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1

• My office is located in 1001 Joyner library,

room 1006

• Email: bianh@ecu.edu

• Tel: 252-328-5428

• You can download sample data files from:

http://core.ecu.edu/ofe/StatisticsResearch/

2

• What is bivariate relationship?

–The relationship of two

measures/variables.

–The direction of the relationship

–The strength of the relationship

–Whether the relationship is statistically

significant

• Measures of association—a single

summarizing number that reflects the

strength of the relationship. This statistic

shows the magnitude and/or direction of a

relationship between variables.

• Magnitude—the closer to the absolute value

of 1, the stronger the association. If the

measure equals 0, there is no relationship

between the two variables.

• Direction—the sign on the measure

indicates if the relationship is positive or

negative. In a positive relationship, when

one variable is high, so is the other. In a

negative relationship, when one variable

is high, the other is low.

• Measurement

• Nominal: Numbers that are simply

used as identifiers or names represent

a nominal scale of measurement such

as female vs. male.

• Ordinal: An ordinal scale of measurement

represents an ordered series of relationships

or rank order. Likert-type scales (such as "On a

scale of 1 to 10, with one being no pain and

ten being high pain, how much pain are you in

today?") represent ordinal data.

• Interval: A scale that represents quantity and

has equal units but for which zero represents

simply an additional point of measurement is

an interval scale. The Fahrenheit scale is a

clear example of the interval scale of

measurement. Thus, 60 degree Fahrenheit or -

10 degrees Fahrenheit represent interval data.

• Ratio: The ratio scale of measurement is

similar to the interval scale in that it also

represents quantity and has equality of

units. However, this scale also has an

absolute zero (no numbers exist below

zero). For example, height and weight.

• Relationship based on measurement

–Two scale variables (two quantitative

variables)

–Two categorical variables (nominal or

ordinal)

–One categorical and one scale variable

• Statistical analyses for testing

relationships between two

quantitative variables

–Correlation

–Linear regression

• Pearson Correlation r

–Measures linear association

–It is the standardized regression

coefficient (doesn’t depend on

variables’ units)

–It is between -1 and +1

–The larger the absolute value of r, the

strongly the degree of linear

association

• Pearson Correlation r

–Pearson’s correlation coefficient

assumes that each pair of variables is

bivariate normal.

–There is no causal relationship

between two variables.

• Example: we want to know the

correlation between height and weight.

–Step 1: check the linear relationship

between two variables using Scatter

plot.

–Step 2: use Bivariate correlation to get

Pearson correlation.

• In SPSS, got to Graphs > Chart Builder

• Pearson correlation r: go to Analyze >

Correlate > Bivariate

• SPSS output

• Use Linear regression to test the

relationship between weight and height.

–We want to use height to predict

weight .

• Regression Equation

– Ypredicted = a + bx

variable

X: predictor

a: intercept

b: slope/regression coefficient

• Regression line

Y

Regression line

Intercept

0

Slope X

• Residuals

–The difference between observed and

predicted values of the dependent

variable.

–We use residuals to check the

goodness of the prediction equation.

• Least square

– We use Least Square Criterion to estimate parameters.

– Lease Square means the sum of the squared estimated

errors of predictions is minimized.

data.

The vertical distance

between observed

values of y and line

Residuals or errors = is the residual.

y(observed score-

predicted score)

• Simple linear regression

–Go to Analyze > Regression > Linear

• Click Statistics and click Plots

• SPSS output

• SPSS output

explained by height.

• SPSS output

• SPSS output: distribution of residuals

• Statistical analyses for testing

relationships between two

categorical variables

–Contingency tables(Crosstabs)

–Correlation

–Regression: linear, logistic regression,

ordinal, and multinominal regression

• Crosstabs in SPSS: “Crosstabs

procedure offers tests of

independence and measures of

association and agreement for

nominal and ordinal data. “

• From SPSS, a bunch of tests are

used to test association

• Chi-square: for two by two table and For

tables with any number of rows and

columns.

– It measures the discrepancy between the

observed cell counts and what expected if the

rows and columns were unrelated.

• Fisher’s exact test: for tables that have a

cell with an expected frequency of less

than 5.

• Example: we want to know if that the

number of drug (Drgu_N) use is

associated with sex (Q2).

• Go to Analyze > Descriptive Statistics >

Crosstabs

• Click Statistics

• Click Cells

• SPSS output

• SPSS output: bar chart

• Results

–Look at the percentages within grade

there is a significant

association between

sex and number of

drug use.

• Correlation

–Pearson correlation coefficient: for

quantitative, normally distributed

variables.

• Kendall’s tau-b or Spearman: for data are

NOT normally distributed or have

ordered categories. it is a nonparametric

statistic.

• Spearman's rank-order correlation:

measures the strength of association

between two ranked variables.

• Example: we want to measure

correlation between drinking (Q43)

and marijuana use (Q49)

• Go to Analyze > Correlate > Bivariate

• SPSS output

• Logistic regression

–Dependent variable: one

dichotomous/binary variable

–Independent variables: continuous or

categorical

• The goal of logistic regression is to

determine the probability of a case

belonging to the 1 category of dependent

variable or the probability of event

occurring (event occurring is always

coded as 1) for a given set of predictors.

The Y-axis is P

(probability),

which indicates

the proportion

of 1s at any

given value of

X.

48

• Logistic regression equation

– log(p/1-p) = a + bx

– Logit (p) = a + bx

p: probability of a case belonging to category

1

p/1-p: odds

a: constant

b: regression coefficient, about whether p

increases/decreases as x increases

• Odds

Odds of Success = Probability of

Success/Probability of failure

If Probability of Success = .75, then the

probability of failure = 1 - .75=.25, then

odds of Success = .75/.25 =3

• Odds

–Odds of Success > 1 means a success is

more likely than a failure.

–Odds of Success < 1 means a success is

less likely than a failure

• Odds ratio is the ratio of odds

• Example: we want to know the

association between Ever feel sad or

hopeless (Q26r) (independent

variable) and marijuana use (Q49r)

(Dependent variable)

• Contingency table

• Q49r is our dependent variable, in another

word, we want to know the probability of

using marijuana (Use group and coded as 1).

• The probability of a student using

marijuana is 3998/13242=.302

• We want to know whether this

proportion is the same for all levels of

Sad group.

• Odds of a Sad student using marijuana =

1345/2653 = .51

• Odds of a Happy student using marijuana =

1999/7245 = .28

• Odds ratio of using marijuana between Sad

and Happy students = .51/.28 = 1.82 ( Happy

group is the reference category)

• Logistic regression

• Go to Analyze > Regression >Binary

Logistic

• Click Categorical: No group is the reference

Check First as

Reference

category and click

Change

• Click Options

• SPSS output

results. The column of Parameter coding is the coding used in

data analysis which matches with our coding of variable Q26r.

We want them to match so that we don’t have our minds

boggle when interpret results.

• SPSS output: Model summary

We only have one model here. That is why the results of step, block,

and model are same.

• SPSS output

positive relationship between feelings and marijuana use. Exp (B) is odds

ratio, which means people who felt sad and hopeless 1.84 times more

likely used marijuana than people who didn’t have that kind of feelings.

• Statistical analyses for testing

relationships between one

categorical variable and one scale

variables

–Correlation

–T test, ANOVA

–Regression

• Test means: t tests and Analysis of variance

– T tests

• one sample t test

• Independent-samples t test

• Paired-samples t test

– Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

• One-way/two-way between subject design

• One-way/two-way within subject design

• Mixed design

• Go to Analyze > Compare Means

• Student’s T test

– The method assumes that the results follow the

normal distribution (also called student's t-

distribution) if the null hypothesis is true.

– The paired t-test is used when you have a paired

design.

– The independent t-test is used when you have an

independent design.

• Independent-samples t test

– Example: we want to know if there is a

difference between sex groups (Q2) in

height (Q6).

– Go to Analyze > Compare Means >

Independent-Samples T Test

• Test variable: Q6 (dependent

variable)

• Grouping variable: Q2 (two groups:

female and male)

• Coding of Q2: 1= Female and 2=

Male

Click Define Groups, type 1 for Group 1 and

2 for Group 2 based upon the coding of Q2

• SPSS output

• Mean height of females = 1.62, SD = .07

• Mean height of males = 1.76, SD = .09

• t = -94.28, df = 12470.68, p = .00

• Conclusion: there is significant difference

between female and male groups in

height.

• Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

– Used to compare means of two or more

than two groups

– One-way ANOVA (between subjects): there

is only one factor variable

– Example: we want to know if there is

difference in height (Q6) among four grade

groups (Q3)

• Original coding of Q3

• We need to recode Q3 in order to get

rid of the last category.

–Then the new variable has four

categories

–Go to Transform > Recode into a

different variable

• Recoding Q3 into Q3r

• Go to Analyze > General Linear Model >

Univariate

• SPSS output

• SPSS output

difference in height among four grade levels.

• Post Hoc tests

–We have already obtained a significant

omnibus F-test with a factor of four

levels.

–We need to know which means are

significantly different.

• Click Post Hoc button

• Results of Post Hoc tests

Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2006).

Applied multivariate research: design and

interpretation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Publications, Inc.

82

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