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INTRODUCTION & AUTHORS NOTE

This book has been written with a view to provide help to Architectural students
appearing for university exams. This book is a part of a series of books written for
various years of the B.Arch. Course in Architecture.
This book does not claim to be a substitute for text books written on the subject
but provides information in a nutshell required for answering questions. The
student is advised to also refer to various textbooks to have comprehensive
knowledge about the subject. I hope that this book will suffice the long standing
demand of students for Q & A book on Building Construction topic.
After using this book students are encouraged to provide their feedback to make
future editions more comprehensive.
Ar. Aniruddha Kolhatkar

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | F. Y. B.ARCH | SEMESTER 1 |


CONTENTS
SR. NO. SUBJECT PAGE NO.

CHAPTER 1 : BUILDING MATERIALS 13


1 Cement 14
2 Types of Cement 15
3 Grades of Cement 18
4 Tests for Cement 20
5 Initial and Final Setting time for Cement 26
6 Storage of Cement 29
7 Cement Mortar 31
8 Bricks 32
9 Ingredients of Bricks 33
10 Manufacturing of Bricks 34
11 Hoffmann’s Kiln 37
12 Concrete Blocks 39
13 Types of Concrete Blocks 40
14 Advantages of Hollow Concrete Blocks 41

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SR. NO. SUBJECT PAGE NO.
15 Lime 43
16 Sources of Lime 44
17 Uses of Lime 44
18 Fat Lime and Hydraulic Lime 45
19 Comparison between Fat lime and Hydraulic Lime 46
20 Preparation of Lime Mortar 47
21 Calcination of Lime 48
22 Slaking of Lime 50
23 Sand 52
24 Sand used in Construction 53
25 Silt Test 54
26 Bulking of Sand 55
27 Comparison between River Sand, Sea Sand & Pit Sand 58
28 Stone 59
29 Geological Classification of Stones 60
30 Chemical Classification of Rocks 64
31 Physical Classification of Rocks 65

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32 Metamorphism and Sedimentation 66
33 Tests for Stone 67
Stabilized Mud Blocks or Cement Stabilized Earth blocks
34 70
(CSEB)
35 Soil Stabilized Mud Blocks 71
36 Types of Soils used for CSEB Blocks 72
37 Comparison between Mud Blocks and Concrete Blocks 73

38 CHAPTER 2 : ELEMENTS OF BUILDING 76


39 Building Elements from Foundation to Roof 77
40 Load Bearing Structures 81
41 Load Transfer in Load Bearing Structures 83
42 Framed Structures 85
43 Comparison between Load Bearing & Framed Structures 88
44 Superstructure and Substructure 90
45 Load & Types of Loads 91
46 Materials used for various Building Elements 92
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47 Drip Mould 93
48 Importance of Copings on Walls 95
49 Types of Copings 96
50 Stone and Timber Lintels 97

51 CHAPTER 3 : FOUNDATIONS AND SOILS 101


52 What is Foundation 102
53 Types of Foundation 108
54 Factors involved in Design of Strip Foundation 112
55 Requirements of Good Foundation 116
56 Importance of PCC Bed in Foundation 117
57 Strip Foundation 119
58 Murrum filling in Plinth 121
59 Importance of Coping Beam in Plinth 125
60 Brick and Stone Foundation 128

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61 Forces acting on Foundation 130
62 Damp Proof Course (DPC) 133
63 Bearing Capacity of Soil 138
64 Safe Bearing Capacity of Soil 140
65 Types of Soils in Maharashtra 141
66 Cohesive and Non-Cohesive Soils 142
67 Importance of Soil Investigation 143
68 Behaviour of Soil under Loading Conditions 146
69 Bulb of Pressure 149

70 CHAPTER 4 : BRICK MASONRY 152


71 Terminology of Brick 153
72 Types of Special Bricks 155
73 Qualities of Bricks 159
74 Bonds and their Importance in masonry 160
75 Queen Closer and its Role 164
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76 Half Bat Brick 165
77 Difference between Bat and Closer 166
78 Toothing 170
79 Raking Back 171
80 Perpends 172
81 Continuous Vertical Joints 173
82 Need of wetting bricks 174
83 Importance of Spraying water on Brickwork 175
84 Lap in Brick work 176
85 Different ways of placing Bricks in Masonry 177
86 Stretching Bond 178
87 Types of Brick Bonds 181
88 Rat Trap Bond 191
89 Advantages of Rat Trap Bond 194
90 Comparison between English and Flemish 195

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91 CHAPTER 5 : STONE MASONRY 197


92 Natural Bed of Stone 198
93 Types of Stone Masonry 200
94 Importance of Through Stone, Bonder & Spall 207
95 Composite Masonry 209
96 Dressing of Stone 211
97 Stones used in Construction 213
98 Properties of Good Building Stone 214
99 Principles of Stone Masonry 217
100 Stone Joints 219

101 CHAPTER 6 : ARCHES AND LINTELS 222

102 Terminology of Semi-Circular Arch 223


103 Types of Arches 226
104 Load Transfer in Arches 227

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105 Loads Acting on Lintel 231
106 Evolution of Arches 234

107 CHAPTER 7 : TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS 237


108 Tools & Equipments used in Excavation 238
109 Tools in Stone and Brick Masonry 241
110 Tools for Checking Verticality and Horizontality 246

CHAPTER 8 : EARTHQUAKES AND EARTHQUAKE


111 248
RESISTANT MEASURES
112 Earthquakes 249
113 Types of Earthquakes 250
114 Types of Faults 251
115 Types of Waves in Earthquake Engineering 252
116 Earthquake Terminology 255

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SR. NO. SUBJECT PAGE NO.
117 Seismic Zones in India 257
118 Epicenter and Focus in Earthquake 259
Measures for Earthquake Resistance in Load Bearing
119 260
Structures

120 CHAPTER 9 : PLASTERING AND POINTING 264


121 Plastering : Its Method and Preparation 265
122 Neeru finish Plaster 271
123 Pebble Dash Plaster 272
124 Plaster of Paris Punning 273
125 Jointing and Pointing 274

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CHAPTER 1
BUILDING MATERIALS

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CEMENT

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CEMENT
Q. Write a short note on Types of cement.

Ans:
Following are the various types of cement:
1. Portland Cement
2. Rapid Hardening Cement
3. High Alumina Cement

1. Portland Cement :
Portland cement is a mixture of limestone and clay.
Manufacturing Process :
A. Wet Process – In this process, lime stone and clayis washed and broken up
and mixed with water to form a ‘slurry’.
The slurry is then put into a kiln which is at a temperature of 1400 deg
Celcius.
The heating of slurry causes it lose moisture and limestone gets converted
into carbon dioxide and lime.

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The resulting ‘clinker’ is then allowed to cool and the gound with the help
of rollers into a fine powder. At this time 5% gypsum is added to the
powder to prevent flash setting of cement.
B. Dry process - In this process, lime stone and shale are proportioned and
ground. Small quantity of water is added and the mix is then fired in a kiln.
The clinker formed is then ground to a fine powder. Small quantity of
gypsum (5%) is added to the mix to prevent flash setting.

2. Rapid Hardening Portland Cement :


a. Rapid hardening portland cement is more finely ground than ordinary
portland cement.
b. The main advantage of this type of cement is that it gains strength faster
than ordinary portland cement.

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3. High Alumina Cement :


a. High Alumina cement is made from limestone and bauxite.
b. Limestone and bauxite are heated till they melt. The molten material is cast
into blocks which are then ground into fine powder
c. Properties of High alumina cement are as follow :
i.It is very rapidly hardening cement.
ii.It resists the sulphate attack due to naturally occurring sulphates in the
subsoil.

High alumina cement is very costly and can cost upto 2.5 times ordinary
portland cement

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Q. Write a note on Grades of Cement.

Ans.
1. Cement is available in the market in different grades.
2. The grades are related to the particle size.
3. Different grades have different setting times.
4. Commonly available grades are :
a.32 grade
b.43 grade
c.53 grade
d.Puzzolona cement
e.Blended cement (cement mixed with fly ash)

A. 32 and 43 grade, Puzzolona cement:


These set slowly and develop strength gradually. They are there for ideal for
plaster work. They have lesser tendency to develop shrinkage cracks.

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B. 53 grade cement:
a. This is fast setting cement and develops strength fast. Hence it is ideal
to be used for RCC works.
b. It also shrinks rapidly and hence may develop shrinkage cracks if not
cured properly.
c. It is not suitable for plaster work

C. Blended Cement :
a. Blended cement are now a days used for all major RCC works.
b. Fly ash which is a by product of thermal power plants is mixed with the
cement and it improves the properties of cement.
D. The numbers 33, 43, 53 indicate the compressive strength of the cement
after28 days of mixing with water in kg/mm2

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Q. Explain tests to be carried out for cement.

Ans.
1. Soundness test:
a. Soundness test is required to measure how much cement expands after it
sets. If the cement expands considerably it will damage the concrete and
mortar. Soundness means the ability to resist volume expansion.
b. Soundness test is carried out by using the 'Le-chateliers' appuratus.

• Procedure for carrying out test:


a. Test the cement for standard consistency by doing the consistency test (this
is given in a separate note) the standard consistency of cement is denoted
by the letter 'P' The consistency test will give the amount of water to be
added to cement for getting standard consistency
b. Add water equal to 0.78 times the water required for standard consistency
(0.78xP)
c. Lightly oil the Le-chatelier mould and place it on a piece of glass then fill
the mould with the cement paste .
d. Put another piece of glass on top of the mould and place a weight on top.
... Continued on next page

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e. Submerge the entire assembly under water with temperature of 27 and 0 C.

keep for 24 hours.


f. Remove the whole assembly and measure the distance between the
indicator points to the nearest 0.5mm (this is length L1)
g. Put the entire assembly in a water bath and heat the water to boiling and
keep for 3 hours.
h. Allow the water to come back to room temperature
i. Now measure the distance between the indicators ( this is length L2)
j. The cement is good in soundness if L2-L1 is maximum equal to 10mm

- In the test the water is boiled to speed up the expansion process of


cement.
- The above test is governed as per IS:4031-PART 3-1988 (Indian standard
specification)

... Continued on next page

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LE CHATLIER APPARATUS
... Continued on next page

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2. Test for consistency:
a. The test for consistency of cement is done to test the amount of water to
be added to cement to get 'standard consistency'
b. The apparatus used for the test is called 'Vicats apparatus'
• Procedure for the test:
a. Take 400 grams of cement in a container and add a measured quantity of
water
b. Mix the cement and water thoroughly for not more than 3 to 5 minutes
and then put the paste in the mould of the Vicats apparatus
c. Put the sample below the plunger and adjust the plunger so that it is just
above the surface of the sample.
d. Release the plunger immediately and let it sink into the cement paste
e. Measure the distance on the Vicats apparatus
f. The distance of penetration of the plunger should be between 5 to 7mm
from the bottom of the mould.
g. If the reading is less or more than the range given above repeat the
experiment varying the quantity of water added to the cement.
h. When the reading is within the given range above the amount of water
added to the sample can be taken as the water required for achieving
... Continued on next page
standard consistency.
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VICAT’S APPARATUS ... Continued on next page

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• The following other tests shall be carried out for cement on site

1. Date of packing – The date of packaging of cement shall be carefully


checked as strength of cement reduces with age
2. Color – The cement procured on site shall be uniform in color
3. Rubbing – Cement shall be taken in hand and rubbed and shall feel smooth
to the hand.
4. Hand insertion – Cool feeling after inserting hand inside bag. It ensures
that no hydration has taken place inside the bags.
5. Float test – Cement shall be poured on water and shall not float on water.
6. Smell test – If adulterated will give an earthy smell
7. Presence of lumps – No lumps shall be seen inside bag
8. Shape and strength test – Cement block immersed in water for 7 days and
then loaded and check the crushing strength of cement.

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Q. Why is it necessary to test the initial and final setting time for cement?

Ans:
1. Cement should not set two rapidly or too slowly. If cement sets too rapidly
it will be difficult to transport and place cement to the point where it is
poured. If it sets too slowly the structure will take a long time to develop
strength and the construction work will get delayed.
2. Initial setting time is related to the mixing placing and compacting of
concrete while final setting time is related to hardening of concrete.
3. Initial setting time is the point where the cement starts losing its plasticity
while final setting time indicated the time when the cement has lost its
plasticity.
4. Initial setting time denotes the time when the chemical reaction of water
and cement has started while final setting time denotes the time when the
primary chemical reaction between cement and water is almost complete.

... Continued on next page

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1. Test For Initial Setting Time Of Cement


a. Prepare a paste of cement and water of 0.85P where P is the standard
consistency of cement.(Refer separate note on standard consistency)
b. Note the time of mixing the water with the cement, this is time T1
c. Put the paste in the mould for the Vicats apparatus
d. Replace the plunger with the 1 sq. mm needle
e. Adjust the needle so that it is just touching the surface of the paste
f. Let go of the needle and let it sink into the paste
g. Note the reading on the Vicats apparatus
h. Keep on repeating the process till the needle cannot sink beyond 5 to 7mm
from the bottom of the mould
i. Note the time when the needle cannot sink below 5 to 7mm from the base
of the mould this is time T2
j. The difference between the times noted above ( T2-T1) gives the initial
setting time of the cement
k. As per IS code initial setting time for Ordinary Portland Cement should be
minimum 30 minutes

... Continued on next page

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2. Test For Final Setting Time Of Cement


a. Continue with the test above
b. Replace the 1 sq.mm. needle with the needle + attachment assembly as
shown in the figure
c. Adjust the needle and attachment so that it is just touching the surface of
the paste
d. Let go of the needle and let it sink into the paste
e. There will be two marks seen on the paste, one mark of the needle and the
other a ring mark of the attachment
f. Keep on repeating the process till only the needle makes a mark and there
is no mark from the attachment
g. Note this time (T3)
h. The difference between the times noted above ( T3-T1) gives the final
setting time of the cement
i. As per IS code final setting time for Ordinary Portland Cement should be
maximum 600 minutes

... Continued on next page

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Q. What is the method of storing cement on site?

Ans.
1. Cement bags shall be stored in dry and leak proof place.
2. There shall be minimum or no windows as moisture shall not be allowed to
enter the place of storage.
3. The cement bags shall be stacked off the floor on a raised platform above
the ground level ( minimum 300mm) so that moisture does not enter the
bags.
4. A minimum gap of 2 feet (600mm) shall be left between the walls and the
stacks of cement used.
5. The height of the cement backs stack shall not exceed 10 bags so that
lumping does not take place.
6. Proper management of cement bags shall be done. The cement used
should be in chronological order of receipt i.e the bags arriving first should
be used first.
7. The cement should be stacked so that different brands and grades are
clearly separated.
8. A register of cement consumption and bags remaining in the store should
... Continued on next page
be maintained.
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Q. What is cement mortar? What are its uses and proportions of mix?

Ans.
1. Mortar is a binding material used in masonry construction.
2. It is a mixture of cement, sand and water.
3. The uses of mortar are as follows
4. To bind the masonry units and to provide strength
5. Used for external and internal plaster and also for waterproofing coat.
6. The proportions of mortar may vary according to the place of application

a. For masonry works – 1: 6 (1 part of cement and 6 parts of sand)


b. For plastering or masonry – 1:3 or 1: 4
c. For pointing – 1:2 or 1:3
d. For waterproofing – 1: 2

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BRICKS

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Q. Write about ingredients of Bricks.

Ans:
Bricks contain the following ingredients in percentage by weight :
1. Silica (sand) – 50 to 60%
2. Alumina (clay) – 20 to 30%
3. Lime – 2 to 5%
4. Iron oxide – 7%
5. Magnesia – Less than 1%

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Q. Write a short note on manufacturing of bricks

Ans:
The manufacturing of bricks involves 3 processes
1. Preparation of clay
2. Moulding
3. Drying
4. Burning

1. Preparation of clay:
a. Unsoiling of clay: The top layer of the earth from where brick clay is
obtained can contain impurities and hence the top layer of soil to a depth
of 200 to 300mm is removed. This process is called unsoiling
b. Digging: The clay is dug out of the ground and spread on horizontal surface.
c. Cleaning: The clay is cleaned of all organic impurities, stones etc. The clay is
washed and the lumps of clay are ground into powder
d. Weathering: Clay is exposed to the atmosphere. This is done before the
rainy season. Due to this the clay becomes soft.
... Continued on next page

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e. Blending: Ingredients required for the manufacture of bricks are added to
the soft clay and the clay is turned up and down and sideways to mix or
blend the ingredients properly.
f. Tempering: Water is added to the clay and the clay is mixed thoroughly. The
mixing is done by humans or cattle stomping on the clay. For mechanized
and large scale manufacture of bricks a 'PUG MILL' is used for this process.

2. Moulding:
Moulding of bricks is done by two methods
a. Hand moulding : Hand moulding is done by forcing the tempered clay into
the brick mould so that it is completely filled. The extra clay at the top of
the mould is removed by a wooden strike. The mould is then lifted and the
brick is left on the flat surface prepared for moulding.
b. Machine moulding : Machine moulding is done in two ways either by
plastic moulding machine or dry moulding machine. In plastic moulding
machine the tempered soft clay is forced through the machine to get a
continuous strip of clay with the necessary width and depth.
c. The strip is then cut at the specified length of the bricks by wires. Such type
of bricks are called 'wire cut bricks‘. ... Continued on next page

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3. Drying of bricks:
After moulding the bricks are left in the open to dry. The better way is to
keep the bricks in a shed with open sides. The bricks are placed in such a
way as to allow free circulation of air around the bricks.

4. Burning of bricks:
a. The Burning of bricks is done in clamp or kiln method.
b. In clamp method the dried bricks are arranged in a stack in such a way that
they leave intermediate spaces for placing the fuel. The fuel is ignited and
the entire stack is covered by clay. The fuel inside the stack keeps burning
and thus the bricks are burned.
c. In the Kiln process, properly designed ovens called kilns are used. The kilns
can be intermittent kilns or continuous kilns.
d. The intermittent kilns have to be stopped for some time after the bricks are
burnt for cooling, unloading and stacking of new bricks.
e. In case of continuous kilns like the 'Hoffmans' kiln the process of drying,
preheating, burning, cooling loading and unloading takes place in a
continuous cycle and hence the kiln is kept on for 365 days 24 hours of the
year.

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Q. Write in short on Hoffmann Kiln ?
Ans.
1. Hoffman kiln is designed to operate continuously throughout the year
2. It consists of a central passage called the fire passage surrounded by
several rooms or chambers as shown in the figure.
3. The rooms are arranged to form ‘zones’ which are as follows
a. Loading and unloading zone: In this zone fresh bricks are added and
ready bricks are unloaded.
b. Drying zone: After bricks are loaded they are dried in this zone. The
heat generated for burning is utilized for drying.
c. Pre-heating zone: In this zone the bricks get preheated. It is essential
that the bricks are heated and cooled slowly so that they do not
develop cracks.
d. Firing zone: In this zone the bricks are fired and burnt.
e. Cooling zone: The ready bricks from the firing zone go to the cooling
zone where they are slowly cooled.
f. Unloading zone: The ready bricks are unloaded for dispatch.

... Continued on next page

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Chambers

HOFFMAN’S KILN
Continuous operation. Can work throughout the year

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CONCRETE BLOCKS

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Q. What are the types of concrete blocks used in construction?
Ans.
The types of concrete blocks used in construction are
1. Solid concrete blocks: These are made of concrete of proportion 1:3:6 or
1:2:4 as per the load bearing capacity of the blocks required. These blocks
can be used for partition walls for framed structures or load bearing walls
for load bearing structures
2. Hollow concrete blocks: Hollow concrete blocks are designed with hollow
portions left within the block during casting. The purpose of the hollow
portions is to reduce the weight of the blocks and to create spaces inside
the masonry in which reinforcement can be inserted and concrete can be
poured to create small RCC columns. This gives additional strength and
rigidity to the masonry.
3. Aerated concrete blocks or light weight concrete blocks: These are light
weight concrete blocks which are used to reduce the weight of the
structure. These blocks are made from aerated or foamed concrete. Due to
this process there are many air bubbles created in the concrete reducing its
weight.

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Q. Advantages of hollow concrete blocks

Ans.

The following are the advantages of using hollow concrete blocks for masonry
construction.
1. Hollow concrete blocks are economical as they save on material
2. They are lightweight in nature
3. Concrete blocks are long lasting and durable.
4. Concrete blocks are easy to install on site
5. Concrete blocks are fireproof and give resistance to fire.
6. They are low on maintenance and hence save costs.
7. Concrete blocks can be ornamented in various shapes as required.
8. Concrete block masonry can be strengthened by putting reinforcement
within the hollow portion.
9. Acoustical and heat insulation.
10. These blocks do not require to be burnt hence eco friendly.
... Continued on next page

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HOLLOW CONCRETE BLOCKS

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LIME

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LIME

Q. What are the main sources of lime ? Q. What are the uses of lime ?

Ans. Ans.
The main sources of lime are Uses of lime are as follows:
1. Lime stone 1. Used for manufacturing concrete or
2. Lime stone boulders from river mortar
beds 2. Used for Plastering of walls
3. Shells of marine animals 3. Used as jointing material for masonry
4. Used for painting plastered walls
5. Used for stabilization of agricultural soil
6. Used in metallurgical industry
7. Used for making glass

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Q. Fat lime and hydraulic lime

Ans.
Fat lime :
It is also known as high calcium lime or pure lime or rich lime or white lime.
It is popularly known as fat lime as it slakes vigorously and its volume is
increased to about 2 to 2.5 times that of quick lime.
This lime is used for various purposes as white washing, plastering of walls, as
lime mortar with sand for pointing in masonry work, as a lime mortar with
surkhi for thick masonry walls, foundations, etc.

Hydraulic lime :
It is also known as water lime.
This lime contains clay and some amount of ferrous oxide. It sets under water
and hence also known as water lime.

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Q. Compare between Fat lime and Hydraulic lime

Ans.

Fat Lime Hydraulic Lime


Made from pure lime stone with very Made from Lime stone which
little impurity contains clay
Pure white in colour Gray in colour
Slakes fast emitting sound and heat Slakes slowly without emitting sound
and heat
Does not set under water Sets under water

Not as strong as Hydraulic Lime Stronger than Fat Lime

Has pure white colour Has grayish colour


Uses: Plastering, White washing Uses: Used for preparing mortar. Can
be used below the water

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Q. Explain preparation of lime mortar. What is the proportion of lime mortar
in stone and brick masonry?

Ans.

1. Lime mortar is a mixture of Lime, sand and water


2. It is generally in the proportion 1: 3 for stone and brick masonry (1 part of
lime and 3 parts of sand)
3. In lime mortar lime is used as the binding material instead of cement.
4. A dry mortar mix of proportion 1: 3 of lime and sand is prepared. Water is
slowly added to maintain consistency of mortar.
5. The mortar thus prepared should be used within half an hour to avoid
setting of the mortar.

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Q. Write a short note on calcination of lime

Ans.

It is the process of driving out the carbon dioxide from lime stone to form quick
lime
This is achieved by heating the lime stone the reaction which occurs is as
follows:

CaCO3 Heat CaO + CO2

Where: CaCO3 – Limestone


CaO - Quick lime
CO2 – Carbon dioxide

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CALCINATION OF LIME

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Q. What is slaking of lime?

Ans.

1. When Calcium Oxide (CaO) which is also called ‘quick lime’ comes in
contact with water a chemical reaction takes place in which heat is
generated
CaO + H2O SLAKING Ca (OH)2 + Heat

2. Due to slaking the quick lime cracks and falls into powder.

The following are the various methods of slaking lime


1. Slaking to Paste:
Pieces of lime are kept in a container and water is filled till the lime is
completely submerged. The container is covered. The chemical reaction
between water and lime occurs, heat is given off and in 5 minutes a paste
of lime is obtained

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1. Method 1 : Lime nodules are taken in a container, submerged in water and


quickly taken out and dropped on a dry surface. The lime undergoes a
reaction with water, heat and sound is produced and the lime crumbles
into powder

2. Method 2 : Lime powder is spread on a table and then sprinkled with


water. The reaction takes place heat and sound is produced and the lime
crumbles to powder.

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SAND

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SAND
Q. Write a note on Sand used in construction

Ans.
1. Sand is used as an ingredient in many building items. For Eg : Sand is used
to create mortar, concrete, etc.
2. The sand used should be river sand, pit sand or crushed sand.
3. Sea sand should never be used in construction as it contains salt which can
corrode the steel and cause efflorescence.
4. River sand – It is obtained from the banks of rivers.
5. Pit sand – It is obtained by crushing larger pieces of aggregate into sand.
6. Sand used for construction should be well graded that means there should
be a gradation of size of particles which is uniform.
7. Fine aggregates – All particles which pass through 5mm sieve are termed as
fine aggregates.
8. Sand should not contain injurious amount of silt. A maximum of 7% of silt is
permissible. If sand contains more than 7% of silt, it should be washed
before use.
9. To test the amount of silt , silt test is used.
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Silt test :
The silt test is as follows:
1. Take a sample of sand in a
glass measuring cylinder
and fill it with water so that
the level of water is well
above the sand.
2. Shake the mixture and allow
the sand to settle down.
3. The silt in the sand being
lighter than the sand
particles settles as a layer
above the sand.
4. Measure the volume of
sand and that of silt.
5. If the volume of silt exceeds
7%, then the sand needs to
be washed before use.
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Q. What is bulking of sand?

Ans.
1. When sand contains moisture, the water forms a thin film around the
sand particles. This increases the distance between the particles
thereby increasing the volume of the sand.
2. This phenomenon is called ‘Bulking of sand’. Bulking of sand occurs
when moisture is present from 5 % to 8% causing an increase in volume
of ranging from 20% to 30%.
3. More moisture beyond this reduces the bulking and in the fully
saturated state the film around the sand particles disappears and the
volume of sand is equal to its dry volume.
4. When preparing concrete/mortar by volumetric method using bulked
sand, the actual sand added in the mix is less than if it was in the dry
state. This leads to a sand deficient concrete/mortar.
5. Additional sand needs to be added to compensate for the deficiency.
The water present in the sand needs to be considered when calculating
water cement ratio.
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7. The amount of bulking of sand can be easily determined by a simple


test as follows.
8. The moist sand sample is taken in a measuring cylinder and its volume
is noted. The measuring cylinder is then filled with water so that the
sand is completely saturated.
8. The cylinder is shaken and the sand allowed to settle. The volume of
the settled sand is noted. The difference in the percentage of volume
in the moist condition and saturated condition indicates the
percentage of bulking.
9. Additional sand is added in the mix in the same percentage to
compensate. If V1 is the volume of moist sand and V2 is the volume
of saturated sand then percentage difference is calculated by the formula
V1-V2/V2 x100

(Further reading: Properties of concrete by A.M. Neville, Practical Building


Construction by Sandeep Mantri)

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Q. Comparison between river sand, sea sand and pit sand.

Ans.

PIT SAND RIVER SAND SEA SAND


Obtained from pits dug Obtained from the banks
Obtained from sea shore
deep inside the earth of rivers
Sand has fine and coarse
Sand is coarse in nature
particles having rounded Sand is very fine
with angular shape
shape

Not used in construction as


Used for concrete,
it contains salt. Salt damges
mortar for plaster and
Used for concrete the concrete and the steel
flooring. Sieved sand is
reinforcement and absorbs
used for plaster
moisture from the air

Reddish brown in colour Grayish in colour White in colour


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STONE

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STONE
Q. Geological Classification of stones with examples

Ans.
Rocks are classified as follows :

1.Igneous rocks: These are formed by the cooling of magma (molten rock) in
the earth’s core. They can be further classified into two types
-Igneous volcanic rocks
-Igneous Plutonic rocks

a. Igneous volcanic rocks are formed when magma shoots out on the earth’s
surface through volcanoes or seeps out through cracks in the earth’s crust.
The magma when it comes on the surface is termed as lava. The lava cools
rapidly giving off heat to the surrounding forming rocks called volcanic
rocks. Due to rapid cooling the rocks have an amorphous structure. The
example of this type of rock is Basalt.
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b. Igneous Plutonic rocks ; These are formed when the magma does not
come out on the surface but cools within a pocket in the earth’s surface.
The magma cools very slowly and under pressure from the adjoining rocks.
Hence the structure of the rock is Crystalline in nature. The example of this
type of rock is Granite.

2. Sedimentary rocks: Rocks on the earth’s surface are constantly being acted
upon by the agents of weathering such as sun, rain and wind. The
weathered particles are carried by the agents of transportation that is
rivers and streams and deposited in layers on the sea bed. Every year fresh
deposits get deposited forming new layers called sediments. The layers are
acted upon by the weight of the sea water and form sedimentary rocks.
Due to tectonic movements these rocks are brought up on the surface and
become available for use. Examples of sedimentary rocks are lime stone,
sandstone.

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3. Metamorphic rocks: The Igneous and sedimentary rocks are acted upon by
heat and pressure due to tectonic movements of the earth’s crust. The
original rocks undergo structural and chemical changes and are
transformed into metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks can show
properties which are entirely different from the parent rock. Examples of
metamorphic rocks are, Original rock lime stone which is a sedimentary
rock is transformed into marble. Original rock granite changes to Gneiss.
Original rock shale gets converted to slate.

4. Residual rocks: These rocks are found on the ridges of mountains. They
have escaped the transportation due to rivers. The examples of residual
rocks are Laterite and Bauxite. Laterite is used as a building stone while
Bauxite is used as an ore of Aluminium.

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Q. Explain Chemical classification of Rocks:

Ans:

Rocks are classified into 3 distinct categories base on their chemical


composition as,
1. Argillaceous rocks: Rocks containing Alumina (Al2O3) and clay as main
components. Examples are Slate and Laterite
2. Siliceous rocks: Rocks containing sand or silicates (SiO2) Examples: Granite,
Basalt, Trap
3. Calcareous rocks : Rocks containing calcium carbonate and Lime. Examples:
Limestone, Marble

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Q. Explain Physical classification of Rocks:

Ans:
Rocks are classified according to physical characteristics as
1. Stratified Rocks: Rocks which show a stratified or layered structure.
Examples : Slate, Sand stone, Limestone
2. Un-stratified Rocks: Rocks which do not show a stratified or layered
structure. Examples: Granite, Basalt, Trap
3. Foliated Rocks: Tendency to split in a specific direction examples:
gneiss, phyllite, schist, and slate.

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Q. Explain the terms ‘Metamorphism’ and ‘Sedimentation’ and give examples
of both types of stones.

Ans.

Metamorphism :
Igneous and sedimentary rocks undergo physical and chemical transformation
due to the action of heat and pressure generated by tectonic activity. The
parent rock gets metamorphosed (properties are changed) into a different rock.
This process is called as metamorphism.
Limestone gets metamorphosed into marble. Shale gets metamorphosed into
slate.
Examples of metamorphic stones: Quartzite, marble, slate, Gneiss stone.
Sedimentation :
Due to the action of sun , rain and wind the surface rocks get weathered and
the particles of weathering are transported by rivers to the ocean where they
get deposited in layers called sediments. This process is called as
sedimentation.
Examples of sedimentary stones : Sandstone , silt stone, Shale stone , limestone

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Q. What are the various tests used for stone?

Ans.

The following are the tests carried out on stone

1. Acid test :
a. A solution of 1% hydrochloric acid is prepared.
b. The sample of stone weighing approximately 50 to 100 grams is immersed
in the liquid for a period of 7 days
c. If the stone is of a good quality it should not be affected by the test. If the
stone shows breaking of the edges or formation of powder it may contain
calcium carbonate.
d. Such a stone will have poor weathering qualities
e. This test is usually carried out on sand stones

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2. Water absorption test :


a. A stone cube of approximately 50 grams in weight is taken and its weight in
the dry condition is noted as ‘W1’
b. The stone sample is kept immersed in water for 24 hours and its weight is
gain noted as ‘W2’
c. The percentage of awater absobtion by weight is calculated by the formula
W2-W1/W1 x 100
d. The percentage of water absorbtion of a good quality stone should not
exceed 5% by weight

3. Impact test:
a. Impact test is used to determine the toughness of the stone.
b. The test is done on an impact machine
c. A cylinder of diameter 25 mm and height 25 mm is prepared from the test
sample.
d. The cylinder is tested on the machine by dropping a steel hammer
weighing 2kg from a height of 1cm.
e. The test is repeated and each time the height from which the weight is
dropped is increased by 1 cm. ... Continued on next page

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f. The height at which the stone sample breaks is noted


g. This is the ‘nth ‘ reading.
h. The number ‘n’ is used to determine the toughness index of the stone.
i. For example the stone breaks when hammer is dropped from 5 cm. Then
‘n’ in this case is 5 and the index of toughness of the stone is ‘5’

4. Crushing test :
a. 3 samples of stone 40x40x40mm is prepared
b. The samples are kept immersed in water for 72 hours
c. The cubes are subject to compressive loads in a machine
d. The reading at which the cube breaks is the crushing strength of the stone
and is calculated in N/sq.mm
e. The average reading of the 3 cubes is considered in determining the
crushing strength

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STABILIZED MUD BLOCKS


OR
CEMENT STABILIZED EARTH BLOCKS (CSEB)

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STABILISED MUD BLOCKS


Q. What are Soil Stabilized Mud blocks?

Ans.
1. These are also know as cement stabilized earth blocks (CSEB).
2. They are made from locally available soil.
3. The blocks are only compressed by machine and dried in open. No burning
is involved.
4. Lime or cement is added to stabilize the blocks and make them more
durable.

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Q. What are the types of soils used for CSEB blocks?

Ans.
1. Top soil which is very fertile is not used.
2. Soil used for these blocks should contain the following percentage of
ingredients :
a. Gravel – 15%
b. Sand – 50%
c. Silt – 15%
d. Clay – 20%

Note- For stabilizing the blocks, Cement – 5% or Lime – 6% is used.

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STABILISED MUD BLOCKS


Q.Write the comparison between Stabilized mud blocks and Concrete blocks.

Ans.

FACTORS STABILISED MUD BLOCKS CONCRETE BLOCKS

Mud blocks are mainly made


from damp soil compressed at Concrete blocks are the blocks
high pressure. made from mixture of Portland
Definition,
The raw mud blocks are stabilized cement, blended cement,
Contents
by adding cement or lime. Thus various types of aggregates
also called as mud stabilized and water.
blocks.

They are also called as


Alternative They are also referred to as
compressed stabilized earth
Name concrete masonry units (CMU)
blocks
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FACTORS STABILISED MUD BLOCKS CONCRETE BLOCKS

Concrete blocks are used for


making partition walls, exterior
Used in construction of masonry
Uses walls, basement walls,
walls.
foundation walls, masonry
walls etc.

Available in a wide range of


Are available in plain and hollow variety including solid blocks,
Availability
blocks and in variety of sizes. hollow blocks, lightweight
blocks, autoclave blocks.

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FACTORS STABILISED MUD BLOCKS CONCRETE BLOCKS

1. Mud blocks are sustainable


and environment friendly.
2. They can be prepared by using
locally available material and
The advantages of concrete
labor. It is a cost efficient and bio
block include durability,
Advantages degradable material.
fireproof, low on maintenance,
3. Mud blocks are easy to lay,
lightweight, economical.
environmentally sound, fire
resistant, energy efficient, long
lasting and also have aesthetic
and acoustic properties.

Generally available in sizes of


Size 200 x 200 x 200 mm and 200 x
200 x 400 mm.

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CHAPTER 2
ELEMENTS OF BUILDING

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77
Q. Sketch of building showing various parts from foundation to roof. State
their function.

Ans.

1. The load bearing structure is divided into two main parts :


a. Superstructure - Structure above the ground level (Plinth, floors and roof)
b. Sub structure – Structure below the ground (Basement and foundation)

BUILDING
FUNCTION
ELEMENT

Function of the foundation is to transfer the load of the


Foundation
superstructure to the soil.

The ground floor is raised from the ground level by a certain


Plinth distance to protect the floor from rain water. This raised portion
is called Plinth.
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BUILDING
FUNCTION
ELEMENT
Walls form the envelope around the building and act as partitions to
create different rooms. The function of the walls is to provide
Walls
security, protection from sun, rain and wind and provide privacy
within the building.
Provides view of the exterior and admits proper light & ventilation to
Window
the rooms.
Door Provide access to space , security, privacy.
Sill provides a suitable finish to the window opening and Protection
Sill
to the wall below.
Lintel supports the masonry above an opening like door or window.
Lintel A lintel band can be useful for providing rigidity to the structure
during an earthquake.
Chajja Protects the door and window from sun and rain.
It is a horizontal/inclined structural member which carries the load
Beam
from roof/slab to the walls/columns in a structure. ... Continued on next page

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79
BUILDING
FUNCTION
ELEMENT

Slab forms the floor or roof of a structure.


Slab
Slab carries the live and dead loads and transfers it to the beams.

A staircase is a set of steps or flight leading from one floor level to


Staircase
another.
Balcony is a cantilevered extension of a floor which is used as an
Balcony
external space.

Parapet Wall It is a wall used to as a protective wall for balcony and terrace.

They serve as a protective covering to walls to exclude rain water


Coping
from entering the wall/masonry below.
Gutter is used to collect rain water falling from the roof and direct it
Gutter
to rain water down take pipe.
It is a suspended ceiling from the structural roof/slab.
False Ceiling
False ceilings are used to cover services and for aesthetics.

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81
Q. Write characteristics of Load bearing structure.

Ans:
The following are characteristics of load bearing structures

1. In load bearing structures the walls are the main load carrying members.
2. The load from roofs, floors, building occupants, furniture etc. is carried by
the walls and transferred to the ground through the foundation. This load is
carried by the wall along its length.
3. The foundation is made up of thicker walls either in brick or stone masonry
resting on concrete base. This is called ‘Strip’ foundation.
4. There is a limitation on the amount of openings to be made in the load
bearing wall. More number of openings will make the wall weak.
5. There is a limitation to the number of floors to be constructed in a load
bearing structure and normally not more than 4 to 5 stories are
constructed as load bearing structures. The thickness of the walls goes on
increasing from the top to bottom storey.

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6. Load bearing structures can be constructed in locally available material and
labor and usually construction techniques are traditionally passed down
from generation to generation.
7. Load bearing structures echo the tradition, art and craft of the locality. The
design reflects the climatic conditions of the place. Thus load bearing
structures show different characters as per the locality.

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Q. Explain the Load transfer in Load Bearing Structures.

Ans:
1. The load bearing structure is divided into two main parts
a. Superstructure : Walls , floors , roof
b. Sub structure : Basement , foundation
2. The load from the superstructure is transferred to the sub structure and
the sub structure transfers the load to the ground.
3. The load transfer in super structure is as follows :
Roof / Slab Beam Wall Foundation Ground
4. The main function of the sub structure is to transfer the load from the
super structure to the ground.
5. The load transfer of sub structure is as follows :
Load from super structure Foundation Ground

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85
Q. Write characteristics of ‘Framed structures’

Ans:

1. Framed structures consist of a frame work of vertical and horizontal


members called columns and beams respectively. The frame can be made
from different materials like RCC, steel, timber etc.
2. The frame carries all the loads from roof, floors, walls and other building
elements and also loads of the occupants of the building. The load is
transferred through the columns to the foundation and to the ground. Thus
unlike in load bearing structures the load is transferred the ground at
certain points.
3. The walls in framed structure serve only as enveloping structure. The basic
function of the walls is to provide privacy and protection from the
elements (sun, rain, wind, snow etc.) and thieves.

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4. The foundations of framed structures can be of different types depending
on type of soil encountered. Some types of foundations for framed
structure are pad foundation, pile foundation, raft foundation etc.
5. Since the walls are not the principal load carrying members there are lesser
restrictions to the amount of openings made in the walls and full
windows/doors spanning from one column to another are also possible.
6. RCC and Steel have great advantage in the sense that they can be used to
construct different shapes. This gives the designer greater freedom in
design.
7. Large span structures like factories, stadiums, transport terminals, aircraft
hangers etc.

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Q. Comparison between load bearing and framed structure

Ans.
Load bearing structure Framed Structure
Walls carry the main load Frame carries the main load
Walls carry the load along the length. Load is carried by columns at certain
points.

The type of foundation used is strip The type of foundation is pad, raft or
foundation. pile foundation.

Walls are load bearing Walls are non-load bearing used for
partition of spaces

Smaller openings are possible Larger openings are possible


Lesser use of steel reinforcement More use of steel reinforcement

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Q. Comparison between load bearing and framed structure

Ans.
Load bearing structure Framed Structure
Lesser use of cement More use of cement
Lesser carpet area due to thick walls More carpet area due to thinner
walls

Load is transferred from floor to walls Load is transferred from floors to


to strip foundation. beams to columns to pad / raft / pile
foundation.

Restriction on number of stories More number of stories possible.

Restriction in forms of building More freedom in designing.


Difficult form.

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Q. What is superstructure and substructure?

Ans.

1. The structure above the foundation level which is visible to the human eye
is called as the super structure.
2. It includes various elements of building like column, beams, walls, slabs,
windows, lintels, sills, parapet walls etc.
3. The structure which is not visible to the human eye and takes the load of
the structure is called as the sub structure.
4. The main component of the substructure is the foundation. For load
bearing structures strip foundation is used. For RCC framed structures pad
foundation is used.
5. The main aim of the substructure is to transfer the load of the
superstructure to the ground.

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91
Q. What is load? What are the different types of loads ?

Ans.

1. A building consists of different elements such as walls, roof, doors,


windows, persons occupying the building, furniture etc. all these elements
have weights.
2. The combined weight of these elements is ultimately transferred to the soil
through the foundations.
3. These weights of various building elements are called load.
4. Different types of loads are :
a. Dead loads - They are the loads of the various materials out of which the
building is made.
b. Live loads - These are the loads of the occupants of the building.
c. Wind loads - They are forces induced in building due to the action of wind.
d. Snow loads - They are loads imposed on roofs due to accumulation of
snow.
e. Dynamic loads - These are forces induced in the structure due to vibration
of machines, movement due to earthquakes etc.

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92
Q. State various building elements and materials used for the same.

Ans.

BUILDING ELEMENT MATERIAL USED


Foundation Stone , Brick , RCC
Slab, Column, Beam Reinforced cement concrete
Bricks, stone, Gypsum , Concrete blocks, siporex
Walls
blocks
Windows Aluminum , UPVC , Wood
Doors Wood , UPVC
Lintel Reinforced cement concrete, Stone, Timber
Sill Stone, precast concrete
Reinforced cement concrete, Aluminum
Roof corrugated sheet, Mangalore tiles, shingles, wood
etc.

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Q. What is a drip mould? Or what is the significance of a drip mould?

Ans:

1. When rain water slides down from roofs, copings, chajjas etc. it has a
tendency to travel in the horizontal direction along the soffit. This is caused
due to the phenomenon of ‘surface tension’.
2. If the horizontal movement of this water is not arrested it has a tendency
to enter in the structure through the windows or splash on the vertical face
of the wall.
3. To stop this movement the horizontal surface of the soffit is broken by
providing a groove or a raised band of plaster. This is called a drip mould.
When water moving in the horizontal direction reaches this groove or edge
of the raised plaster band it drops down vertically.

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94

Rain water

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95
Q. What is the importance of coping placed on top of walls?

Ans:

1. The masonry walls get damaged when their top is exposed to rain. Rain
water enters the joints of the masonry and makes them weak.
2. There is also possibility of leakage through such exposed joints. Such
situations in buildings are normally seen for parapet walls and compound
walls.
3. The tops of the walls have to be therefore protected by a impervious
material. This is known as coping.
4. Copings can be made of different materials like stone, brick, concrete etc.
Concrete is the best material as it is impervious to water, it can be cast in
long lengths, is homogenous and can be given any shape.
5. The coping provided for parapet walls are generally from 75 to 150mm in
thickness and are given a light slope in one or both directions to allow easy
flow of rain water away from the top.
6. A detailed section and different types of copings are shown in the diagram.

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Coping

Drip mould

Masonry below

Saddle back Feather Edge


Coping Coping

Segmental Parallel
Coping Coping
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97
Q. Explain stone and timber lintel with sketches

Ans.

Stone Lintel :
1. Stone lintel is made of single piece of stone dressed into a rectangular
beam.
2. The minimum depth of stone lintel should be 215mm.
3. The depth of the lintel should be such that it should match with the
adjoining brick courses.
4. Stone is a material not good in taking tension. Hence, stone lintels can be
used for limited spans.
5. The stone lintel should bear on the side walls the minimum length of
175mm.

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Timber Lintel :
1. Timber lintels are made from single block of timber made into a
rectangular shape or they can be built up lintels as shown in the figure.
2. The depth of the timber lintel should be 1/12th the span. It should not be
less than 75mm.
3. The lintel should bear on the side walls the minimum length of 175mm.
4. Advantage of timber lintel is that the door frame can be easily fixed to the
lintel.
5. Disadvantage is that they are liable to be attacked by fungus and termites.

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101

CHAPTER 3
FOUNDATIONS AND SOIL

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102
Q. What is a foundation?

Ans.
1. Foundation is that part of a building which is below the ground and
transmits the loads of the building to the ground.
2. The foundations are designed as per the type of soil encountered and are
designed in such a way that the building load is resisted by the ground
without any sinking or excessive settlement.
3. Foundation design is based on Newton's third law which states that action
and reaction should be equal and opposite for a body to remain stable
4. The walls and the columns are widened at the base to increase their area
5. This is done to reduce the load per unit area on the ground so that it
matches with the load bearing capacity of the soil
6. The equation for pressure is P= F/A where P=pressure, F= Force and A=
Area in case of foundations P= Pressure on the soil, F = load carried by the
wall or column and A= area of the foundation
7. Thus we can say that the area of foundation is inversely proportional to
the bearing capacity of the soil. (meaning lesser the bearing capacity more
is the area of foundation)

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Principal of foundation

FORCE APPLIED OVER FORCE APPLIED OVER


SMALL AREA NAIL GREATER AREA NAIL
GOES IN EASILY DOES NOT GO IN
EASILY

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LOAD FORCE CAUSES


MOVEMENT
LOAD

BUIDING SINKS IN
THE GROUND
REACTION REACTION

LOAD = REACTION LOAD > REACTION


STABLE SITUATION UNSTABLE SITUATION

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Principal of foundation
The same principal can be applied to foundation
LOAD LOAD

COLUMN
COLUMN

CONCENTRATED LOAD LOAD SPREAD OVER


ON GROUND COLUMN LARGER AREA COLUMN
SINKS IN REMAINS STABLE

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Principal of foundation
The Principle involved here is

Action = Reaction

Action – Load on the soil


Reaction – Bearing capacity of soil

LESSER THE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE SOIL


WIDER IS THE FOUNDATION

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Principal of foundation

This is because FORCE

PRESSURE
AREA

 FORCE- LOAD OF THE STRUCTURE + IMPOSED LOAD


 AREA- AREA OF THE FOUNDATION
 PRESSURE- LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL

SO IF THE LOAD BEARING CAPACITY IS LESS THERE IS ONLY ONE WAY TO RESIST THE LOAD
AND THAT IS TO INCREASE THE AREA OF FOUNDATION

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Q. What are different types of foundations?

Ans.
The foundations are different for load bearing structures and framed structures.
•Strip foundation :
a. In load bearing structures the walls carry the load of the structure and
transmit it along their length to the ground.
b. The foundation is along the full length of the wall in the form of a
continuous strip and hence termed as ‘strip foundation’.

Wall in
foundation
PCC Bed

... Continued on next page

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109
Pad foundation:
a. In case of the framed structure the load of the structure is carried by the
frame and the walls serve only as partition walls.
b. The floors transmit the load to the beams which in turn transmit the load
to the columns.
c. The columns finally transmit the load to the ground through isolated pad
foundations

Column

Footing

PCC

... Continued on next page

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110
•Raft foundation:
a. As mentioned above the load from the framed structure is carried by the
columns to the pad foundation. The area of the pad foundation depends on
the bearing capacity of the soil. This means that lesser the bearing capacity
of soil more is the area of the foundation.
b. When the foundation strata is very weak (has very little bearing capacity)
the foundations become so wide that they start occupying the entire base
of the building. In such a case the base of the building is designed as a thick
slab which carries the load from the columns. This can be imagined as if
the entire building is floating on the soil. This type of foundation is called
raft foundation.

Column

Raft Slab

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•Pile foundation:
Column
a. In case the foundation strata has a very low
bearing capacity and the hard strata is
available at a great depth, holes are dug into
the ground till they reach the hard strata. Pile cap
b. Reinforcement bars are lowered into the
holes and concrete is poured in. This type of
foundation is called pile foundation. In some
cases the piles do not reach the hard strata
Piles
but are left hanging in the soil mid way. In
this case, the piles transfer the load of the
building to the adjoining soil through the
friction between pile and the soil surface.

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Q. Factors involved in design of strip foundation

Ans.
1. In case of strip foundation, the load is transferred along the entire length
of the wall. Therefore the reaction is also along the entire length of the
wall.
2. All the loads ultimately get transferred to the ground.
3. The design of the strip foundation will depend upon following factors :
a. Loads of structure acting on the foundation:
I. Imposed load - produced by the intended use of the building
II. Dead load - load of the walls, partitions, roof and all other permanent
construction (i.e the load of the structure as a whole)
III. Wind load - load due to effects of wind pressure
IV. Seismic load - Earthquake loads.
b. Bearing capacity of strata :
The loads acting on the foundation should be equal to or less then the
bearing capacity of the soil.
Action (load) = Reaction (bearing capacity of soil)

... Continued on next page

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c. Bending and Shear Stresses:


I. The foundation undergoes bending and shear stresses. Hence, the
thickness of foundation is directly related to resistance to bending and
shear forces.
II. If the bending exceeds, then addition of reinforcement is required.

d. Thickness of PCC shall be equal to or less than the projection outside the
wall.

e. Presence of subsoil water :


Presence of subsoil water can lead to dampness rising into foundation.
Dampness has a tendency to damage the mortar joints and the brick work.

f. The presence of impurities in soil :


Presence of chemicals or salts in the soil can damage the foundation.
Hence it is necessary to protect the foundation from such aggressive soil.

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116
Q. Essential requirements of good foundation

Ans.
1. A good foundation should be strong enough to take the loads from the
superstructure without undue settlement. If the foundation settles, the
settlement should be very small and should not be uneven.
2. The materials used for the foundations should be durable and should not
get damaged due to presence of water or chemicals in the soil. Hence, non-
porous materials like stone, concrete are more suitable for use in
foundations than porous materials like brick.
3. A good foundation should be designed in accordance with the master plan
of the building taking into consideration any floors which might be added in
the future.
4. The foundation should rest on hard and even strata which is uniform
throughout the foundation. If foundation rests on softer strata, then
necessary reinforcement should be added.
5. A good foundation should have provision for resisting earthquake forces.
6. A good foundation shall be able to withstand shear and bending stresses
and seismic loads acting upon it.

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Q. Importance of PCC bed in foundation with its proportion and ingredients.

Ans.
1. The foundations of the building have to rest on a hard and level surface for
proper transfer of load and to prevent uneven settlement of the structure.
2. When the excavation for foundation is done up to the hard strata the
excavated surface is not even. It can also be porous and allow passage of
cement and water through it
3. Plain cement concrete (PCC) is used to create a hard level and impervious
surface for foundation of load bearing or framed structure.
4. Plain cement concrete is composed of cement, sand(fine aggregate), stone
pieces (coarse aggregate) and water.
5. The minimum grade of PCC bed in foundation is M10. 'M' stands for 'mix'
and 10 stands for the compressive strength of the concrete after 28 days in
Newtons per sq.mm (N/mm2)
6. M10 concrete is equivalent to 1:3:6 concrete which contains 1 part of
cement 3 parts of fine aggregate (sand) and 6 parts of coarse aggregate
(stone)

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118
7. The thickness of the PCC should be minimum 150mm and thickness should
be in no case lesser than the projection of the PCC outside the face of the
wall. This is important to prevent shear failure of foundation.

PCC Bed PCC Bed PCC Bed

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119
Q. What is a strip foundation?

Ans.
1. Strip foundations are used for load bearing structures.
2. In a load bearing structure the walls form the main load carrying members.
3. The load from the roof and the dead and live loads from the floors in the
superstructure are taken down to the earth through the walls.
4. The walls are widened at the base to increase the surface area on which
they rest.
5. A strip of concrete is laid below the walls which is normally of a minimum
thickness of 150 mm and which also projects outside the wall by a distance
equal to the thickness.
6. The function of this concrete strip is to provide a hard and even surface for
the wall to rest and also to distribute the load from the wall evenly over the
subsoil.
7. In case the soil has a very weak load bearing capacity then reinforcement is
added in the concrete to provide additional strength against bending.

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120

Wall in
foundation

PCC Bed

STRIP FOUNDATION

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121
Q. Need and method of murum filling in plinth

Ans:
1. The ground floor of any building is raised from the surrounding ground
level this is called the 'Plinth' of the building. The reason for having a plinth
is to prevent rainwater from coming into the ground floor.
2. The plinth is formed by filing in weathered rock called murum in between
the plinth walls. The murum is a brownish beige coloured weathered rock
which is flaky and powdery in appearance.
3. The murum has to be thoroughly compacted taking care not to leave any
voids
4. The murum is filled in layers and saturated with water and then compacted
with manual or mechanical rammers to achieve a layer thickness of about
150mm per layer
5. The murum is filled in such layers till the necessary height of the murum
filling is achieved.
6. Along with the dry rubble soling and the PCC the murrum forms a hard and
level surface for creating the ground floor of the building.

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125
Q. What is the importance of coping beam in plinth?

Ans.
1. A RCC beam is placed below the load bearing wall at plinth level. This is
called a ‘coping beam’. The functions of the coping beam are:
2. It distributes the load from the super structure wall evenly over the
foundation wall.
3. If the soil on which the building rests is water logged then water from the
soil rises up from the foundation wall due to capillary action(this is termed
as ‘rising dampness’). Since the coping beam is made up of concrete which
is an impervious material, it prevents the entry of this water into the
super structure walls. It thus acts as a damp proof course (D.P.C.)
4. The soil strata in the foundation may not be uniform throughout the
structure and some parts of the building may settle more than other parts
(this is termed as uneven settlement) In case of such uneven settlement
the coping beam prevents settlement of superstructure wall.
5. In case of earthquake prone areas the coping band is very essential to
prevent damage to the super structure due to earthquake

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128
Q. Draw a neat labelled sketch showing section through brick and stone
foundation.

Ans.

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129
Q. Draw a neat labelled sketch showing section through brick and stone
foundation.

Ans.

345 Thk
Brick wall

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130
Q. What are the various forces acting on the foundation? Explain with neat
sketches.

Ans.
1. The foundation is acted upon by the load of the structure. This causes the
foundation to bend inducing bending stresses in the foundation.
2. The resistance to bending is directly related to the thickness of the
foundation and hence the PCC below the load bearing foundation should
have minimum thickness of 150mm.
3. In case of soils with very poor bearing capacity, the foundation will be
subject to excessive bending moment which cannot be resisted by PCC. In
this case , steel reinforcement is added to resist bending.
4. The combined effect of load acting vertically downward and the reaction of
the ground acting vertically upward results in shear stresses near the edge
of the foundation wall.
5. The resistance to shear is directly proportional to thickness of the
foundation. Hence the foundation should be in no case lesser in thickness
than the projection of the foundation outside the face of the wall.

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132

P P P P

D D D
D

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133
Q. What is DPC or what is meant by damp proof course?

Ans:

1. DPC or damp proof course as the name suggests is a non-permeable layer


or course constructed in masonry work to prevent the entry of subsoil
water into walls.
2. Due to the porous nature of bricks or rocks water rises up from the ground
due to capillary action and enters the walls of the building.
3. If this water is not arrested, it will cause dampness in the rooms causing,
4. Damage to plaster and paint
5. Damage to the walls causing reduction in their strength
6. Unhealthy conditions inside rooms due to growth of fungus, moss etc
7. The Damp proof course is provided in the masonry walls about 150 mm
above the surrounding ground level.
8. Damp proof courses are made of different materials which basically have
the property of being impermeable to water.

... Continued on next page

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134
9. Different materials used as damp proof course are:

a. Plain or reinforced cement concrete


b. Natural stone tiles such as Shahabad tiles
c. Metal sheets such as copper or lead
d. Tarfelt sheets

10. The DPC has to be provided continuous along the full length and width of
the wall. The material should be used in as long lengths as possible with
least amount of joints.
11. Where ever joints have to be provided proper care should be taken to fill
the joints with sealing material or sufficient overlap should be provided
along the length.

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DAMP PROOF COURSE (DPC)

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136

Shahabad
tiles

DAMP PROOF COURSE (DPC)

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137

BITUMEN
FELT SHEET
USED AS
DPC

ELEVATION

DAMP PROOF COURSE (DPC)

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138
Q. What is meant by load bearing capacity of soil?

Ans.
1. Different types of soils are encountered in different locations.
2. The nature of soil will vary as per its composition. Some soils are soft some
sandy while some are hard.
3. The foundations of the building rest on soil and ultimately the reaction to
the superimposed load of the building is provided by the soil.
4. The ability of the soil to provide the reaction to the imposed load can be
called its load bearing capacity.
5. As mentioned above different types of soil will have different load bearing
capacities.
6. Bearing capacity is important for Architects and structural designers as it
decides the type and size of foundation to be used for the structure.
7. Relevance: The lesser the bearing capacity of soil wider will be the
foundations also the foundations might have to be taken deeper. This will
have an impact on the structural design and the cost of the building.
8. The load bearing capacity is measured in Newtons per sq. mm in S.I. system
or in Kg/sq.cm. in MKS system. ... Continued on next page

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139

Type of soil Safe load bearing capacity


(Tons/sq.m.)
Black cotton soil 4 to 10

Red soil 10 to 30
Shadu 20 to 30
Loose gravel 15 to 25
Murrum 25 to 45
Soft rock 40 to 90
Hard rock greater than 90

(Ref: Construction Handbook By Suhas Mantri)

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Q. What is meant by the term safe bearing capacity of soil?
Safe bearing capacity of soils (SBC)

Ans.
1. The term safe bearing capacity of soil means the amount of reaction the
soil can offer to the super imposed load.
2. The word ‘safe’ means that a factor of safety is applied to the maximum
bearing capacity of the soil.
3. The foundations of the building are designed on the basis of the SBC.
4. Relevance: The structural designer decides the safe bearing capacity on
calculations and his own experience. Even then there could be unknown
factors like increase in the load of the building. Uneven layers of soil.
Additional imposed load due to earthquake or strong winds etc. Hence a
factor of safety has to be applied to compensate for unknown factors.
Hence load bearing capacity for calculations is always considered as lesser
than the actual load bearing capacity by applying a factor of safety.

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Q. What are the typical types of soils encountered in Maharashtra?

Ans.
The following types of soils are present in most parts of Maharashtra :
1. Black cotton soil
2. Shadu
3. Red soil
4. Sand and gravel
5. Soft murrum
6. Hard murrum
7. Soft rock
8. Hard rock

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Q. Write a characteristics of cohesive and non-cohesive soils?

Ans.
Cohesive soils Non-Cohesive soils
Silts and clays (Fine grained) Gravels, sands (coarse grained)
Low proportion of voids bet. Particles High proportion of voids bet. Particles
Highly compressible Slightly compressible
Almost impermeable Permeable
Compression occurs slowly Compression occurs quickly
Considerable cohesion bet. Particles Negligible cohesion bet. Particles
Considerable change in volume with Little variation in volume with change in
change in moisture content moisture content
(shrinking and swelling of soil)

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Q. What is the importance of soil investigation?

Ans.

1. Before starting work on any building project it is necessary to determine


the nature and depth of the subsoil on which the foundations rest . For this
purpose two methods are normally employed viz.
2. Trial pits:
Trial pits are pits taken in different locations on the plot. The pit is
excavated and the available stratum is studied. The foundation design is
done accordingly. Presence of ground water is also checked by trial pit.
3. Bore holes and core sampling:
Trial bores are taken when the load of the building is very large or where
there are variable foundation strata. Bores are drilled in the ground and the
core of the soil obtained from the bore is studied and analysed for
foundation design.

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4. Upto what depth should soil investigation be carried out ?
It is possible that the foundation strata may vary along the depth of the
soil. So it is possible that at shallow depth, the soil may be hard and there
can be layer of soft soil below.
This can cause settlement of the foundation and hence soil investigation
should be done upto a minimum depth of 1.5 times the breadth of the
combined foundation as shown in the figure.

... Continued on next page

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145

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146
Q. Explain the behavior of soil under various loading conditions.

Ans.
1. When soil is acted upon by the load of the building, it gets compressed and
there is settlement of the soil.
2. The amount of settlement depends upon the load on the soil and the
nature of the soil. Soft soils will settle more than hard soils.
3. When soil is of sandy or granular nature (non-cohesive soil) the settlement
is sudden and does not continue further.
4. When soil is plastic (cohesive soil) the settlement takes place gradually and
over a long period of time.
5. In case of plastic soils, heaving of soil surrounding the building occurs.
6. In case of plastic soils, there is a possibility of shear failure of the soil which
causes the entire soil below the building to slip in a certain direction
causing damage to the building. This is termed as ‘Slip of soil’.
7. During earthquake, the soil can act like a liquid and cause failure of
structure. This is called as ‘Liquefaction of Soil’.

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149
Q. What is bulb of pressure? Explain with neat sketch.

Ans.
1. The foundation exerts a vertical pressure on the soil immediately below it.
The soil is affected both vertically and horizontally.
2. Bulb of pressure is a diagram created by joining points of equal intensity of
pressure on the soil affected by the foundation.
3. It is found by experiment that the effects of the load act upto a depth of
1.5 X breadth of foundation.
4. The bulb of pressure diagram gives information to the engineer regarding
the depth upto which the effect of the foundation acts.
5. When foundations are close to each other, the bulb of pressure diagram is
the combined effect of the individual bulb of pressure diagrams of the
foundations as shown in the figure.
6. The bulb of pressure diagram helps the engineers to predict the behavior
of the loads on the soil and design foundations accordingly.

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152

CHAPTER 4
BRICK MASONRY

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153
Q. Explain the terminology of the brick

Ans.
1. Frog –
It is the small depression in the brick on top which serves as space for
spreading mortar.
2. Stretcher face –
It is the longer face of the brick which has a dimension of 230mm.
3. Header face –
It is the shorter face of the brick which has a dimension of 115 mm.
4. Bed or bottom face –
It is the surface of stone perpendicular to the line of pressure. It indicates
the lower surface of bricks in each course.

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155
Q. Draw types of special bricks

Ans.

Special bricks can be classified as :


1. Cut Bricks
2. Purpose made Bricks

Bevelled Bat - Large Queen Closer - Half


CUT BRICKS ... Continued on next page

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156
CUT BRICKS

Mitred Closer
Half Bat

Bevelled Bat - Small Bevelled Closer ... Continued on next page

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157
CUT BRICKS

Queen Closer - Quarter King Closer

... Continued on next page

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158
PURPOSE MADE BRICKS

Splay Header Splay Stretcher

Double Bull Nose Dog Leg


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159
Q. Qualities of good bricks

Ans.

The following are the qualities of good bricks

1. Have uniform size and shape


2. Uniform color and texture
3. Have sharp edges
4. A frog of 10mm depth
5. Not break when dropped on a horizontal surface from waist height
6. Give a metallic ringing sound when struck
7. Not absorb water more than 20% of its dry weight
8. Have a minimum compressive strength = 4 N/sq.mm

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160
Q. What is a bond? Explain the necessity of ‘bond’ in brick masonry?
Importance of bonds in masonry structure?

Ans.

Bond :
1. Bond is when the bricks / masonry blocks bind together by being laid
across each other.
2. The arrangement of brick and stone in masonry wall in a specific pattern so
as to make it structurally stable is called as a bond.
3. Bonds are necessary to avoid continuous vertical joints in masonry walls
which may cause the masonry wall to collapse due to vertical and lateral
load.

... Continued on next page

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161
In Un-bonded brickwork :
1. If bonds in brick work are not arranged properly, then a continuous vertical
joint will result. This is called an un bonded wall having little strength and
stability
2. Narrow high stack of blocks are unstable and can be easily knocked down.
3. The continuous vertical joints do not distribute the load equally.
4. Thus there is concentrated load/point load acting on a particular stack of
bricks which makes the wall weaker.
Only bricks in the highlighted
Vertical load part carry the load. Other
bricks do not take part in
carrying load.

Horizontal
load
Un-Bonded Bricks can easily
Un-Bonded Brick work ... Continued on next page
topple due to horizontal load
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162
Importance of brick bonds in masonry
In Bonded brickwork :

1. The bricks are laid in a regular pattern so that each brick bears partly upon
two or more bricks below itself. They are bonded i.e they bind together by
being laid across each other.
2. Un bonded bricks are easily affected by lateral (horizontal loads) and can
overturn.
3. Bonded bricks on the other hand give more resistance to overturning due
to horizontal loads.
4. Un bonded bricks are like a stack of bricks and when they are loaded, only
the bricks in the stack carry the load. The surrounding bricks do not take
part in carrying the load. Hence the load which is transferred is not
uniformly distributed load.
5. It creates an acceptable and good appearance.

... Continued on next page

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163

Bonded Brick work


Load gets distributed over all the
bricks

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164
Q. What is a Queen closer? Explain its role in brick masonry?

Ans.

1. Queen closer is a brick which is cut into half along its length and used in
brick masonry to avoid the vertical joint in the wall.
2. The main role of the queen closer is to break the verticality of the brick
wall and ensure stability of the wall.
3. In brick bonds the queen closer is placed in every alternate course after the
first header.
4. Queen closer is one of the most important types of bricks in brick masonry.

Queen Closer - Half Queen Closer - Quarter

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165
Q. What is half bat brick?

Ans.

1. The half bat brick is the brick which is cut into half along its width and used
in masonry.
2. Half bats are used in the masonry to avoid vertical joints in Flemish bond
masonry and stretcher bond.
Half Bat Half Bat

Half Bat Half bat used in 1 ½ Half Bat used in alternate


thick Flemish bond course in stretcher bond

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166
Q. Difference between bat and closer

Ans.

1. Bat is the portion of the brick cut across width of the brick.
2. Closer is the portion of the brick that is cut lengthwise of a brick.
3. There are various types of Bats available in brick like half bat, three quarter
bat, beveled bat etc.
4. There are various types of closers available in brick like king closer, queen
closer, beveled closer and mitered closer.
5. Closers are generally used in alternate courses of brick masonry at the
stopped end of the wall.
6. Bats can be placed in the interior of the wall as well.

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167
BAT BRICKS

Bevelled Bat - Large


Half Bat

Bevelled Bat - Small

... Continued on next page

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168
CLOSER BRICKS

Mitred Closer Queen Closer - Half

Bevelled Closer ... Continued on next page

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169
CLOSER BRICKS

Queen Closer - Quarter King Closer

... Continued on next page

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170
Q. Write in short about toothing

Ans.
1. Cutting or leaving out of alternate masonry units in a wall to provide
a bond for new work is called as toothing.
2. Toothing is necessary when connecting two walls at right angles.
3. Toothing can be used to connect the wall along the length.

Toothing

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171
Q. Write a note on raking back in brick masonry

Ans.
1. Entire brickwork cannot be constructed in a days time.
2. At the end of the days work the bricks are left in a stepped wise manner as
shown in the figure below.
3. This is done to ensure proper bonding of the new brickwork with that done
on the previous day.

Raking back

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172
Q. What are perpends?

Ans.

1. Perpends are imaginary lines passing through the vertical joints between
bricks.
2. The term ‘Perpend’ indicates that the joint is perpendicular to the courses.

--Perpends

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173
Q. What are continuous vertical joints in masonry ?

Ans.

1. Continuous vertical joints are formed in brickwork when two layers of brick
are placed over each other randomly without any bonding.
2. Vertical joints are not good for the structure as they will make the structure
unstable and susceptible to fall.
3. Queen closers and half bats are used in masonry in every alternate course
to avoid the vertical joints.
4. Various types of bonds like English bond , Flemish bond, Stretcher bond etc
are designed to avoid continuous vertical joints. However some amount of
continuous vertical joints do occur in these bonds in the depth of the
brickwork.
5. In case of Flemish bond the continuous vertical joints are more than in
English bond and hence Flemish bond is considered weaker than English
bond.

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174
Q. Why bricks need to be wetted before they are used in masonry?

Ans.

1. Mortar is used for joining bricks to each other. Mortar consists of cement ,
sand and water.
2. Water is essential ingredient in mortar as the chemical reaction with
cement occurs due to presence of water.
3. Since brick is a porous material it can absorb the water from the mortar
and make it weak by affecting the chemical reaction.
4. Hence bricks are wetted before they are used in masonry so that they
should not absorb the water from the mortar.

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175
Q. Why is brickwork sprayed with water after the work is completed ?

Ans.

1. Mortar is used to join bricks to each other in masonry. Mortar is made by


mixing cement, sand and water. Due to the presence of water a chemical
reaction takes place with cement which is called as hydration reaction.
2. In hydration reaction large amount of heat is generated. This is called as
the heat of hydration. Due to this heat the mortar will loose water through
evaporation. If there is excessive loss of moisture the mortar will become
weak.
3. It is therefore necessary to dissipate the heat generated by the hydration
reaction.
4. Therefore the brickwork is sprinkled with water to dissipate the heat of
hydration. This process is called ‘Curing’ and is continued for a period of 10
days after completion of the brickwork.

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176
Q. What is lap in brickwork?

Ans.

1. In brick masonry it is essential to avoid the continuous vertical joint


between two courses.
2. To achieve that queen closers are used in each alternate course after the
first header.
3. Because of the queen closer the continuous vertical joint in brickwork is
avoided and thus a lap is created in the arrangement of brickwork.
4. This is called as a lap in brick masonry.

Lap

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177
Q. Sketch different ways of placing bricks in masonry.
Ans.

Brick on Edge Brick on Bed

Brick on End (Soldier brick)

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178
What is a Stretching Bond?

Ans.

1. The stretching bond is used to construct half brick thick wall. When seen in
elevation the stretcher face of bricks are seen in all courses. Hence the
term stretching bond.
2. At stopped ends a half bat is used in alternate courses as a closer brick. The
walls constructed out of this bond are basically partition walls and are
usually not used as load bearing walls.
3. They can however bear small amounts of loads like from lofts and lintels.
4. Since these walls are inherently weak they have to be strengthened by
adding a reinforced concrete band at every 900mm in height.

... Continued on next page

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Half bat 179

Plan course 1 stopped End stretcher bond

Plan course 2 Stopped End Stretcher bond

RCC Band
(Patli)
900 mm

Elevation : Stretcher Bond stopped end Isometric view: Stretcher Bond stopped end

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180

Plan course 1 stretcher bond ‘L’ junction Plan course 2 stretcher bond ‘L’ junction

RCC Band
(Patli)

900 mm

Elevation : Stretcher Bond Isometric view: Stretcher Bond

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181
Q. State various types of brick bonds with their main features.

Ans.

The types of brick bonds are as follows :


1. English bond
2. Flemish bond
3. Rat trap bond

English bond
1. English bond consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers.
2. At stopped ends, in the header course after the first header a ‘queen
closer’ brick is provided to break continuous vertical joint formation.
3. This is a stronger bond as compared to Flemish bond as there are lesser
number of continuous vertical joints within the depth of the brick work.
4. Due to the alternate courses of headers and stretchers this bond is not
considered aesthetically as pleasing as the Flemish bond when making
exposed brick walls.
5. Lesser number of bats (cut bricks) are used in English bond. ... Continued on next page

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | BRICK MASONRY |


Queen closer 182

Header
course

Course 2 Plan (1 brick thick)

Stretcher
course
Course 1 Plan (1 brick thick)

Isometric View of English Bond


(1 brick thick)

Elevation: English bond (1 brick thick)


... Continued on next page

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183
Three Quarter Bats

Course 2 Plan (1 ½ brick thick)

Course 1 Plan (1 ½ brick thick)

Isometric View of English bond


(1 ½ brick thick)

Elevation : English bond (1 ½ brick thick) ... Continued on next page

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184
Q. Draw appropriate sketches showing right angle junction for English bond

Ans.

Course 1 Plan Course 2 Plan


Isometric View

ENGLISH BOND (L JUNCTION )

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185
Q. Draw appropriate sketches showing ‘T’ junctions for English bond

Ans.

Tie brick

Course 1 Plan Course 2 Plan

Isometric view

ENGLISH BOND ( T JUNCTION)

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186
Flemish bond

1. In Flemish bond alternate header and stretcher is used in each course.


2. At the stopped end after the first header a queen closer is used to break
continuous vertical joint formation.
3. This is a weaker bond as compared to English bond as more number of
continuous vertical joints are present within the depth of brick work.
4. Due to alternate header and stretcher in each course the bond is
aesthetically more pleasing than English bond when making exposed brick
walls.
5. More number of bats (cut bricks) are used in Flemish bond.

... Continued on next page

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187
Queen closer

Course 2 Plan (1 brick thick)

Course 1 Plan (1 brick thick)

Isometric View of Flemish Bond


(1 brick thick)

Elevation: Flemish bond (1 brick thick) ... Continued on next page

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188

Course 2 Plan (1 ½ brick thick)

Course 1 Plan (1 ½ brick thick)

Isometric view (1 ½ brick thick)

Elevation (1 ½ brick thick)

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189
Q. Draw appropriate sketches showing right angle junctions for Flemish bond.

Ans.

Course 1 Plan Course 2 Plan


Isometric View

FLEMISH BOND (L JUNCTION)

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190
Q. Draw appropriate sketches showing ‘T’ junction for Flemish bond.

Ans.

Tie brick

Course 1 Plan Course 2 Plan Isometric View

FLEMISH BOND (T JUNCTION)

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191

Rat trap bond

1. Rat trap bond is a brick on edge bond. Standard brick walls are constructed
with the brick placed on its bed which means brick placed on its 230x110
side.
2. However in rat trap bond the brick is laid on its 110x70 side.(brick on edge).
Due to this arrangement there are voids left within the brick work.
3. This leads to a saving in the amount of bricks and mortar used for bedding.
Because of this a saving of up to 30% in cost is achieved.
4. Due to the brick on edge arrangement the brick wall is not as strong as
conventional English and Flemish bond and hence it cannot be used as a
load bearing wall for major works.
5. It can be used for low cost housing projects and for small structures like
storage sheds, watchman’s cabin, compound wall etc. Architect Laurie
Baker has used this bond in the design of low cost structures.

... Continued on next page

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192
The following are the salient features of the rat trap bond:

1. It is a brick on edge bond.


2. There are voids within the brick work.
3. There is considerable saving in the amount of bricks and mortar used in
this bond.
4. It is therefore used in low cost housing and for temporary structures like
small storage sheds, watchman’s accommodation, etc. The bond can also
be used for low height walls such as compound walls.

Module used in Rat Trap Bond


... Continued on next page

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193

Elevation of Rat Trap bond

Course 2 Plan

Course 1 Plan Isometric view of Rat trap bond

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194
Q. Advantages of Rat trap bond

Ans.

The following are the advantages of rat trap bond

1. It is a brick on edge bond.


2. There are voids within the brick work.
3. There is considerable saving in the amount of bricks and mortar used in
this bond.
4. It is therefore used in low cost housing and for temporary structures like
small storage sheds, watchman’s accommodation, etc.
5. The bond can also be used for low height walls such as compound walls

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | BRICK MASONRY |


195
Q. Comparison between English bond and Flemish bond.

Ans.

English bond:

1. This consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers. These courses


are called heading course and stretching course respectively.
2. To break continuous vertical joint, a queen closer is placed after the first
quoin header in the heading course.
3. Because of lesser number of continuous vertical joints in the depth of the
brick work, this bond is considered stronger than the Flemish bond.
4. This bond is considered aesthetically less pleasing than the Flemish bond
when exposed brick work is used.
5. The minimum thickness of brick wall that can be constructed in English
bond is one brick thick wall.
6. The minimum size of brick pier that can be constructed in English bond is
one brick thick pier.
... Continued on next page

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196

Flemish bond:

1. This consists of alternate headers and stretchers in the same course.


2. To break continuous vertical joint, a queen closer is placed after the first
quoin header in alternate course.
3. Because of more number of continuous vertical joints within the depth of
the brick work this bond is considered weaker than the English bond.
4. Because alternate header and stretcher is seen in each course the pattern
formed looks aesthetically more pleasing than the continuous rows of
headers or stretchers in the English bond. This bond is therefore used for
Exposed brick work.
5. The minimum thickness of brick wall that can be constructed in Flemish
bond is one brick thick wall.
6. The minimum size of brick pier that can be constructed in English bond is
one brick thick pier

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197

CHAPTER 5
STONE MASONRY

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | F. Y. B.ARCH | SEMESTER 1 |


198
Q. What is natural bed of stone and its relevance in masonry construction?

Ans:
1. Sedimentary rocks are formed due to deposits of weathered rock carried
by rivers into the ocean.
2. The deposition of the material takes place in layers.
3. The deposited layers are acted upon by the pressure of the water above
and due to earth movements.
4. Over the years the deposits get converted into rocks. Since the materials in
these rocks are deposited in layers the rocks show a layered or 'stratified'
structure. This is called as the natural bed of the stone.
5. Over the years due to tectonic movements and changes in the earth's crust
these rocks are brought to the surface and become available as stones for
construction
6. When the stones are used in such a way that the load is perpendicular to
the natural bed the stone has good load bearing capacity. If however the
stone is used in such a way that the natural bed is parallel to the natural
bed the stone is weaker in resisting the load as it can get split along the
natural bed as shown in the figure. ... Continued on next page

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199
The figure below shows the correct and incorrect way of using sedimentary
stones for building load bearing walls.

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


200
Q. Describe the types of stone masonry

Ans.

Random rubble masonry un coursed :


1. Stones used are used as they come from the quarry with minimum of
dressing
2. Mortar joints are uneven and can vary from 5 mm to 25 mm.
3. Gaps between stones are filled with stone chips called ‘spals’.
4. Care is taken to see that continuous vertical joints are not formed.
5. ‘Through’ stones are used at every 1m distance both in height and along
the length of the wall.
6. At stopped ends stones are roughly dressed to form quoin (corner) stones.
7. No distinct courses are seen when wall is seen in elevation.

... Continued on next page

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


PCC Coping 201
PCC Coping

Uncoursed random rubble Coursed random rubble masonry


masonry (UCR)

Stone used as
it comes from
the quarry

RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY ... Continued on next page

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


202
Polygonal stone masonry :
1. Stones are dressed only on their faces into polygonal shape. The rest of
the stone is left undressed.
2. Joints on the face are even and approximately 10 mm thick.
3. Through stones are used at every 1m along height and length of the wall.
4. Seen in elevation wall does not show distinct courses but shows polygonal
shaped stones with uniform joints.
PCC Coping

POLYGONAL STONE MASONRY ... Continued on next page

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


203
Ashlar masonry :
1. Stones are fully dressed along all their faces to form cubical blocks
2. Face of stones are given special dressing according to the aesthetical effect
desired.
3. Joints are uniform and thin.
4. Elevation shows neat and rectangular stones arranged in pattern with fine
dressing. PCC Coping

ASHLAR MASONRY ... Continued on next page

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


204
Square rubble masonry :

The rubble masonry in which the face stones are squared on all joints and beds
by hammer dressing or chisel dressing before their actual laying, is called
squared rubble masonry.

There are two types of squared rubble masonry.


Coursed Square rubble masonry:
1. The square rubble masonry in which chisel dressed stones laid in courses is
called coarse square rubble masonry. This is a superior variety of rubble
masonry.
2. It consists of stones, which are squared on all joints and laid in courses. The
stones are to be laid in courses of equal layers and the joints should also be
uniform.

Suitability: Used for construction of public buildings, hospitals, schools,


markets, modern residential buildings etc and in hilly areas where good quality
of stone is easily available.
... Continued on next page

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205

PCC Coping

SQUARE RUBBLE MASONRY

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206

Uncoursed (Snecked) square rubble


masonry:

1. The squared rubble in masonry


which hammer dressed stones are
laid without making courses is
called un coursed square rubble
masonry.
2. It consists of stones which are
squared on all joints and beds by
hammer dressing. Stones are
arranged in a pattern to break the
courses as shown.
3. The specifically shaped stones used
to break the course are Riser,
Leveler, Sneck as shown in the
figure

SQUARE RUBBLE MASONRY


| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |
207
Q. State the importance of through stone, bonder and spalls in stone
masonry.

Ans.
Through stone :
1. It is a stone which is of a
length equal to the width
of the wall.
2. These stones are put in
UCR work at an
approximate distance of
1.0 m apart both along
length and height of wall.
3. The main purpose of the
through stone is to prevent
the vertical splitting of the
wall due to the load. IMPORTANCE OF THROUGH STONE

... Continued on next page

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208
Bonders :
1. These are pairs of stones which are of a
length of 3/4th the width of the wall.
2. These stones overlap each other as shown
in the figure.
3. There function is similar to that of through
stone. They are used when through stones
of longer length are not available. They are
also used when the width of the wall is
large.

Spalls :
1. In UCR work or square rubble work the
stones are roughly dressed.
2. Hence when the stones are arranged in
masonry work small gaps are left between
the stones.
3. The spalls are small stones like stone chips
which help to fill these gaps BONDERS AND SPALLS

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


209
Q. What is composite masonry?

Ans.

1. Composite masonry means constructing walls in two different materials.


Most commonly used materials are bricks and stones.
2. The outer part of the wall is constructed in stone masonry while the inner
part of the wall is constructed in bricks.
3. The outer face of the wall made up of stone gives good appearance to the
building.
4. Stone is a material which requires very less maintenance. Use of locally
available stone gives the building an aesthetical character of the locality.
5. The inner face of the wall made up of bricks can be easily chased to conceal
services such as water supply lines, electrical wires in conduits.
6. The brick wall can be plastered easily and amount of plater required is also
lesser for brick than in case of stone. It is possible to make alcoves (konade)
in brickwork.

... Continued on next page

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


210

COMPOSITE MASONRY

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


211
Q. Write a short note on dressing of stone.

Ans.

1. Stones used for building work are obtained from the stone quarry.
2. When stones arrive on site they come in roughly cut sizes.
3. When these stones are fitted in walls they have to be cut / chipped on site
to make them fit within the wall. This process is called rough dressing of
the stones.
4. Some types of masonry require more elaborate cutting / chipping for
example to make square rubble or polygonal masonry the faces of the
stone have to be cut / chipped to square or polygonal shape. This type of
dressing is more elaborate than rough dressing.
5. In masonry types such as Ashlar stones are made into cubical shape where
all sides are made into rectangular shapes.
6. In this case very elaborate cutting / chipping of stones is required. It can be
called as elaborate dressing of stones.

... Continued on next page

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212
7. In Ashlar work special finishes are given to the facing stones. These special
finishes are made by using special dressing tools.
8. Chisels and hammers are used for the dressing of stones and in case special
finishes are required specially made chisels are used.

DRESSING OF STONE

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


213
Q. Stones used in construction
Ans.
The following stones are used in construction
1. Granite – It is derived from Igneous plutonic rock. It has a hard and crystalline
structure, colors. Used in buildings at various places like window sills, kitchen
platform , door frames , flooring.
2. Laterite – Used as a building stone. Is red in color. Found in Konkan region.
3. Limestone - Used as a building stone.
4. Slate – It is obtained from a metamorphic rock. Used for roofing and as a
building stone.
5. Sandstone – It is a sedimentary rock . Used for masonry work Eg : Red
sandstone used in Agra fort.
6. Marble – It is a metamorphosed form of limestone. Used for flooring.
7. Jaisalmer – Orangish red color stone. Used for flooring and cladding purposes.
8. Kota – It is a Sedimentary stone. Used for flooring and wall cladding purpose.
9. Shahabad – It is a sedimentary stone. Is used for waterproofing , flooring
purpose.
10. Kadappa – It is a sedimentary stone. Used as a support stone as it has rough
texture. For eg : Support for kitchen platform.

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


214
Q. Properties of good building stone

Ans.

1. Strength
a. When stones are used for load bearing walls they should have sufficient
strength to bear the load imposed on them.
b. This is termed as the compressive strength of the stone. Depending upon
the type of stone the compressive strength varies from 60 to 2000 N/mm 2
2. Dressing
a. Stones need to be dressed before they are used in the masonry work. This
can be rough dressing like in Square rubble masonry or elaborate dressing
like in Ashlar masonry.
b. Ease of dressing is important for time of completion and cost of work.
3. Toughness
a. Toughness is the ability to withstand stresses.
b. Stones should be tough to withstand bending , shear and vibrational
stresses.

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215
4. Porosity and absorption
a. The amount of water that the stone absorbs is directly related to its porosity.
b. Stones such as sandstone are more porous than stones like granite.
c. Excessive absorption of water can weaken and disfigure the stone.
d. A good stone should not absorb water more than 10 % of its dry weight.
5. Hardness
a. Hardness is a property related to abrasion resistance.
b. When stone is used as a flooring material it can get scratched , damaged due
to the movement of people , furniture , machinery.
c. Hence the stone used for flooring should have sufficient hardness to resist
abrasion.
d. Mohs scale is used to measure abrasion resistance.
6. Seasoning
a. Some stones like laterite have presence of moisture in them when they are
quarried. Such stones are weak due to the presence of moisture and cannot
be used directly for masonry work.
b. After quarrying the stones are left in the open for seasoning by which they
loose the moisture. This improves the strength of the stones.

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216
7. Durability
a. Over time , stones get damaged due to the action of sun , rain and wind.
Good stone should be able to withstand the action of the elements over a
long period of time.
b. This property of stone is called its durability.

8. Fire resistance
a. Stones can consist of different minerals having different coefficients of
expansion.
b. In case of fire the different minerals will expand differently causing formation
of cracks and damaging the stone. Hence good stone should be composed of
such minerals which have good fire resistance.

9. Specific gravity (Weight)


a. It is related to the density of the stone. Strength of the stone is directly
proportional to its density.
b. Hard and dense stone such as basalt , granite are suitable for structures
bearing heavy loads. Hence stones with higher specific gravity are better for
heavy structures.

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


217
Q. Principles of stone masonry

Ans.

1. The stone used shall be hard, durable and tough. All stones should be laid
on its natural bed.
2. The pressure acting on the stones should not act parallel to the bedding
planes. This will try to split the stones.
3. Sometimes stones used in corbels are laid with pressure acting parallel to
bedding planes.
4. The bond stones and headers should not be of dumb-bell shape.
5. Large flat stones should be laid under the ends of girders, roof trusses, etc.
6. In all slopping retaining walls, the beds of the stones and the plan of the
courses should be at right angles to the slope.
7. All laid fine dressed stone work should be protected against damage during
further construction by means of wooden boxes.

... Continued on next page

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218
8. Jambs for door and window openings should be made of quoins which are
equal in height to the course.
9. They should be in breadth equal to at least 1½ times the height of the
course and their length should be at least twice the height.
10. All the surfaces should be kept wet while the work is in progress and also
till the mortar has set.
11. Double scaffolding will be used wherever it is difficult to fit in the stones
later on.
12. All the portions of the masonry should be raised uniformly. Wherever this
is not possible, the stone work built earlier should be raked (stepped) so
that the new work can be bonded.

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


219
Q. Draw any two stone joints and state their use ?

Ans:
Metal cramped joint:
1. The metal cramed joint is made up of a metal cramp in the form of a ‘c’ as
shown in the figure.
2. The metal cramp is inserted into grooves made in the stone
3. The metal used is normally a non ferrous metal which will not rust.
4. The joint prevents sideways and lengthwise movement of the stone pieces
5. This is used in case of copings

Metal Cramp

... Continued on next page

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220
Dove tail joint:
1. Dove tail joint consists of a dove tail piece made of stone as shown in the
figure
2. A similar indentation is made in the two stone pieces to be joint
3. The dove tail piece is placed in the indentation
4. The joint is used to prevent the sideways and length wise movement of the
stones with respect to each other as shown in the sketch.

... Continued on next page

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


221
Dowel joint:
1. A dowel made of non ferrous metal is placed between two stone blocks as
shown in the figure.
2. This prevents the sideways movement of the blocks but does not prevent
lengthwise movement of the stones.

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | STONE MASONRY |


222

CHAPTER 6
ARCHES AND LINTELS

| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | F. Y. B.ARCH | SEMESTER 1 |


223

Q. Sketch of semicircular arch explaining different terminologies and load


transfer.

Ans.

Terminologies of Arch :
1. Intrados: In case of the arch, the lower curvature of the arch forming the
curved line is called the intrados
2. Extrados: In case of the arch, the upper curvature of the arch forming the
curved line is called the extrados
3. Voussoirs: The wedge shaped bricks used in bricks are called the voussoirs
4. Key stone or key brick: When the arch is constructed bricks are laid in a
curved shape from both the bottom ends towards the middle of the arch.
The last brick/stone is placed in the middle to complete the arch. This brick
which is placed last in the arch is called the key stone or key brick
5. Springing line: The imaginary line joining the points from where the arch
starts is called the springing line. (line joining the springing points)

... Continued on next page

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6. Springing points: The points from where the arch starts


7. Soffit of the arch: The under surface of the arch is called the soffit of the
arch
8. Haunches: If we divide the extrados into 3 equal curved segments, then
the two segments to the left and right of the middle segment are called
haunches
9. Crown: If we divide the extrados into 3 equal curved segments, then the
middle segment is called the crown.
10. Skew back: In case of segmental arch, the brick at the abutment from
where the arch starts is given a tapered shape to match with the profile of
the voussoir. This is called as skew back
11. Rise: The perpendicular distance between the centre of the springing line
to the bottom of the arch is called the rise.

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225

Terminologies of Semi circular Arch

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226

Q. Sketch various types of arches

Ans.
The following are the types of arches
1. Semicircular arch
2. Flat arch
3. Segmental arch

Flat Arch Segmental Arch Semicircular Arch

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227

Q. Load transfer in arches

Ans :
1. An Arch is acted upon by vertical load of the brickwork which it supports on
top.
2. The vertical load gets transferred along a curved path to the supports of
the arch.
3. This load is termed as the thrust and it consists of both an inclined and
vertical component.
4. The resultant of the vertical and inclined component acts as shown in the
figure
5. The base of the abutment should be wide enough so that the resultant of
the forces should pass through the middle third of the base of the
abutment. If the abutment is not wide enough the arch will topple due to
the resulting inclined force.

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229

Q. Explain the following

Ans.
Key stone
The wedge shaped unit which is placed at the crown of the arch is called the
key stone.

Voussoirs
The wedge-shaped units of masonry which are forming an arch is called as
voussoirs.

Springing line
The imaginary line joining the springing points of either ends is called springing
line.

Intrados and extrados


The inner portion of the curve of the arch is called as Intrados.
The outer curve of the arch is called as an extrados.
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231

Q. Explain with diagrams the loads acting on lintel

Ans.
1. A lintel is a small span beam which is placed over an opening in the wall like
doors and windows.
2. A lintel is necessary for supporting the load of the masonry above the
opening.
3. The load on the lintel is calculated as the weight of the masonry forming an
equilateral triangle above the lintel as shown in the figure.
4. This is due to the bonding of masonry units.
5. Like in case of any beam the lintel is subjected to bending and shear stresses
as shown in the figure.
6. The tensile stresses formed at the bottom of the lintel are counteracted by
the steel reinforcement at the bottom.
7. The shear stresses formed at the support are counteracted by stirrups as
shown.

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233

SHEAR STRESS AT THE


ENDS OF LINTEL

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234

Q. Explain evolution of arches with neat sketches

Ans:
1. Spanning of large spaces was a challenge for humans since historical times.
2. Since humans are social animals there was a need for creating structures
where many persons can gather at one time.
3. The materials available with humans in historical times were limited to stone
and brick.
4. Since stone is a material which is good in taking compression but not good in
tension there was a limitation to the span of the beams made in stone and
columns had to placed at relatively close distances. This is evident in Greek
buildings and Hindu temples.
5. Efforts to increase the distance between vertical supports lead to placing of
stones in inclined manner as shown in the figure.
6. Another way the stones or bricks were placed is in corbelled structures as
shown in the figure. This was used by the Egyptians in creating spaces within
the Pyramids. However there was a limitation to the corbelled arch as the
height of the arch directly increased in proportion to its span.
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7. The real breakthrough came during Roman times when the stones/bricks
were placed in the form of an arch as shown in the figure. Placing of
stones/bricks in a circular fashion made the best use of the structural
properties of the material. As mentioned earlier stones/bricks are good in
taking compressive forces. In case of the arch the stones/bricks are entirely
in compression and hence it is possible to span greater distances.
8. The arch then underwent further development into vaults and domes.
9. Various structures in Roman, Christian and Islamic architecture had large
spans owing to the development of the Arch
10. Following are some examples of large span structures in historical times
which used arches/vaults/domes
- Colossuem
- Pantheon
- Saint Peters cathedral
- Gol Ghumaz

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237

CHAPTER 7
TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS
USED IN CONSTRUCTION

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238

Q. Tools and equipment’s used in excavation with their names and use

Ans.

1. Kassi or phawrah – Used for removing excess soil and placing it into the
iron pan.
2. Pick axe – Pick axe is used for trenching or excavation of soil in the process
of foundations.
3. Crowbar – Crow bar is used to uproot any pointed objects or roots of small
plants while digging for foundations.
4. Rammer – Rammer is used to ram the murrum placed during the
foundation. Also used for ramming the ground during the backfilling
process.
5. Trolley – Trolley is used to carry the excavated material from the excavated
site to the truck or place of disposal.
6. Iron pan – Pick axe (Kudal): Trenching or excavation of soil in the process of
foundations. Iron pan is used for collecting and depositing the excavated
material from the ground and placing it in the trolley.
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Kassi / Phawrah (फावडा) : Pick axe (कुदळ ) :Trenching or


Removing excess soil and excavation of soil in the
placing it into the iron pan process of foundations.

Crow bar (कटावणी): To uproot any Rammer (धुम्मस): To ram the murrum
pointed objects or roots of small placed during the foundation and
plants while digging for foundations. during the backfilling process
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240

Iron pan (घमेलं): For collecting and


Trolley: To carry the excavated depositing the excavated material
material from the excavated site to from the ground and placing it in the
the truck or place of disposal. trolley

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241

Q. Tools used in stone and brick masonry

Ans.

1. Trowel – A hand held tool with flat pointed blade used to apply or spread
mortar
2. Iron Pan – A container made up of steel used to prepare mortar or plaster
to be used in brickwork.
3. Plumb bob – A bob of lead or other heavy material forming the weight of a
plumb line. It is used to check the verticality of brickwork.
4. Tube level – A transparent rubber tube in which water is filled. It is used to
check and mark level between two points. Works on the principle that
‘water finds its own level’ used to check horizontality of brickwork.
5. Volume box – The box used on site to measure exact proportions of cement
and sand while preparing mortar.
6. Masons Square – A steel angle to check the corner joints of brickwork.

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242

7. Showel – Used to mix ingredients of mortar


8. Soft stone chisel –A sharp edged tool used to give desired shape to the
stone
9. Mallet – A hammer with large wooden head used for ramming of stones
10. Spall hammer – A large hammer usually with a flat face and straight peen
for breaking and rough-dressing stone.
11. Spirit level – A device consisting of a sealed glass tube partially filled with
alcohol or other liquid, containing an air bubble whose position reveals
whether a surface is perfectly level.

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Iron pan (घमेलं): For collecting and


Trowel (थापी) : used to depositing the excavated material
apply or spread mortar from the ground and placing it in the
trolley

Volume Box (फामाा ) : box used on site to


measure exact proportions of cement Mason’s Square (गु ण्या) : to check
and sand while preparing mortar. the corner joints of brickwork.
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244

Iron pan (घमेलं): For collecting and Kassi / Phawrah (फावडा) :


depositing the excavated material Removing excess soil and
from the ground and placing it in placing it into the iron pan
the trolley

Showel (फावडा) : Used to Spirit Level : Its position


mix ingredients of mortar reveals whether a surface is
perfectly leveled or not.

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245

Spall Hammer Mallet (Hatodi) Steel Flat

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246

Q. Tools for checking verticality and horizontality of wall

Ans.

The following are the tools used to check the verticality and horizontality of the
brick masonry wall

A. To check verticality
Plumb bob

B. To check horizontality
Right angle
Tube level

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247

Tube level Dumpy level


Plumb bob

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248

CHAPTER 8
EARTHQUAKES AND EARTHQUAKE
RESISTANT MEASURES

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249
Q. What are earthquakes?

Ans.
1. An earthquake is a sudden release of energy due to shifts in the earth’s
plates that has been stored in the rocks beneath the earth’s surface.
2. It causes trembling or shaking of the ground.
3. An earthquake is what happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip
past one another. The surface where they slip is called the fault or fault
plane.
4. The location below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is
called the focus or hypocenter and the location directly above it on the
surface of the earth is called the epicenter.
5. Sometimes an earthquake has foreshocks. These are smaller earthquakes
that happen in the same place as the larger earthquake that follows. The
largest, main earthquake is called the main shock.
6. Main shocks always have aftershocks that follow. These are smaller
earthquakes that occur afterwards in the same place as the main shock.
7. Depending on the size of the main shock, aftershocks can continue for
weeks, months, and even years after the main shock.

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Q. What are the types of earthquakes?

Ans.
There are two types of earthquakes :
1. Inter plate earthquakes – These occur along the boundaries of tectonic
plates.
2. Intraplate earthquakes – These occur within the plate itself and away from
the plate boundary.

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Q. What are the types of faults?

Ans.
A fault is a crack in the rocks where movement has taken place.
There are two types of faults :
1. Dip Slip Fault – In this case, the movement is along both vertical and
horizontal direction.
2. Strike Slip Fault – In this case, the movement occurs in lateral direction.

STRIKE SLIP FAULT DIP SLIP FAULT

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252

Q. Types of waves in earthquake engineering

Ans.
There are two main types of seismic waves

1. Body waves – The waves which travel through the interior of the earth.
The body waves are of following types :
a. Primary waves (P Waves)
b. Secondary Waves (S Waves)

2. Surface waves – The waves which travel over the surface of the earth.
The surface waves are of following types :
a. Love waves
b. Raleigh waves

The surface waves are the most slow moving earthquake waves but since they
move along the surface of earth they may cause significant damage to the
structure above.
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255

Q. Earthquake terminology.

Ans.
1. Tectonic plate : Plates formed on the crust of the earth’s surface.
2. Fault : A crack in the rocks where movement has taken place.
3. Seismograph : Instrument to measure earthquake.
4. Focus : A point inside the earth located on a fault where the earthquake is
generated.
5. Epicenter : A point exactly above the focus on the earth’s surface.
6. Magnitude : It is a quantitative measure of the size of the earthquake.
Measured in Ritcher’s scale.
Magnitude can range from very minor earthquake which is less than 3 to
great earthquake which is having magnitude higher than 8.
Increase in magnitude by 1 indicates 31 times higher energy released.
7. Intensity : It is a qualitative measure which indicates the actual shaking at a
location during an earthquake. It is denoted by roman numerals from I to XII.
The scale used is called Modified Mercalli Intensity scale (MMI) and MSK scale.

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ANNUAL AVERAGE
GROUP MAGNITUDE
NUMBER
GREAT 8 and Higher 1
MAJOR 7 – 7.9 18
STRONG 6 – 6.9 120
MODERATE 5 – 5.9 800
LIGHT 4 – 4.9 6200 (estimated)
MINOR 3 – 3.9 49000 (estimated)
VERY MINOR < 3.0 M2-3 :~ 1000/day;
M1-2:~ 8000/day

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Q. What are seismic zones in India?

Ans.
1. The likelihood of earthquakes and damage due to them depends upon the
varying geology at different locations.
2. Based on the geological variation and historical records, India has been
subdivided into five zones namely I, II, III, IV and V.
3. The intensity of seismic shaking is measured by the Modified Mercalli
(MM) scale. Based on the scale, the intensity of seismic shaking for the
corresponding zones above is V, VI, VII, VIII and IX.

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SEISMIC ZONES IN INDIA

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259

Q. Define ‘Epicenter’ and ‘Focus’ in earthquake engineering with appropriate


sketches

Ans.
1. Epicenter is defined as the point on the earth’s surface vertically above the
focus of an earthquake.
2. Focus is defined as the exact point where the earthquake begins. The
ground ruptures at this spot and the radical waves start to radiate from this
point towards all sides.

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260

Q. What are the measures for earthquake resistance in load bearing


structures ?

Ans.
1. Bricks or stones should be fully bonded with cement mortar of proportion
1:4.
2. L junctions and T junctions should be provided with tie bricks.
3. Walls which are very long or very tall should be provided with cross walls or
attached piers.
4. Continuous RCC bands should be provided at plinth level, lintel level and
roof/floor level.
5. Vertical steel reinforcement should be provided in the brickwork next to
door and window openings such that the reinforcement should get tied in
the plinth and floor bands.
6. Due to the presence of diagonal slabs for stairs, the stair block is much
more rigid than other parts of the building. During earthquake, the stair
block can transfer horizontal stresses to the adjoining structure causing
damage. Hence, in highly earthquake prone zones, the stair blocks are
isolated from the main structure by maintaining a gap. ... Continued on next page

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261

7. In structures built in stone masonry, earthquake causes splitting of the wall


along the vertical plane. It is essential to provide through stones at 1m distance
both in length and height in the masonry to avoid vertical splitting of the wall.

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264

CHAPTER 9
PLASTERING AND POINTING

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265

Q. What is plastering? Explain the method of plastering? How is plaster


prepared?

Ans. :
1. Plaster is a coat of mortar given on top of a walls, slabs, structural
members such as beams and columns. The coat of plaster has many
purposes which are
2. Provides a even surface for applying the finishing material (type of paint,
cladding tile etc)
3. Provides protection to the wall from damage due to weather (rain, wind,
sun)
4. Provides protection from damage due to fire
5. It strengthens the wall.
6. Plaster is prepared by mixing cement, sand and water or lime, sand and
water.
7. There are various types of plaster viz. single coat and double coat plaster.
Also plaster is classified as sand face plaster, neeru faced plaster, plaster
with pop finish, pebble dash plaster, stucco plaster etc. The method of
plastering depends on the type of plaster. ... Continued on next page

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8. The standard method of plastering for single coat plaster is mentioned


below.
9. Scaffolding as required either single or double is made.
10. Checking is done to ensure that all chasing required for concealing
electrical and plumbing lines is done as per drawings and the
conduits/pipes and electrical boxes are fitted as required
11. The joints between brick and rcc are fitted with chicken mesh
reinforcement
12. The joints between bricks are checked. If they are not raked out sufficiently
they are racked out upto a depth of 10mm
13. The surface of the wall is cleaned of all loose materials
14. The wall is thoroughly wetted so that the bricks should not absorb water
from the applied mortar.
15. Cement mortar of proportion 1:4 (1 part of cement and 4 parts of sand) is
prepared of quantity which can be consumed within one hour of
preparation
16. Plaster of size 150x150 of required thickness is applied in the corners of
the wall to act as guides for checking the thickness of the plaster these are
called ‘gauges’ or plaster ‘dabs’. ... Continued on next page

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268

17. The mortar is applied on the wall surface by using trowel and dashing the
mortar with force on the wall.
18. Once sufficient thickness of mortar is reached it is leveled smooth by
means of mason’s plane.
19. The thickness of the plaster is checked from time to time by pulling a string
across the gauges. The verticality is checked by using plumb bob. For
internal plaster an average thickness of 12mm is maintained.
20. The surface of the plaster is made smooth or rough depending on the
finishing coat which it is going to receive. (smooth for neeru finish and
rough for POP finish or glazed tiles
21. The plaster is cured for a period of 14 days.

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271

Q. What is Neeru finish plaster ?

Ans. :
1. After the plaster work is complete it is cured for a period of 14 days.
2. A paste of Neeru (lime) and water is prepared and spread over the surface
of the plaster to a thickness of 3-4mm to give a smooth finish.
3. The finishing is done with the help of trowel and metal sheet.
4. The surface of Neeru finish plaster is smooth and can be used as a base for
painting.

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Q. What is Pebble Dash plaster?

Ans. :
1. Cement plaster is done to the wall as the base coat.
2. When the plaster is still in a plastic state, pebbles and crushed stones of
selected type and color are dashed on the surface of the plaster.
3. The sizes of pebbles range from 12 to 6mm.
4. The spaces between pebbles are filled by pressing pebbles into the spaces
to achieve uniform texture.

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Q. What is Plaster of Paris punning ?

Ans. :
1. Cement plaster is done to the wall as a base coat and is made rough to
receive Plaster of Paris finish.
2. Vertical strips of Plaster of Paris are made on the plaster to serve as gauges
to determine the final thickness of Plaster of Paris.
3. The gauges are made so that the final finish of POP is in plumb and at right
angles.
4. The spaces between the vertical strips (gauges) are filled with PoP and
finished with straight edge to get the final finish.
5. Plaster of Paris punning gives a smooth and crack free surface for painting.

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274

Q. Explain what is meant by jointing and pointing?

Ans.
1. Jointing means the method of finishing the joints between bricks to
achieve a fairface finish
2. Fairface means the appearance of the brick work when seen without any
plaster or rendering when the brick work is left exposed
3. In such case it is necessary to finish the joint between bricks to get a neat
appearance.
4. The standard type of jointing used is shown in the drawing and consist of
flush, struck or weathered, bucket handle, and recessed jointing.
5. Pointing means finishing of the joints with special mortar to further
enhance the appearance of exposed brickwork.
6. In pointing a mixture of colored cement, lime and special sand or stone
dust is used to impart different colors to the joints.
7. For pointing the joints are racked out and then filled with the special
mortar and are given any of the above mentioned finishes.

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| BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS | PLASTERING AND POINTING |


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