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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

Evaluation

Robert Frost’s “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” is one of the options in the Craft

of Writing module’s prescribed texts within the Standard course. According to the description

of the module, students are required to examine and analyse two short texts which can in turn

inspire them with the ideas to create texts of their own. This poem gives students a good

example of the multiple techniques involved in a quality text and how it all helps writers

convey symbolism and imagery to engage a reader beyond a surface level, making it suitable

for this module. To prove this, I will analyse the poem and the features/poetic techniques

which lend themselves to fulfilling the requirements of the module.

The Standard Craft of Writing module explains that students should examine writer’s use of

creative and imaginative language “to describe the worlds around them, evoke emotion,

shape a perspective or to share a vision” (NESA, 2017, p74). I will analyse this text to show

that its features make it suitable to the Standard Craft of Writing module. In this text, Frost is

able to incorporate many poetic techniques seemingly effortlessly which leads the poem to

seem simple, but with analysis, students of all levels would be able to discover stimulus for

creating their own texts, ultimately taking them through each level of Bloom’s Digital

Taxonomy (Churches, 2009, p6). Through the use of imagery supported by rhyme, rhythm,

repetition (NESA Module C Support Document, 2017, p11) and symbolism, he gives the

reader a vision of the protagonist’s world. Frost is able to make every line in the poem rhyme

with another but it does not take away from the poem itself as it seems to flow naturally from

line to line and from stanza to stanza. This poem features four quatrain stanzas, and with the

exception of the fourth stanza, the third line always rhymes with the first, second and fourth

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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

line of the next stanza. According to Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia (1995, p945), rhyme

gives an appealing sound to the ear, and in the case of this poem, it uses the common ‘end

rhyme’ to echo the previous line. The combination of rhyme and meter creates a flow

throughout the poem adding a sense of appeal on first read, but also has the ability to pose

introspect on subsequent readings. This sense of introspect comes from the combination of

rhyme, repetition and its use of meter. Every single line uses 8 syllables, which as discussed,

helps give flow, but the last two lines not only use 9 syllables to create a sense of the

protagonists introspect, it also uses repetition for the first and last time. This causes the reader

to read the line “And miles to go before I sleep” (Frost, 2013, line 15-16), not only slower,

but two times, accentuating the idea of the journey being far from over, drawing the reader to

look for a deeper meaning through symbolism. Before discussing the symbolism I want to

point out Frost’s extensive use of imagery in each stanza. Imagery is the technique of

portraying “objects, actions or ideas” (NESA, 2017, p86) through figurative language. As the

reader goes through the poem, it is easy to imagine a rider and his horse journeying on a dark

night, passed a frozen lake to their right with vast woods to their left, stopping to stare deeply

as the snow falls upon the trees, filling the woods with snow, pondering and contemplating

it’s alluring, dark, yet lovely possibilities. Only his horse and the shaking of its bells

reminding him that stopping there is a mistake, as it is not time to go to sleep. Frost sets these

images for the reader through the use of language alone, allowing us to see the protagonist’s

world, the things he sees, hears, feels and the smell of the crisp winter night air. This imagery

leads us to explore the symbolism which might explain why the protagonist associates sleep

with the cold, dark, deep, yet lovely woods. Writers very often use a subject to represent

another subject or different idea, which is “strengthened through repetition” (NESA, 2017,

p100), and we find Frost use repetition when he repeats the last line talking about sleep. We

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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

can surmise that he is tired of the journey he is on, which is filled with so many more tiring

promises he must fulfill, but perhaps the journey here is a symbol for life, and sleep a

euphemism for dying, leaving behind whatever has caused him to contemplate death. Just as

those thoughts cross his mind, he is reminded that he has something to finish first, whether

that be fulfilling promises to loved ones, or promises to himself, either way, he will not stop

and give up there. We see in this analysis that Robert Frost is able to achieve a level of

writing which at first glance seems simple, but with multiple readings and different

perspectives the reader is able to find deep symbolism. Each of these features fits what is

required of a text within Module C, and adds to the quality of the poem, also a requirement of

the module.

Robert Frost’s poem, “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening,” is an example of an

“enduring, quality text” (NESA, 2017, p74), written by American four time Pulitzer Prize

winner and published for the first time in 1923 (NESA Mod C, 2017, p11). This poem has

indeed endured and stood the test of time as a quality text. Through the analysis of this poem

students are be able to see good use of multiple techniques, though In my lesson plans I will

specifically use it to increase students use of imagery in their own poems, students can

engage with a range of language features. The Module C description says students

“appreciate, analyse and assess the importance and power of language” (NESA, 2017, p74),

which then leads them onto the process of creating, drafting and revising their own poems.

This achieves every level of Bloom’s Taxonomy as students move from defining basic

concepts, identifying them within the poem, then with this knowledge they can begin to

experiment with imagery themselves, eventually leading them to create and evaluate through

the editing process (Churches, 2009, p6). As seen through the analysis of the poem,

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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” can help students in their writing, and certainly is

a suitable text for the Craft of Writing Module.

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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

Reference List

Churches, A. (2009). Bloom’s digital taxonomy. ​Educational Origami​, ​4.​

Frost, R. and Lathem, E. (2013). “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”. ​The

Collected Poems of Robert Frost.​ London: Vintage Classics.

Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of literature. (1995). Springfield, Mass.:

Merriam-Webster.

NSW English Standard Stage 6 Syllabus.(n.d). English Standard Stage 6. Retrieved

from:

https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/assets/english_standard/english-standard-st

age-6-syllabus-2017.pdf

NSW English Stage 6.(n.d). Module C: The Craft of Writing Support Document.

Retrieved from:

https://syllabus.nesa.nsw.edu.au/assets/global/files/english-prescriptions-201

9-2023-module-c-support-document.pdf

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ENGLISH ​LESSON PLANNING TEMPLATE

Class: stage 6, year 12 Lesson: 7/12 Time: 60min

Pre-service teacher’s Objectives


- Help students understand and apply knowledge of language forms and features.
- Help students respond to and compose texts

Outcomes
EN12-4 ​adapts and applies knowledge, skills and understanding of language
concepts and literary devices into new and different contexts.
EN12-1​ ​independently responds to and composes complex texts for understanding,
interpretation, critical analysis, imaginative expression and pleasure

Materials
Apple x1
Projector
Board and markers
Poem Analysis Worksheet x24
- https://docs.google.com/document/d/1dLC3XmtsaIbaGPW1Ob6QlEISVhwqpigCmg3
Ui9Af1Wo/edit
-

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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

Kahoot

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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

Procedures
Time Organisation Teaching/ learning activities
0-5 Teacher: - ask students to line up in a straight line before coming in
-
Student: - ask students to come in, sit in groups of 6 and get devices ready for Kahoot!
- sit down
- Mark the roll for attendance
5-10 Teacher: - Begin Kahoot on Poetic Techniques
- keep time, run kahoot
- Write on board and tell students the lesson goal is to understand Imagery through Robert
Frost’s “Stopping by Woods on a snowy evening.”
Student:
- Do Kahoot
10-25 Teacher: - Define Imagery and give examples to students.
- introduce poetic
technique and task - Analyse in groups of 6 “Stopping by Woods on a snowy evening.”

Student: - Give worksheet to students


- complete group work
- Roam around room helping groups
25-35 Teacher: - Whole class activity, teacher led
- Lead the activity
- Describe an apple (or other fruit) and everything about it without using the name to
make a quick poem on the board
Student
- participate in whole class - Ask questions of the class, whole class input into the poem
activity
- point out the imagery which has arisen through the task
35-55 Teacher: - Students complete the same task in their groups of 6
- Roam the room, help
students - Each group picks a fruit or another item to write a free form, two stanza poem (can be
another form with more stanzas if they choose), but they can not use the name of the
object within the poem. They must also use at least two other poetic techniques or more if
Student: they choose.
- participate in group
activity - Groups will draft, edit, then type up a digital copy to project and present what they have
in the next lesson.
55-60 Teacher: - Recap lesson
- Explain the homework
and recap lesson
Homework - Students begin individual poems following the same technique and criteria used in class

Evaluation/ Extension
- Formative assessment through the kahoot, Group Poem analysis with worksheets,
whole class activity by observing students answers and involvement to see where
the class and individual is at, and the group poems.
- Each activity also allows extension for those students who are a bit advanced, and in
the groups gives them a chance to help other students who are still learning. The
worksheet has a higher-order thinking question that asks students to evaluate
whether imagery is necessary to draw the reader into the protagonist’s world.
Although this question does not explicitly say it is extension, I have added it knowing
that some groups may not have the time to do this question or may not know how to
answer it, but students who are accelerated can help others in their groups. The
group poem asks students to use a minimum of two stanzas and a minimum of two

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poetic techniques as well as imagery, but this task allows students and groups to do
more if they can.

In retrospect
There is a chance that not all students will have ITC capable devices, so I may need to pair
students to do the Kahoot, or do a different game that allows for formative assessment, yet
is still fun for the students to do at the beginning of the class. There may be an issue with
whether students have enough time to complete tasks, but this is depending on the
students. The whole class activity requires the teacher to lead the class discussion and
encourage student involvement, which may require the teacher to be strategic with the
questioning.

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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

ENGLISH ​LESSON PLANNING TEMPLATE

Class: stage 6, year 12 Lesson: 8/12 Time: 60min

Pre-service teacher’s Objectives


- Helping students understand and apply knowledge of language forms and features
through scaffolding.
- Helping students to understand and appreciate the power of language to shape
meaning.
- With student’s understanding of language features, help them apply those techniques
to their own compositions.

Outcomes
EN12-1​ ​independently responds to and composes complex texts for understanding,
interpretation, critical analysis, imaginative expression and pleasure
EN12-3 ​analyses and uses language forms, features and structures of texts and
justifies their appropriateness for purpose, audience and context and explains effects
on meaning.

Materials
Projector
6 images/objects

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Joshua Alvarado 16566066 English Stage 6 Curriculum

Procedures
Time Organisation Teaching/ learning activities
0-5 Teacher: - ask students to line up in a straight line before coming in
- place an image face
down for each group - ask students to come in, sit in groups of 6 and not to let any other group see the image
Student: on their table
- sit down
- Mark the roll for attendance
5-15 Teacher: - Imagery game, Groups look at their object/image, think about whether it has a smell,
- keep time touch, sight, taste and/or sound

- They have 2min to write whatever they can about the object without using the name,
Student: can be single words or phrases.
- complete imagery game
- each group then reads to the class to see if anyone can guess what their object is.
15-35 Teacher: - Groups then begin editing and finalising their imagery poems digitally to project and
- Help groups, circle room, present to the class.
lead feedback
- groups present their poems
Student:
- finish poems, present, - Each group gives feedback on each others poems and points out the poetic techniques.
critique
35-55 Teacher: - Students work on Individual poems mirroring group work
- explain the activity
- pick a fruit or another item to write a free form poem of two stanzas (can be another
form and of more stanzas if they choose), but they can not use the name of the object
Student within the poem. They must also use at least two other poetic techniques, or more if they
- work on individual choose.
poems
55-60 Teacher: - Students swap their draft poems with other students in their groups, read each others
- recap poem and give feedback that they can use.

- Teacher recap on imagery and tell students to keep working on their poems so that we
Student: can look at each others poems in the next lesson.
- continue individual
poem
Homework - Continue working on their individual poems.

Evaluation/ Extension

- Formative assessment through the imagery game allowing the teacher to see how
well students are understanding the concept in a fun way. Teacher can observe the
Poem presentations as well as the feedback students give to each other. Teacher can
and should observe students during their work on the individual poems to assess
their understanding, then change the next lesson accordingly.
- Each activity allows extension for those students who are a bit advanced, also giving
them a chance to help other students who are still learning. The imagery game
allows students to write as much as they know without limiting them, while the
group poems already had in built extension from the previous lesson by allowing the
use of more stanzas or more poetic techniques. The feedback section allows
students or groups who know more to give creative criticism to other groups. The
individual poems have a small achievable criteria which mirrors the group poems,
also allowing individuals to use more stanzas or poetic techniques if they can.

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In retrospect
Students may feel embarrassed to share their poems, so it is important to scaffold from
whole class activity, to group work, then to individual work while encouraging students that
everybody is learning and no one is an expert. It may be difficult to gather objects for the
first activity, so I chose to add images as a backup. During the feedback portion of
presenting the poems, it is important to encourage students share their feedback, but also
remind them that they need be respectful.

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