Strain relationships 2𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 tan 2𝜃𝜃 =
𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 = − 𝜈𝜈 , 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 = − 𝜈𝜈 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 − 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦
𝐸𝐸 𝐸𝐸 𝐸𝐸 𝐸𝐸
𝐸𝐸 𝐸𝐸 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 + 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 1 2
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = �𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝜐𝜐𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 �, 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 = �𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + 𝜐𝜐𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 � 𝜎𝜎1 , 𝜎𝜎2 = ± ��𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 − 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 � + 4𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
2

1 − 𝜐𝜐 2 1 − 𝜐𝜐 2 2 2

## 𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 2𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 (1 + 𝜐𝜐) 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 𝐸𝐸 Maximum shear stress

𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = = , 𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 𝐺𝐺 = 𝜎𝜎1 − 𝜎𝜎2 𝜎𝜎2 − 𝜎𝜎3 𝜎𝜎3 − 𝜎𝜎1
𝐺𝐺 𝐸𝐸 2(1 + 𝜐𝜐) 𝜏𝜏𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜: � �,� �,� �
2 2 2
Parallel axis theorem Critical Buckling
𝐼𝐼𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝐼𝐼1 + 𝐴𝐴1 ℎ12 𝑛𝑛𝜋𝜋 2 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸
𝑃𝑃𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 =
𝐿𝐿2
Second moments of area
Bending Fixture conditions
𝑏𝑏𝑑𝑑 3 𝜋𝜋𝐷𝐷4 𝑏𝑏ℎ3 Fixture 𝒏𝒏
𝐼𝐼Square = , 𝐼𝐼Circle = , 𝐼𝐼Triangle =
12 64 36 Pinned-Pinned 1
Pinned-Fixed 2.05
Torsion
𝜋𝜋𝐷𝐷 4 Fixed-Fixed 4
𝐽𝐽Circle = Fixed-Free 0.25
32

Simple Bending
Rankine-Gordon equation
𝜎𝜎 𝑀𝑀 𝐸𝐸 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 𝐴𝐴
= = 𝑃𝑃 =
𝑦𝑦 𝐼𝐼 𝑅𝑅 𝐿𝐿 2
1 + 𝑎𝑎 � �
𝐾𝐾
Torsion
𝜏𝜏 𝑇𝑇 𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺 Radius of gyration
= =
𝑅𝑅 𝐽𝐽 𝐿𝐿 𝑘𝑘 = �𝐼𝐼�𝐴𝐴

Thin Cylinders/Spheres
Elastic Constants
𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃
𝜎𝜎𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻𝐻 = , 𝜎𝜎𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿𝐿 = 𝐸𝐸 = 2𝐺𝐺(1 + 𝜐𝜐) = 3𝐾𝐾(1 − 2𝜈𝜈)
2𝑡𝑡 4𝑡𝑡

## Beam Deflections Yield Criteria

𝑑𝑑 2 𝑣𝑣 𝑀𝑀 von Mises
=− 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 2
𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥 2 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸 2� � = (𝜎𝜎1 − 𝜎𝜎2 )2 + (𝜎𝜎2 − 𝜎𝜎3 )2 + (𝜎𝜎3 − 𝜎𝜎1 )2
𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹
Tresca Kinetic energy
𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 𝜎𝜎1 − 𝜎𝜎2 𝜎𝜎2 − 𝜎𝜎3 𝜎𝜎3 − 𝜎𝜎1
= 𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙𝑙 𝑜𝑜𝑜𝑜: � �,� �,� � Linear
2𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 2 2 2 1
𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 = 𝑚𝑚𝑣𝑣 2
Strain Energy 2

𝜎𝜎 2 1
𝑈𝑈 = × 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 = 𝐼𝐼𝜔𝜔2
2𝐸𝐸 2

## Bending Spring energy

𝑀𝑀2 𝐿𝐿
1
𝑈𝑈 = � 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = 𝑘𝑘(𝑥𝑥22 − 𝑥𝑥12 )
0 2𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸 2

## Torsion Gravitational Potential

𝑇𝑇 2𝐿𝐿
𝑈𝑈 = � 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚ℎ
0 2𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺
Momentum
Shear
𝐿𝐿
𝑄𝑄2 Linear
𝑈𝑈 = � 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑃𝑃 = 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚
0 2𝐺𝐺𝐺𝐺
Angular
Shear Stress Distribution (Beams)
𝑃𝑃 = 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼
𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑦𝑦� 𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑄𝑦𝑦�
𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = , 𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = Centre of Mass
𝐼𝐼𝑧𝑧 𝑏𝑏 𝐼𝐼𝑧𝑧 𝑡𝑡
∫ 𝑧𝑧 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 ∫ 𝑧𝑧 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑧𝑧𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶 = =
Dynamics 𝑚𝑚 ∫ 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑

## Newton's 2nd law ℎ

𝑥𝑥̅𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 =
4
� 𝐹𝐹⃗ = 𝑚𝑚𝑎𝑎⃗
ℎ 𝜙𝜙𝐿𝐿2 +2𝜙𝜙𝐿𝐿 𝜙𝜙𝑆𝑆 + 3𝜙𝜙𝑆𝑆2
𝑥𝑥̅𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 = � �
4 𝜙𝜙𝐿𝐿2 +𝜙𝜙𝐿𝐿 𝜙𝜙𝑆𝑆 + 𝜙𝜙𝑆𝑆2
Impulse-momentum

𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 = 𝑚𝑚𝑣𝑣2 − 𝑚𝑚𝑣𝑣1 𝑥𝑥̅𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 =
2
Volume Element

## Angular impulse-momentum 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴

𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 = 𝐼𝐼𝜔𝜔2 − 𝐼𝐼𝜔𝜔1 Mass Element
Constant acceleration kinematics 𝑚𝑚
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 = 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌 = 𝐴𝐴 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑
𝑉𝑉
𝑣𝑣 = 𝑢𝑢 + 𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎, 𝜔𝜔 = 𝜔𝜔0 + 𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼
Moment of Inertia: Thin Disc Element
𝑣𝑣 2 = 𝑢𝑢2 + 2𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎, 𝜔𝜔2 = 𝜔𝜔02 + 2𝛼𝛼𝛼𝛼
1
1 1 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑧𝑧 = 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑟𝑟 2
𝑠𝑠 = 𝑢𝑢𝑢𝑢 + 𝑎𝑎𝑡𝑡 2 , 𝜃𝜃 = 𝜔𝜔0 𝑡𝑡 + 𝛼𝛼𝑡𝑡 2 2
2 2
3𝑚𝑚 2
Work 𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 = (𝜙𝜙 + ℎ2 )
80 𝐿𝐿
𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊 = 𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹𝐹 × 𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷𝐷

Work-Energy
𝜙𝜙𝐿𝐿2 𝑚𝑚𝐿𝐿 − 𝜙𝜙𝑆𝑆2 𝑚𝑚𝑆𝑆 3
𝑊𝑊 = ∆𝑈𝑈𝐾𝐾𝐾𝐾 + ∆𝑈𝑈𝑔𝑔 + ∆𝑈𝑈𝑒𝑒 𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 = [(𝜙𝜙𝐿𝐿 − 𝜙𝜙𝑆𝑆 )2 + ℎ2 ]
(𝜙𝜙𝐿𝐿 − 𝜙𝜙𝑆𝑆 )2 80
Power + 𝑚𝑚𝐿𝐿 (𝑥𝑥̅𝐿𝐿 − 𝑥𝑥̅𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 )2 −𝑚𝑚𝑆𝑆 (ℎ + 𝑥𝑥̅𝑆𝑆
𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊𝑊
𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = − 𝑥𝑥̅𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 )2
𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇𝑇
𝑚𝑚 Dynamic Stability: Pure Pitch
𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 = (3𝜙𝜙𝐿𝐿2 + 4ℎ2 )
48
∆𝛼𝛼̈ − 𝑀𝑀𝑞𝑞 ∆𝛼𝛼̇ − 𝑀𝑀𝛼𝛼 ∆𝛼𝛼 = 0

## Perpendicular Axis Theorem: Thin Disc Element

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕
𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑧𝑧 = 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑥𝑥 + 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑦𝑦 𝑀𝑀𝛼𝛼 = �𝐼𝐼 , 𝑀𝑀𝑞𝑞 = �𝐼𝐼
𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝑦𝑦 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝑦𝑦
Parallel Axis Theorem Mass-spring-damper equation
2
𝐼𝐼𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃 = 𝐼𝐼𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶 + 𝑚𝑚𝑟𝑟 ∆𝛼𝛼̈ + 2𝜁𝜁𝜔𝜔𝑛𝑛 ∆𝛼𝛼̇ + 𝜔𝜔𝑛𝑛2 ∆𝛼𝛼 = 0
Chord Length of Circular Wing 𝑀𝑀𝑞𝑞
𝜔𝜔𝑛𝑛 = �𝑀𝑀𝛼𝛼 , 𝜁𝜁 = − .
2 (𝑦𝑦) 2 2�𝑀𝑀𝛼𝛼
𝑐𝑐 𝑏𝑏
= − 𝑦𝑦 2
2 4
𝜔𝜔 = 𝜔𝜔𝑛𝑛 �1 − 𝜁𝜁 2
Chord Length of Delta Wing
Dynamic Derivatives
𝑐𝑐𝑟𝑟 𝑦𝑦
𝑐𝑐(𝑦𝑦) = 𝑐𝑐𝑟𝑟 − 1
𝑏𝑏/2 𝑀𝑀(𝛼𝛼) = −𝑥𝑥𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 𝜌𝜌𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜2 𝑆𝑆𝐶𝐶𝑁𝑁𝛼𝛼 𝛼𝛼

## Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) 1

𝑀𝑀𝛼𝛼 = −𝑥𝑥𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 𝜌𝜌𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜2 𝑆𝑆𝐶𝐶𝑁𝑁𝛼𝛼 /𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦
𝑏𝑏/2
2
𝑐𝑐̅𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 = � 𝑐𝑐 2 (𝑦𝑦) 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 1 𝑞𝑞𝑥𝑥𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠
𝑆𝑆 0 𝑀𝑀(𝑞𝑞) = −𝑥𝑥𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 𝜌𝜌𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜2 𝑆𝑆𝐶𝐶𝑁𝑁𝛼𝛼
𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜
2𝑐𝑐𝑟𝑟 𝜆𝜆2𝑐𝑐 + 𝜆𝜆𝑐𝑐 + 1 1
𝑐𝑐𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 = 2
𝑀𝑀𝑞𝑞 = −𝑥𝑥𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝜌𝜌𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜 𝑆𝑆𝐶𝐶𝑁𝑁𝛼𝛼 /𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦
3 𝜆𝜆𝑐𝑐 + 1 2

## Y-axis Displacement (MAC) Equivalent Radius: Pitch Oscillation

2 𝑏𝑏/2 1
𝑦𝑦� = � 𝑐𝑐(𝑦𝑦)𝑦𝑦 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑 𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 =
𝑆𝑆 0 𝑥𝑥 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝐶𝐶𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁 𝑥𝑥 3 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝐶𝐶𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁
� 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 �1 + 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 �
2𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦 8𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦
Aspect Ratio
𝑏𝑏 2 Damped Angular Frequency
𝐴𝐴𝐴𝐴 =
𝑆𝑆
𝑉𝑉𝑜𝑜
𝜔𝜔 =
Planform factor 𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋
𝐹𝐹 = Damping Ratio
𝑐𝑐𝐿𝐿𝛼𝛼 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐Λ 𝑐𝑐/4
3 𝜌𝜌𝜌𝜌𝐶𝐶
𝑥𝑥𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁
Gradient of Lift Coefficient (Finite Wing) 𝜁𝜁 = �
8𝐼𝐼𝑦𝑦
𝑐𝑐𝐿𝐿𝛼𝛼 𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐Λ 𝑐𝑐/4
𝐶𝐶𝐿𝐿𝛼𝛼 =
2 Wavelength: Pitch Oscillation
+ + 4
𝐹𝐹 �1 𝐹𝐹2
𝜆𝜆 = 2𝜋𝜋𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒
Non-dimensional Static Margin: Tailplane Only
2𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋𝑜𝑜
𝑥𝑥𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 𝑥𝑥̅𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎 − 𝑥𝑥̅𝑐𝑐𝑐𝑐 𝜆𝜆 =
𝜔𝜔

𝑥𝑥𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑥𝑥𝑎𝑎𝑎𝑎,𝑡𝑡
=
𝑐𝑐𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀 𝑐𝑐𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀𝑀

𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕
∆𝑀𝑀 = ∆𝛼𝛼 + ∆𝑞𝑞
𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕 𝜕𝜕𝜕𝜕