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# MMJ 1153 – Computational Method in Solid Mechanics Assignment No.

Question 1

(a) Finite element discretization in a large class of nonlinear problems can be represented by
a system of simultaneous equations of the form:

H  f  0

During a typical step of the solution iteration process, this equation will not be satisfied
unless convergence has occurred. A system of residual forces can be assumed to exist
such that:

  H  f  0

For a single variable solution with an initial trial value of the unknown variable, 0 = 0,
illustrate the tangential stiffness solution algorithm graphically with the aid of Figure Q1.
Label the key variables ( r ,  r , H( r) ,  r) on the figure.

Figure Q1

(b) The total strain increment, d can be expressed as the linear sum of elastic and plastic
strain components as:

d  d e  d p

## Show that the strain hardening parameter, H’ can be expressed as:

ET
H 
E
1 T
E

where E and ET are elastic and tangential modulus of the hardening material,
respectively.

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Question 2

(a) The von Mises stress distribution in a compact tension specimen, as calculated by the
finite element method is illustrated in Figure Q2. The true stress-strain diagram is
shown in the figure with elastic modulus of 130 GPa. The stress scale in MPa (only
top one-half of the specimen is shown).

(i) If the initial yield strength used in the analysis is 195 MPa, sketch clearly on the
figure, the possible elastic-plastic boundary representing the plastic zone.

(ii) If the Cartesian stress components at a selected point in the material are given as
follows, determine if this material point has yielded based on von Mises yield
criterion.

## x = 42 MPa , y = 128 MPa , xy = 23 MPa

Sketch the corresponding yield locus (in 1 - 2 stress space) and indicate the
operating stress point on the diagram.

Stress (MPa)

Figure Q2

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Question 3

Finite element analysis of a thick compact tension specimen made of strain hardening
material has been performed. Figure Q3 illustrates contours of vertical stress component,
Z for the lower one-half of the specimen. The initial yield strength of the material is 32
MPa.
(i) Plot the variations of Z along the path shown by the red line. Use appropriate scale
and label the axes clearly. Indicate a minimum of three readings covering the path.
(ii) Briefly describe this results from the following aspects:
a. Induced bending effects.
b. Plane stress (outer surface) versus plane strain (mid-plane) conditon.