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For the Data Collection, meta-analysis was the best option.

Since the topic of the research

is the antitrust reform and the way the merger review process is set up, it was not attainable for

me to do the other methods of research. For surveys and questionnaires, the general population

would not have done extensive research on such a convoluted topic of law. Furthermore, for data

collection, an original experiment would have to be conducted. In order to test out an

experiment, the laws passed so far and the way the merger reviews are being set up would have

to be manipulated, to see what changes improve the reduction of monopolies. However, as a

person with no access to the power to change the laws, it was not realistically attainable. Lastly,

there are surveys which could have been possible option for; however, meta-analysis gave me

the option to look at past research conducted by professionals in my specific field, and see the

failures and successes discussed.

III: Data Collection:


Citation Subject Data collected Analysis
Khan, Ways to Put data Antitrust laws solely look at short term interest and
Lina M. reform for #1 consumer welfare. This does not help in preventing
“Amazon' the way down monopolies, thus there are two major steps that can be
the below taken in order to prevent the monopolies. The first step is
s
economy *data/so through predatory pricing. Since companies are
Antitrust works in lution supposed to create competition beneficial for the market,
Paradox.” order to comes by creating a “presumption of predation” for these
The Yale prevent in companies prevents them from producing any items
Law companie second below the cost. The second method is through vertical
Journal - s like page of integration in which the government needs to disclose
Home, Amazon data. It that companies can not buy out places where proccese
from is very happen to make, produce, and deliver a product. This is
2017,
becoming long as not even mentioned in the antitrust laws which needs to
w a the be changed. Furthermore, the merger review needs to be
ww.yalel monopoly article fixed as it only states how monetary mergers are
awjournal was 96 reviewed by agencies however, it should be any merger,
.org/note/ pages especially including data. The other approach would be a
amazons- with a prophylactic limit which limits the involvement of an
antitrust- lot of companies in similar lines of business since it give more
detailed power to the company such as amazon. The last two are
paradox. research through regulation. Public utility which allows the
Accessed . government to control network industries which Amazon
1 January falls under and prevents the monopoly from harming
consumers. Another method is rate setting,
2019.
capitalization, investment requirements, discrimination
in price and service, and a non discrimination policy,
which prevent Amazon from abusing its powers to
consumers welfare. The last method is the essential
fallacy doctrine allows Amazon controls key
infrastructure for e-commerce, imposing a duty to allow
access to its infrastructure on a nondiscriminatory basis
make sense” (Antitrust Paradox).
“Office It shows Put data There are many reviews that the antitrust process is
of Public the for #2 currently making, the most prominent ones are by the
Affairs.” different down Model Voluntary Request Letter which is about giving
types of below
The important information before a merger is review, which
changes and is
United to the after #1 can help in solving mergers, and is easy to access
States merger information that could show if a deeper investigation is
Departme review needed. The other change would be the pull and refill
nt of process accountability in which the time to investigate the case is
Justice, allowing “maximized” and furthermore allows the assessor to
29 Jan. for know if more time is needed when the parties “pull-and-
maximum
2019, refile their HSRS”. The next claim is the model timing
time to
w review a agreement where the division sees if the second request
ww.justic case, should be locked or cleared and allows them to be a
e.gov/opa efficiency coordinated agreement on how much time is needed, and
. , and a good amount of time equates for a better assessment.
Accessed eliminatio Furthermore there areis only 12 dispositions on a case,
12 n of a and 20 custodians similar to the HSR acts as theyit
mislead
February allows for more efficiency when assessing a case, and
verdict by
2019. eliminatin less people getting information about the case being
g discussed, preventing any information about the review
gamensip from being leaked out. Furthermore there will be no
h. gamenship, which is when companies hold back large
documents until the night before a decision, giving the
assessee no time to review the documents, which can
lead to mislead verdict about a company. Lastly, there is
a rule that all parties including first and third have to
follow along civil investigative demands.

Kwoka, The Source Merger retrospectives is an action that an agency should


John. article #3 is a do more often when revising merger cases. Furthermore
Reviving discusses list of the HSR filing requirement could make it mandatory to
that the quotes
Merger provide data about “post-merger data” which helps
major for data
Control. conflict and is prevent a mislead decision. Also by having the data it
ht with the after #2 helps suggest the decision that could be made. Another
tps://ww revision major component that should be addressed when
w.antitrus of the changing mergers is that they evaluate the mergers they
tinstitute. merge assessed and how they solved it allowing them to use
org/wp- process is those as a source in tuure case deicing. Thus, not only in
that the
content/u future cases will they know what happened to previous
judicial/g
ploads/20 overnmen cases with similar problems they can apply the
18/10/Kw t is not successful resolutions to further monopolies. However
oka- regulating the biggest problem that the government needs to fix is
Reviving- the cases the increasing the number of cases they acces. Right
Merger- at all, now, if a merger is 85 million dollars are over they are
C allowing supposed to assess the case. However, the data chart in
monopoli
ontrol- the data collected section for the article shows otherwise.
es to grow
October- which From 2010-2017 the number of cases have increased
2018.pdf needs to from 716 to 2052; .however, the number investigated has
Antitrust be only been an increase of 42 to 51. Furthermore, the
Institute, remedied. percent investigates has dropped from 3.8% to 2.6%.
9 Oct. Furthermore, the funding that has gone to the antitrust
2018. has increased from 163.2 to 165 million dollars, but
however the percent of cases investigated is decreasing.
This shows that the government is not doing their job.
Furthermore, judges dealing with antitrust cases are not
as frequent meaning they are not as specialize in that
area. Thus, they should remember the basics on how the
merger process works.
Osborne, The Source For the first chart regarding the price ceiling is that when
Martin J. Article #4 is a the government is regulating the P(0) is the most output
“Policies discusses list of they cant have however “for smaller outputs MR
the Price graphs
to exceeds MC, and for larger outputs MR is less than
Ceiling, and
Control a Average data is MC”(Osborne). Furthermore, the only way that
Monopol Cost after #3 regulated price would make profit is if the price wasis
y.” Pricing, competitive, which in most cases does not occur in most
Policies and Rate cases. To even obtain the possible price the “regulator
to of Return needs to know the firm's marginal cost curve”(Osborne).
Control a Regulatio which needs to be withheld from them otherwise it can
n
Monopol be used to their own advantage. Thus if the pricing is
regarding
y, 1997, monopoli more regulated of company’s, than they will not be able
w es and to change the price so competitive that they are not
ww.econ how affected and limits competition. The graph on average
omics.uto governme cost pricing. The government's regulations regarding
ronto.ca/o nt cost pricing is “to set a price equal to average cost...to
sborne/2x regulation choose and (output, price) pair for which AC is equal to
affects
3/tutorial/ AR”. The way this reduce monopolies is that profit is
each one
MONCO of these eliminated and “no efficient outcome” (Osborne). The
N.HTM. factors. Third Chart regarding Rate of Return Regulation
Accessed suggests that allows monopoly uses more capital “than it
1 March would if it were unregulated, given its output”.
20 Furthermore in the graph we can see that input 2 is “if it
19. were unregulated: the output is not produced at minimal
cost and the input prices reflect their social costs...the
outcome is inefficient”(Osborne).

Price Ceiling & rate-of-return regulation:


Average Cost P ricing
Analysis:
After researching extensively on antitrust laws, the results i found were insightful. There

are several flaws in the way the government operates in managing the merger processes.

Furthermore, there are several methods in which the government can improve regulation and

promote competition between businesses. One of the major flaws of the antitrust laws is that they

only look at short term interest and consumer welfare; however, that should not be the sole factor

when assessing a company. They should look at size of the firm and concentration levels.

Furthermore, a presumption of predation should be imposed so these companies are prevented

from producing any items at lower cost. The second method is through vertical integration in

which the government needs to disclose that companies can not buy out places where processes

happen to make, produce, and deliver a product. This is not even mentioned in the antitrust laws

which needs to be changed. Furthermore, the merger review needs to be fixed as it only states

how monetary mergers are reviewed by agencies however, it should be any merger, especially

including data. The other approach would be a prophylactic limit which limits the involvement

of an companies in similar lines of business since it give more power to the company such as

amazon. The last two are though regulation. Public Uutility Regulation allows the government to

control network industries thatwhich Amazon falls under and prevents the monopoly from

harming consumers. Furthermore, the merger review process is implementing several new

beneficial ideas that can maximize the efficiency of reviewing cases of mergers. The Model
Voluntary Request Letter helps in solving mergers, and is easy to access information that could

show if a deeper investigation is needed. Likewise, the pull and refill accountability in which the

time to investigate the case is “maximized” and furthermore allows the assess to know if more

time is needed when the parties “pull-and-refile their HSRS”. Also, the model timing agreement

where the division sees if the second request should be locked or cleared and allows there to be a

coordinated agreement on how much time is needed, and a good amount of time equates for a

better assessment. Furthermore, there areis only 12 dispositions on a case, and 20 custodians in a

case; similar to the HSR acts as theyit allows for more efficiency when assessing a case, and less

people getting information about the case being discussed, preventing any information about the

review from being leaked out. Furthermore, there will be no gamenship preventing a mislead

verdict about a company. A major problem is that the government is not accessing all the

merging cases. be Right now, if a merger is 85 million dollars are over, they are supposed to

assess the case. However, the data shows that though the number of cases have increased from

716 to 2052, the percent of cases investigated has dropped from 3.8% to 2.6%. Furthermore,

when the government is regulating the P(0) is the most output they cant have however “for

smaller outputs MR exceeds MC, and for larger outputs MR is less than MC”(Osborne).

Furthermore, the only way that regulated price would make profit is if the price is competitive,

which in most cases does not occur. To even obtain the possible price the “regulator needs to

know the firm's marginal cost curve”(Osborne). which needs to be withheld, from them

otherwise it can be used to their own advantage. Thus if the company’s pricing is regulated, than

they will not be able to change the price so competitive that they are not affected and limits

competition.

Data Conclusion:
These results show a possibility that if the ideas mentioned here are combined and

implemented into existing laws, there will be an reduction of monopolies as they will be

regulated more efficiently. Moreover, if there are more constrictions on what companies can do,

then monopolies like Amazon under the newly revised antitrust laws would be caught. Thus,

they would not be able to find loopholes in the laws enacted, proving beneficial for the market,

businnses, and employees.