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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1392–1405, Article ID: IJMET_10_03_140
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

ASSESSMENT OF SNOW ACCUMULATION


AND JUSTIFICATION OF PARAMETERS OF
STUBBLE COULISSES IN THE ARID STEPPE OF
NORTHERN KAZAKHSTAN
Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko and
Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy
Kostanay branch of LLC Scientific Production Center of Agricultural Engineering,
Kazakhstan, 110011, Kostanay, Abai Avenue, 34

ABSTRACT
The main limiting factor for increasing yields in the conditions of the arid steppe of
Northern Kazakhstan is moisture. The accumulation of moisture during winter
precipitation for plants in arid conditions in the initial stage of the growing season was
a serious production problem.
For four years, the accumulation of snow and the amount of water in the snow were
compared over the backgrounds of ordinary stubble, tall stubble left after stripper
header (continuous combing) and stubble coulisses. Research methods included field
observations and mathematical modeling. It has been established that the water
reserves in the snow depend on the height of stubble coulisses, as well as the density of
snow in the coulisses and in between the spaces. Studies of snow accumulation on
stubble coulisses, continuous combing and ordinary stubble showed that the density of
snow between the coulisses is 9-29% higher than the density in the coulisses and the
density of snow between the coulisses is 25-63% higher than the density in the stubble
or continuous combing. The explanation of this phenomenon was the hypothesis that
the dispersal of snow blizzards occurred between the coulisses due to this, snow blocked
this space with high density. Field experiments indicated an intensive decrease in the
depth of snow with increasing distance between the coulisses. By mathematical
modeling, it was found that for stubby coulisses the following parameters are rational:
the distance between the coulisses in snowy winters is 5...14 m; in the snowless 5...7 m,
the width of the coulisses is 1...1.5 m. It has been established that in snowy winters the
water reserves in the snow are slatted coulisses with rational parameters by 25.8...32.2
mm (13...41%) higher than on the background of continuous combing; 68.0...99.3 mm
(2.1...3.1 times) higher than the stubble background. In the winters with little snow, the
water reserves in the snow of stubble coulisses with rational parameters are 18.5 mm
higher (by 34%) than on the background of continuous combing; 51.9 mm (3.4 times)
higher than the stubble background.
Key words: stubble, combing, stubble coulisses, formation, density, depth, water
reserves in snow.

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Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko and Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy

Cite this Article: Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko


and Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy, Assessment of Snow Accumulation and
Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the Arid Steppe of Northern
Kazakhstan, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 10(3),
2019, pp. 1392–1405.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Relevance
The main limiting factor for increasing yields in conditions of the arid steppe of Northern
Kazakhstan is moisture. During the year in this region an average precipitation is 190-360 mm
about 120…220 of it in the growing season. Maximum precipitation is observed in July. At the
same time, every three years out of ten in the north and seven years out of ten in the south of
the region, drought usually recurs. In drought, the amount of precipitation during the growing
season is reduced to 20...80 mm. Sowing is usually done in May, which is the driest month for
the entire growing season in the majority of the region. Due to the lack of moisture in the soil
after sowing, farmers often receive unfriendly and thinned shoots. The lack of moisture
accelerates the development of crops with the formation of low stems and yield. Analysis of
climatic conditions shows that the main source of moisture in the soil at the beginning of the
growing season is the moisture of winter precipitation. In the winter months, accompanied by
strong winds and snowstorms, the amount of precipitation averages from 60 to 90 mm. When
collected, this rainfall is enough to get good seedlings and to ensure the needs of plants in
moisture in the first half of the growing season before the July rains. Thus, due to winter
precipitation, the basis of the future harvest is laid. Therefore, the search for effective methods
of moisture accumulation of winter precipitation to ensure the plants with moisture in the first
half of the growing season in arid conditions is of great production interest.

1.2. Selection of preferred snow accumulation methods for research


Currently, the following methods of winter precipitation moisture accumulation are used in the
North Kazakhstan region:
1) Leaving plants remains (stubble) of 12-15 cm high after harvesting crops (Barayev, 2008)
[1].
2) Leaving plants remains (stubble) of 20-25 cm high after harvesting crops (Dvurechensky,
2004) [2].
3) Seeding two rows of mustard coulisses with 8 m distance between the coulisses and two or
three rows of sunflower with 12-16 m distance between the coulisses (Dvurechensky et al.,
2008 and Barayev, 2008) [3, 4].
4) Herbicidal (chemical) fallow (Kaskarbayev et al., 2005, and Suleimenov et al., 2008) [5, 6].
5) Seeding of coulisses on herbicidal (chemical) fallow (Kaskarbaev et al., 2005) [5];
6) Snow plowing across the prevailing winds with 5-6 m distance between snow ridges
(Baraev, 2008) [7];
7) Harvesting of crops with continuous combing (Kaskarbaev et al., 2007) [8];
8) Formation of stubble coulisses with 30-50 cm height and 3.5-4.0 m width (Kaskarbaev et al.,
2007) [8].
A.I. Barayev (2008) claims that the leaving stubble on the field provides an increase in snow
accumulation compared to the dump tilling from 19.2-34.3 cm [1]. According to the Kustanai
Research Institute of Agriculture, the average snow depth for an empty fallow is 8-18 cm for

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Assessment of Snow Accumulation and Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the
Arid Steppe of Northern Kazakhstan

stubble, treated with a subsurface cultivator 3-20 cm for untreated stubble 32-33 cm
(Dvurechensky, 2004) [2]. In the studies by Barayev (2008) and Dvurechensky (2008), it is
stated that seeding the coulisses on empty fallow in the conditions of Northern Kazakhstan
increases the snow accumulation in comparison with the dump tilling up to 2.5 times [3, 4].
Research of M.K. Suleimenov et al. (2005), J.A. Kaskarbaev et al., (2005), V.I. Dvurechensky
(2008) state that in the same region herbicide (chemical) fallow provides an increase in snow
accumulation by about 1.8 times compared with the stubble and better preservation of moisture
in the soil compared to empty fallow [4-6]. A.I. Barayev, J.A. Kaskarbayev notes that snow
ridging in North Kazakhstan provides an increase in the depth of the snow cover compared
with the dump tilling from 20-25 to 40-50 cm, the depth of soil wetting at the same time
increases from 30-40 to 70-80 cm [7, 8]. J.A. Kaskarbaev (2007) points out that snow ridging,
continuous combing and stubble coulisses are approximately equivalent in snow and water
accumulation and provide an increase in yields of up to 4 c/ha compared to the stubble [8].
Studies of A.P. Lovchikov et al. (2017) noted that the width of the coulisses and the height of
the stubble are the main parameters affecting the height of the snow cover [9].
Similar studies of winter precipitation accumulation were conducted in Canada and the
USA. Thus, W. J. Staple, J. J. Lehane and A. Wenhardt (1960) found that 37% of winter
precipitation in Swift Current accumulates on the stubble and only 9% on fallow [10]. Studies
of Joseph M. Caprio, Gary K. Grunwald, Robert D. Snyder and Edward C. Cleary (1986)
established, that in Montana's conditions for stubble, the depth of the snow cover is for 30-80%
more than on fallow [11]. Sharratt (2002) notes that leaving an even stubble is the easiest way
to hold snow on the surface of the soil in windy areas [12]. Efficiency of snow retention of
stubble Albert Province Wheat Commission recommends determining the height and number
of stems per square meter [13].
The advantages of high stubble over short stubble are also confirmed by studies conducted
by Swella G.B. (2011) and others [14].
K.J. Kirkland and C.H. Keys (1981) in Saskatchewan studied the following methods of
accumulating winter precipitation: snow ridging on fallow and stubble; coulisses of sunflower
with a width of 7.5 and 15 m; coulisses of corn with a distance of 3.6 m on fallow field; wheat
stubble [15]. The results of the research indicate that wheat stubble in the long rotation was
most effective and accumulated 50-60 mm of annual moisture more than empty fallow. During
the snow ridging in 11 out of 16 years of experiments, snow was either blown from the rolls by
strong winds or the moisture of the melted snow drained off the field in the early spring without
wetting the frozen soil. The sunflower coulisses slightly increased the moisture reserves in
comparison with the empty fallow. The accumulation of moisture with corn coulisses was
comparable to the accumulation of moisture with wheat stubble. Pomeroy and Gray (1995)
investigated several other methods of accumulating moisture during winter precipitation such
as: even stubble; stubble of different heights; formation of ungathered coulisses; formation of
combed coulisses; snow ridging [16]. According to these studies, freshly fallen snow in even
stubble has an average of about 10% of moisture. However, when the snow blows, the amount
of moisture can increase to 35%. The stubble height 30-60 cm provides 31 mm of moisture in
the soil compared to low stubble height of 15-30 cm. Grain losses from narrow ungathered
coulisses with width of 30 cm can be compensated by favorable conditions of additional
accumulated moisture. Combed coulisses should be formed with a width of at least 40-60 cm.
However, combed coulisses are more effective with the following parameters: the width of the
coulisses 1.5 m and the distance between coulisses 10 m. These parameters provide an increase
of moisture during winter precipitation in favorable years to 48 mm. Snow ridging gives an
effect if the rolls of snow strengthen after their formation. Otherwise, they can be "blown out"

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Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko and Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy

by the wind. Similar results were obtained in the Canadian steppes by H. Steppuhn, M.
Stumborg, G. Lafond and B. McConkey (2009) [17].
The analysis of applied methods of snow accumulation allowed us to identify the
advantages and disadvantages of various methods of snow accumulation in the conditions of
Northern Kazakhstan [18]. Leaving stubble on the field does not provide sufficient
accumulation of moisture. Herbicidal fallow, snow ridging, and coulisses on empty fallow
require additional time and cost. For example, sowing the coulisses on empty fallow requires
an additional cost of up to 30 dollar/ha for preparing fallow and about 2 dollar/ha for sowing
the coulisses; laying a herbicidal fallow - up to 30 dollar/ha; snow ridging - about 7 dollar/ha.
The advantages of these methods include an increase in snow accumulation up to 2 times
compared with the stubble background. With a continuous combing and the formation of
stubble coulisses performance and cost is comparable with the performance and cost of direct
combining. The yield increase for all the snow accumulation methods being compared is not
constant: from 0% in a wet year, to 100% in a dry year. Of all the considered methods of snow
accumulation, continuous stripping and the formation of stubble coulisses are most preferable,
since they provide the greatest accumulation of snow and do not require additional costs for
implementation. At the same time in snowy winters stubble coulisses allow you to accumulate
snowy moisture up to 1.5 times more compared with a continuous combing. However, in
conditions of snowless winters, these methods were not compared.

1.3. Goal and objectives of study


Research objective: To compare and evaluate snow accumulation on the backgrounds of
continuous combing and stubble coulisses and to justify rational parameters of stubble coulisses
in conditions of snowy and little snowy winters of the arid steppe of northern Kazakhstan.
To achieve this goal, the following tasks were studied:
- collection of snow moisture reserves on the backgrounds of stubble coulisses with different
parameters and continuous combing in conditions of snowy and snowless winters and establish
their preference;
- perform mathematical modeling of snow moisture reserves on the background of stubble
coulisses and justify rational parameters of stubble coulisses that provide the greatest
accumulation of moisture in winter precipitation in conditions of snow and light snow winters.
Object of research: the process of accumulation of snow moisture in stubble coulisses and
compared backgrounds.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS


The following study methods were used:
- experimental studies of snow moisture reserves on stubble backgrounds, continuous combing
and stubble coulisses with various parameters;
- mathematical modeling of snow moisture reserves in stubble coulisses.
Experimental studies established experiments to determine snow moisture reserves on
stubble backgrounds, stubble coulisses with different parameters and continuous combing in
conditions of a light snowy winter (2018) and high snowy winters (2015-2017). The width of
the coulisses in the experiments ranged from 1.0 to 3.9 m. The distance between the coulisses
was from 5 to 26 m. The depth of the snow cover, the density of snow was determined by known
methods using a portable snow gauge and weight snow meter VS-43 (GOST RK 53056-2010)
[19]. Then calculations of water reserves in the snow were carried out. The obtained
measurement results were processed by mathematical statistics methods (Dospekhov, 1965,
Guter, 1970) [20, 21]. Experimental studies on the accumulation of snow on various

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Assessment of Snow Accumulation and Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the
Arid Steppe of Northern Kazakhstan

backgrounds and with different parameters of stubble coulisses were conducted on the fields of
the “Zhanahay” peasant farm in the Kostanay region. “Zhanahay” farm was located in the
moderately arid forest-steppe zone of the northern region of Kazakhstan with an average annual
rainfall of about 360 mm.
In modeling, the water reserves in the snow between the coulisses were found by the
formula (1):
𝑍𝑚 = 10 ∙ ℎ𝑚 ∙ 𝜌𝑚 , (1)

where 𝑍𝑚 - water reserves in the snow between the coulisses, mm;


ℎ𝑚 – average depth of snow between the coulisses, cm;
𝜌𝑚 – average density of snow between the coulisses, g/cm3 (0,19 g/cm3in conditions of
snowless winter; 0,30 g/cm3 in winter with heavy precipitation);
10 - multiplier of converting centimeters to millimeters.
Water reserves in the snow found by the formula (2):
𝑍𝑘 = 10 ∙ ℎ𝑘 ∙ 𝜌𝑘 , (2)

where 𝑍𝑘 - water reserves in the snow of the coulisses, mm;


ℎ𝑘 – average depth of snow in the coulisses, cm;
𝜌𝑘 – average density of snow in the coulisses, g/cm3 (0,15 g/cm3in conditions of snowless winter
and 0,24 g/cm3in winter with heavy precipitation);
10 - multiplier of converting centimeters to millimeters.
The total water reserves in the snow of stubble coulisses, taking into account the fraction of
the distance between the coulisses and the width of the coulisses were found by the formula (3):
𝐿 𝑏
𝑍Σ = 𝑍𝑚 + 𝑍𝑘 = 10 ∙ (𝐿+𝑏 ∙ ℎ𝑚 ∙ 𝜌𝑚 + 𝐿+𝑏 ∙ ℎк ∙ 𝜌к ). (3)

where 𝐿 – distance between coulisses, mm;


𝑏 – coulisses width, cm;
In modeling, the width of the coulisses was 1; 1.5; 2; 3; 4 m. The distance between the
coulisses was set 6; 7; 9; 11; 14; 18; 26 m. The height of the snow cover between the coulisses
was taken according to experimental data for 2015-2018, depending on the distance between
the coulisses. The density of snow in the coulisses and between the coulisses was taken
according to experimental data for 2016-2018.
According to the results of calculations, graphs of water reserves in snow were plotted
depending on the parameters of stubble coulisses in conditions of little snow and winter with
abundant precipitation.

3. RESULTS
3.1. Investigation of the parameters of snow and moisture accumulation on the
backgrounds of stubby coulisses and continuous combing
The results of studies of snow accumulation and water reserves in the snow by backgrounds of
continuous combing and stubble coulisses in 2015 are shown in Table 1.

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Table 1 Dependence of water reserves accumulation in snow from parameters of the stubble coulisses
(2015)

Averag Average
Parameters of stubble Reserves of
Backgro e depth density of
Var. coulisses, height (cm), water in
und of snow snow,
width (m) snow (mm)
(cm) g/cm3
1 Stubble 46/1 46 0,24 110,4
coulisses
2 46/2 47 0,23 108,1
in 6 m
3 Stubble 46/1 37 0,24 88,1
4 coulisses 46/2 45 0,24 108,0
5 in 9 m 46/3 45 0,23 104,0
Continuo
6 us 46/ Continuous 46 0,17 78,2
combing
Stubble
7 20/ Continuous 20 0,18 36,0
(control)
Snow accumulation and water reserves in snow depend on the ground. The smallest depth
of snow and water reserves in 2015 are accumulated on stubble with an average snow depth of
20 cm, water reserves are 36.0 mm. Reserves of water in snow with a continuous combing are
78.2 mm. On stubble coulisses the water reserves in the snow are 2.9-3.1 times larger (Variants
2, 4, 5) than on stubble. Calculations show that the difference in the accumulation of water
according to the grounds is significant. The decrease in water reserves in snow on continuous
combing is explained by a decrease in snow density by 35-41% compared to the snow density
on stubble coulisses at the same stubble height. Also in 2015, we have a lower density of snow
by 28-33% on stubble than on stubble coulisses. Analyzing these facts, hypothesis was
suggested that a decrease in the density of snow on stubble or continuous combing was due to
the absence of a zone to disperse snow blizzards. On stubble coulisses the acceleration of
blizzards occurs between the coulisses due to this, the snow clogs this space with high density.
In connection with this in the studies of 2016 and 2017, we set the goal to estimate the density
of snow in the coulisses and between the coulisses.
It is also found that the depth of the snow cover and the accumulation of water in the snow
depend on the parameters of the stubble coulisses. With an average height of 46 cm and a
distance of 9 m between the coulisses with a reduction in the width of the coulisses from 3-1
m, the depth of the snow cover decreases from 45-37 cm and the water reserves in snow fall
from 108.0-104.0 mm (Variants 4, 5) to 88.1 mm (Variant 3). Calculations show that this
difference is significant. The smallest significant difference with a confidence probability of
0.95 for these variants is 11.2 mm in fact, 15.9-19.9 mm. The decrease in the depth of the snow
cover according to the variant 3 was due to the collapse of the coulisses by the wind and snow
storms with a width of < l m. In this variant, the depth of the snow cover was significantly
uneven, although the snow between the coulisses had an increased density. Reserves of water
in snow under variant 3 are at the level of variant 6. In variants 2, 4 and 5, the water reserves in
the snow are at the same level. Variants 1 and 3 are not studied because of coulisses collapse
possibility with wind and snowstorms and a width of < l m.
Thus, under the conditions of 2015, the stubble coulisses allow increasing the water reserves
in snow as compared to the stubble by 2.9-3.1 times and by 1.4 times compared to the
continuous combing.
The results of studies of the depth of snow cover and water reserves in the snow on various
backgrounds under the conditions of 2016 are shown in Table 2.

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Assessment of Snow Accumulation and Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the
Arid Steppe of Northern Kazakhstan

Table 2 The dependence of the accumulation of water reserves in the snow against the background
and the parameters of stubble coulisses (2016)

Parameters of
Average Average
V stubble
Backgrou depth of density of Reserves of water in
a coulisses, height
nd snow snow, snow (mm)
r. (cm),
(cm) g/cm3
width (m)
In coulisse
Stubble
48 0,24 115,2 Average
1 coulisses 50/1,5
Between coulisses 135,0
in 7 m
48 0,29 139,2
In coulisse
Stubble
50 0,24 120,0 Average
2 coulisses 50/3,9
Between coulisses 141,1
in 18 m
47 0,31 145,7
Continuou
3 50/ Continuous 50 0,24 120,0 120,0
s combing
Stubble
4 15/ Continuous 33 0,19 63,4 63,4
(control)
In 2016, the density of snow between the coulisses was higher than in the coulisses by 21-
29%. The difference in water reserves of the Variants "in the coulisses" and "between the
coulisses" is significant at a confidence coefficient of 0.90. It should be noted that the density
of snow between the coulisses during 2016 was higher by 53-63% than on the stubble.
On 15 cm height stubble, the average depth of the snow cover was 33 cm, the water reserves
in snow was 63.4 mm. On stubble coulisses, the water reserves in the snow were 2.0-2.2 times
larger. This difference is significant at a confidence coefficient of 0.95. It should be noted that
in the northern region of Kazakhstan in January-March 2016, there was precipitation, exceeding
the average annual rate by 2.2 times. However, even with increased snow accumulation on
stubble, the stubble coulisses showed their effectiveness.
The results of studies of the depth of snow cover and water reserves in the snow on various
backgrounds in the conditions of 2017 are shown in Table 3.

Table 3 Dependence of water reserves accumulation in snow from parameters of the stubble coulisses
(2017)
Parameters of
Average
V stubble Average
Backgroun density of Reserves of water in
ar coulisses, depth of
d snow, snow (mm)
. height (cm), snow (cm)
g/cm3
width (m)
1 55/1,6 In coulisse

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Stubble 50 0,27 135,0 Average


coulisses Between coulisses 153,3
in 11 m 52 0,30 156,0
In coulisse
Stubble Average
54 0,23 124,2
2 coulisses 55/3,9 98,8
Between coulisses
in 26 m
38 0,25 95,0
Continuous
3 55/ Continuous 54 0,23 124,2 124,2
combing
Stubble
4 17/ Continuous 27 0,20 54,0 54,0
(control)
With a distance between the coulisses in 11 m, water reserves in snow on 54.5 mm were
higher than at a distance of 26 m between the coulisses. This difference is significant at a
confidence coefficient of 0.95. The water reserves on the stubble were 2.9 times lower than on
the stubble coulisses in 11 m. The density of snow on the stubble was 25-55% lower than the
density of snow between the coulisses. The density of snow between the coulisses was only 9-
11 % higher than the density of snow in the coulisses or in continuous combing.
The results of studies of the depth of snow cover and water reserves in the snow on various
backgrounds under the conditions of 2018 are shown in Table 4.

Table 4 The dependence of the accumulation of water in the snow against the background and the
parameters of stubble coulisses (2018)
Parameters of
V Average Average
stubble coulisses, Reserves of water in
ar Background depth of density of
height (cm), snow (mm)
. snow (cm) snow, g/cm3
width (m)
In coulisse
Stubble
43 0,15 64,7 Average
1 coulisses 53/1,4
Between coulisses 73,10
in 5 m
39 0,19 75,6
In coulisse
Stubble
41 0,13 62,0 Average
2 coulisses 50/2,6
Between coulisses 49,35
in 9 m
25 0,17 45,7
In coulisse
Stubble
42 0,15 62,3 Average
3 coulisses 50/2,6
Between coulisses 42,11
in 18 m
24 0,15 39,2
Continuous
4 49/ Continuous 39 0,14 54,6 54,6
combing
Stubble
6 15/ Continuous 16 0,13 21,2 21,2
(control)

Under conditions of a snowless winter of 2018, during which 68 mm of precipitation fell,


of which about 40 mm was snow, the largest snow accumulation was observed in stubble
coulisses with the distance of 5 m between the coulisses. The water reserves in the snow were
23.75 mm and 30.99 mm higher than when the distance between the coulisses was 9 and 18 m,
respectively. This difference was significant at a confidence level of 0.95. The water reserves
in the snow on the background of stubble coulisses with the distance of 5 m between the
coulisses were 3.4 times higher than on the stubble and 1.3 times higher than on the background
of continuous combing.

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Assessment of Snow Accumulation and Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the
Arid Steppe of Northern Kazakhstan

It should be noted that at the same time, the density of snow in the space between the
coulisses was 27...36% higher than in the coulisses or on the background of a continuous
combing. It should also be noted that with an increase in the space between the coulisses from
5 to 18 m, the accumulation of precipitation in stubble coulisses in the conditions of a snowless
winter of 2018 decreased by 40%, whereas in winter with heavy precipitation in 2016 with an
increase in distance between the coulisses from 7 to 18 meters there was no decrease in
precipitation accumulation in stubble coulisses.
As shown by studies conducted in 2015–2018, the depth of snow cover in the coulisses
under conditions of little snow and in conditions of winter with heavy precipitation depended
to a greater extent on the height of the coulisses and did not depend on their width (Figure 1
and 2). Consequently, the amount of precipitation that can be accumulated due to limitation by
the height of the coulisses. This statement was also true for continuous combing, however,
against the background of stubble coulisses, it was possible to accumulate more precipitation
due to the higher density of snow.
60
cm

55

50

45

40
2015 2016 2017 2018

– height of stubble coulisse


– depth of snw cover in coulisse

Figure 1 Height of stubble coulisses and depth of snow cover in stubble coulisses

Figure 2 Depth of snow cover in stubble coulisses depending on the width of stubble coulisses (2018)
Based on the obtained results, the dependence of the depth of snow cover between the
coulisses on the distance between the coulisses in winter conditions with abundant precipitation
of 2016–2017 and in conditions of a light snow winter of 2018, presented in Figure 3, was
constructed.

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Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko and Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy

1 – in conditions of snowy winter (2016-2017)


21
с 2 – in conditions of a light snow winter (2018)
м
Figure 3 Dependence of the average depth of the snow on the distance between the coulisses

3.2. Mathematical modeling of water reserves in the snow against the background
stubble coulisses
Results of determining the water reserves in the snow in conditions of snowy winters, calculated
by the formula (5), are shown on Figure 4.

160
mm
140 b = 1,5m 2,0m 3,0m 4,0m

120

100

80

60

40

20
5 7 11 14 18 26
m
Figure
80 4 The dependence of water reserves in the snow on the parameters of stubble coulisses in
160
140
120
100
60
40
20
conditions of snowy winters

Results of determining the water reserves in the snow in conditions of a snowless winter are
shown on Figure 5.

mm

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b = 1,5m 2,0m 3,0m


Assessment of Snow Accumulation and Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the
Arid Steppe of Northern Kazakhstan
80

60

40

20
5 7 11 14 18 26
Figure
80 5 The dependence of water reserves in the snow on the parameters of stubble coulisses in
160
140
120
100
60
40
20
conditions of light snow winters
Modeling results showed that with increasing distance between the coulisses, the water
supply in the snow decreases. For each meter of increase in the distance between the coulisses,
the decrease in water reserves in the snow in conditions of snowy and little snowy winters was
about 2 mm. Under the same conditions, the largest water reserves in the snow were observed
at a distance of 5 m between the coulisses, the smallest - with a maximum increase (26 m). The
average difference between the water reserves in the snow with a maximum distance between
the coulisses was about 30 mm. The average difference between the water reserves in the snow
under conditions of snowy and light snowy winters was about 70 mm. The rational interval of
the distances between the coulisses in the conditions of snowy winters was 5...14 meters, since
the average difference of water reserves in the snow according to these options was within 10%.
The rational interval of the distances between the coulisses in conditions of snowless winters
was 5...7 meters.
With the distance between the coulisses up to 14 meters in conditions of snowy winters and
up to 7 meters in conditions of light snowy winters, with an increase in the width of the
coulisses, the water supply in the snow decreased by about 1...2 mm per meter of width of the
coulisses. When the distance between the coulisses was over 14 meters under conditions of
snowy winters and over 7 meters under conditions of little snowy winters, with an increase in
the width of the coulisses, the amount of water in the snow increased slightly locally. This is
because with increasing distance between the coulisses, the main source of water in the snow
became the coulisse, in which the snow height was constant, while between the coulisses, the
water reserves in the snow decreased due to a significant decrease in snow height.
The width of the coulisses should be no more than the track width of a combine harvester
to prevent propulsion from rolling (Figure 6). In the conditions of snowy and little snowy
winters, the width of the coulisses should be no more than 1.5 meters. On the other hand, the
width of the coulisses must be at least 1.0 meters to avoid knocking over with wind and
snowstorms.

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Vladimir Leonidovich Astafyev, Pavel Grigoryevich Ivanchenko and Vladimir Viktorovich Kirkilevskiy

Figure 6 Rolling of the coulisses by the combine harvester

4. DISCUSSION
Thus, modeling results indicate that the following parameters are rational for stubble coulisses:
the width of the coulisses is 1.0...1.5 meters; the distance between the coulisses in the snowy
winters is 5...14 meters, in the little snow - 5...7 meters.
The obtained results on different density of snow in the coulisses and between the coulisses
in the stubble coulisses and on the continuous combing in the stubble coulisses and on the
stubble are new. A hypothesis explaining the cause of these phenomena is also new. The
obtained dependences of the snow cover depth on the distance between the coulisses are also
new. The new results show the preference of the stubble coulisses before snow ridging,
continuous combing and stubble. These results are the opposite to the statements by J.A.
Kaskarbaev, V.P. Shashkov (2007) that the stubble coulisses are equivalent in the accumulation
of water in the snow with snow ridging and continuous combing. This also contradicts the
statements by K.J. Kirkland and C.H. Keys (1981) that the maximum of accumulated moisture
is observed in standing stubble in a long crop rotation. They also contradict the statements of
A.P. Lovchikov (2017) that the width of the coulisses is the main parameter affecting the height
of the snow cover. The results presented in this article develop the existing knowledge about
methods of snow accumulation and are consistent with the claims of J.W. Pomeroy, D.M. Gray,
(1995) and H. Steppuhn, M. Stumborg, G. Lafond, and B. McConkey (2009) about the
advantage of stubble coulisses and explain the reason for this advantage.

5. CONCLUSIONS
In this connection, the purpose of the research was to justify an effective method of
accumulating moisture during winter precipitation for the cultivation of grain crops in the arid
steppe of Northern Kazakhstan. Earlier studies have found that the most preferred methods of
snow accumulation are continuous combing and the formation of stubble coulisses, since they
provide the greatest snow accumulation and do not require additional costs for implementation.
In this connection, the purpose of the research was to justify an effective method of
accumulating moisture during winter precipitation for the cultivation of grain crops in the arid
steppe of Northern Kazakhstan.
Research methods included experimental studies of snow accumulation and mathematical
modeling of water reserves in snow in conditions of snow and light snow winters.
1. Studies of snow accumulation against the backgrounds of stubble coulisses, continuous
combing and stubble have established that the height and density of snow depends on the
conditions of the year. Therefore, with a height of stubble 15 cm, in conditions of snowy winters
the height of snow reaches 33 cm, and in conditions of light snowy winters - 2 times less. Field
experiments found that the height of the snow in the coulisses depends and is approximately
equal to the height of the coulisses and does not depend on their width (with the width of the

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Assessment of Snow Accumulation and Justification of Parameters of Stubble Coulisses in the
Arid Steppe of Northern Kazakhstan

coulisses over 1 m). Studies indicate a decrease in the average depth of snow with increasing
distance between the coulisses.
2. It was established, that in stubble coulisses the density of snow between the coulisses in
snowy winters reaches 0.30 g/cm3by the end of winter, in little snow - 0.19 g/cm3. At the same
time, the density of snow in between the coulisses in snowy winters is 9...29% higher, and in
little snow, 27...36% higher than the density of snow in the coulisses or against the background
of continuous combing. The explanation of this fact is the hypothesis that the decrease in the
density of snow on the stubble background, the background of a continuous combing or the
background of the coulisses is due to the lack of a zone for the acceleration of snowstorm.
Against the background of stubble coulisses, the acceleration of snowstorms occurs between
the coulisses, due to this, snow clogs this space with high density. Density of snow in stubble
reaches 0.20 g/cm3 in snowy winters, 0.13 g/cm3 in little snow.
3. Modeling has established that the following parameters are rational for stubble coulisses: in
snowy winters the distance between the coulisses is 5...14 m, in winters with little snow 5 ... 7
meters, the width of the coulisses is 1.0 ... 1.5 meters. With the distance between the coulisses
increasing beyond recommended values of water, reserves in the snow are reduced by about 2
mm per meter of distance between the coulisses. With the increase of the width of the coulisses
in excess of the recommended values and with an increase in the distance between the coulisses
in the range of recommended values, the water supply in the snow decreases by 1...2 mm per
meter of width of the coulisses. With the increase of the width of the coulisses in excess of the
recommended values and with an increase in the distance between the coulisses in excess of the
recommended values, the water reserves in the snow slightly increase.
4. Experimental studies indicate that water reserves in snow depend on the height and density
of snow. Thus, the water reserves in the snow of stubble coulisses with rational parameters in
snowy winters are 25.8...32.2 mm (13...41%) higher than on the background of a continuous
combing; 68.0...99.3 mm (2.1…3.1 times) higher than the stubble background. In the winters
with little snow, the water reserves in the snow of stubble coulisses with rational parameters in
snowy years are 18.5 mm higher (by 34%) than on the background of continuous combing; 51.9
mm (3.4 times) higher than the stubble background.
Obtained results are explained by the established patterns of changes in the density of snow
and the depth of snow in stubble coulisses and other backgrounds.

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