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Reading comprehension
 Edwin Hubble was an American astronomer whose research led to discoveries about galaxies and the
nature of the universe. He settled a long debate by demonstrating that the Andromeda nebula was located
outside our galaxy, establishing the islands universe theory, which states that galaxies exit outside of our own.
His study of the distribution of galaxies resulted in Hubble’s constant, a standard relationship between a
galaxy’s distance from the earth and its speed of recession.
By 1925, Hubble had devised a classification system for the structure of galaxies and provided
conclusive observational evidence for the expansion of the universe. His work pushed the one-hundred-inch
Mount Wilson telescope beyond its capability and provided strong impetus for the construction of a
instrument twice its size at Mount Palomar, which Hubble used during his last year of research. The telescope
that bears his name was launched on a space shuttle in 1990 and orbits the earth, collecting data about the size
of the universe.
1. With what topic is the passage primarily concerned?
A. The Hubble’s telescope B. The nature of the universe
C. Edwin Hubble’s research D. Edwin Hubble’s classification system for the structure of galaxies
2. Hubble’s constant states that_______.
A. galaxies exit outside our galaxy.
B. there is a fixed relationship between a galaxy’s distance from the earth and its speed of recession.
C. the universe is expanding.
D. the Andromeda nebula was located outside our galaxy
3. The author mentioned all of the following as accomplishments of Hubble EXCEPT _____.
A. evidence for the expansion of the universe. B. a classification system for the structure of galaxies
C. the islands universe theory D. a design for a space shuttle.
4. The word “capability” is the closest meaning to ___.
A. confidence B. capacity C. quality D. category
5. The paragraph following this passage most probably discusses__.
A. Hubble’s life B. the telescope at Mount Palomar
C. recent information about the size and age of the universe. D. the space shuttle launch.
Notes: astronomer (n) nhµ thiªn v¨n; telescope (n) kÝnh thiªn v¨n; impetus (n) lùc ®Èy; nebula (n)
tinh v©n; recession(n) suy tho¸i; launch (v) h¹ thuû; orbit (v/n) quÜ ®¹o

 Over the past 600 years, English has grown from a language of few speakers to become the dominant
language of international communication. English as we know today emerged around 1350, after having
incorporated many elements of French that were introduced following the Norman invasion of 1066.
Until the 1600s, English was, for the most part, spoken only in England and hadn’t extended even, as
far as Wales, Scotland or Ireland. However, during the course of the next two centuries, English began to
spread around the globe as a result of exploration, trade (including slave trade), colonization, and missionary
work. Thus, small enclaves of English speakers became established and grew in various parts of the world. As
these communities proliferated, English gradually became the primary language of international business,
banking and diplomacy.
Currently, about 80% of the information stored on computer systems worldwide is in English. Two
thirds of the world’s science writing is in English, and English is the language of technology, advertising,
media, international airports, and air traffic controllers. Today there are more than 700 million English users in
the world, and over half of these are non-native speakers, constituting the largest number of non-native users
than any other language in the world.
1. What is the main topic of the passage?
A. The number of non-native users of English. B. The French influence on the English language.
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C. The expansion of English as an international language. D. The use of English for science and technology.
2. Approximately when did English begin to be used beyond England?
A. In 1066 B. Around 1350 C. Before 1600 D. After 1600
3. According to the passage,all of the following contributed to the spread of English around the world
EXCEPT
A. the slave trade B. the Norman invasion C. missionaries D. colonization
4. The word “enclaves” could be best replaced by________?
A. communities B. organizations C. regions D. countries
5. The word “proliferated” is closest meaning to _______?
A. prospered B. organized C. disbanded D. expanded
Notes: dominant (a) thèng trÞ; enclave (n) quèc gia bÞ bao bäc, céng ®ång; proliferated (a)
thÞnh vîng; disband (v) tan r·; diplomacy (n) ngo¹i giao

 As viewed from space, Earth’s distinguishing characteristics are its blue water and white clouds.
Enveloped by an ocean of air consisting 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, the planet is the only one in our solar
system known to harbor life. Circling the Sun at an average distance of 149 million kilometers (93 million
miles) Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest planet in the solar system.
Its rapid spin and molten nickel-iron core give rise to an extensive magnetic field which, coupled with
the atmosphere, shields us from nearly all of the harmful radiation coming from the Sun and other planets.
Most meteors burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere before they can strike the surface. The planet’s active
geological processes have left no evidence of the ancient pelting it almost certainly received soon after it was
formed. The Earth has a single natural satellite – the Moon.
1. What is the main topic of the passage?
A. there are life-supporting characteristics on Earth. B. Earth is predominantly water
C. Earth has no common characteristics with other planets. D. Earth is the only planet with a Moon.
2. The word “distinguishing” is closest meaning to _______?
A. elevating in nature B. devastating in nature
C. characteristics like all others D. characteristics that set it apart from other planets
3. It’s probable that the next paragraph would discus_____.
A. people on planets B. the solar system as a whole.
C. the Earth’s natural satellite – the Moon D. rings around Saturn
4. The word “harbor” is synonymous with _______?
A. support B. surround C. water D. include
5. This selection leads one to believe that Earth ____.
A. never gets hit by meteors. B. always gets hit by meteors.
C. was hit by meteors in some past time period. D. may be bombarded by meteors in the near future.
Notes: spin and molten nickel-iron core (n) lâi nikel tõ xoay; magnetic field (n) tõ trêng; geological (a)
®Þa chÊt; satellite (n) vÖ tinh; meteor (n) thiªn th¹ch; devastate (v) tµn ph¸; elevate (v) n©ng
cao; pelt (v) b¾n ph¸

 Since 1913 the Federal Reserve System has served as the central bank for the United States. It consists
of twelve District Reserve Banks and their branch offices, along with several committees and councils. The
most powerful body is the seven-member Board of Governors in Washington, appointed by the President and
confirmed by the Senate.
The system primary function is to control monetary policy by influencing the cost and the availability
of money and credit through the purchase and sale of government securities. If the Federal Reserve provides
too little money, interest rates tend to be high, borrowing is expensive, business activity slows down,
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unemployment go up, and there is a danger of recession. If there is too much money, interest rates decline, and
borrowing can lead to excess demand, pushing up price and fueling inflation.
1. The principal responsibility of the Federal Reserve System is _____ .
A. to borrow money B. to regulate monetary policies
C. to print government securities D. to appoint the board of Governors
2. The word “securities” is synonymous with _______?
A. debts B. bonds C. protection D. confidence
3. What happens when the Federal Reserve provides too little money?
A. Demand for loans increases B. Unemployment slows down
C. Interest rates go up D. Businesses expand
4. According to the passage, what causes inflation?
A. High unemployment rates. B. Too much money in the economy.
C. Very high fuel price D. A limited supply of goods.
5. Which professor would probably give this lecture?
A. Criminal Justice B. History C. Economics D. Political Science
Notes: Federal Reserve System (n) côc dù tr÷ liªn bang; District Reserve Banks (n) ng©n hµng dù
tr÷ cÊp thÊp monetary policy(n) chÝnh s¸ch tiÒn tÖ; Senate (n) thîng viÖn; recession(n) suy
tho¸i; inflation (n) l¹m ph¸t

 Hundreds of thousands of persons each year fall prey to some type of cancer, but new methods of radiation
therapy have enabled doctors to save more lives than ever before. Medical researchers have developed several
experimental forms of this time-honored cancer treatment that seem effective in fighting the disease.
One promising approach involves exposing cancer cells to radiation by implanting source directly into the
malignant tissue. This process greatly increases the dosage and thus the effectiveness of treatment. Another
technique utilizes drugs to make cancer cells more susceptible to the effects of radiation and to make normal
cells resistant. Certain hugs are able to neutralize the genetic framework of cancer cells, thus making them
easily affected by radiation. Both techniques have seen some positive results in the treatment of inoperable
brain tumors.
These and other methods have helped to raise the recovery rate for cancer victims from 30% 40 years ago
to around 50% today. This is encouraging news for those who fall prey to one of the world’s leading killers.
1 What is the author’s main purpose in this passage?
A. To provide statistical information on cancer B. To agree for new methods of cancer treatment
C. To illustrate new technique of radiation therapy D. To give the results of recent cancer research
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true about radiation therapy?
A. There is one effective form of this therapy B. It save millions of life each year
C. It is an accepted method of cancer treatment D. It causes the incidence of cancer to rise dramatically
3. In paragraph 2, the word malignant most closely means______.
A. diseased B. experimental C. treated D. porous
4. According to the passage, radiation therapy is most effective when _____.
A. drugs are used to relax the cancer patient B. the cancer is directly exposed to the radioactive material
C. it is used on as many patients as possible D. the cancer cells are resistant to treatment
5. It can be inferred from the passage that _______.
A. improvements in cancer treatment during the last half century have been relatively ineffective.
B. the number of deaths caused by cancer has decreased substantially.
C. fewer people are susceptible to the effects of cancer.
D. scientists are close to eliminating cancer entirely.

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Notes: fall prey (v) m¾c; radiation (n) trÞ x¹; implant (v) cÊy m«; malignant (a) ¸c tÝnh; utilize (v)
lîi dông susceptible (a) nh¹y c¶m; hug (n) «m, gh× chÆt; inoperable (a) k ch÷a ®îc; tumor (n)
khèi u; radioactive (a) phãng x¹

 Telecommuting is some form of computer communication between employees’ homes and offices. For
employees whose jobs involve sitting at a terminal or word processor entering data or typing reports, the
location of the computer is of no consequence. If the machine can communicate over telephone lines, when the
work is completed, employees can dial the office computer and transmit the material to their employers. A
recent survey in USA Today estimates that there are approximately 8.7 million telecommuters. But although
the numbers are rising annually, the trend does not appear to be as significant as expected when Business Week
published “The Portable Executive” as its covered story a few years ago. Why hasn’t telecommuting become
more popular?
Clearly, change simply takes time. But in addition, there has been active resistance on the part of many
managers. These executives claim that supervising the telecommuters in a large work force scattered across
the country would be too difficult, or, at least, systems for managing them are not yet developed, thereby
complicating the manager responsibilities.
It is also true that employees who are given the option of telecommuting are often reluctant to accept
the opportunity. Most people feel that they need regular interaction with a group, and many are concerned that
they will not have the same consideration for advancement if they are not visible in the office setting. Some
people feel that even when a space in their houses is set aside as a work area, they never really get away from
the office.
1. With which of the following topics is the passage primary concerned?
A. The advantages of telecommuting. B. A definition of telecommuting.
C. An overview of telecommuting. D. The failure of telecommuting.
2. How many American workers are involved in telecommuting?
A. more than expected. B. more than 8 million C. fewer than last year D. none is true
3. The word resistance could best be replaced by _____
A. alteration B. participation C. opposition D. consideration
4. The word them refers to ______.
A. telecommuters B. systems C. executives D. responsibilities
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author is ______.
A. a telecommuter B. the manager of a group of telecommuter
C. a statistician D. a reporter
Notes: telecommuter (n) ngêi lµm viÖc sö dông liªn l¹c qua m¸y tÝnh; statistician(n) c¸n bé
thèng kª; resistance(n) sù chèng ®èi; telecommuting (n) lµm viÖc sö dông liªn l¹c qua m¸y
tÝnh.

Writing
1. The car has got leather seats.
The seats…………………………………………
2. He has had this for three months.
He bought this…………………………………..
3. Mai says she’d like to have been put in a higher class.
Mai wishes……………………………………………….
4. If it hadn’t rained, we would have gone.
We didn’t……………………………………………….
5. I’d like you to help me to put all the chairs away.
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Do you mind……………………………………………
6. That was a silly thing to say.
What…………………………………………………..
7. They traveled across India then flew on to Korea.
After they……………………………………………..
8. He seemed to be living in this area.
It seemed……………………………………………….
9. He is thought to be the best player.
It is……………………………..……………………….
10. During his childhood, the family lived in Cornwall.
His family……………………………………………….
11. Mary rang hours and hours ago.
It is hours…………………………………………
12. You may get hungry on the train, so take some sandwiches.
In case…………………………………..
13. They understand more than we do.
We don’t……………………………………………….
14. The Prime Minister is going to open the enquiry.
The enquiry……………………………………………….
15. You had better go there immediately.
She advised……………………………………………
16. I’m grateful that you looked after my mother so well .
Thank you…………………………………………………..
17. This holiday is so expensive, I don’t think I can go.
It is such……………………………………………..
18. The garden is too small to play football in.
The garden isn’t……………………………………………….
19. When did you start working here?
How long……………………………..……………………….
20. I tried to eat the cake, but it was too sweet.
The cake……………………………………………….
21. We will stop off in France on our way to Italy.
We will break…………………………………………
22. Custom officers are stopping more travelers than usual.
An increased…………………………………..
23. You can eat as much as you can for $5 at the new lunch bar.
There is not……………………………………………….
24. You really should be able to dress yourself by now.
It’s high time……………………………………………….
25. “I’m sorry I gave you the wrong number” said Paul to Susan.
Paul apologized to……………………………………………
26. Although he had a good salary, he was unhappy in his job.
In spite…………………………………………………..
27. Hans regretted buying the second hand car.
Hans wished……………………………………………..
28. He wore glasses so that noone would recognize him.
He avoided……………………………………………….
29. I’d rather not see her tomorrow.
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I don’t……………………………..……………………….
30. I’m more interested in the people than the job.
It’s ……………………………………………….
31. Interest rates have fallen sharply recently.
There …………………………………………
32. You should have your leather jacket dry-cleaned.
Your leather…………………………………..
33. Her behaviour annoys me.
I find……………………………………………….
34. It’s a pity my sister didn’t use her motorbike.
My sister wishes……………………………………………….
35. You are to refund my money. Otherwise I’ll take legal action.
Unless ……………………………………………
36. I had better go back to work.
It’s …………………………………………………..
37. The last time it rained was a forth-night ago.
It ……………………………………………..
38. The noise next door didn’t stop until after midnight.
It was not……………………………………………….
39. He never has enough money.
He’s always ……………………………..……………………….
40. “I must see the manager!” he cried.
He insisted……………………………………………….

Letters composing
I. 1. I/ sorry/ I/ fail/ arrive/ Hanoi/ last weekends.
………………………………………………………………………………
2. I/ hope/ this/ not/ mess/ you / up/ completely.
………………………………………………………………………………
3. I/ know/ you/ make/ special arrangements/ visit/ parent/ friends .
………………………………………………………………………………
4. I/ sorry/ all/ that.
……………………………………………………………………………….
5. I/ sure/ you/ sympathetic.
……………………………………………………………………………….
6. when/ tell/ you/ my father/ ill/ Vinhphuc people’s hospital/ I/ worry.
……………………………………………………………………………….
7. I/ find/ impossible/ Vinhphuc/ he/ state.
……………………………………………

II. 1. thank you/ much/ your/ letter/ arrive/ few days ago .
………………………………………………………………………………
2. it/ be/ lovely/ hear / you.
………………………………………………………………………………
3. I/ be/ sorry/ not/ write/ such/ long time/ but I/ be/ very/ busy.
………………………………………………………………………………
4. as you know/ we/ buy/ new house/ September.
……………………………………………………………………………….
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5. it/ be/ bad/ condition/ and it/ need/ a lot of work.
……………………………………………………………………………….
6. we/ finish/ most/ it/ now/ and/ it/ look/ very nice.
……………………………………………………………………………….
7. Peter and I/ decide/ house-warming party/ May 3rd .
……………………………………………………………………………….
8. you/ think/ you/ able/ come?
……………………………………………………………………………….
9. please give me/ ring/ let/ know/ you/ make/it.
……………………………………………………………………………….
10. I really/ look/ forward/ see/ you again.
………………………………………………………………………………..

III. 1. thank/ much/ letter/ 15th June.


………………………………………………………………………………
2. I/ sorry/ previous letter/ took/ reach/ you.
………………………………………………………………………………
3. I/ make sure/ present letter/ post/ air mail.
………………………………………………………………………………
4. you/ get/ within/ a week/ so.
……………………………………………………………………………….
5. yes/ indeed/ all/ ready/ receive/ as/ visiting professor.
……………………………………………………………………………….
6. we/ look forward/ make/ personal.
……………………………………………………………………………….
7. kindest/ regards. ……………………………………………

IV. 1. I/ sorry/ I/ fail/ arrive/ Hanoi/ last weekends.


………………………………………………………………………………
2. I/ hope/ this/ not/ mess/ you / up/ completely.
………………………………………………………………………………
3. I/ know/ you/ make/ special arrangements/ visit/ parent/ friends .
………………………………………………………………………………
4. I/ sorry/ all/ that.
……………………………………………………………………………….
5. I/ sure/ you/ sympathetic.
……………………………………………………………………………….
6. when/ tell/ you/ my father/ ill/ Vinhphuc people’s hospital/ I/ worry.
……………………………………………………………………………….
7. I/ find/ impossible/ Vinhphuc/ he/ state.
……………………………………………

 For centuries, sky watchers have reported seeing mysterious flashes of light on the surface of the moon.
Modern astronomers have observed the same phenomenon, but no one has been able to satisfactorily explain
how or why the moon sporadically sparks. However, researchers now believe they have found its cause.
Researchers have examined the chemical content of Moon rocks retrieved by astronauts during the Apollo
missions and have found that they contain volatile gases such as helium, hydrogen and argon. The researchers
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suggest that stray electrons, freed when the rocks cracks, may ignite these gases. Indeed, lunar rock samples,
when fractured in the lab, throw off sparks.
What causes these rocks to crack to the lunar surface? The flashes are more often seen at the borders
between sunlight and on the Moon, where the surface is being either intensively heated or cooled. A sudden
change in temperature may cause thermal cracking. Another possibility is that meteors may strike the rocks
and cause them to crack. Finally, lunar rocks may be fractured by seismic events – in other word, by tiny
moonquakes.
1. Which of the following statements describes the organization of the passage?
A. A popular notion is refuted.
B. A generalization is made, and examples of it are given.
C. The significance of an experiment is explained.
D. A phenomenon is described, and a possible explanation is proposed.
2. According to the passage, how long have people been aware of the mysterious light on the moon?
A. For the last ten years. B. Since the Apollo moon mission.
C. For hundreds of years. D. For thousands of years.
3. The word sporadically is the closest meaning to which of the following?
A. reputedly B. occasionally C. mysteriously D. constantly
4. According to the passage, the theory that Moon rocks give off sparks when they crack is supposed by ____.
A. a telescopic study of the Moon. B. experiments conducted by astronauts.
C. observations made centuries ago. D. an analysis of rocks from the Moon.
5. The word they in the second paragraph refers to ______.
A. helium, hydrogen and argon. B. researchers.
C. Apollo spaceship. D. lunar rocks.
 According to the census of 1800, the United States contained 5,308,832 persons. In the same year the
British Islands contained upwards of fifteen million; the French Republic, more than twenty-seven million.
Nearly one-fifth of American people were black slaves; the true political population consisted of four and a
half million free white, or less than one million able-bodied males, on whose shoulders fell the burden of a
continent. Even after two centuries of struggle the land was still untamed; forest covered every portion, except
here and there a stripe of cultivated soil; the materials lay undisturbed in their rocky beds, and more than two-
thirds of the people clung to the seaboard within fifty miles of tidewater, where alone the wants of civilized
life could be supplied.
1. In the US in 1800 _______.
A. one out of every twenty-five Americans was a black slave. B. one out of every four was a black slave.
C. two out of every three Americans was a black slave. D. one out of every five was a black slave.
2. Free white men in America numbered ________.
A. about four-fifths of the population. B. about four and one half million.
C. 5,308,832 D. less than one million.
3. Two-thirds of the American people ______.
A. lived where the wants of civilized life could not be supplied. B. lived in Washington.
C. lived on the seaboard. D. lived within fifteen miles of tidewater.
4. The struggle to tame the American continent had been going______.
A. about two hundred years ago. B. about fifty years.
C. a little more than a century. D. since 1750.
5. This description of the US in 1800 suggests that ______.
A. most of the new nation was undeveloped.
B. the people of the new nation had succeeded in taming the continent.
C. strips of cultivated land were everywhere.
D. settlers were beginning to mine the valuable minerals of the new continent.
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 Casablanca, Sept 24
UPI-A flash flood swept across the coastal plain about 100 miles southwest of here, killing scores of
villagers in a market place yesterday morning. Reporters from the area said 75 bodies had been counted, and
dozens of people were missing.
The flood followed heavy rains which filled the coastal plain’s dry creek beds to overflowing. The food
crest, several feed high, hit the village of Khemis Nagua at mid-morning yesterday as farmers from the
surrounding area joined townsfolk in an open market place.
The roaring water swept the village’s flimsy dwelling places, the market sheds, shoppers, cattle and
farm implements for almost as soon as it started, the reporters said, as the crest swept out to sea. Rescue
workers quickly moved into the area from Safi, about 25 miles further south.
1. When did the flood occur?
A. on the morning of Sept 24. B. on the afternoon of Sept 24.
C. on the morning of Sept 23. D. on the afternoon of Sept 23.
2. In which country is the village which was flooded?
A. In Khemis Nagua. B. In Casablanca C. In Morocco D. In Safi
3. What happened to the creek beds?
A. They were swept for miles across the plains C. They were flooded.
B. The mattresses on them were ruined by the flood waters. D. They were swept out of the flimsy houses.
4. What happed to the crest of flood water eventually?
A. It went down the drain. B. It was evaporated by the Sun.
C. It went into the sea. D. It soaked into the ground.
5. What does flash in the first line mean?
A. a bright flash of lightening. B. sudden.
C. unexpected despite the climate. D. which came and went quickly.

 Compact discs (CD’s) have revolutionized the music industry with their surprisingly realistic sound.
The six-inch discs look like thin, plastic sandwiches with aluminum in the centre. They have digitally recorded
material that is read by laser beams, so the sound has none of the cracking of vinyl records. CD’s are also
virtually indestructible, and they are lighter and smaller than conventional records (LP’s). CD’s are becoming
more widely available than LP’s: they are sold in electronics and video stores that haven’t formerly carried
records or cassettes. Many record stores are now cutting their price on LP’s to make room for the new CD’s.
There has been a phenomenal growth in the sale of CD’s. sales were up almost 150% in the first half of
1986 as compared to the first half of 1985. although fewer than 6 million CD’s were sold in the US in 1984,
there were approximately 50 million sold in 1986. it is likely that the sales would have been even higher were
it not for the price; CD’s cost nearly twice as much as LP’s. in the near future, however, prices should lower as
more production facilities open.
1. The main appeal of CD’s is their ______.
A. price B. size C. sound D. availability
2. The author refers to CD’s as “sandwiches” because they _____.
A. are light. B. are small. C. are layered D. don’t crackle
3. This passage states that it is difficult to ______.
A. play a CD. B. produce a CD. C. record a CD. D. destroy a CD.
4. According to the passage, many record stores are currently ______.
A. lowering CD prices. B. raising LP prices C. lowering LP prices D. raising CD prices.
5. According to the passage, which one of the following is true?
A. Different binds of stores are selling CD’s. B. More CD’s are available than LP’s.

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sÏ lµ cña b¹n
C. Stores are selling more CD’s than LP’s. D. Stores are losing money on their LP’s.
6. The author’s main purpose is to ______.
A. tell how CD’s are made. B. discus the growth of CD’s.
C. compare CD’s and LP’s. D. describe the technology that produces CD’s.
Keys
1. CBDBC 2. CDBAA 3. ADCAC 4. CBCBC 5. CCABB
6. CBCAD 7. DCBDD 8. DDCAA 9. CCCCD 10. CCDCAB

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