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Assignment 3 - 2-D Kinematics

Vector Components - Review

A) Fx , Fy = F cos θ, F sin θ

B) 4 → θ measured from y-axis, components parallel to corresponding axes


C) 2nd option: align hypotenuse with vector and adjacent side along coordinate direction
with θ as the included angle
D) 1, 4, 2, 3
E) Nx , Ny = −N sin θ, N cos θ

Vector Addition and Subtraction

~ = (1, 0, −3), B
Given: A ~ = (−2, 5, 1), C
~ = (3, 1, 1)
A) A~−B ~ = (1 + 2, 0 − 5, −3 − 1) = (3, −5, −4)
~ −C
B) B ~ = (−2 − 3, 5 − 1, 1 − 1) = (−5, 4, 0)
C) −A~+B~ −C~ = (−1 − 2 − 3, 0 + 5 − 1, 3 + 1 − 1) = (−6, 4, 3)
~ − 2C
D) 3A ~ = (3 − 6, 0 − 2, −9 − 2) = (−3, −2, −11)
E) −2A~ + 3B
~ −C ~ = (−2 − 6 − 3, 0 + 15 − 1, 6 + 3 − 1) = (−11, 14, 8)
~ − 3(B
F) 2A ~ − C)
~ = (2 + 6 + 9, 0 − 15 + 3, −6 − 3 + 3) = (17, −12, −6)

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Tracking a Plane

~ A is a vector 360 m long, at 40 degrees above the horizontal and R


R ~ B is a vector 880 m
long, at 17 degrees above the horizontal (or 163 degrees measuring counter-clockwise from
the positive x direction)
~ BA = R
R ~B − R~A
~ BA = (RBx − RAx )î + (RBz − RAz )k̂
R
where RAx = 360 cos 40, RAz = 360 sin 40, RBx = −880 cos 17, RBz = 880 sin 17
~ BA = −1100î + 26k̂ m
R

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Projectile Motion Tutorial

A) Find tH
vy (tH ) = 0 = v0y − gtH
v0y
tH = g

we know v0y = v0 sin θ


v0 sin θ
tH = g

B) Find tR
symmetry argument, because it lands at same height as it was launched: tR = 2tH
2v0 sin θ
tR = g

C) Find H(θ)
y(tH ) = H
v0y tH − 21 gt2H = H with v0y = v0 sin θ and tH from part A)
solving for H:
v02 sin2 θ
H= 2g

D) Find R(θ)
x(2tH ) = R
v0x 2tH = R
with v0x = v0 cos θ and tH from part A)
v02 2 sin θ cos θ
R= g
v02 sin 2θ
R= g

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Graphing Projectile Motion

A) Graph x(t)
x

5s t

B) Graph y(t)
y

5s t

C) Graph vx (t)
V
x

5s t

D) Graph vy (t)
V
y

5s t

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Conceptual Problem About Projectile Motion

A) v0 = v2 > v1 > 0
B) v0 = 30m/s, θ = 60◦ → (15, 26, 0, −9.8)
C) (15,0,0,-9.8)
D) t1 , t2 /2, t2 − t1
E) increase v0 , θ : 60◦ → 45◦

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Advice for the Quarterback

A) Find v0y
v(tc /2) = 0
gtc
v0y − 2
=0
gtc
v0y = 2

B) Find v0x
x(tc ) = D + vr tc
v0x tc = D + vr tc
D
v0x = tc
+ vr
C) Find v0
q
2 2
v0 = v0x + v0y
q
v0 = (D
tc
+ vr )2 + ( gt2c )2
D) Find θ
v0y
θ = tan−1 v0x

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Arrow Hits Apple

Vo

45 deg.

D = 220 m

A) Find time the arrow is in the air ta


Using the Range equation found previously in HW (see Projectile Motion Tutorial)
v02 sin 2θ
R= g
v02
D= g

v0 = gD
knowing that v0x = v0 cos θ

we find v0x = gD cos θ
x(ta ) = D
v0x ta = D
D
ta = v0x

ta = √ D
gD cos θ

ta = 6.7s
B) Apple dropped from a height h = 6.0m, when to drop it (td ) so that arrow hits apple?
td = ta − tf all
so we need to find tf all , how long it takes to fall height h
y(tf all ) = 0
h − 12 gt2f all = 0
q
2h
tf all = g

tf all = 1.1s
now we can find td :
td = 6.7 − 1.1 = 5.6s

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Horizontal Cannon on a Cliff

Given: H = 80m
A) Find height at t = tg /2
First, find tg using y position at tg :
y(tg ) = 0
H − 21 gt2g = 0
q
2H
tg = g

Now we can find position at tg /2:


y(tg /2) = H − 21 g( t2g )2
g 1 2H
y(tg /2) = H − 24 g
H
y(tg /2) = H − 4
3H
y(tg /2) = 4
= 60m
B) if D = 150m, what is v0 ?
Since v0 is horizontal, it is equal to vx
x(tg ) = D
v0 tg = D
D
v0 = tg
q
g
v0 = D 2H
= 37.1m/s
C) Same as A) because with projectile motion the object will always be at midway between
the launch point and the landing point at the midpoint of its flight: x(tg /2) = D/2

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Delivering Package by Air

Given: h = 1000m, ~v0 = 290mph


A) Find t
y(tf ) = 0
H − 21 gt2f = 0
q
2H
tf = g
= 14.3s
B) Find D
x(tf ) = D
v0 tf = D
D = (290)(0.447)(14.3) = 1850m
C) Find vf
vf x = v0 = 130m/s
vf y = gtf = 140m/s
q
vf = vf2x + vf2y
vf = 191m/s = 427mph
D) decrease the speed and height

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A Wild Ride

Given: ~r = A(1m/s)tx̂ + A[(1m/s3 )t3 − 6(1m/s2 )t2 ]ŷ, valid between 0 and 4 s
A) at t = 2s, is it ascending or descending?
d~
r
~v = dt

~v = Ax̂ + A[3t2 − 12t]ŷ


~v = Ax̂ + 3At(t − 4)ŷ
vy (2) = −12Am/s → descending
B) Find v
q
v= vx2 + vy2
q
v= A2 + 9A2 t2 (t − 4)2
q
v = A 1 + 9t2 (t − 4)2
C) What is Amax if vmax = 20m/s
Find when v is maximized, which happens when the expression f (t) = 9t2 (t − 4)2 is maxi-
mized
This expression has minimums at 0 and 4, and taking the derivative and setting it equal to
0 will reveal where the equation also has a maximum
Or I could just realize this is an even function with minimums at 0 and 4 (f (0, 4) = 0) and
realize the maximum occurs at t = 2
df
dt
= 36t3 − 216t2 + 288t
setting equal to 0:
36t3 − 216t2 + 288t = 0
t(t2 − 6t + 8) = 0
t(t − 2)(t − 4) = 0
t = 0, 2, 4 → t = 2 is a maximum

v(2) = vmax = Amax 1 + 144, we know vy (2) from part A)
Amax = 1.7

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